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Sample records for baicalein improves histological

  1. Baicalein pretreatment reduces liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via induction of autophagy in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anding; Huang, Liang; Guo, Enshuang; Li, Renlong; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Anyi; Yang, Yan; Liu, Shenpei; Hu, Jifa; Jiang, Xiaojing; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that baicalein could protect against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. The exact mechanism of baicalein remains poorly understood. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting against I/R injury. This study was designed to determine whether baicalein could protect against liver I/R injury via induction of autophagy in rats. Baicalein was intraperitoneally injected 1 h before warm ischemia. Pretreatment with baicalein prior to I/R insult significantly blunted I/R-induced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels and significantly improved the histological status of livers. Electron microscopy and expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II suggested induction of autophagy after baicalein treatment. Moreover, inhibition of the baicalein-induced autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) worsened liver injury. Furthermore, baicalein treatment increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) abolished the baicalein-mediated autophagy and the hepatocellular protection. In primary rat hepatocytes, baicalein-induced autophagy also protected hepatocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro and the beneficial effect was abrogated by 3-MA or Atg7 siRNA, respectively. Suppression of HO-1 activity by SnPP or HO-1 siRNA prevented the baicalein-mediated autophagy and resulted in increased hepatocellular injury. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalein prevents hepatocellular injury via induction of HO-1-mediated autophagy.

  2. Baicalein, a Bioflavonoid, Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Up-Regulating Antioxidant Defenses and Down-Regulating the MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication of the anticancer drug cisplatin. The potential role of baicalein, a naturally occurring bioflavonoid on cisplatin-induced renal injury is unknown. Here, we assessed the effect of baicalein against a murine model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure and investigated the underlying possible mechanisms. Renal function, kidney histology, inflammation, oxidative stress, renal mitochondrial function, proteins involved in apoptosis, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and effects on intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPKs, and NF-κB were assessed. Pretreatment with baicalein ameliorated the cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation and improved kidney injury and function. Baicalein inhibited the cisplatin-induced expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and mononuclear cell infiltration and concealed redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB activation via reduced DNA-binding activity, IκBα phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation in kidneys. Further studies demonstrated baicalein markedly attenuated cisplatin-induced p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation in kidneys. Baicalein also restored the renal antioxidants and increased the amount of total and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and downstream target protein, HO-1 in kidneys. Moreover, baicalein preserved mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis by suppressing p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 imbalance, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Our findings suggest that baicalein ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal damage through up-regulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and down regulation of the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:26222683

  3. Baicalein, a Bioflavonoid, Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Up-Regulating Antioxidant Defenses and Down-Regulating the MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication of the anticancer drug cisplatin. The potential role of baicalein, a naturally occurring bioflavonoid on cisplatin-induced renal injury is unknown. Here, we assessed the effect of baicalein against a murine model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure and investigated the underlying possible mechanisms. Renal function, kidney histology, inflammation, oxidative stress, renal mitochondrial function, proteins involved in apoptosis, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and effects on intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPKs, and NF-κB were assessed. Pretreatment with baicalein ameliorated the cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation and improved kidney injury and function. Baicalein inhibited the cisplatin-induced expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and mononuclear cell infiltration and concealed redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB activation via reduced DNA-binding activity, IκBα phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation in kidneys. Further studies demonstrated baicalein markedly attenuated cisplatin-induced p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation in kidneys. Baicalein also restored the renal antioxidants and increased the amount of total and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and downstream target protein, HO-1 in kidneys. Moreover, baicalein preserved mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis by suppressing p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 imbalance, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Our findings suggest that baicalein ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal damage through up-regulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and down regulation of the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  4. Effect of treatment with baicalein on the intracerebral tumor growth and survival of orthotopic glioma models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Jiang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has been proved as a promising chemopreventive compound for many cancers. The aim of this work was to assess the anti-tumor effect of baicalein in the orthotopic glioma models. It was found that treatment of mice with U87 gliomas with baicalein (20 and 40 mg/kg/day, i.p.) significantly inhibited the intracerebral tumor growth and prolonged the survival. Furthermore, treatment with baicalein suppressed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in U87 gliomas. In addition, treatment with baicalein reduced tumor permeability, attenuated edema of tumors and brains, and improved tight junctions in gliomas. Finally, treatment with baicalein reduced the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2 in U87 gliomas. In addition, treatment with baicalein also markedly suppressed tumor growth and prolonged the survival of rats with 9L gliomas. In conclusion, baicalein has an obvious anti-tumor activity in the orthotopic glioma models. Our results suggested that treatment with baicalein might be an effective therapy for recurrent malignant brain cancers through suppressing tumor growth and alleviating edema.

  5. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser473), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser133) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. KEY RESULTS Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose–response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. PMID:21133890

  6. Ameliorative effects of baicalein in MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease: A microarray study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Li, Chao; Yang, Ran-Yao; Lian, Wen-Wen; Fang, Jian-Song; Pang, Xiao-Cong; Qin, Xue-Mei; Liu, Ai-Lin; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of baicalein on motor behavioral deficits and gene expression in N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The behavioral results showed that baicalein significantly improves the abnormal behaviors in MPTP-induced mice model of PD, as manifested by shortening the total time for climbing down the pole, prolonging the latent periods of rotarod, and increasing the vertical movements. Using cDNA microarray and subsequent bioinformatic analyses, it was found that baicalein significantly promotes the biological processes including neurogenesis, neuroblast proliferation, neurotrophin signaling pathway, walking and locomotor behaviors, and inhibits dopamine metabolic process through regulation of gene expressions. Based on analysis of gene co-expression networks, the results indicated that the regulation of genes such as LIMK1, SNCA and GLRA1 by baicalein might play central roles in the network. Our results provide experimental evidence for the potential use of baicalein in the treatment of PD, and revealed gene expression profiles, biological processes and pathways influenced by baicalein in MPTP-treated mice.

  7. The flavonoid baicalein rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun-Hu; Xu, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Bo; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Xu, Guo-Gang; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that disruptions of synaptic functions correlate with the severity of cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study demonstrated that baicalein enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute rat hippocampal slices and improves hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning in rats. Given that baicalein possess various biological activities, especially its effects on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, we examined the effect of baicalein on synaptic function both in vitro and in vivo in AD model. The effect of baicalein on Aβ42 oligomer impaired LTP was investigated by electrophysiological methods. Baicalein was administered orally via drinking water to the APP/PS1 mice and sex- and age-matched wild-type mice. Treatment started at 5 months of age and mice were assessed for cognition and AD-like pathology at 7-month-old. Cognition was analyzed by Morris water maze test, fear conditioning test, and novel object recognition test. Changes in hippocampal 12/15 Lipoxygenase (12/15LO) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, Aβ production, tau phosphorylation, synaptic plasticity, and dendritic spine density were evaluated. Baicalein prevented Aβ-induced impairments in hippocampal LTP through activation of serine threonine Kinase (Akt) phosphorylation. Long-term oral administration of baicalein inhibited 12/15LO and GSK3β activity, reduced β-secretase enzyme (BACE1), decreased the concentration of total Aβ, and prevented phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, baicalein restored spine number, synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicalein as a novel and promising oral bioactive therapeutic agent that prevents memory deficits in AD.

  8. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  9. Enhanced bioavailability after oral and pulmonary administration of baicalein nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Lv, Huixia; Jiang, Kun; Gao, Yuan

    2011-11-25

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of oral and pulmonary nanocrystal to enhance the bioavailability of baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. So far, the nano-sized delivery system of baicalein and its pulmonary delivery have received no exploration. In the present investigation, the baicalein nanocrystal was prepared by anti-solvent recrystallization followed by high pressure homogenization. In vitro characterization was performed including particle size and distribution, Zeta potential, dissolution, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. It was indicated that no crystalline change was observed after nanocrystal preparation. The baicalein nanocrystal containing only trace of stabilizer exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution of baicalein. In vivo test was also carried out in rats and pharmacokinetic parameters of the baicalein crystal and the baicalein nanocrystal after gavage and pulmonary administration were compared, based on the simultaneous determination of baicalein and baicalin by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean relative bioavailability of oral baicalein nanocrystal was 1.67-fold that of oral baicalein crystal. The pulmonary baicalein nanocrystal had rapid and extensive absorption and had almost identical pharmacokinetic parameters to intravenous baicalein injection. PMID:21878378

  10. Baicalein suppresses the proliferation of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoping; Liu, Shengcai; Chen, Jiarui; He, Li; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Shangqin

    2016-10-01

    Although the response rates of chemotherapy in patients with acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have improved significantly, the outcome of these patients is still poor. Previous studies suggested that baicalein could inhibit the growth of several cancers, while its effect on T-ALL cells remains unclear. We used Jurkat cells as an in vitro model of T-ALL. Cell counting kit-8 assay and cytometric analysis with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining were used to investigate the proliferation and apoptosis of Jurkat cells treated with increasing concentration of baicalein for indicated time. RT-PCR and western blotting was used to test the expression of Wnt/β-catenin associated genes and proteins. In cell viability assay, baicalein could inhibit the proliferation of Jurkat cells both in dose- and time-dependent manners. In cell apoptosis assay, baicalein could stimulate apoptosis of Jurkat cells both in dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, we demonstrated that baicalein could down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin and its widely accepted downstream targets (c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Axin2) in dose-dependent manners. These results proved that baicalein might be a potential choice for the treatment of T-ALL.

  11. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalein Potently Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiasheng; Liu, Tianrun; Jiang, Lin; Wu, Xiangsong; Cao, Yang; Li, Maolan; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yingbin; Xu, Haineng

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein, a traditional Chinese medicine, is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids. It has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human gastric cancer and the mechanisms of action of baicalein have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we utilized a cell viability assay and an in vivo tumor growth assay to test the inhibitory effects of baicalein on gastric cancer. Analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis and alterations in protein levels were performed to elucidate how baicalein functions in gastric cancer. We found that baicalein could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and colony formation. Baicalein robustly induced arrest at the S phase in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. It induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of protein expression levels in SGC-7901 cells showed downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in response to baicalein treatment. These results indicate that baicalein induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. In an in vivo subcutaneous xenograft model, baicalein exhibited excellent tumor inhibitory effects. These results indicate that baicalein may be a potential drug for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26918059

  12. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalein Potently Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jiasheng; Liu, Tianrun; Jiang, Lin; Wu, Xiangsong; Cao, Yang; Li, Maolan; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yingbin; Xu, Haineng

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein, a traditional Chinese medicine, is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids. It has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human gastric cancer and the mechanisms of action of baicalein have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we utilized a cell viability assay and an in vivo tumor growth assay to test the inhibitory effects of baicalein on gastric cancer. Analyses of the cell cycle, apoptosis and alterations in protein levels were performed to elucidate how baicalein functions in gastric cancer. We found that baicalein could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and colony formation. Baicalein robustly induced arrest at the S phase in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. It induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of protein expression levels in SGC-7901 cells showed downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in response to baicalein treatment. These results indicate that baicalein induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. In an in vivo subcutaneous xenograft model, baicalein exhibited excellent tumor inhibitory effects. These results indicate that baicalein may be a potential drug for gastric cancer therapy.

  13. Exploring Therapeutic Potentials of Baicalin and Its Aglycone Baicalein for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jianlei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Buyuan; Hu, Jianda; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in the targeted therapy for various types of hematological malignancies with successful improvements in the survival rates, emerging resistance issues are startlingly high and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In addition, chemoprevention is currently becoming an elusive goal. Plant-derived natural products have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to the potential dual functions as chemotherapeutics and dietary chemoprevention. One of the particularly ubiquitous families is the polyphenolic flavonoids. Among them, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein have been widely investigated in hematological malignancies because both of them exhibit remarkable pharmacological properties. This review focuses on the recent achievements in drug discovery research associated with baicalin and baicalein for hematological malignancy therapies. The promising anticancer activities of these two flavonoids targeting diverse signaling pathways and their potential biological mechanisms in different types of hematological malignancies, as well as the combination strategy with baicalin or baicalein as chemotherapeutic adjuvants for recent therapies in these intractable diseases are discussed. Meanwhile, the biotransformation of baicalin and baicalein and the relevant approaches to improve their bioavailability are also summarized. PMID:25128647

  14. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  15. IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

  16. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chrysin and baicalein assisted by theoretical prediction of chemiluminescence behavior of chrysin and baicalein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Guo, Lili; Xu, Chunli; Ma, Limei

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the molecular connectivity indices were applied to theoretically predict the direct chemiluminescence (CL) behavior of chrysin and baicalein with our recently proposed discriminant function. Then, combined with flow-injection analysis, a new CL system for determination of chrysin and baicalein was proposed. The method was based on the oxidation of chrysin and baicalein by acidic KMnO 4 in the presence of formaldehyde to produce strong CL emission. The present paper suggested a new model to discover new CL analytical system: first, to theoretical predict the CL behavior, and the second, to suggest analytical system.

  17. Baicalein reduces β-amyloid and promotes nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing in an Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, She-Qing; Obregon, Demian; Ehrhart, Jared; Deng, Juan; Tian, Jun; Hou, Huayan; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, is known to modulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors. Given prior reports demonstrating benefits of GABAA modulation for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment, we wished to determine whether this agent might be beneficial for AD. CHO cells engineered to overexpress wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP), primary culture neuronal cells from AD mice (Tg2576) and AD mice were treated with baicalein. In the cell cultures, baicalein significantly reduced the production of β-amyloid (Aβ) by increasing APP α-processing. These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Likewise, AD mice treated daily with i.p. baicalein for 8 weeks showed enhanced APP α-secretase processing, reduced Aβ production, and reduced AD-like pathology together with improved cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that baicalein promotes nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, thereby reducing Aβ production and improving cognitive performance, by activating GABAA receptors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23686791

  18. Novel antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a serious arboviral disease currently with no effective antiviral therapy or approved vaccine available. Therefore, finding the effective compound against dengue virus (DENV) replication is very important. Among the natural compounds, bioflavonoids derived mainly from plants are of interest because of their biological and medicinal benefits. Methods In the present study, antiviral activity of a bioflavonoid, baicalein, was evaluated against different stages of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) replication in Vero cells using focus forming unit reduction assay and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Baicalein inhibited DENV-2 replication in Vero cells with IC50= 6.46 μg/mL and SI= 17.8 when added after adsorption to the cells. The IC50 against DENV-2 was 5.39 μg/mL and SI= 21.3 when cells were treated 5 hours before virus infection and continuously up to 4 days post infection. Baicalein exhibited direct virucidal effect against DENV-2 with IC 50= 1.55 μg/mL and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 7.14 μg/mL. Conclusions Findings presented here suggest that baicalein exerts potent antiviral activity against DENV. Baicalein possesses direct virucidal activity against DENV besides its effects against dengue virus adsorption and intracellular replication of DENV-2. Baicalein, hence, should be considered for in vivo evaluation in the development of an effective antiviral compound against DENV. PMID:23140177

  19. The Fascinating Effects of Baicalein on Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Dong, Yonghui; Gao, Yutong; Du, Zhipeng; Wang, Yuting; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Anmin; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a major global health problem. In recent decades, the rates of both mortality and morbidity of cancer have rapidly increased for a variety of reasons. Despite treatment options, there are serious side effects associated with chemotherapy drugs and multiple forms of drug resistance that significantly reduce their effects. There is an accumulating amount of evidence on the pharmacological activities of baicalein (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and antitumor effects). Furthermore, there has been great progress in elucidating the target mechanisms and signaling pathways of baicalein’s anti-cancer potential. The anti-tumor functions of baicalein are mainly due to its capacities to inhibit complexes of cyclins to regulate the cell cycle, to scavenge oxidative radicals, to attenuate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activities, to induce apoptosis by activating caspase-9/-3 and to inhibit tumorinvasion and metastasis by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9). In this review, we focused on the relevant biological mechanisms of baicalein involved in inhibiting various cancers, such as bladder cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Moreover, we also summarized the specific mechanisms by which baicalein inhibited the growth of various tumors in vivo. Taken together, baicalein may be developed as a potential, novel anticancer drug to treat tumors. PMID:27735841

  20. Baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation by regulating early adipogenesis and m-TOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Woo, Mi-Seon; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Baicalein is a type of flavonoid that originates from Scutellaria baicalensis. In this study, we examined how baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Our data show that baicalein inhibited lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Baicalein inhibition was limited to the early adipogenic stage. Cell cycle analysis showed that baicalein induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through cyclin downregulation. In addition, baicalein suppressed the mRNA expression of early adipogenic factors leading to downregulation of late adipogenic factors at mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of adipogenic factors by baicalein was correlated with downregulation of lipid synthetic enzymes. Additionally, baicalein negatively regulated the m-TOR signaling pathway involved in lipid accumulation during adipogenesis, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of m-TOR and p70S6K. In a zebrafish study, baicalein significantly reduced lipid accumulation in Nile Red staining. Consistent with a report using cell lines, mRNA expression of adipogenic factors was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by baicalein. This result reflects a reduction in total triglyceride levels based on a triglyceride assay. Our data suggest that baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation by controlling the cell cycle and m-TOR signaling in 3T3-L1 cells, and its anti-adipogenic effect was found in a zebrafish model.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of baicalein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Tian, Rui; Hu, Wenjing; Jia, Yuntao; Jiang, Huiming; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke

    2012-12-01

    The main object of this work is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for oral bioavailability enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug, baicalein. SMEDDS is the mixture of surfactants, cosurfactants, and oils, which are emulsified in aqueous media under conditions of gentle agitation or gastrointestinal motility. Solubility of baicalein was determined in various vehicles. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification region and droplet size distributions of the resultant microemulsions were determined using a particle size analyzer. Optimized SMEDDS formulations for baicalein were Cremophor RH40 (53.57%) as surfactant, Transcutol P (21.43%) as cosurfactant, and Caprylic capric triglyceride (ODO, 25%) as oil. The drug release rate of SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of the baicalein suspension. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics between baicalein-loaded SMEDDS and baicalein suspension was also performed in rats. The plasma concentrations of baicalein and baicalin, its mainly conjugated metabolite, were determined by HPLC method. The in vivo results showed that the absorption of baicalein from SMEDDS resulted in about 200.7% increase in relative bioavailability compared with that of the baicalein suspension. Our studies illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for the delivery of hydrophobic compounds, such as baicalein by the oral route. PMID:22982454

  2. Baicalein Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang-Chi; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yang, An-Han; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Tang, Chia-Yu; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein is a component of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has traditionally been used to treat liver disease in China. In the present study, we investigated baicalein' ability to reduce the liver injury induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Myocardial I/R was induced in this experiment by a 40[Formula: see text]min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a 3[Formula: see text]h reperfusion in rats. The induced myocardial I/R significantly increased the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), indicating the presence of liver injury. Hepatic apoptosis was significantly increased. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text]), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly elevated, as was the TNF-[Formula: see text] level in the liver. Intravenous pretreatment with baicalein (3, 10, or 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg) 10[Formula: see text]min before myocardial I/R significantly reduced the serum level increase of AST and ALT, apoptosis in the liver, and the elevation of TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-1[Formula: see text], and IL-6 levels. Moreover, baicalein increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax in the liver. Phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases, including Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), was also increased. In conclusion, we found that baicalein can reduce the liver injury induced by myocardial I/R. The underlying mechanisms are likely related to the inhibition of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, possibly via the inhibition of TNF-[Formula: see text] production, the modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, and the activation of Akt and ERK1/2. Our findings may provide a rationale for the application of baicalein or traditional Chinese medicine containing large amounts of baicalein to prevent liver injury in acute myocardial infarction and cardiac

  3. Identification of baicalein as a ferroptosis inhibitor by natural product library screening.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangchun; Song, Xinxin; Sun, Xiaofang; Huang, Jin; Zhong, Meizuo; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-05-13

    Ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death, is characterized by oxidative injury from iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In a natural product library screening for ferroptosis inhibitor, we found that baicalein is a potent inhibitor of erastin-induced ferroptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Baicalein (also termed 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid originally obtained from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria lateriflora. We showed that baicalein exhibits remarkable anti-ferroptosis activity compared with well-known ferroptosis inhibitors such as ferrostatin-1, liproxstatin-1, deferoxamine mesylate, and β-mercaptoethanol. At the biochemistry level, baicalein limits erastin-induced ferrous iron production, glutathione depletion, and lipid peroxidation. At the protein level, baicalein suppresses erastin-mediated degradation of glutathione peroxidase 4, a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. Thus, baicalein enhances cellular anti-ferroptosis capacity and could be a potential therapeutic agent for ferroptosis-associated tissue injury.

  4. Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Teng, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Hai-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jin-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24 h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-{beta}. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC{alpha} and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo. - Highlight: > Baicalein inhibits several essential steps in the onset of metastasis.

  5. Baicalein inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells through suppressing the expression of CD24.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengquan; Zhu, Shengming; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zian; Wu, Shiwu; Zheng, Rongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and is the most common type of liver cancer. Current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma are still rather limited and novel therapeutic strategies are required. Baicalein, extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anticancer effects on HCC in vitro and vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. In the present study, we evaluated anticancer effects of purified botanical extracts on HCC cells using high-throughput screening and investigated the effects of baicalein on HCC cells using proliferation and apoptosis assays, RT-PCR, and Western blot. Transfection was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Our results showed that baicalein is the most efficient botanical extract in a HCC cell line as compared with the other 13 extracts. Baicalein significantly decreased the expression of c-Myc, a crucial regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and cellular transformation, in dose- and time-dependent manners in HCC cells. Moreover, baicalein inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expressions of CD24 were downregulated by baicalein in HCC cells and ectopic overexpression of CD24 reversed baicalein-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Taken together, our results demonstrate efficient anticancer effects of baicalein on HCC cells and indicate that baicalein suppresses cell growth and cell survival through downregulation of CD24.

  6. Inclusion complexation between baicalein and β-cyclodextrin and the influence of β-cyclodextrin on the binding of baicalein with DNA: a spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sameena, Yousuf; Chandrasekaran, Sowrirajan; Israel V M V, Enoch

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the commonly studied cyclic oligosaccharide and gains importance as it is entered on a drug delivering carbohydrate and provides insight into the oligosaccharide complex-biomolecular interaction. The binding of a flavone, baicalein, to β-cyclodextrin and calf thymus DNA is studied. The binding of baicalein to calf thymus DNA in the presence of β-cyclodextrin is analysed using the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The mode of binding and structure of the baicalein-β-cyclodextrin complex are reported. The role of the structure and the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex of baicalein-β-cyclodextrin in its influence on DNA binding are analysed. Highlights • This paper deals with the binding of a flavone, baicalein to β-cyclodextrin and/or DNA. • The inclusion complexation between baicalein and β-cyclodextrin is analysed. • The stoichiometry and the binding strength of the inclusion complex is reported. • The role of β-cyclodextrin in tuning the binding of baicalein to DNA is emphasized. • Spectroscopic and docking analysis are used to articulate the results.

  7. Colon cancer chemopreventive effects of baicalein, an active enteric microbiome metabolite from baicalin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Chen, Lina; Anderson, Samantha; Lu, Fang; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-11-01

    Baicalin is a major constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis, which is a commonly used herbal medicine in many Asian countries. After oral ingestion, intestinal microbiota metabolism may change parent compound's structure and its biological activities. However, whether baicalin can be metabolized by enteric microbiota and the related anticancer activity is not clear. In this study, using human enteric microbiome incubation and HPLC analysis, we observed that baicalin can be quickly converted to baicalein. We compared the antiproliferative effects of baicalin and baicalein using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including three human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. In vitro antiproliferative effects on CRC cells were verified using an in vivo xenograft nude mouse model. Baicalin showed limited antiproliferative effects on some of these cancer cell lines. Baicalein, however, showed significant antiproliferative effects in all the tested cancer cell lines, especially on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. In vivo antitumor results supported our in vitro data. We demonstrated that baicalein exerts potent S phase cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic effects in HCT-116 cells. Baicalein induced the activation of caspase 3 and 9. The in silico modeling suggested that baicalein forms hydrogen bonds with residues Ser251 and Asp253 at the active site of caspase 3, while interactions with residues Leu227 and Asp228 in caspase 9 through its hydroxyl groups. Data from this study suggested that baicalein is a potent anticancer metabolite derived from S. baicalensis. Enteric microbiota play a key role in the colon cancer chemoprevention of S. baicalensis.

  8. Aluminum-related osteomalacia: clinical and histological improvement following treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO).

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J; Chaimovitz, C; Abulfil, A; Mostovlavsky, M; Gazit, D; Bab, I

    1987-12-01

    Aluminum-related osteomalacia has been a topic of major interest for some time. Patients on dialysis who are affected exhibit reduced parathyroid function and osteomalacia associated with high levels of aluminum in the extracellular fluid and tissues. In bone, aluminum is found in the interface between mineralized and nonmineralized osteoid. In the present study we attempted treatment of the aluminum-related bone disease with DFO, a potent chelating agent. A thyroparathyroidectomized patient on hemodialysis with proven osteomalacia and aluminum deposits in bone received DFO 3 times/week for 1 year. Consequently, there was a marked improvement in his skeletal status, both clinically and histologically. This was associated with aluminum deposits within the mineralized component of bone as well as elevated parathyroid function measured in blood and bone. These findings suggest that calcification may occur despite the presence of aluminum in the mineralizing front. The main beneficial effect of DFO could be relief of the inhibitory action of aluminum on parathyroid cells and osteoblasts. PMID:3440748

  9. Baicalein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and the Quorum Sensing System In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Hou, Changchun; Cai, Shuangqi; Huang, Yingying; Du, Zhongye; Huang, Hong; Kong, Jinliang; Chen, Yiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus significantly enhances antibiotic resistance by inhibiting the penetration of antibiotics, resulting in an increasingly serious situation. This study aimed to assess whether baicalein can prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic bactericidal effects with antibiotics in vitro. To do this, we used a clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus 17546 (t037) for biofilm formation. Virulence factors were detected following treatment with baicalein, and the molecular mechanism of its antibiofilm activity was studied. Plate counting, crystal violet staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein clearly inhibited 3- and 7-day biofilm formation in vitro. Moreover, colony forming unit count, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that vancomycin (VCM) and baicalein generally enhanced destruction of biofilms, while VCM alone did not. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses (RTQ-PCR) confirmed that baicalein treatment reduced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and α-hemolysin (hla) levels. Most strikingly, real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein downregulated the quorum-sensing system regulators agrA, RNAIII, and sarA, and gene expression of ica, but 16 μg/mL baicalein had no effect. In summary, baicalein inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, destroyed biofilms, increased the permeability of vancomycin, reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and α-hemolysin, and inhibited the quorum sensing system. These results support baicalein as a novel drug candidate and an effective treatment strategy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:27128436

  10. Baicalein exhibits anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NF-κB transactivation.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, Maikho; Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-05-15

    NF-κB is a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses and a number of phytochemicals that can suppress this immune-regulatory transcription factor are known to have promising anti-inflammatory potential. However, we report that inducer of pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. Our findings reveal that a plant derived flavonoid baicalein could suppress mitogen induced T cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with baicalein prior to transfer in to lymphopenic allogenic host significantly suppressed graft versus host disease. Interestingly, addition of baicalein to murine splenic lymphocytes induced DNA binding of NF-κB but did not suppress Concanavalin A induced NF-κB. Since baicalein did not inhibit NF-κB binding to DNA, we hypothesized that baicalein may be suppressing NF-κB trans-activation. Thioredoxin system is implicated in the regulation of NF-κB trans-activation potential and therefore inhibition of thioredoxin system may be responsible for suppression of NF-κB dependent genes. Baicalein not only inhibited TrxR activity in cell free system but also suppressed mitogen induced thioredoxin activity in the nuclear compartment of lymphocytes. Similar to baicalein, pharmacological inhibitors of thioredoxin system also could suppress mitogen induced T cell proliferation without inhibiting DNA binding of NF-κB. Further, activation of cellular thioredoxin system by the use of pharmacological activator or over-expression of thioredoxin could abrogate the anti-inflammatory action of baicalein. We propose a novel strategy using baicalein to limit NF-κB dependent inflammatory responses via inhibition of thioredoxin system.

  11. Baicalein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and the Quorum Sensing System In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Tangjuan; Wang, Ke; Hou, Changchun; Cai, Shuangqi; Huang, Yingying; Du, Zhongye; Huang, Hong; Kong, Jinliang; Chen, Yiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus significantly enhances antibiotic resistance by inhibiting the penetration of antibiotics, resulting in an increasingly serious situation. This study aimed to assess whether baicalein can prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic bactericidal effects with antibiotics in vitro. To do this, we used a clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus 17546 (t037) for biofilm formation. Virulence factors were detected following treatment with baicalein, and the molecular mechanism of its antibiofilm activity was studied. Plate counting, crystal violet staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein clearly inhibited 3- and 7-day biofilm formation in vitro. Moreover, colony forming unit count, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that vancomycin (VCM) and baicalein generally enhanced destruction of biofilms, while VCM alone did not. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses (RTQ-PCR) confirmed that baicalein treatment reduced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and α-hemolysin (hla) levels. Most strikingly, real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein downregulated the quorum-sensing system regulators agrA, RNAIII, and sarA, and gene expression of ica, but 16 μg/mL baicalein had no effect. In summary, baicalein inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, destroyed biofilms, increased the permeability of vancomycin, reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and α-hemolysin, and inhibited the quorum sensing system. These results support baicalein as a novel drug candidate and an effective treatment strategy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  12. Baicalein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and the Quorum Sensing System In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Tangjuan; Wang, Ke; Hou, Changchun; Cai, Shuangqi; Huang, Yingying; Du, Zhongye; Huang, Hong; Kong, Jinliang; Chen, Yiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus significantly enhances antibiotic resistance by inhibiting the penetration of antibiotics, resulting in an increasingly serious situation. This study aimed to assess whether baicalein can prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic bactericidal effects with antibiotics in vitro. To do this, we used a clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus 17546 (t037) for biofilm formation. Virulence factors were detected following treatment with baicalein, and the molecular mechanism of its antibiofilm activity was studied. Plate counting, crystal violet staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein clearly inhibited 3- and 7-day biofilm formation in vitro. Moreover, colony forming unit count, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that vancomycin (VCM) and baicalein generally enhanced destruction of biofilms, while VCM alone did not. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses (RTQ-PCR) confirmed that baicalein treatment reduced staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and α-hemolysin (hla) levels. Most strikingly, real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that 32 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL baicalein downregulated the quorum-sensing system regulators agrA, RNAIII, and sarA, and gene expression of ica, but 16 μg/mL baicalein had no effect. In summary, baicalein inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation, destroyed biofilms, increased the permeability of vancomycin, reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and α-hemolysin, and inhibited the quorum sensing system. These results support baicalein as a novel drug candidate and an effective treatment strategy for Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:27128436

  13. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been used in Oriental medicines for treating various diseases. Although this compound has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human bladder cancer and its mechanisms of action have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the proapoptotic effects of baicalein in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue dye exclusion assay 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether 5637 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment with baicalein resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition coupled with apoptosis induction, as indicated by the results of nuclei morphology examination and flow cytometry analyses. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of 5637 cells by baicalein exhibited a correlation with the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. The study also showed that baicalein decreases the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, increases antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and noticeably aggravates the loss of MMP. Concomitantly, the data showed that baicalein increases the levels of death receptors and their associated ligands and enhances the activation of caspase-8 and truncation of Bid. However, the pan-caspase inhibitor can reverse baicalein-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, it was found that baicalein can induce the production of reactive oxygen

  14. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been used in Oriental medicines for treating various diseases. Although this compound has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human bladder cancer and its mechanisms of action have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the proapoptotic effects of baicalein in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue dye exclusion assay 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether 5637 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment with baicalein resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition coupled with apoptosis induction, as indicated by the results of nuclei morphology examination and flow cytometry analyses. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of 5637 cells by baicalein exhibited a correlation with the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. The study also showed that baicalein decreases the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, increases antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and noticeably aggravates the loss of MMP. Concomitantly, the data showed that baicalein increases the levels of death receptors and their associated ligands and enhances the activation of caspase-8 and truncation of Bid. However, the pan-caspase inhibitor can reverse baicalein-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, it was found that baicalein can induce the production of reactive oxygen

  15. Synergy between baicalein and penicillins against penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qian, Minyi; Tang, Shusheng; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; He, Tao; Chen, Tingting; Xiao, Xilong

    2015-09-01

    The combination of baicalein (the active constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis) with penicillin G/amoxicillin showed potent synergy against 20 clinical penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains including 10 isolates that were additionally methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of penicillins+baiclein ranged from 0.14 to 0.38. Baicalein protected penicillins (penicillin G and amoxicillin) from penicillinase and increased the susceptibility of penicillinase-supplemented S. aureus ATCC 29213 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of penicillinase activity by baicalein should be responsible for the synergism and protective effect. These findings offer us good evidence that the penicillins combined with baicalein showed potent synergistic activity against penicillinase-producing S. aureus and penicillinase-producing MRSA in vitro and might provide promising implications for clinical treatment of these bacterial infections.

  16. Microradiography of Microcalcifications in Breast Specimen: A New Histological Correlation Procedure and the Effect of Improved Resolution on Diagnostic Validity

    PubMed Central

    Langen, H.-J.; Koehler, S.; Bielmeier, J.; Jocher, R.; Kranzfelder, D.; Jagusch, N.; Treutlein, G.; Wetzler, Th.; Müller, J.; Ott, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Does high-resolution visualization of microcalcifications improve diagnostic reliability? Method. X-rays were taken of mamma specimens with microcalcifications in 32 patients (10 malignant; 22 benign) using conventional radiography (12 Lp/mm) and high-resolution radiography (2000 Lp/mm). Histological sections were subsequently prepared and correlated to the microradiographic image and every calcification was assigned an exact malignant or benign histological diagnosis. Five radiologists classified single groups of calcifications in both methods according to the BIRADS classification system. Results. Using microradiography microcalcifications can be shown in high resolution at the cell level including histological correlation. In some cases, the diagnostic validity was improved by the high resolution in microradiography. In other cases, the high resolution resulted in more visible calcifications, thus giving benign calcifications a malignant appearance. In the BIRADS 2 and 3 group, the probability of malignancy was 28.6% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 37.8% in the microradiography evaluation. In the BIRADS 4 and 5 group, the probability of malignancy was 34.2% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 24.4% in the microradiography evaluation. The differences were not significant. Summary. Overall, the improved resolution in microradiography did not show an improvement in diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional radiography. PMID:23097699

  17. Colon cancer chemopreventive effects of baicalein, an active enteric microbiome metabolite from baicalin

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHONG-ZHI; ZHANG, CHUN-FENG; CHEN, LINA; ANDERSON, SAMANTHA; LU, FANG; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a major constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis, which is a commonly used herbal medicine in many Asian countries. After oral ingestion, intestinal micro-biota metabolism may change parent compound's structure and its biological activities. However, whether baicalin can be metabolized by enteric microbiota and the related anti-cancer activity is not clear. In this study, using human enteric microbiome incubation and HPLC analysis, we observed that baicalin can be quickly converted to baicalein. We compared the antiproliferative effects of baicalin and baicalein using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including three human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. In vitro antiproliferative effects on CRC cells were verified using an in vivo xenograft nude mouse model. Baicalin showed limited antiproliferative effects on some of these cancer cell lines. Baicalein, however, showed significant antiproliferative effects in all the tested cancer cell lines, especially on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. In vivo antitumor results supported our in vitro data. We demonstrated that baicalein exerts potent S phase cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic effects in HCT-116 cells. Baicalein induced the activation of caspase 3 and 9. The in silico modeling suggested that baicalein forms hydrogen bonds with residues Ser251 and Asp253 at the active site of caspase 3, while interactions with residues Leu227 and Asp228 in caspase 9 through its hydroxyl groups. Data from this study suggested that baicalein is a potent anticancer metabolite derived from S. baicalensis. Enteric microbiota play a key role in the colon cancer chemoprevention of S. baicalensis. PMID:26398706

  18. Regulation of bone formation by baicalein via the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-fa; Tang, Jia-jun; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Tian-yu; Yan, Bo; Huang, Bin; Wang, Liang; Huang, Min-jun; Zhang, Zhong-min; Jin, Da-di

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The increasing prevalence of osteoporosis has attracted much attention. In this study, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated with the natural compound, baicalein (0.1 μmol/L, 1 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L), to stimulate differentiation over a 14-day period. In addition, a canonical ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of 3-month baicalein treatment (10 mg/kg per day) in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. In vitro, we found that baicalein induced activation of alkaline phosphatase, stimulated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, and induced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, ie, osteocalcin, osterix, collagen Iα1, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in osteoblasts. In vivo, several bone parameters, including trabecular thickness, trabecular bone mineral density, and trabecular number, in the distal femoral metaphysis were significantly increased in OVX mice treated intragastrically with baicalein for 3 months compared with OVX mice that were not treated with baicalein. We also found that expression of osteocalcin and RUNX2 was decreased in primary ossified tissue from the OVX group, and baicalein increased the levels of osteocalcin and RUNX2 in OVX mice. These data suggest that baicalein can stimulate MC3T3-E1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts via activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, which includes protein kinases and transcription factors such as P-4E/BP1 and P-S6K1. PMID:26392752

  19. Structural Characteristics of the Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Stabilized By the Flavonoid Baicalein

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, D.-P.; Fink, A.L.; Uversky, V.N.

    2009-05-18

    The flavonoid baicalein inhibits fibrillation of alpha-synuclein, which is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. It has been known that baicalein induces the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers and consequently prevents their fibrillation. In order to evaluate the structural properties of baicalein-stabilized oligomers, we purified oligomer species by HPLC and examined their stability and structure by CD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography HPLC, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Baicalein-stabilized oligomers are beta-sheet-enriched according to CD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. They did not form fibrils even after very prolonged incubation. From small-angle X-ray scattering data and atomic force microscopy images, the oligomers were characterized as quite compact globular species. Oligomers were extremely stable, with a GdmCl C(m)=3.3 M. This high stability explains the previously observed inhibition properties of baicalein against alpha-synuclein fibrillation. These baicalein-stabilized oligomers, added to the solution of aggregating alpha-synuclein, were able to noticeably inhibit its fibrillation. After prolonged coincubation, short fibrils were formed, suggesting an effective interaction of oligomers with monomeric alpha-synuclein. Membrane permeability tests suggested that the baicalein-stabilized oligomers had a mild effect on the integrity of the membrane surface. This effect was rather similar to that of the monomeric protein, suggesting that targeted stabilization of certain alpha-synuclein oligomers might offer a potential strategy for the development of novel Parkinson's disease therapies.

  20. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy.

  1. Baicalein inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis via the caveolin-1/AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaoxin; Hu, Xiaolin; Xing, Zhaoquan; Xing, Rui; Lv, Renguang; Cheng, Xiangyu; Su, Jing; Zhou, Zunlin; Xu, Zhonghua; Nilsson, Sten; Liu, Zhaoxu

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is lethal type of genitourinary cancer due to its high morbidity and gradual resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Accumulating evidence has recently suggested that the daily intake of flavonoids is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of baicalein on androgen-independent PCa cells and the underlying mechanisms through which baicalein exerts its actions. Cell viability and flow cytometric apoptosis assays indicated that baicalein potently suppressed the growth and induced the apoptosis of DU145 and PC-3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the inhibitory effects of baicalein on migration and invasion were also observed in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that baicalein can suppress caveolin-1 and the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inhibition of the activation of AKT with LY294002 significantly promoted the apoptosis and metastasis induced by baicalein. In conclusion, these findings suggested that baicalein can induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of androgen-independent PCa cells through inhibition of the caveolin-1/AKT/mTOR pathway, which implies that baicalein may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer patients.

  2. Baicalein induces CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  3. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  4. Latest research progress in the correlation between baicalein and breast cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YAN, WAN-JUN; MA, XING-CONG; GAO, XIAO-YAN; XUE, XING-HUAN; ZHANG, SHU-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring female malignant tumors. According to the 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, produced by the International Agency for Research On Cancer (‘IARC’), nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer, with 522,000 related deaths: An increase in the incidence of breast cancer and associated mortality by nearly 18% from 2008. Metastasis is the final step in breast cancer progression, and represents the most common cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, a search for low-toxicity, safe and effective anti-breast cancer drugs in the form of natural compounds has become an intense focus of research. Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has extensive antitumor activity. The present review briefly describes the research that has been performed on the association between baicalein and breast cancer metastasis, and further illustrates the influence of baicalein on the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis, adding a novel theory basis for baicalein antitumor research. In conclusion, baicalein may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27073644

  5. Baicalein induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Guo, Congshan; Yang, Yanhong; Li, Fenglin; Zhang, Yanxia; Jiang, Bin; Li, Qingwang

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that baicalein shows high antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the inhibitory effect of baicalein on human cervical cancer HeLa cells was studied in vitro. HeLa cells were treated with high (100 µg/ml) and low (50 µg/ml) doses of baicalein, and cell growth inhibition rates were examined by the MTT assay. The morphological changes of apoptotic cells were observed under the light and electron microscope, while the rate of cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by western blot, and caspase-3 activation was examined by a caspase-3 activity assay and spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that baicalein inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cells and induces apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent pathway, through downregulation of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and upregulation of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) and caspase-8. Thus, we conclude that baicalein induces apoptosis of HeLa cells via the mitochondrial and the death receptor pathways. Cell apoptosis in HeLa cells was most likely promoted by the activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-3 in both pathways.

  6. γ-Tocotrienol upregulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and enhances the anticancer effect of baicalein.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuya; Baba, Kiwako; Makio, Akiko; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Huang, Yuhui; Lin, I-Chian; Bae, Jaehoon; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Shuhei; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2016-05-13

    Previous studies have identified biomolecules that mediate the physiological actions of food factors, such as amino acids, vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, plant polyphenols, and lactobacilli, suggesting that our bodies are equipped with an innate system that senses which food factors are required to maintain our health. However, the effects of environmental factors on food factor sensing (FFS) remains largely unknown. Tocotorienols (T3s), which belongs to the vitamin E family, possess several physiological functions, including cholesterol lowering and neuroprotective effects. Here, we investigated the effects of naturally abundant γ-T3 on FFS-related gene expressions in melanoma using a DNA chip. Our results showed that γ-T3 increased the expression level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a sensing molecule to plant polyphenol baicalein. The co-treatment with γ-T3 and baicalein enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of baicalein, accompanied by the downstream events of AhR-activation induced by baicalein. These data suggest that γ-T3 upregulates AhR expression and enhances its sensitivity to baicalein. PMID:27055589

  7. Vascular barrier protective effects of baicalin, baicalein and wogonin in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Soyoung; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-11-15

    Inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and restoration of endothelial integrity is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in the management of sepsis. Here, three structurally related polyphenols found in the Chinese herb Huang Qui, baicalin (BCL), baicalein (BCN), and wogonin (WGN), were examined for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and on modulation of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. According to our data, BCL, BCN, and WGN inhibited the release of HMGB1 and down-regulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. BCL, BCN, and WGN also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with BCL, BCN, and WGN reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. These results indicate that BCL, BCN, and WGN could be candidate therapeutic agents for various severe vascular inflammatory diseases owing to their inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • HMGB1 is an inflammatory mediator for vascular inflammation. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin suppressed the activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and production of TNF-α and IL-6. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin prevent CLP-induced septic mortality.

  8. Effect of baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis on prevention of noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tong Ho; Hong, Bin Na; Park, Channy; Kim, Se Young; Park, Raekil

    2010-01-29

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been thought to primarily involve damage to the sensory hair cells of the cochlea via mechanical and metabolic mechanisms. This study examined the effects of baicalin, baicalein, and Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) extract against NIHL in a mouse model. Mice received oral treatment with SB, baicalin, baicalein beginning 30 min prior to noise exposure and continuing once daily throughout the study. Hearing threshold shift was assessed by auditory brain stem responses for 35 days following noise exposure. Central auditory function was evaluated by auditory middle latency responses. Cochlear function was determined based on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. SB significantly reduced threshold shift, central auditory function damage, and cochlear function deficits, suggesting that SB may protect auditory function in NIHL and that the active constituent may be a flavonoid, baicalein. PMID:20004700

  9. Sirolimus-based therapy following early cyclosporine withdrawal provides significantly improved renal histology and function at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Mota, Alfredo; Arias, Manuel; Taskinen, Eero I; Paavonen, Timo; Brault, Yves; Legendre, Christophe; Claesson, Kerstin; Castagneto, Marco; Campistol, Josep M; Hutchison, Brian; Burke, James T; Yilmaz, Sedar; Häyry, Pekka; Neylan, John F

    2004-06-01

    Graft function and histology are predictive of renal transplant survival. The Rapamune Maintenance Regimen study demonstrated that early cyclosporine (CsA) withdrawal from a sirolimus (SRL)-CsA-steroid (ST) regimen improved renal function and blood pressure. We report the protocol-mandated biopsy findings from that study. Renal transplant patients (n = 430) receiving SRL-CsA-ST were randomized at 3 months after transplantation to remain on SRL-CsA-ST, or to have CsA withdrawn (SRL-ST group). Protocol-mandated biopsies were performed at engraftment and at 12 and 36 months. Two pathologists blindly evaluated 484 biopsies to obtain the Chronic Allograft Damage Index (CADI) scores. At 36 months among patients with serial biopsies (n = 63), the mean CADI score was significantly lower with SRL-ST(4.70 vs. 3.20, p = 0.003), as was the mean tubular atrophy score (0.77 vs. 0.32, p < 0.001). All six components of the CADI score were numerically lower in SRL-ST group; moreover, inflammation and the tubular atrophy scores decreased significantly in the SRL-ST group between 12 and 36 months. The calculated glomerular filtration rate at 36 months was significantly better in the CsA-withdrawal group (54.8 vs. 68.2 mL/min, p = 0.009). In conclusion, withdrawing CsA from the SRL-CsA-ST regimen resulted in improved renal histology and function.

  10. Weigners fixative-an alternative to formalin fixation for histology with improved preservation of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; von Deetzen, M; Weiss, A Th; Weigner, J; Weigner, F; Plendl, J; Gruber, A D

    2013-01-01

    Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the standard method for tissue storage in histopathology. However, FFPE has disadvantages in terms of user health, environment, and nucleic acid integrity. Weigners fixative has been suggested as an alternative for embalming cadavers in human and veterinary anatomy. The present study tested the applicability of Weigners for histology and immunohistochemistry and the preservation of nucleic acids. To this end, a set of organs was fixed for 2 days and up to 6 months in Weigners (WFPE) or formalin. WFPE tissues from the skin, brain, lymphatic tissues, liver, and muscle had good morphologic preservation, comparable to formalin fixation. The quality of kidney and lung samples was inferior to FFPE material due to less accentuated nuclear staining and retention of proteinaceous interstitial fluids. Azan, Turnbull blue, toluidin, and immunohistochemical stainings for CD79a, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor led to comparable results with both fixates. Of note, immunohistochemical detection of CD3 was possible after 6 months in WFPE but not in FFPE tissues. mRNA, miRNA, and DNA from WFPE tissues had superior quality and allowed for amplification of miRNA, 400-bp-long mRNA, and 1000-bp-long DNA fragments after 6 months of fixation in WFPE. In summary, Weigners fixative is a nonhazardous alternative to formalin, which provides a good morphologic preservation of most organs, a similar sensitivity for protein detection, and a superior preservation of nucleic acids. Weigners may therefore be a promising alternative to cryopreservation and may be embraced by people affected by formalin allergies.

  11. Baicalein induces programmed cell death in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bao-Di; Cao, Ying-Ying; Huang, Shan; Xu, Yong-Gang; Gao, Ping-Hui; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the occurrence of an apoptotic phenotype in Candida albicans that is inducible with environmental stresses such as acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and amphotericin B. In the present study, we found that the Chinese herbal medicine Baicalein (BE), which was one of the skullcapflavones, can induce apoptosis in C. albicans. The apoptotic effects of BE were detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and DAPI, and it was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. After exposure to 4 microg/ml BE for 12 h, about 10% of C. albicans cells were apoptotic. Both the increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulation of some redox-related genes (CAP1, SOD2, TRR1) were observed. Furthermore, we compared the survivals of CAP1 deleted, wild-type, and overexpressed strains and found that Cap1p attenuated BE-initiated cell death, which was coherent with a higher mRNA level of the CAP1 gene. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of C. albicans cells changed significantly ( p<0.001) upon BE treatment compared with control. Taken together, our results indicate that BE treatment induces apoptosis in C.albicans cells, and the apoptosis was associated with the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:19734718

  12. Improved droplet-vitrification and histological studies of cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivated Jerusalem artichoke genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm conservation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is crucial to preserve genetic diversity and to secure materials for genetic improvement. Long-term conservation is accomplished through cryopreservation, storing cells or tissues at an ultralow temperature in liquid nitrogen (-...

  13. Baicalein increases keratin 1 and 10 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes via TRPV4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chueh, Sheau-Huei

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we characterized the effect of baicalein on the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, which are abnormal in atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. Treatment of HaCaT keratinocytes with 10 μm baicalein slightly inhibited cell growth, caused morphological differentiation and increased expression of keratins 1 and 10 (K1/K10) without affecting ROS generation, cytochrome c release or apoptosis. Baicalein treatment caused growth arrest in G0 /G1 phase and also induced Ca(2+) influx via TRPV4 receptor activation. Phosphorylation of ERK, Akt and p38 MAPK, but not JNK, was increased by baicalein, and inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK, but not that of Akt or p38 MAPK, blocked the baicalein-induced increase in K1/K10 expression, suggesting that ERK activation is involved in this increase. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or blockade of Ca(2+) influx by pharmacological inhibition or silencing of the TRPV4 receptor did not affect growth arrest, ROS generation or apoptosis, but inhibited baicalein-induced ERK phosphorylation and K1/K10 expression. Thus, baicalein treatment increases differentiation, and decreases proliferation, of keratinocytes. The mechanism of differentiation of keratinocytes is distinct from that of proliferation, the former being Ca(2+) dependent and the latter Ca(2+) independent.

  14. Neuroprotective pentapeptide CN-105 improves functional and histological outcomes in a murine model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Beilei; James, Michael L.; Liu, Ji; Zhou, Guanen; Venkatraman, Talaignair N.; Lascola, Christopher D.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Dubois, Laura G.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Wang, Haichen

    2016-01-01

    Presently, no pharmacological treatments have been demonstrated to improve long-term functional outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Clinical evidence associates apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype with ICH incidence and outcome. While apoE modifies neuroinflammatory responses through its adaptive role in glial downregulation, intact apoE holoprotein is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, we developed a 5-amino acid peptide – CN-105 – that mimics the polar face of the apoE helical domain involved in receptor interactions. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of CN-105 in a mouse model of ICH. Three doses of CN-105 (0.05 mg/kg) was administered by tail vein injection within 24 hours after ICH induction. Functional assessment showed durable improvement in vestibulomotor performance after CN-105 treatment, as quantified by increased Rotarod latencies on Days 1–5 post-ICH, and long-term improvement in neurocognitive performance, as quantified by reduced Morris water maze latencies on Days 29–32 post-ICH. Further, brain water content was significantly reduced, neuroinflammation was decreased and hippocampal CA3 neuronal survival was increased, although hemorrhage volume was not affected by CN-105. We concluded, therefore, that pentapeptide CN-105 improved short- and long-term neurobehavioral outcomes in a murine model of ICH, suggesting therapeutic potential for patients with acute ICH. PMID:27713572

  15. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation.

  16. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. PMID:26971531

  17. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results.

  18. [Application of diversified teaching methods to improve the teaching effects in the course of oral histology and pathology].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Wang, Li-zhen; Hu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Chun-ye; Li, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Oral histology and pathology is one of the most important courses in stomatological education which works as a bridge between basic medical courses and clinical courses of oral science. The knowledge of oral histopathology may help the students to correctly understand the histogenesis and development of oral diseases and provide the information for correct treatment and prevention. In order to make the students grasp the necessary basic theories, increase the interest in learning, and improve the teaching effect, we explored a diversified teaching system which included diverse teaching modes, online courses and courseware construction. The application of this system offered the interaction between students and teachers and combination of classes with the internet, and made the boring pathological knowledge be associated with clinical practice. These diversified teaching methods had been used in practice and obtained good teaching results. PMID:27063324

  19. Baicalin, a metabolite of baicalein with antiviral activity against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Ehsan; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chik, Zamri; Yueh, Andrew; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted. PMID:24965553

  20. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (<μs‧>), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between <μs‧> and % collagen and a negative correlation between <μs‧> and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased <μs‧> variability. In postmenopausal women, <μs‧> was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to <μs‧> were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to <μs‧> in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  1. Deficiency in complement C1q improves histological and functional locomotor outcome after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Manuel D.; Luchetti, Sabina; Burgos, Adrian M.; Nguyen, Hal X.; Hooshmand, Mitra J.; Anderson, Aileen J.; Hamers, Frank P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have suggested a role for the complement system in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), that role remains poorly defined. Additionally, the relative contribution of individual complement pathways in SCI is unknown. Our initial studies revealed that systemic complement activation was strongly influenced by genetic background and gender. Thus, to investigate the role of the classical complement pathway in contusion-induced SCI, male C1q knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a complement sufficient background (BUB) received a mild-moderate T9 contusion injury with the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor. BUB C1q KO mice exhibited greater locomotor recovery in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Improved recovery observed in BUB C1q KO mice was also associated with decreased threshold for withdrawal from a mild stimulus using von Frey filament testing. Surprisingly, quantification of microglia/macrophages (F4/80) by FACS analysis showed that BUB C1q KO mice exhibited a significantly greater percentage of macrophages in the spinal cord compared to BUB WT mice 3 days post injury (p < 0.05). However, this increased macrophage response appeared to be transient as stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue obtained 28 days post injury revealed no difference in F4/80 positive cells between groups. Stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue showed that BUB C1q KO mice had reduced lesion volume and an increase in tissue sparing in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that initiation of the classical complement pathway via C1q is detrimental to recovery after SCI. PMID:19091977

  2. Methylprednisolone fails to improve functional and histological outcome following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José E; Costa, Luís M; Cabrita, António M; Couto, Pedro A; Filipe, Vítor M; Magalhães, Luís G; Fornaro, Michele; Di Scipio, Federica; Geuna, Stefano; Maurício, Ana C; Varejão, Artur S P

    2009-11-01

    Currently, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) is the standard treatment following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) as a consequence of the results obtained from the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Studies. However, many have questioned the efficacy of MPSS because of its marginal effects. Additionally there has been criticism of both study design and statistical interpretation. The functional consequences of experimental SCI have been assessed in many ways. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of MPSS vs. saline solution (SS) following moderate T10 contusion injury in rat. Functional recovery was evaluated using the 21-point Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor recovery scale, the inclined plane, the beam walk, footprint analysis and the horizontal ladder. To optimize the precision and accuracy of functional results we examined the locomotion on a treadmill using three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Stereology was used to estimate the amount of damaged tissue. The results of the traditional functional methods showed that administration of the NASCIS dosage of MPSS following acute spinal cord contusion did not lead to any significant differences in the functional recovery of MPSS- vs. SS-treated animals. More importantly, the results of the 3D kinematic showed that the MPSS administration did not affect the flexion/extension of the hip, knee and ankle joints during the step cycle. Finally, stereological results revealed no statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups. Altogether, our results support data previously reported by several authors, suggesting that MPSS does not lead to improved functional outcome following experimental acute SCI. PMID:19665461

  3. Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid Treatment in Improving Liver Histology in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alisi, Anna; De Vito, Rita; Franchitto, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality in children. Recently, we have reported the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in children with NAFLD. DHA exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120. Our aim was to investigate in pediatric NAFLD the mechanisms underlying the effects of DHA administration on histo-pathological aspects, GPR120 expression, hepatic progenitor cell activation and macrophage pool. Patients and Methods 20 children with untreated NAFLD were included. Children were treated with DHA for 18 months. Liver biopsies before and after the treatment were analyzed. Hepatic progenitor cell activation, macrophage pool and GPR120 expression were evaluated and correlated with clinical and histo-pathological parameters. Results GPR120 was expressed by hepatocytes, liver macrophages, and hepatic progenitor cells. After DHA treatment, the following modifications were present: i) the improvement of histo-pathological parameters such as NAFLD activity score, ballooning, and steatosis; ii) the reduction of hepatic progenitor cell activation in correlation with histo-pathological parameters; iii) the reduction of the number of inflammatory macrophages; iv) the increase of GPR120 expression in hepatocytes; v) the reduction of serine-311-phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in hepatocytes and macrophages in correlation with serum inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions DHA could modulate hepatic progenitor cell activation, hepatocyte survival and macrophage polarization through the interaction with GPR120 and NF-κB repression. In this scenario, the modulation of GPR120 exploits a novel crucial role in the regulation of the cell-to-cell cross-talk that drives inflammatory response, hepatic progenitor cell activation and hepatocyte survival. PMID

  4. Antiviral activity of baicalein and quercetin against the Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Johari, Jefree; Kianmehr, Aynaz; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2012-12-07

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), a mosquito-borne viral disease, is endemic to the entire east and southeast Asia, and some other parts of the world. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic available for JE; therefore, finding the effective antiviral agent against JEV replication is crucial. In the present study, the in vitro antiviral activity of baicalein and quercetin, two purportedly antiviral bioflavonoids, was evaluated against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) replication in Vero cells. Anti-JEV activities of these compounds were examined on different stages of JEV replication cycle. The effects of the compounds on virus replication were determined by foci forming unit reduction assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Baicalein showed potent antiviral activity with IC(50) = 14.28 µg/mL when it was introduced to the Vero cells after adsorption of JEV. Quercetin exhibited weak anti-JEV effects with IC(50) = 212.1 µg/mL when the JEV infected cells were treated with the compound after virus adsorption. However, baicalein exhibited significant effect against JEV adsorption with IC(50) = 7.27 µg/mL while quercetin did not show any anti-adsorption activity. Baicalein also exhibited direct extracellular virucidal activity on JEV with IC(50) = 3.44 µg/mL. However, results of quantitative RT-PCR experiments confirmed the findings from FFURA. This study demonstrated that baicalein should be considered as an appropriate candidate for further investigations, such as the study of molecular and cellular mechanism(s) of action and in vivo evaluation for the development of an effective antiviral compound against Japanese encephalitis virus.

  5. Antiviral Activity of Baicalein and Quercetin against the Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Jefree; Kianmehr, Aynaz; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), a mosquito-borne viral disease, is endemic to the entire east and southeast Asia, and some other parts of the world. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic available for JE; therefore, finding the effective antiviral agent against JEV replication is crucial. In the present study, the in vitro antiviral activity of baicalein and quercetin, two purportedly antiviral bioflavonoids, was evaluated against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) replication in Vero cells. Anti-JEV activities of these compounds were examined on different stages of JEV replication cycle. The effects of the compounds on virus replication were determined by foci forming unit reduction assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Baicalein showed potent antiviral activity with IC50 = 14.28 μg/mL when it was introduced to the Vero cells after adsorption of JEV. Quercetin exhibited weak anti-JEV effects with IC50 = 212.1 μg/mL when the JEV infected cells were treated with the compound after virus adsorption. However, baicalein exhibited significant effect against JEV adsorption with IC50 = 7.27 μg/mL while quercetin did not show any anti-adsorption activity. Baicalein also exhibited direct extracellular virucidal activity on JEV with IC50 = 3.44 μg/mL. However, results of quantitative RT-PCR experiments confirmed the findings from FFURA. This study demonstrated that baicalein should be considered as an appropriate candidate for further investigations, such as the study of molecular and cellular mechanism(s) of action and in vivo evaluation for the development of an effective antiviral compound against Japanese encephalitis virus. PMID:23222683

  6. Baicalein Decreases Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Damage to NG108-15 Cells via Upregulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hung; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Pei-Shan; Kuo, Jung-Kuei; Chueh, Sheau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase. Here, we investigated its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage to NG108-15 cells. Hydrogen peroxide activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, decreased Nrf2 expression, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, reduced viability, and increased cell death after 2-24 h treatment of NG108-15 cells. Co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide and baicalein completely suppressed the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 expression and reducing ROS stress and partially inhibited the effects on cell viability and cell death. Silencing of 12-lipoxygenase had a similar protective effect to baicalein on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage by blocking the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in Nrf2 expression and increase in ROS levels. Neither protective effect was altered by addition of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, the product of 12-lipoxygenase, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide induced damage via 12-lipoxygenase by another, as yet unknown, mechanism, rather than activating it. Co-treatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide and N-acetylcysteine or the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in a similar fashion to baicalein, while the Nrf2 inhibitor retinoic acid blocked the protective effect of baicalein. Silencing Nrf2 also inhibited the protective effects of baicalein, sulforaphane, and N-acetylcysteine and resulted in high ROS levels, suggesting ROS elimination was mediated by Nrf2. Taken together our results suggest that baicalein protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 and inhibiting 12-lipoxygenase to block the increase in ROS levels. Hydrogen peroxide also activates a second mitochondrial dysfunction independent death pathway which is resistant to baicalein.

  7. Protective effects of baicalein and wogonin against benzo[a]pyrene- and aflatoxin B(1)-induced genotoxicities.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Y F; Shyu, C C; Liu, T Y; Oda, Y; Lin, Y L; Liao, J F; Chen, C F

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate the protective effects of baicalein and wogonin against benzo[a]pyrene- and aflatoxin (AF) B(1)-induced toxicities, the effects of these flavonoids on the genotoxicities and oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene and AFB(1) were studied in C57BL/6J mice. Baicalein and wogonin reduced benzo[a]pyrene and AFB(1) genotoxicities as monitored by the umuC gene expression response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Baicalein added in vitro decreased liver microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation (AHH) activity with an ic(50) of 33.9 +/- 1.4 microM at 100 microM benzo[a]pyrene. Baicalein also inhibited AFQ(1) and AFB(1)-epoxide formation from AFB(1) (50 microM) oxidation (AFO) with ic(50) values of 22.8 +/- 1.4 and 5.3 +/- 0.8 microM, respectively. However, the in vitro inhibitory effects of wogonin on AHH and AFO activities in liver microsomes were less than those of baicalein as inhibition by 500 microM wogonin was only about 51-65%. Treatment of mice with liquid diets containing 5 mM baicalein and wogonin resulted in 22 and 49% decreases in hepatic AHH activities, respectively. Baicalein treatment resulted in 39 and 32% decreases in AFQ(1) and AFB(1)-epoxide formation from liver microsomal AFO, respectively. Wogonin treatment resulted in 39 and 47% decreases in AFQ(1) and AFB(1)-epoxide formation, respectively. A 1-week pretreatment with wogonin significantly decreased hepatic DNA adduct formation in mice treated with 200 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene via gastrogavage. These in vitro and in vivo effects suggested that baicalein and wogonin might have beneficial effects against benzo[a]pyrene- and AFB(1)-induced hepatic toxicities and that wogonin had a stronger protective effect in vivo. PMID:11755119

  8. Nasal histology and nickel concentration in plasma and urine after improvements in the work environment at a nickel refinery in Norway.

    PubMed

    Boysen, M; Solberg, L A; Andersen, I; Høgetveit, A C; Torjussen, W

    1982-12-01

    Nasal histology and nickel concentration in the plasma and urine of nickel workers were reexamined after 4 a for an evaluation of the effect of improvements in the refining process and work conditions. Ninety-eight (31%) nickel workers who were part of a previous study were reexamined. In addition, 33 of the original 38 workers with nasal epithelial dysplasia were studied for possible regression of the histological changes. Reduction in the atmospheric content of nickel and improved hygienic conditions lowered the concentration of nickel in plasma and urine by approximately 50%. The mean histological score and frequency of dysplasia was virtually the same in the two investigations, 12 and 13%, respectively. Nasal biopsies are of limited diagnostic value in the examination of individual cases. However, the method seems to be of value in identifying and monitoring groups of persons with increased risk of developing nasal carcinoma. PMID:7170625

  9. Baicalein suppresses metastasis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EMT via downregulation of SATB1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xingcong; Yan, Wanjun; Dai, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yinan; Xu, Quntao; Jiang, Jiantao; Zhang, Shuqun

    2016-01-01

    Background The flavonoid baicalein, a historically used Chinese herbal medicine, shows a wide range of biological and pharmaceutical effects, among which its potent antitumor activity has raised great interest in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antimetastatic effect of baicalein remains poorly understood. This study aimed to verify the inhibitory effects of baicalein on metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as to investigate the related mechanisms. Methods MTT assay was used to examine the inhibition of baicalein on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Wound healing assay and the in vitro invasion assay was carried out to investigate the effects of baicalein on migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In order to explore the effects of baicalein on tumor metastasis in vivo, xenograft nude mouse model of MDA-MB-231 cells was established. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (control, therapy group, and low-dose and high-dose prevention group, n=6), and treated with baicalein as designed. Following sacrifice, their lungs and livers were collected to examine the presence of metastases. qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to study the effects of baicalein on expression of SATB1, EMT-related molecules, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling components of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as the metastatic tissue. Effects of baicalein on the expression of target proteins in vivo were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results indicated that baicalein suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Based on assays carried out in xenograft nude mouse model, we found that baicalein inhibited tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, baicalein significantly decreased the expression of SATB1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. It suppressed the expression of vimentin and SNAIL while enhancing the expression of E-cadherin. Baicalein

  10. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Hung, Chia-Chi; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Yen-Chu; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo. PMID:23904909

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of Baicalin, Baicalein, and Wogonin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhwa; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-02-01

    Here, three structurally related polyphenols found in the Chinese herb Huang Qui, namely baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were examined for its effects on inflammatory responses by monitoring the effects of baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. We found that each compound inhibited LPS-induced barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and adhesion/transendothelial migration of monocytes to human endothelial cells. Each compound induced potent inhibition of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and LPS-induced endothelial cell protein C receptor shedding. It also suppressed LPS-induced hyperpermeability and leukocytes migration in vivo. Furthermore, each compound suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6 and the activation of nuclear factor-κB or extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 by LPS. Moreover, treatment with each compound resulted in reduced LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. These results suggest that baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin posses anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, and adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases.

  12. Baicalein inhibits α-synuclein oligomer formation and prevents progression of α-synuclein accumulation in a rotenone mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Uversky, Vladimir N; Huang, Mengyang; Kang, Huicong; Xu, Feng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lian, Lifei; Liang, Qiming; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Anding; Zhang, Cuntai; Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Zhu, Suiqiang

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. α-Synuclein (α-syn) oligomers play a critical role in the progression of PD. Baicalein, a typical flavonoid compound, can inhibit the formation of the α-syn oligomers, and disaggregate existing α-syn oligomers in vitro. However, whether baicalein could inhibit or disaggregate α-syn oligomers in vivo has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of baicalein on α-syn oligomers in vivo and to explore the possible mechanisms of such inhibition. A chronic PD mouse model was created by continuous intragastric administration of rotenone (5mg/kg, 12weeks). Baicalein (100mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7week to 12week. Our result showed that the amount of α-syn, changes in the levels of the striatal neurotransmitters, and the behavioral changes found in the chronic PD mouse model were prevented after the baicalein injections. Although baicalein did not decrease α-syn mRNA expression, α-syn oligomers were significantly decreased in the ileum, thoracic spinal cord, and midbrain. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that baicalein could prevent α-syn monomers from the oligomer formation in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein could prevent the progression of α-syn accumulation in PD mouse model partly by inhibiting formation of the α-syn oligomers.

  13. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis.

  14. Baicalein modulates stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16.

    PubMed

    Havermann, Susannah; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wätjen, Wim

    2016-09-01

    The flavonoid baicalein has been demonstrated to be an activator of the transcription factor Nrf2 in mammalian cell lines. We show that it further modulates the Nrf2 homolog SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and by this pathway mediates beneficial effects in the nematode: baicalein enhances the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal and sodium arsenite stress and dose-dependently prolongs the life span of the nematode. Using RNA interference against SKN-1 we were able to show that the induction of longevity and the enhanced stress-resistance were dependent on this transcription factor. DAF-16 (homolog to mammalian FOXO) is another pivotal aging-related transcription factor in the nematode. We demonstrate that DAF-16 does not participate in the beneficial effects of baicalein: since baicalein causes no increase in the nuclear translocation of DAF-16 (DAF-16::GFP expressing strain, incubation time: 1h) and it still induces longevity even in a DAF-16 loss-of-function strain, we conclude, that baicalein increases stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16. PMID:27370100

  15. Panax Notoginseng Saponins as a Novel Nature Stabilizer for Poorly Soluble Drug Nanocrystals: A Case Study with Baicalein.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanbiao; Ma, Yueqin; Xu, Junnan; Liu, Yang; Yue, Pengfei; Zheng, Qin; Hu, Pengyi; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at seeking a nature saponin-based stabilizer for drug nanosuspensions. A poorly soluble drug (baicalein, BCL) was used as a model drug. BCL nanosuspensions with particle size of 156 nm were prepared by means of homogenization and converted into BCL nanocrystals (BCL-NC) stabilized with panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). It was found that PNS was able to prevent the aggregation of BCL-NS during storage and improve the redispersibility of BCL-NC after freeze-drying and spray-drying, compared with polymer stabilizer PVPK30. The freeze-dried and spray-dried BCL-NC with PNS exhibited excellent performance as evidenced by scanning_electron_microscope (SEM) analysis. It was the reason that PNS possessed the interfacial property (41.69 ± 0.32 mN/m) and electrostatic effect (-40.1 ± 1.6 mV), which could easily adsorb onto the surface of hydrophobic BCL nanocrystals and prevent from its aggregation. It is concluded that PNS can be used as an effective nature stabilizer for production of drug nanocrystals. PMID:27589712

  16. Development and extraction optimization of baicalein and pinostrobin from Scutellaria violacea through response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Raju, Ravikumar; Palanisamy, Anbumathi; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a process that involves optimization of the amount of baicalein and pinostrobin from the hydro-methanolic extract of the leaves of Scutellaria violacea by response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods: The combinatorial influence of various extraction parameters on the extraction yield was investigated by adopting Box–Behnken experimental design. Preliminary experiments carried out based on the traditional one variable at a time optimization revealed four such operational parameters to play a crucial role by influencing the yield. These four process parameters at three levels were considered to obtain the Box–Behnken experimental design. Results: RSM based model fitted to the resulting experimental data suggested that 52.3% methanol/water, 12.46:1 solvent-solid ratio, 285 rpm agitation and 6.07 h of extraction time are the optimal conditions which yielded a maximized amount of baicalein and pinostrobin of 2.9 and 4.05 mg/g DM. Analysis of variance revealed a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.999 for baicalein and 0.994 for pinostrobin), signifying a good fit between the regression model (second order) and the experimental observations. Conclusion: The present study signifies that both the metabolites have been extracted from S. violacea for the first time. Further, this study developed an optimized extraction procedure to obtain maximum yield of the metabolites, which is unique and better than conventional extraction methodology. The operational parameters under optimized conditions accounts for the lowest cost in extraction process thus, providing an efficient, rapid and cost-effective method for isolation and scale up of these commercially vital flavonoids. PMID:26109758

  17. Baicalein Triggers Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and Enhances the Antileukemic Effect of Vincristine in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia CCRF-CEM Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chung, Ting-Wen; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for approximately 75% of childhood leukemia, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapy. Baicalein is an active flavonoid used in traditional Chinese medicine and has recently been found to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties. This study aims to investigate the molecular apoptotic mechanisms of baicalein in CCRF-CEM leukemic cells and to evaluate the combined therapeutic efficacy of baicalein with several commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in CCRF-CEM cells. Our results demonstrate that baicalein induces mitochondria-dependent cleavage of caspases-9 and -3 and PARP with concomitant decreases in IAP family proteins, survivin, and XIAP. Furthermore, our results present for the first time that baicalein triggers a convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways via the death receptor-caspase 8-tBid signaling cascade in CCRF-CEM cells. In addition, we also present for the first time that the combination of baicalein and vincristine results in a synergistic therapeutic efficacy. Overall, this combination strategy is recommended for future clinical trials in the treatment of pediatric leukemia owing to baicalein's beneficial effects in alleviating the vomiting, nausea, and skin rashes caused by chemotherapy. PMID:23476680

  18. Baicalein protects C6 glial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Cheol; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Cho, Eun-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid originally obtained from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to possess various biological properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the anti-oxidative activity of baicalein, its neuroprotective mechanisms have not been clearly established. The present study aimed to detect the effects of baicalein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage in C6 glial cells and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. The results demonstrated that baicalein effectively inhibited H2O2-induced growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We noted that Baicalein also attenuated the H2O2‑induced formation of comet tail, phosphorylation of p-γH2A.X, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP or ΔΨm), and changes to apoptosis‑related protein expression, which suggests that it can prevent H2O2‑induced cellular DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, treatment with baicalein effectively induced the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the protective effects of baicalein against H2O2‑induced DNA damage and apoptosis were abolished by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, and auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor. In addition, we noted that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein were attenuated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The findings of our present study suggest that baicalein enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the inhibition of ROS generation and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thus protecting C6 cells from H2O2-induced neuronal damage.

  19. Improvements in histological quality and signal retention following in situ hybridization in early chick embryos using plastic resin and recolorization.

    PubMed

    Sawitzke, A L; Chapman, S C; Bleyl, S B; Schoenwolf, G C

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel method that allows reliable detection of in situ hybridization signals in thin sections of plastic embedded embryos. Sections from plastic embedded embryos are thinner and have superior histological quality compared to paraffin, gelatin, agarose embedded sections or cryosections; however, plastic resin traditionally has not been used as an embedding medium following in situ hybridization because of loss of signal. When signal is detected with alkaline phosphatase and NBT/BCIP, the resulting colored precipitate is subject to fading when samples are exposed to organic compounds. The colored precipitate can be redeposited by repeating the NBT/BCIP reaction following plastic sectioning. This recolorization shows no loss of specificity, because signal is detected only where the anti-digoxigenin/alkaline phosphatase conjugated antibody is bound to the riboprobe. Strong signals can be detected without recolorization; however, weaker signals require the recolorization step. This novel method of re-depositing colored precipitate after processing and sectioning allows accurate determination of the location of gene expression and study of this expression in high quality histological sections of early chick embryos.

  20. [Preparation of baicalein using thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Wen, Jian-hui; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Pei, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Zhao, Lin-guo; Xiao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The reaction conditions of baicalin hydrolyzed into baicalein by a kind of thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase were studied in this paper. The beta-glucosidase could catalyze baicalin into baicalein well in the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer. The optimal enzyme activity was at 85 degrees C and pH 5.5. The enzyme was stable at the temperature less than 85 degrees C and pH range of 5-7.5. The maximum reaction rate V. and michaelis constant K. were 0.41 mmol x L(-1) x min(-1) and 3.31 mmol x L(-1) respectively. Different metal ions had different effects on the activity of enzyme. Na+ existing in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer had an activation effect on enzyme. The enzyme activity was enhanced by the concentrations of glucose below 0.6 mol x L(-1), and was gradually inhibited when monosaccharide concentration was over 0.6 mol x L(-1). When the monosaccharide concentration reached 1.2 mol x L(-1), the inhibition rate of enzyme activity was about 50%, which showed good glucose tolerance. The good reaction conditions through the experiment have been determined as follows, the substrate: enzyme dose was 1 g: 0.2 mL, acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5, reaction temperature 85 degrees C, reaction time 10 h, and the enzymatic hydrolyzation ratio could reach 97%. PMID:27141672

  1. [Preparation of baicalein using thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ping; Wen, Jian-hui; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Pei, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Zhao, Lin-guo; Xiao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The reaction conditions of baicalin hydrolyzed into baicalein by a kind of thermophilic and sugar-tolerant beta-glucosidase were studied in this paper. The beta-glucosidase could catalyze baicalin into baicalein well in the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer. The optimal enzyme activity was at 85 degrees C and pH 5.5. The enzyme was stable at the temperature less than 85 degrees C and pH range of 5-7.5. The maximum reaction rate V. and michaelis constant K. were 0.41 mmol x L(-1) x min(-1) and 3.31 mmol x L(-1) respectively. Different metal ions had different effects on the activity of enzyme. Na+ existing in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer had an activation effect on enzyme. The enzyme activity was enhanced by the concentrations of glucose below 0.6 mol x L(-1), and was gradually inhibited when monosaccharide concentration was over 0.6 mol x L(-1). When the monosaccharide concentration reached 1.2 mol x L(-1), the inhibition rate of enzyme activity was about 50%, which showed good glucose tolerance. The good reaction conditions through the experiment have been determined as follows, the substrate: enzyme dose was 1 g: 0.2 mL, acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5, reaction temperature 85 degrees C, reaction time 10 h, and the enzymatic hydrolyzation ratio could reach 97%.

  2. Baicalein, a Constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis, Reduces Glutamate Release and Protects Neuronal Cell Against Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Lu, Cheng Wei; Lin, Tzu Yu; Huang, Shu Kuei; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the health benefits of flavonoids, particularly their effects on neurodegenerative disease, is increasing. This study evaluated the role of baicalein, a flavonoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis, in glutamate release and glutamate neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. In the rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes), baicalein inhibits depolarization-induced glutamate release, and this phenomenon is prevented by chelating the extracellular Ca[Formula: see text] ions and blocking presynaptic Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channel activity. In slice preparations, whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that baicalein reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, without affecting their amplitude. In a kainic acid rat model, intraperitoneally administering baicalein to rats before the kainic acid intraperitoneal injection substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death, c-Fos expression, and the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin in the hippocampus. This study is the first to demonstrate that the natural compound baicalein inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal nerve terminals, and executes a protective action against kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in vivo. The findings enhance the understanding of baicalein's action in the brain, and suggest that this natural compound is valuable for treating brain disorders related to glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:27430911

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages via estrogen receptor and NF-κB-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaorui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Bingyao; Su, Lina; Cao, Wenjie; Zhang, Han; Gao, Xiumei

    2013-12-01

    Baicalein has been used for many years as a popular antiviral and antibacterial in China. Recent investigations revealed that baicalein also has anti-inflammatory activities. Our results indicated that baicalein increases ERE-luciferase activity in an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent manner when either ERα or ERβ were coexpressed in Hela cells. This study examined whether baicalein exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in RAW264.7 cells through an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway and through regulation of NF-ĸB activation. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells, baicalein exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression; NO production; as well as inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, PGE2, and TNF-α) production through an ER-dependent pathway. These effects are accompanied with the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-ĸB activation and IκBα phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that baicalein inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production via regulation of the NF-ĸB pathway and estrogen-like activity, suggesting that it may be useful for preventing inflammation-related diseases. PMID:23892998

  4. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  5. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators. PMID:26721313

  6. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators.

  7. Malpractice in dermatopathology: principles, risk mitigation, and opportunities for improved care for the histologic diagnosis of melanoma and pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    High, Whitney A

    2008-06-01

    Melanoma represents a substantial source of risk within dermatology and dermatopathology. This article seeks to provide general pathologists, dermatologists and dermatopathologists with an overview of the basics principles of medical malpractice litigation, a review of the essentials of reporting and the importance of expert consultation for melanoma and pigmented lesions, and suggestions to improve quality care and reduce medicolegal risk associated with melanoma and pigmented lesions. PMID:18436070

  8. Salidroside Improves Behavioral and Histological Outcomes and Reduces Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Chao Yu; Wu, Chun-Hu; Wang, Pei-Yi; Liao, Nien-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC), and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside_significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside_also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and apoptosis

  9. Radiation therapy for favorable histology Wilms tumor: Prevention of flank recurrence did not improve survival on National Wilms Tumor Studies 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, Norman E. . E-mail: norm@u.washington.edu; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Haase, Gerald M.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Thomas, Patrick; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) of patients with Wilms tumor of favorable histology prevented flank recurrence and thereby improved the survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: Recurrence and mortality risks were compared among groups of patients with Stage I-IV/favorable histology Wilms tumor enrolled in the third (n = 1,640) and fourth (n = 2,066) National Wilms Tumor Study Group studies. Results: Proportions of patients with flank recurrence were 0 of 513 = 0.0% for 20 Gy, 12 of 805 = 1.5% for 10 Gy, and 44 of 2,388 = 1.8% for no flank RT (p trend 0.001 adjusted for stage and doxorubicin); for intra-abdominal (including flank) recurrence they were 5 of 513 = 1.0%, 30 of 805 = 3.7%, and 58 of 2,388 = 2.4%, respectively (p trend = 0.02 adjusted). Survival percentages at 8 years after intra-abdominal recurrence were 0 of 5 = 0% for 20 Gy, 10 of 30 = 33% for 10 Gy, and 34 of 58 = 56% for no RT (p trend = 0.0001). NWTS-4 discontinued use of 20 Gy RT, and the 8-year flank recurrence risk increased to 2.1% from 1.0% on NWTS-3 (p = 0.013). However, event-free survival was unaltered (88% vs. 86%, p = 0.39), and overall survival was better (93.8% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.036) on NWTS-4. Conclusions: Partly because of lower postrecurrence mortality among nonirradiated patients, prevention of flank recurrence by RT did not improve survival. It is important to evaluate entire treatment policies with regard to long-term outcomes.

  10. Baicalein inhibits MMP-2 expression in human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Xin, Shaobin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Heng; Wei, Hailing

    2015-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by ovarian cancer play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of baicalein, which is isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, on human ovarian cancer cell lines by measuring MMP-2 expression, invasive potential, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Analysis of MMP-2 was carried out by western blots and RT-PCR. The invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells was determined using a Transwell invasion assay. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK activation was assessed by western blots. The results of the present study showed that baicalein reduced the expression of MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner and the invasion of ovarian cancer cells was also significantly suppressed by baicalein. We also found that baicalein reduced the activation of NF-κB signaling molecules; in addition, the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells were abolished with the treatment of the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. However, the addition of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 significantly reduced the activation of NF-κB; meanwhile, baicalein was shown to exert an inhibitory effect on p38 activation. Furthermore, the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells were significantly inhibited by SB203580. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells, possibly by the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway; these findings may provide insights into the potential of using baicalein as a therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  11. Effect of baicalein on the expression of VIP in extravillous cytotrophoblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuan; Fang, Jian-guo; Xiao, Juan; Liu, Tao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yan-li; Chen, Su-hua

    2013-06-01

    This paper aimed to study the ability of baicalein to block human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) and its effect on the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression in HCMV-infected EVT in vitro. A human trophoblast cell line (HPT-8) was chosen in this study. HCMV with 100 TCID50 was added into culture medium to infect HPT-8 cells, and then HCMV pp65 antigen was assayed by immunofluorescence staining. The infection status was determined by virus titration. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect virus DNA load in the infected cells. The expression of VIP mRNA and protein in the infected cells was measured by qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Concentration of VIP secreted in supernatants was determined by ELISA. Red-stained HCMV pp65 antigens were found in infected HPT-8 cells 48 h after infection. HCMV replicated in large quantity in infected HPT-8 cells 4 days after infection, reaching a peak at day 6 post-infection. After treatment with baicalein, virus DNA load in infected HPT-8 cells was decreased (P<0.05), and the levels of VIP mRNA and protein, and the concentration were raised to the normal (P>0.05). Our study suggested that baicalein exerts a positive effect on the VIP expression in HCMV-infected EVT at maternal-fetal interface.

  12. Suppression of Very Early Stage Of Adipogenesis by Baicalein, a Plant-Derived Flavonoid through Reduced Akt-C/EBPα-GLUT4 Signaling-Mediated Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein has been used as a Chinese medicine, and is an abundant plant flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables. Here, we examined the effects of baicalein in adipogenesis and investigated its molecular mechanism in adipocytes. Baicalein lowered the intracellular lipid accumulation and decreased the transcription levels of the adipocyte-specific genes in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was reduced, causing down-regulation of the intracellular lipid accumulation. These reductions were also observed even when baicalein was added in only early stage of adipogenesis (0–2 days) of 6-day-adipogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that baicalein decreased the binding level of C/EBPα protein to the promoter region of the GLUT4 gene. Phosphorylation of Akt at 1 h after the initiation of adipogenesis was inhibited by the treatment with baicalein. Inhibition during only the first 1.5 h after the initiation of adipogenesis by baicalein or an Akt inhibitor was enough to decrease the lipid contents in the cells undergoing adipocyte differentiation for 6 days. These results indicate that baicalein decreased the intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulation of glucose uptake via repression of Akt-C/EBPα-GLUT4 signaling in the very early stage of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:27669565

  13. Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, prevents lysophosphatidylcholine-induced cardiac injury by reducing reactive oxygen species production, calcium overload and apoptosis via MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a metabolite from membrane phospholipids, accumulates in the ischemic myocardium and plays an important role in the development of myocardial dysfunction ventricular arrhythmia. In this study, we investigated if baicalein, a major component of Huang Qui, can protect against lysoPC-induced cytotoxicity in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiomyocytes. Methods Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; ROS levels were assessed using DCFH-DA; and intracellular free calcium concentrations were assayed by spectrofluorophotometer. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by the flow cytometry assay and Hoechst staining. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs), which included the ERK, JNK, and p38, and the apoptotic mechanisms including Bcl-2/Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c pathways were examined by Western blot analysis. The activation of MAPKs was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results We found that lysoPC induced death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Baicalein could prevent lysoPC-induced cell death, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increase of intracellular calcium concentration in H9c2 cardiomyoctes. In addition, baicalein also inhibited lysoPC-induced apoptosis, with associated decreased pro-apoptotic Bax protein, increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, resulting in an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Finally, baicalein attenuated lysoPC-induced the expression of cytochrome c, casapase-3, casapase-9, and the phosphorylations of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. LysoPC-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 activations were inhibited by baicalein. Conclusions Baicalein protects cardiomyocytes from lysoPC-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS production, inhibition of calcium overload, and deactivations of MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25012390

  14. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  15. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  16. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  17. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  18. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets.

  19. Evaluation of baicalein, chitosan and usnic acid effect on Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei biofilm using a Cellavista device.

    PubMed

    Kvasnickova, Eva; Matatkova, Olga; Cejkova, Alena; Masak, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Biofilms are often the cause of chronic human infections and contaminate industrial or medical equipment. The traditional approach has been to use increasing concentrations of antibiotics, but microorganisms rapidly develop multiresistance to them. Therefore, we investigated the use of natural substances as an alternative solution. The quantification of the biofilms based on the colonized areas was measured using a Cellavista automatic microscope equipped with image analysis software. Using the Cellavista device brings new possibilities for qualification and quantification of sessile cells. In our study, this feature was documented by exploring the antifungal/anti-biofilm activity of amphotericin B, baicalein, chitosan and usnic acid against yeast biofilm formation. The influence of these substances on the formation and eradication of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei biofilms was studied in 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates. While amphotericin B was not very efficient, the use of baicalein and chitosan, even in minimum inhibitory concentrations, was found to rapidly decrease the colonized areas in the wells. The usnic acid did not display any significant antibiofilm properties even at concentration 300μgml(-1). Our results propose that Cellavista is a promising tool for the study of yeast biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobial agents. PMID:26362224

  20. Evaluation of baicalein, chitosan and usnic acid effect on Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei biofilm using a Cellavista device.

    PubMed

    Kvasnickova, Eva; Matatkova, Olga; Cejkova, Alena; Masak, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Biofilms are often the cause of chronic human infections and contaminate industrial or medical equipment. The traditional approach has been to use increasing concentrations of antibiotics, but microorganisms rapidly develop multiresistance to them. Therefore, we investigated the use of natural substances as an alternative solution. The quantification of the biofilms based on the colonized areas was measured using a Cellavista automatic microscope equipped with image analysis software. Using the Cellavista device brings new possibilities for qualification and quantification of sessile cells. In our study, this feature was documented by exploring the antifungal/anti-biofilm activity of amphotericin B, baicalein, chitosan and usnic acid against yeast biofilm formation. The influence of these substances on the formation and eradication of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei biofilms was studied in 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates. While amphotericin B was not very efficient, the use of baicalein and chitosan, even in minimum inhibitory concentrations, was found to rapidly decrease the colonized areas in the wells. The usnic acid did not display any significant antibiofilm properties even at concentration 300μgml(-1). Our results propose that Cellavista is a promising tool for the study of yeast biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobial agents.

  1. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  2. Baicalein prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells via inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation and up-regulation of DJ-1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao; Pu, Xiao-Ping; Du, Guan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanism of cell damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a dopamine analog which specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Baicalein has been previously reported to have potential in the treatment of PD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of baicalein against 6-OHDA injury in SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that baicalein significantly alleviated alterations of mitochondrial redox activity and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by 6-OHDA in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y cells compared with vehicle group. Futhermore, baicalein decreased the production of ROS and upregulated the DJ-1 protein expression in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, baicalein also inhibited ROS production and lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 6.32 ± 0.03 μM) in rat brain mitochondia. In summary, the underlying mechanisms of baicalein against 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may involve inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation and upregulation of DJ-1 protein expression. PMID:24288000

  3. No improvement of functional and histological outcome after application of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 agonist CHPG in a model of endothelin-1-induced focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Riek-Burchardt, M; Henrich-Noack, P; Reymann, K G

    2007-04-01

    The role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in neurodegeneration is as yet unclear as mGluR1/5 antagonists and agonists yielded contradictory effects in different disease models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potency of the selective mGluR5 agonist, (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), in endothelin-1(ET-1)-induced focal ischemia in rats. In addition to the effect of CHPG on the histologically defined infarct size, we studied its influence on sensorimotor impairments in the ladder rung walking test at late time points up to 4 weeks after the ischemic insult. Rats were treated i.c.v. with an injection of 1mM CHPG beginning 10min after the application of ET-1. Histological analyses 4 weeks after ET-1-induced ischemia demonstrated only a small, insignificant reduction in infarct size after CHPG application. In accordance with this result, there were no significant effects of the used CHPG concentration on sensorimotor impairments in the ladder rung walking test. In conclusion, our data point to the restricted value of CHPG as a neuroprotectant after transient focal ischemia and to the importance of evaluating neuroprotective effects at late post-ischemic time points. PMID:17239461

  4. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 8-hydroxypiperidinylmethyl-baicalein (BA-j) as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor in monkey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Min; Sun, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Xuan; Ju, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ai-Yun; Li, Jing; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a Mannich base derivative of baicalein (BA) isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor. 12 metabolites of BA-j in the monkey urine were identified by LC-MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The major metabolic pathways of BA-j, by capturing oxygen free radicals ((.)O2(-)) and releasing peroxides (H2O2), are degraded into active intermediate metabolite dihydroflavonol, then into main metabolite M179 by Shiff reaction, second metabolite M264 by sulfation, trace amount of metabolite M559 by glucuronidation UGT1A9, and without metabolism by CYP3A4. The metabolic process of BA-j by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related with BA-j selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Pharmacokinetics of 10mg/kg oral BA-j in monkey by HPLC-UV was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with t1/2(β) of 4.2h, Cmax 25.4μM at 2h, and Vd 12.6L, meaning the drug distributing widely in body fluids with no special selectivity to certain tissues, and being able to permeate through the blood-brain barrier. The protein binding rate of BA-j was 91.8%. BA-j has excellent druggability for oral administration or injection, and it may be developed into a novel anti-cancer drug as a selective CDK1 inhibitor.

  5. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 8-hydroxypiperidinylmethyl-baicalein (BA-j) as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor in monkey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Min; Sun, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Xuan; Ju, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ai-Yun; Li, Jing; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a Mannich base derivative of baicalein (BA) isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor. 12 metabolites of BA-j in the monkey urine were identified by LC-MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The major metabolic pathways of BA-j, by capturing oxygen free radicals ((.)O2(-)) and releasing peroxides (H2O2), are degraded into active intermediate metabolite dihydroflavonol, then into main metabolite M179 by Shiff reaction, second metabolite M264 by sulfation, trace amount of metabolite M559 by glucuronidation UGT1A9, and without metabolism by CYP3A4. The metabolic process of BA-j by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related with BA-j selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Pharmacokinetics of 10mg/kg oral BA-j in monkey by HPLC-UV was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with t1/2(β) of 4.2h, Cmax 25.4μM at 2h, and Vd 12.6L, meaning the drug distributing widely in body fluids with no special selectivity to certain tissues, and being able to permeate through the blood-brain barrier. The protein binding rate of BA-j was 91.8%. BA-j has excellent druggability for oral administration or injection, and it may be developed into a novel anti-cancer drug as a selective CDK1 inhibitor. PMID:26474673

  6. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  7. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-liang; Dong, Bi-ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-hong; Hou, Chang-chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26792984

  8. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-Liang; Dong, Bi-Ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-Hong; Hou, Chang-Chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People's Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.

  9. Salaries in histology.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2008-04-01

    An analysis of histology salaries from the last 4 national surveys conducted by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists is presented. The regional variations within and between years for histology salaries presented in the last 4 national surveys of medical laboratory specialties are not statistically significant. Local variations greater than the national variations reflect the preponderant effect of local supply and demand over regional characteristics. Salaries by hospitals are significantly different only between 2 size categories and the supervisors' salary. There is no correlation between the salary increase for any histology position in any one year and the vacancy level in the previous year. On the other hand, the correlation between histotechnicians' salaries and both the cost of living and the median income are significant, as well as between the latter and the supervisors' salary. The histotechnologists' salaries are significantly correlated with the consumer price index but not with the inflation rate. A survey of histology salaries in foreign countries was also undertaken and compared with salaries in the United States. National salaries rank close to the general average for 10 foreign countries when expressed as ratios with the personal gross domestic product or with the countries' minimum wage. For the midpoint salary ranges, the United States ranks fourth after Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia, the latter 3 countries with structured pay rates adjusted to local costs of living in contrast with United States' salary characteristics. Histology salaries rest on negotiations within each employer's salary structure and fluctuate according to license level, documented studies, special training(s), years of experience, references, and the ability to negotiate, where each side tries to take advantage of the other. The result is a heterogeneous and chaotic salary situation driven by personal and local needs, where the histology worker usually

  10. Effects of flavonoid-induced oxidative stress on anti-H5N1 influenza a virus activity exerted by baicalein and biochanin A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Different flavonoids are known to interfere with influenza A virus replication. Recently, we showed that the structurally similar flavonoids baicalein and biochanin A inhibit highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus replication by different mechanisms in A549 lung cells. Here, we investigated the effects of both compounds on H5N1-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and the role of ROS formation during H5N1 replication. Findings Baicalein and biochanin A enhanced H5N1-induced ROS formation in A549 cells and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Suppression of ROS formation induced by baicalein and biochanin A using the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine strongly increased the anti-H5N1 activity of both compounds in A549 cells but not in macrophages. Conclusions These findings emphasise that flavonoids induce complex pharmacological actions some of which may interfere with H5N1 replication while others may support H5N1 replication. A more detailed understanding of these actions and the underlying structure-activity relationships is needed to design agents with optimised anti-H5N1 activity. PMID:24958200

  11. Improved method using a bubble-free adhesion technique for the preparation of semi-serial undecalcified histologic sections containing dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kihara, A; Morimoto, K; Suetsugu, T

    1989-01-01

    The preparation technique, with the minimum of artifacts for the semi-serial undecalcified histologic sections containing dental implants, is presented in this study. The sections enabled finer light-microscopic observations to be made. A formalin-fixed tissue block containing a dental implant was dehydrated in ethanol and acetone, and then embedded in polyester resin under 76 cm Hg reduced pressure. The embedded block was trimmed by a cutter and ground by abrasive paper. In a 1.5 Kg f/cm2 pressurized chamber, its polished surface was bonded to a methacrylate slide by means of ethylcyanoacrylate used in an adhesion loading device. This meant that no bubbles could arise in the interface between the slide and the block. The slide-block was then attached to an adsorptive specimen-holder of a hard-tissue cutting machine and cut to a thickness of approximately 50 microns, with use of a diamond blade. The slide-section was ground to 15-40 microns with wet-type abrasive paper and film on a polishing table. Etching with weak acid and surface staining with toluidine blue and methylene blue/basic fuchsin/light green were performed on the section. PMID:2701107

  12. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  13. Gastritis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice.

  14. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  15. Histological improvement in salivary gland along with effector memory Th17-1 cell reduction in a primary Sjogren's syndrome patient with dermatomyositis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by R-CHOP therapy.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomohiro; Mizokami, Akinari; Nakashima, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Hideki; Chiwata, Masahiko; Daisuke, Niino; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    We treated a 45-year-old Japanese woman with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) complicated with dermatomyositis (DM) followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of fever, weight loss and peritoneal lymphadenopathy. The histological examination of her lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was then treated with 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) therapy, which resulted in histological and functional improvement of her salivary glands. Of note, the percentage of effector memory Th17-1 (CD3+CD4+CD45RA-CCR7-CXCR3+CCR6+) cells in the peripheral blood was decreased after the R-CHOP treatment. This case suggests that an altered Th17-1 cell subset by B-cell depletion therapy is critical for the improvement of tissue damage in patients with SS, and the case suggests that clinicians should consider measuring the effector memory Th-subsets to predict the disease activity in SS patients. PMID:26960952

  16. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  17. GRAPHIE: graph based histology image explorer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Histology images comprise one of the important sources of knowledge for phenotyping studies in systems biology. However, the annotation and analyses of histological data have remained a manual, subjective and relatively low-throughput process. Results We introduce Graph based Histology Image Explorer (GRAPHIE)-a visual analytics tool to explore, annotate and discover potential relationships in histology image collections within a biologically relevant context. The design of GRAPHIE is guided by domain experts' requirements and well-known InfoVis mantras. By representing each image with informative features and then subsequently visualizing the image collection with a graph, GRAPHIE allows users to effectively explore the image collection. The features were designed to capture localized morphological properties in the given tissue specimen. More importantly, users can perform feature selection in an interactive way to improve the visualization of the image collection and the overall annotation process. Finally, the annotation allows for a better prospective examination of datasets as demonstrated in the users study. Thus, our design of GRAPHIE allows for the users to navigate and explore large collections of histology image datasets. Conclusions We demonstrated the usefulness of our visual analytics approach through two case studies. Both of the cases showed efficient annotation and analysis of histology image collection. PMID:26330277

  18. Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Fanian, Ferial; Lihoreau, Thomas; Jeudy, Adeline; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Robin, Sophie; Courderot-Masuyer, Carol; Tauzin, Hélène; Lafforgue, Christine; Haftek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc.) but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]). A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years), with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10) and electron microscopy (n=10). Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self-assessment questionnaire were done. Results In vitro analysis showed increases in hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, and MMP9 content along with an improvement of the migratory capacity of the fibroblasts on the treated side. Electron microscopy evaluations showed a clear dermal remodeling in relation with the activation of fibroblast activity. A significant improvement of different clinical signs associated with skin aging and the satisfaction of the subjects were observed, correlated with an improvement of the sagging cheek. Conclusion Mécano-Stimulation is a noninvasive and safe technique delivered by flaps microbeats at various frequencies, which can significantly improve the skin

  19. Role of Histologic Inflammation in the Natural History of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepa T; Moss, Alan C; Odze, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    The goals of therapy for ulcerative colitis have moved from symptom improvement to mucosal healing, and finally histologic resolution. The natural history of histologic inflammation in ulcerative colitis progresses from initial cellular infiltration to architectural disruption and recovery on medical therapy. Many studies have linked histologic changes to clinical outcomes, providing prognostic value to histologic abnormalities. This review covers all these components. PMID:27633592

  20. Validation of histology image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaii, Rushin; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Yaffe, Martin; Martel, Anne L.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to validate an image registration pipeline used for histology image alignment. In this work a set of histology images are registered to their correspondent optical blockface images to make a histology volume. Then multi-modality fiducial markers are used to validate the alignment of histology images. The fiducial markers are catheters perfused with a mixture of cuttlefish ink and flour. Based on our previous investigations this fiducial marker is visible in medical images, optical blockface images and it can also be localized in histology images. The properties of this fiducial marker make it suitable for validation of the registration techniques used for histology image alignment. This paper reports on the accuracy of a histology image registration approach by calculation of target registration error using these fiducial markers.

  1. Histology without xylene.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J; Peshkov, Maxim V

    2009-08-01

    After the hazardous effects of xylene became indisputable in the 1970s, many potential substitutes became available, some with as many if not more hazards. This article discusses the inadequacy of 5 vegetable oils as substitutes, as well as the characteristics of 22 D-limonene-based substitutes, all less effective in their chemical role, some capable of inducing health problems, and costing more than twice as much as xylene. Some of the 35 alkane-based substitutes discussed are effective for tissue processing, less toxic, with a cost about the same as xylene, but are not very effective for dewaxing and other staining tasks. Isopropanol (2-propanol) alone or mixed with molten paraffin is a technically acceptable and cost-effective substitute for xylene for tissue processing, but in this study, we demonstrate that the best clearing agents from the sectioning quality and diagnostic value point of view, with automated or manual protocols, are mixtures of 5:1 and 2:1 isopropanol and mineral oil, followed by undiluted mineral oil, all at 50 degrees C, making them a safer and cheaper substitute than xylene. Using a 1.7% dishwasher soap aqueous solution at 90 degrees C to dewax before staining and oven drying the stained sections before coverslipping will eliminate xylene from the staining tasks. Tissue processors retorts and conduits can be dewaxed with a 2% solution of a strong glassware laboratory detergent. These 4 methodologies will make the histology laboratory xylene-free but, due to the natural resistance to change, many histotechs will be reluctant to adopt them if they think that their technical expertise could be jeopardized, and the only way these changes will succeed is if the pathologists, as stewards of the histology laboratory, commit to their implementation.

  2. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Methods Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. Results The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. Conclusion The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine. PMID:26045664

  3. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  4. Histologic features of nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Anolik, Rachel B; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Minakawa, Satoko; Nguyen, Jennifer; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-06-01

    Nail cosmetics and adornments are widely used in today's society. However, their histologic features are not well characterized. Routine histologic examination and polarization of nail plate specimens in our academic dermatopathology practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania revealed 3 distinct histologic patterns of nail cosmetics: a hyperpigmented pattern with diffuse fine granular material, a layered pattern with a single linear band of polarizable material, and a hyperpigmented pattern with larger granules containing flecks of polarizable material. In our experience, submitting clinicians rarely indicate the patient's use of nail polish or other enhancements. Recognition of the histologic features of nail cosmetics is important to prevent confusion with dermatoses affecting the nail unit, and it will help dermatopathologists render more accurate diagnoses. PMID:22452953

  5. Colorectal tumors: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Giovanni; Messerini, Luca; Gafà, Roberta; Risio, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Epithelial colorectal tumors are common pathologic entities. Their histology report should be comprehensive of a series of pathologic parameters essential for the correct clinical management of the patients. Diagnostic histologic criteria of adenomatous, serrated, inflammatory, and hamartomatous polyps and of polyposis syndromes are discussed. In addition, the pathologic features of early and advanced colorectal cancer are described and a checklist is given. Finally, molecular prognostic and predictive factors currently employed in the treatment of colorectal cancer are discussed.

  6. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  7. [Histologic findings in kidney tumors].

    PubMed

    Hora, M; Ouda, Z; Schejbalová, E; Chudácek, Z; Mukensnabl, P

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a group of 304 adult patients (with the exception of one child with a Wilms tumour) from 1988-95 with the diagnosis of a primary renal tumour treated by surgery and subsequently subjected to histological examination. The tumours were in 83.9% clear renal cell tumours (Grawitz carcinoma), 4.3% were papillary carcinomas, 3.3% renal cortical adenomas, 3.9% oncocytomas and 2.0% non-differentiated carcinomas, 0.7% angiomyolipomas, 0.7% chromophobe cell renal carcinomas, 0.7% secondaries (carcinoma of the breast and testis), 0.7% multilocular cysts, one case each (0.3%) Wilms tumour, malignant lymphoma, necrotic histologically not classifiable tumour. The authors give a more detailed account of multilocular cystic RCC (which accounts for 5.9% Grawitz tumours), papillary tumours, chromophobe cell renal carcinoma, oncoytoma and angiomyolipoma. The authors correlate briefly the histological findings with preoperative graphic examinations. They are very sceptical as regards assessment of the histological type of tumour from preoperative graphic examination (with the exception of angiomyolipoma). Finally the authors suggest classification of renal expansions from the urologists aspect-in the first place from preoperative graphic examinations for non-neoplastic lesions (in particular cysts and hypertrophy of the columna Bertini), parenchymatous tumours and tumours of the renal pelvis and secondly (mainly in parenchymatous tumours) histological classification is taken into account.

  8. The enlightenments from ITMIG Consensus on WHO histological classification of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: refined definitions, histological criteria, and reporting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Fang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification of the thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) has been criticized for poor interobserver reproducibility or inconsistencies in the routine pathological diagnosis. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) panel achieved an agreement to maintain the widely accepted WHO framework but to refine historic definitions and histological criteria, and further introduce some new terms with the aim to improve interobserver reproducibility. This review addresses the enlightenments we can get from the ITMIG consensus on the WHO histological classification of the thymoma and TC, which may be helpful for most pathologists. PMID:27114842

  9. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  10. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  11. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  12. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  13. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  14. Barrett's oesophagus diagnostic criteria: endoscopy and histology.

    PubMed

    Naini, Bita V; Chak, Amitabh; Ali, Meer Akbar; Odze, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    This review summarizes the endoscopic and histologic features of Barrett's oesophagus(BO) as well as some of the recent advancements and controversies. BO represents metaplastic conversion of normal squamous epithelium of tubular oesophagus to columnar epithelium. The diagnosis of BO requires a combination of endoscopic and histopathologic findings. There is worldwide controversy regarding the exact definition of BO, particularly with regard to the requirement to histologically identify goblet cells in biopsies. The presence and detectability of goblet cells might vary depending on a variety of factors and is subject to sampling error. Therefore, a systematic biopsy sampling with sufficient number of biopsies is currently recommended to limit the likelihood of a false negative result for detection of goblet cells. There are both endoscopic and pathologic challenges in evaluating gastro-oesophageal junction biopsies in patients with irregular Z lines to determine the exact location of the sample (i.e., oesophagus versus stomach). Recently, several novel endoscopic techniques have been developed to improve BO detection. However, none have been validated yet in clinical practice. The surveillance of patients with BO relies on histologic evaluation of dysplasia. However, there are significant pathologic limitations and diagnostic variability in evaluating the presence and grading of BO dysplasia, particularly with regard to the more recently recognized non-intestinal types of dysplasia. All BO dysplasia samples should be reviewed by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist to confirm the diagnosis. Finally, it is important to emphasize that close interaction between gastroenterologists and pathologists is essential to ensure proper evaluation of endoscopic biopsies in order to optimize the surveillance and clinical management of patients with BO.

  15. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  16. Baicalein induces apoptosis and reduces inflammation in LPS-stimulated keratinocytes by blocking the activation of NF-κB: implications for alleviating oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Luo, H; Yang, L; Li, Y

    2016-01-01

    ic inflammatory diseases, including OLP, involves in the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Baicalein (BAI) is an alcohol soluble flavonoid known for its anti-inflammatory effect. However, its effectiveness on keratinocytes in OLP remains unclear. In the present study, we examined inflammation in oral mucosa tissue from OLP patients. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed denser subepithelial lymphocytes infiltration compared to the normal oral mucosa epithelium. TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated in oral mucosa tissue of OLP patients. We next stimulated humans keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create an inflammatory environment like that in the OLP tissue and assessed the effect of BAI on OLP and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our results showed that BAI treatment inhibited the level of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by LPS. However, the cells apoptosis was promoted after BAI treatment. Furthermore, BAI not only inhibited LPS-induced p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but also NF-κB activation by reducing IκBα phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of NFκB-p65 and NFκB-p50 from cytoplasm to nucleus in keratinocytes. Our findings suggest that BAI inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines by negatively regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway under LPS simulation in HaCaT cells. PMID:27453273

  17. Analysis of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin in Scutellariae radix and its preparation by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with 1-butyl-3-methylimizolium tetrafluoborate ionic liquid as additive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huige; Tian, Kan; Tang, Jianghong; Qi, Shengda; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-10-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) ionic liquid (IL) as additive was developed for the analysis of baicalin, wogonin and baicalein in Scutellariae radix and its preparation. After conducting a series of optimizations, baseline separation was obtained for the analytes within 5min under the optimum conditions (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.88% (m/v) ethyl acetate 0.8% (v/v) butan-1-ol 0.2% (v/v) and the buffer composition were 25% acetonitrile (v/v), 7.5 mM BMIM-BF4 and 10 mM NaH2PO4, pH 8.2, applied voltage 17.5 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method has been successfully applied to the determination and quantification of the analytes in the extracts of S. radix (cooked), S. radix (raw) and Qingfeiyihuowan which was the preparation including S. radix. PMID:16952364

  18. The effects of the flavonoid baicalein and osmolytes on the Mg 2+ accelerated aggregation/fibrillation of carboxymethylated bovine 1SS-alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Bomhoff, Greg; Sloan, Kirk; McLain, Corey; Gogol, Edward P; Fisher, Mark T

    2006-09-01

    Many protein conformational diseases arise when proteins form alternative stable conformations, resulting in aggregation and accumulation of the protein as fibrillar deposits, or amyloids. Interestingly, numerous proteins implicated in amyloid protein formation show similar structural and functional properties. Given this similarity, we tested the notion that carboxymethylated bovine alpha-lactalbumin (1SS-alpha-lac) could serve as a general amyloid fibrillation/aggregation model system. Like most amyloid forming systems, Mg2+ ions accelerate 1SS-alpha-lac amyloid fibril formation. While osmolytes such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and sucrose enhanced thioflavin T detected aggregation, a mixture of trehalose and TMAO substantially inhibited aggregation. Most importantly however, the flavonoid, baicalein, known to inhibit alpha-synuclein amyloid fibril formation, also inhibits 1SS-alpha-lac amyloid with the same apparent efficacy. These data suggest that the easily obtainable 1SS-alpha-lac protein can serve as a general amyloid model and that some small molecule amyloid inhibitors may function successfully with many different amyloid systems. PMID:16530158

  19. Mitigating role of baicalein on lysosomal enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme status during lung carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Naveenkumar, Chandrashekar; Raghunandakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Binuclara, John; Rajan, Balan; Premkumar, Thandavamoorthy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2014-06-01

    The lungs mainly serve as a primary site for xenobiotic metabolism and constitute an important defense mechanism against inhalation of carcinogens. Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice exposed to tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to mitigate pulmonary carcinogenesis. Here, we report that altered activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin-D, cathepsin-B, acid phosphatase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, and β-D-N-acetyl glucosaminidase), phase I biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), and phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase, and DT-diaphorase) were observed in the B(a)P-induced mice. Treatment with BE significantly restored back the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. Moreover, assessment of lysosomal abnormalities by transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that BE treatment effectively counteract B(a)P-induced oxidative damages. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analysis of CYP1A1 revealed that BE treatment effectively negate B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of CYP1A1. Further analysis of scanning electron microscopic studies in lung was carried out to substantiate the anticarcinogenic effect of BE. The overall data suggest that BE treatment significantly inhibits lysosomal and microsomal dysfunction, thus revealing its potent anticarcinogenic effect.

  20. Coeliac disease: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Ceppa, Paola; Tavani, Enrico; Vindigni, Carla; Volta, Umberto

    2011-03-01

    To this day intestinal biopsy is justly considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD). The aim of the authors in setting up these guidelines was to assist pathologists in formulating a more precise morphological evaluation of a duodenal biopsy in the light of clinical and laboratory data, to prepare histological samples with correctly oriented biopsies and in the differential diagnosis with other pathological entities and complications of the disease. A further intention was to promote the conviction for the need of a close collaborative relationship between different specialists namely the concept of a "multidisciplinary team".

  1. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context *

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  2. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  3. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  4. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  5. [Histological aspects of posttraumatic regeneration].

    PubMed

    Truupyl'd Aiu

    1976-02-01

    A number of histological aspects (regeneration capacity, origins of regeneration, means of reparation) are discussed on the example of the reparative regeneration of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is found to possess high regeneration capacity after a traumatic injury of the organ. Realization of this capacity is dependent on general and local conditions, the character and the volume of the injury and the degree of involvment of cambial zones being of substantial significance. Among these zones are the glomerular zone and the external part of the bundle zone, whose proliferating cells are the source of the reparative regeneration of the cortical substance. The reparation of the functioning mass of the adrenal cortex is performed by the type of regenerative hypertrophy or the reparative regeneration depending on the character of the trauma. After the first type, the division of cells and their differentiation occur within the limits of the available structural elements, after the second type- of the newly formed ones. Both types are evolutionally conditioned and are definitely similar eather to postnatal growth and physiological regeneration (regenerative hypertrophy), or to the embryonic histogenesis of the definitive adrenal cortex (reparative regeneration).

  6. Evaluation of Histologic Cutpoints for Treatment Response in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Cotton, Cary C.; Green, Daniel J.; Hughes, Julia T.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim No consensus exists on the definition of successful treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal histologic cutpoint to define successful treatment of EoE by assessing rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the University of North Carolina EoE Clinicopathologic Database between 2006 and 2013. Rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were determined, as were post-treatment eosinophil counts. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for symptomatic and endoscopic response at several possible eosinophil count cutpoints (eos/hpf). Predictors of response were also assessed. Results Of 224 treatments in 199 patients, 76% were associated with symptomatic improvement, 68% with endoscopic improvement, and 60% with both. Of treatments that resulted in a post-treatment count of <15 eos/hpf, 90% were associated with an endoscopic response, 88% with a symptomatic response, and 81% with both symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Using a <15 eos/hpf threshold, the area under the curves (AUCs) were 0.70, 0.78, and 0.75 for symptomatic, endoscopic, and symptomatic/endoscopic responses, respectively. Lower histologic cut-points did not result in a substantial gain in response, but decreased the AUC. Conclusion In this large cohort of EoE patients, rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were generally associated with histologic improvement. A histologic cutoff for treatment response of <15 eos/hpf may balance clinical outcomes and test performance. PMID:27110513

  7. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  8. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  9. Histologic chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Holzman, Claudia; Lin, Ximin; Senagore, Patricia; Chung, Hwan

    2007-10-01

    Inconsistent findings linking placental histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) and preterm delivery may result from variations in HCA definition, population studied, and exclusion criteria. This analysis from the 1998-2004 Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (five Michigan communities) includes the first 1,053 subcohort women (239 preterm, 814 term) with completed placental assessments. Multiple HCA definitions were constructed by 1) varying polymorphonuclear leukocytes/high-powered field thresholds and placenta components included and 2) using polymorphonuclear leukocyte characteristics to assign low/high maternal, fetal inflammation stage and grade. In African Americans, HCA was associated with preterm delivery before 35 weeks. The effect size was modest for polymorphonuclear leukocytes/high-powered field thresholds of greater than 10 and greater than 30 (odds ratios (ORs) = 0.8 and 2.0); larger for greater than 100 (OR = 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 7.1); strengthened after excluding medically indicated preterm deliveries (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 2.0, 11.8); and strongest for high maternal/high fetal HCA (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1). These latter HCA criteria also produced the largest effect size in Whites/others (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.3, 26.9). Among preterm deliveries before 35 weeks excluding those medically indicated, 12% of Whites/others and 55% of African Americans had high maternal HCA. The authors conclude that HCA definition, exclusion criteria, and race/ethnicity influence the HCA-preterm delivery association and that HCA contributes to preterm delivery-related ethnic disparity. PMID:17625222

  10. Histological evaluation in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    DeRoche, Tom C; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Xiuli

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes diagnostic problems, challenges and advances in ulcerative colitis (UC). It emphasizes that, although histopathological examination plays a major role in the diagnosis and management of UC, it should always be interpreted in the context of clinical, endoscopic, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis requires knowledge of the classic morphological features of UC, as well as a number of atypical pathological presentations that may cause mis-classification of the disease process, either in resection or biopsy specimens. These atypical pathological presentations include rectal sparing and patchiness of disease at initial presentation of UC in pediatric patients or in the setting of medically treated UC, cecal or ascending colon inflammation in left-sided UC, and backwash ileitis in patients with severe ulcerative pancolitis. Loosely formed microgranulomas, with pale foamy histiocytes adjacent to a damaged crypt or eroded surface, should not be interpreted as evidence of Crohn's disease. Indeterminate colitis should only be used in colectomy specimens as a provisional pathological diagnosis. Patients with UC are at risk for the development of dysplasia and carcinoma; optimal outcomes in UC surveillance programs require familiarity with the diagnostic criteria and challenges relating to UC-associated dysplasia and malignancy. Colon biopsy from UC patients should always be evaluated for dysplasia based on cytological and architectural abnormalities. Accurate interpretation and classification of dysplasia in colon biopsy from UC patients as sporadic adenoma or UC-related dysplasia [flat, adenoma-like, or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM)] requires clinical and endoscopic correlation. Isolated polypoid dysplastic lesions are considered to be sporadic adenoma if occurring outside areas of histologically proven colitis, or adenoma-like dysplasia if occurring in the diseased segment. Recent data suggest that such lesions may be treated

  11. Structure Function Estimated From Histological Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William D

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic scattering is determined by not only the properties of individual scatterers but also the correlation among scatterer positions. The role of scatterer spatial correlation is significant for dense medium, but has not been fully understood. The effect of scatterer spatial correlation may be modeled by the structure function as a frequency-dependent factor in the backscatter coefficient (BSC) expression. The structure function has been previously estimated from the BSC data. The aim of this study is to estimate the structure function from histology to test if the acoustically estimated structure function is indeed caused by the scatterer spatial distribution. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections from dense cell pellet biophantoms were digitized. The scatterer positions were determined manually from the histological images. The structure function was calculated from the extracted scatterer positions. The structure function obtained from histology showed reasonable agreement in the shape but not in the amplitude, compared with the structure function previously estimated from the backscattered data. Fitting a polydisperse structure function model to the histologically estimated structure function yielded relatively accurate cell radius estimates ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, two types of mouse tumors that have similar cell size and shape but distinct cell spatial distributions were studied, where the backscattered data were shown to be related to the cell spatial distribution through the structure function estimated from histology. In conclusion, the agreement between acoustically estimated and histologically estimated structure functions suggests that the acoustically estimated structure function is related to the scatterer spatial distribution.

  12. Baicalein inhibits pulmonary carcinogenesis-associated inflammation and interferes with COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in-vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrashekar, Naveenkumar; Selvamani, Asokkumar; Subramanian, Raghunandhakumar; Pandi, Anandakumar; Thiruvengadam, Devaki

    2012-05-15

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) on inflammatory cytokines, which is in line with tumor invasion factors and antioxidant defensive system during benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (50 mg/kg body weight) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. After experimental period, increased levels of total and differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were observed. Accompanied by marked increase in immature mast cell by toluidine blue staining and mature mast cell by safranin–alcian blue staining in B(a)P-induced lung cancer bearing animals. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also found to be significantly increased in lung cancer bearing animals. B(a)P-exposed mice lung exhibits activated expression of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B as confirmed by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis. Administration of BE (12 mg/kg body weight) significantly counteracted all the above deleterious changes. Moreover, assessment of tumor invasion factors on protein levels by immunoblot and mRNA expression levels by RT-PCR revealed that BE treatment effectively negates B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cyclo-oxygenase-2. Further analysis of lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydro-peroxides and antioxidants such as glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in lung tissue was carried out to substantiate the antioxidant effect of BE. The chemotherapeutic effect observed in the present study is attributed to the potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential by BE against pulmonary carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► BE treatment protects from inflammatory cells and mast-cells accumulation in lungs. ► BE altered the expressions of TNF

  13. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-C. . E-mail: yc3270@tmu.edu.tw; Chow, J.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Wu, C.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2006-10-15

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE

  14. Term histologic chorioamnionitis: a heterogeneous condition.

    PubMed

    Conti, Nathalie; Torricelli, Michela; Voltolini, Chiara; Vannuccini, Silvia; Clifton, Vicky L; Bloise, Enrico; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-05-01

    A histologic response of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is defined as an intrauterine inflammatory condition characterized by acute granulocyte infiltration into the fetal-maternal or the fetal tissues. Prevalence of HCA is inversely correlated with gestational age, occurring in 50% of preterm birth and in up to 20% of deliveries at term. Regardless of these standard definitions, understanding HCA is challenging as it reflects a heterogeneous condition. A histologic response of HCA from term placentas often does not correspond to a clinical presentation; in this context, the present review aims to analyze main characteristics of this condition, in particular focusing on mechanisms and birth outcomes. PMID:25770845

  15. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology.

    PubMed

    de Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e., skeletonized or "dry bone") tissue samples. This review discusses these differences and describes how they affect the histological analysis of paleopathological specimens. First, we provide a summary of some general challenges related to the histological analysis of palaeopathological specimens. Second, the reader is introduced in bone tissue histology and bone tissue dynamics. The remainder of the paper is dedicated to the diagnostic value of dry bone histology. Its value and limitations are illustrated by comparing several well-studied paleopathological cases with similar contemporary, clinical cases. This review illustrates that due to post-mortem loss of soft tissue, a limited number of disorders display pathognomonic features during histological analysis of skeletonized human remains. In the remainder of cases, histology may help to narrow down the differential diagnosis or is diagnostically unspecific. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary diagnostic approach therefore remains essential. Clin. Anat. 29:831-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Novel 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-2)-curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates as HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiko; Tsujii, Hiroko; Yamada, Takeshi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Amano, Fumio; Hasegawa, Junya; Hamashima, Yoshio; Node, Manabu; Katoh, Kayoko; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-07-15

    Sixteen novel compounds; 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (2) and their curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates (3)-(18) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in infected C8166-CCR5 cells, a human CD4(+) T-lymphocyte cell line. Among them, kojic acid derivatives, 9-12 showed significant biological activity. In particular, the compound 13, the conjugate of two molecules of 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and one molecule of kojic acid, exerted significant anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 0.12microg/mL.

  17. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  18. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described.

  19. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  20. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information. PMID:24820052

  1. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information.

  2. Actual Drawing of Histological Images Improves Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balemans, Monique C. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Donders, A. Rogier T.; Van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues…

  3. [Histological aspects of naso-ethmoidal tumors].

    PubMed

    Carnot, F

    1997-01-01

    Among malignant neoplasms of the sino-nasal tract, tumors of the nasal vault have special features: their higher incidence in woodworkers, their frequent local recurrence and invasiveness in the skull base. Histologically too, they are peculiar by the predominance of the glandular tumors, of colonic or enteric type especially. Microscopic examination allows histological grading of these adenocarcinoma. Squamous carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are less frequent than in other parts of the sinonasal tract. Rare other tumors, often undifferentiated, can be diagnosed by immuno-staining as esthesioneuroblastomas, malignant melanomas, neuro-endocrine carcinomas, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas. A retrospective study of 147 patients yielded similar data.

  4. Developing the eHistology Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Graham, Liz; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Baldock, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The eMouseAtlas project has undertaken to generate a new resource providing access to high-resolution colour images of the slides used in the renowned textbook ‘The Atlas of Mouse Development’ by Matthew H. Kaufman. The original histology slides were digitized, and the associated anatomy annotations captured for display in the new resource. These annotations were assigned to objects in the standard reference anatomy ontology, allowing the eHistology resource to be linked to other data resources including the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Gene-Expression database (EMAGE) an the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) gene-expression database (GXD). The provision of the eHistology Atlas resource was assisted greatly by the expertise of the eMouseAtlas project in delivering large image datasets within a web environment, using IIP3D technology. This technology also permits future extensions to the resource through the addition of further layers of data and annotations to the resource. Database URL: www.emouseatlas.org/emap/eHistology/index.php PMID:26500249

  5. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  6. Renal function and histology in children after small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Olivia; Noto, Cristian; De Serre, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Dechaux, Michèle; Goulet, Olivier; Niaudet, Patrick; Lacaille, Florence

    2013-02-01

    CKD is a frequent long-term complication after SBTx. CNIs are a well-known factor, but probably not the only cause. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and severity of CKD in 27 children with SBTx (15 combined liver/SBTx) and prednisone/TAC-based maintenance immunosuppression. Median follow-up was seven yr (3-21). A renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients, 1-18 yr post-SBTx. A reduced GFR was observed in 17 children (63%) during the follow-up with none requiring dialysis. CNI toxicity was observed in 11/14 biopsies, as early as two yr post-transplant, and could occur with a normal mGFR. The dose of TAC was reduced by 50% in 13 patients with CKD and/or significant kidney histological lesions, and six were also given MMF. This led to a significant improvement in renal function: mGFR normalized in eight patients and improved or stabilized in five. No rejection occurred. At last follow-up, 37% had CKD stage 2 and 15% had CKD stage 3. In conclusion, CKD is frequent in children after SBTx and probably multifactorial. Less nephrotoxic immunosuppressive protocols may improve mGFR and should be further considered. The kidney histology helps in designing personalized immunosuppression strategies for patients.

  7. Fusion of rat brain histology and MRI using weighted multi-image mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Christoph; Penney, Graeme P.; Crum, William R.; Schnabel, Julia A.; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Hawkes, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Introduction - Fusion of histology and MRI is frequently demanded in biomedical research to study in vitro tissue properties in an in vivo reference space. Distortions and artifacts caused by cutting and staining of histological slices as well as differences in spatial resolution make even the rigid fusion a difficult task. State-of- the-art methods start with a mono-modal restacking yielding a histological pseudo-3D volume. The 3D information of the MRI reference is considered subsequently. However, consistency of the histology volume and consistency due to the corresponding MRI seem to be diametral goals. Therefore, we propose a novel fusion framework optimizing histology/histology and histology/MRI consistency at the same time finding a balance between both goals. Method - Direct slice-to-slice correspondence even in irregularly-spaced cutting sequences is achieved by registration-based interpolation of the MRI. Introducing a weighted multi-image mutual information metric (WI), adjacent histology and corresponding MRI are taken into account at the same time. Therefore, the reconstruction of the histological volume as well as the fusion with the MRI is done in a single step. Results - Based on two data sets with more than 110 single registrations in all, the results are evaluated quantitatively based on Tanimoto overlap measures and qualitatively showing the fused volumes. In comparison to other multi-image metrics, the reconstruction based on WI is significantly improved. We evaluated different parameter settings with emphasis on the weighting term steering the balance between intra- and inter-modality consistency.

  8. A histological study of cerebral aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Gordana; Nikolić, Valentina; Puskas, Laslo; Filipović, Branislav; Stojsić-Dzunja, Ljubica; Krivokuća, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral (sylvian) aqueduct is a narrow channel in the mesencephalon. It lies between the tectum and the tegmentum of the mesencephalon and is surrounded by the periaqueductal gray matter. The aim of this study was to determine the shape of the aqueduct of sylvius and the structure of its walls in a series of transverse histological sections. Serial transverse sections of the mesencephalon were examined in twenty adult brains of both sexes. Six sections were stained by the hematoxylin-eosin method. The rostral part of the the aqueduct has a triangular shape with dorsal concavity caused by retrocommissural fossae. In the middle, its shape is oval to irregular, the rostral part has a T shape due to isthmic recess on the floor. Walls of the aqueduct are coated with a layer of prismatic cells. Determination of the morphological and histological features of the mesencephalic aqueduct is important for differentiation between physiological and pathological processes in this region.

  9. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use. PMID:17695991

  10. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use.

  11. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  12. Necrotizing sialometaplasia: frequency of histologic misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M L; Gertler, R S; Schneider, L C

    1984-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is said to mimic carcinoma, both clinically and histologically. A review of approximately 10,000 oral biopsy specimens revealed only three cases of necrotizing sialometaplasia, all of which had been misdiagnosed as other benign entities. While this suggests that necrotizing sialometaplasia represents only 0.03 percent of biopsied oral lesions, it does not deal with the frequency of cases of this condition which heal spontaneously without being biopsied.

  13. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  14. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  15. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  17. Long bone histology and growth patterns in ankylosaurs: implications for life history and evolution.

    PubMed

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  18. A practical hybrid model of application, integration, and competencies at interactive table conferences in histology (ITCH).

    PubMed

    Ettarh, Rajunor

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes have been implemented in the way undergraduate medical education is structured. One of the challenges for component courses such as histology in medical and dental curricula is to restructure and deliver training within new frameworks. This article describes the process of aligning the purpose and experience in histology laboratory to the goal of applying knowledge gained to team-based medical practice at Tulane University School of Medicine. Between 2011 and 2015, 711 medical students took either a traditional laboratory-based histology course (353 students) or a team-based hybrid histology course with active learning in laboratory (358 students). The key difference was in the laboratory component of the hybrid course - interactive table conferences in histology-during which students developed new competencies by working in teams, reviewing images, solving problems by applying histology concepts, and sharing learning. Content, faculty and online resources for microscopy were the same in both courses. More student-student and student-faculty interactions were evident during the hybrid course but student evaluation ratings and grades showed reductions following introduction of table conferences when compared to previous ratings. However, outcomes at National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Subject Examination in Histology and Cell Biology showed significant improvement (72.4 ± 9.04 and 76.44 ± 9.36 for percent correct answers, traditional and hybrid courses, respectively, P < 0.0001). This model of table conferences to augment the traditional histology laboratory experience exemplifies the extent that restructuring enhancements can be used in currently taught courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 286-294. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. A practical hybrid model of application, integration, and competencies at interactive table conferences in histology (ITCH).

    PubMed

    Ettarh, Rajunor

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes have been implemented in the way undergraduate medical education is structured. One of the challenges for component courses such as histology in medical and dental curricula is to restructure and deliver training within new frameworks. This article describes the process of aligning the purpose and experience in histology laboratory to the goal of applying knowledge gained to team-based medical practice at Tulane University School of Medicine. Between 2011 and 2015, 711 medical students took either a traditional laboratory-based histology course (353 students) or a team-based hybrid histology course with active learning in laboratory (358 students). The key difference was in the laboratory component of the hybrid course - interactive table conferences in histology-during which students developed new competencies by working in teams, reviewing images, solving problems by applying histology concepts, and sharing learning. Content, faculty and online resources for microscopy were the same in both courses. More student-student and student-faculty interactions were evident during the hybrid course but student evaluation ratings and grades showed reductions following introduction of table conferences when compared to previous ratings. However, outcomes at National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Subject Examination in Histology and Cell Biology showed significant improvement (72.4 ± 9.04 and 76.44 ± 9.36 for percent correct answers, traditional and hybrid courses, respectively, P < 0.0001). This model of table conferences to augment the traditional histology laboratory experience exemplifies the extent that restructuring enhancements can be used in currently taught courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 286-294. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26749245

  20. Regional Variations in the Histology of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we present a compendium of the most relevant histological features of the skin in terms of their regional variations along with histological clues that facilitate the topographic identification of cutaneous biopsies.

  1. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection.

  2. Histological and Histopathological Study of Incus

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Shubhpreet; Chaudhary, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic otits media is long standing infection of middle ear cleft which commonly involves bone erosion. Bone destruction seen in unsafe chronic otitis media mainly involves the ossicles, incus being frequently involved ossicle. So, an investigation of the histopathological changes in incus was carried out to report the various histopathological changes occurring in chronic otitis media. Aim Aim of the study is to report the structural changes occuring in incus bone in chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods Ten normal incuses and ten pathological incuses which were removed during the surgery for chronic otitis media (both with and without cholesteotoma) were studied histologically, after staining with haematoxylin and eosin. Results Normal incus showed compact bone pattern of concentric rings, like that of any long bone of body. Pathological incuses of chronic otitis media (both with and without cholestoetoma) showed similar changes, i.e., stratified squamous epithelium, with distorted concentric rings and increased osseous spaces. Conclusion The study was undertaken, so that the knowledge to histological changes may help the clinicians to take more rational decisions regarding their diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to prevent the changes occurring in the bone in chronic otitis media. PMID:27656423

  3. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  4. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  5. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps. PMID:27319048

  6. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps.

  7. Lipoid proteinosis: clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Muda, A O; Paradisi, M; Angelo, C; Mostaccioli, S; Atzori, F; Puddu, P; Faraggiana, T

    1995-10-01

    The case of a 12-year-old boy with lipoid proteinosis is reported. Physical examination revealed long-standing varicella-like scars and areas of hyperpigmentation on the face and upper limbs with no evidence of photosensitivity, hoarseness, small papules along the free margins of eyelids, tongue firmness with short frenulum, and widespread papular lesions of the oral cavity. Histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed the characteristic skin changes: pink, hyaline-like, strongly periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the dermis, surrounding blood vessels, and sweat glands; thin (30 to 35 nm) collagen fibrils interspersed in abundant amorphous material; blood vessels surrounded by thickened, multilayered basement membranes, in which layers of typical, homogeneous basement membrane material were alternating with electronlucent areas filled by various amounts of thin, cross-striated fibrils, arranged perpendicularly. These findings are of great interest since they show a complex relationship between type IV and type III-like collagen components.

  8. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  9. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  10. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons.

    PubMed

    Trobisch, Per David; Bauman, Matthias; Weise, Kuno; Stuby, Fabian; Hak, David J

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the rupture-zone was obtained in 22 cases and histologic analysis was performed. Degenerative changes were present in only 14 (64%) of the 22 samples. We observed an increasing ratio of degenerative to nondegenerative tendons with increasing patient age. Our data suggests that quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in younger patients, can occur in the absence of pathologic tendon degeneration.

  11. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  12. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  13. Retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma without histological atypias.

    PubMed

    Laky, D; Penciu, M; Rădulescu, D

    1993-01-01

    A case of a 36-year-old woman suspected of hepatic hydatid cyst with dyseptic symptoms, hepatomegalia, profound pains in the right hypochondrium is presented. During the operation a 15/12/17 cm well-incapsulated tumour is extirpated. The tumour stretched from the upper right renal pole behind the right hepatic lobe as far as the diaphragm and while sectioning it was grey and orange. Histopathologically we found a fibrous histiocytoma with zones of storiform fascicular pattern alternating with areas of histocytic cells with vacuolar-foamy cytoplasm, rich in lipids and without atypias or mitoses. We report the frequency, histological aspects of the fibrous histiocytomas as well as some particularities of their retroperitoneal location.

  14. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  15. High Speed Data Processing for Imaging MS-Based Molecular Histology Using Graphical Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Emrys A.; van Zeijl, René J. M.; Andrén, Per E.; Deelder, André M.; Wolters, Lex; McDonnell, Liam A.

    2012-04-01

    Imaging MS enables the distributions of hundreds of biomolecular ions to be determined directly from tissue samples. The application of multivariate methods, to identify pixels possessing correlated MS profiles, is referred to as molecular histology as tissues can be annotated on the basis of the MS profiles. The application of imaging MS-based molecular histology to larger tissue series, for clinical applications, requires significantly increased computational capacity in order to efficiently analyze the very large, highly dimensional datasets. Such datasets are highly suited to processing using graphical processor units, a very cost-effective solution for high speed processing. Here we demonstrate up to 13× speed improvements for imaging MS-based molecular histology using off-the-shelf components, and demonstrate equivalence with CPU based calculations. It is then discussed how imaging MS investigations may be designed to fully exploit the high speed of graphical processor units.

  16. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy. Combined clinical and histological criteria for diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Robinson, M J; Prathap, K; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M

    1978-01-01

    Cows' milk protein enteropathy is recognised as a significant cause of persistent diarrhoea and malabsorption in young infants, but there are as yet no generally accepted diagnostic criteria. A combined clinical and histological approach to the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy has been used in 15 patients, and the following set of criteria are proposed. (1) Clinical disease (diarrhoea with or without vomiting) while receiving cows' milk protein. (2) Clinical improvement on a diet free of cows' milk protein. (3) Normal or mildly abnormal histology of jejunal mucosa when taken 6-8 weeks after symptoms subside. (4) Histological relapse, with or without clinical relapse, after re-exposure to cows' milk protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:564668

  17. Mammoth tooth enamel growth rates inferred from stable isotope analysis and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2012-05-01

    Mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) teeth are relatively abundant in Quaternary deposits from Eurasia and North America, and their isotopic compositions can be used to reconstruct past seasonal patterns in precipitation, diet, and migration. Strategies for collecting and interpreting such data, however, are strongly dependent on growth rates, which can vary among species, individuals, and within teeth. In this study, we use histological and isotopic measurements to determine enamel growth rates for a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) tooth in two directions. Using histology, the growth rate through the enamel thickness (ET; perpendicular to the height of the tooth) is estimated at 0.8 to 1.5 mm/yr. Isotopic sampling through the innermost 0.36 mm of the ET recovered less than half a period of variation (i.e., half an inferred year of growth), which is consistent with the histological estimate for ET growth rate. A combination of histological and isotopic measurements suggests that the enamel extension rate (growth in the height of the tooth) is 13-14 mm/yr. Knowledge of enamel growth rates should improve the design and interpretation of future isotopic studies of mammoth teeth. The combination of histological and isotopic measurements may also prove useful in determining growth rates for other extinct taxa.

  18. Reproducibility of histological cell type in high-grade endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangming; Sidhu, Davinder; Duggan, Máire A; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Cesari, Matthew; Clement, Philip B; Ewanowich, Carol A; Kalloger, Steve E; Köbel, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Subclassification of endometrial carcinoma according to histological type shows variable interobserver agreement. The aim of this study was to assess specifically the interobserver agreement of histological type in high-grade endometrial carcinomas, recorded by gynecological pathologists from five academic centers across Canada. In a secondary aim, the agreement of consensus diagnosis with immunohistochemical marker combinations was assessed including six routine (TP53, CDKN2A (p16), ER, PGR, Ki67, and VIM) and six experimental immunohistochemical markers (PTEN, ARID1A, CTNNB1, IGF2BP3, HNF1B, and TFF3). The paired interobserver agreement ranged from κ 0.50 to 0.63 (median 0.58) and the intraobserver agreement from κ 0.49 to 0.67 (median 0.61). Consensus about histological type based on morphological assessment was reached in 72% of high-grade endometrial carcinomas. A seven-marker immunohistochemical panel differentiated FIGO grade 3 endometrioid from serous carcinoma with a 100% concordance rate compared with the consensus diagnosis. More practically, a three-marker panel including TP53, ER, and CDKN2A (p16) can aid in the differential diagnosis of FIGO grade 3 endometrioid from endometrial serous carcinoma. Our study demonstrates that the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of histological type based on morphology alone are mostly moderate. Ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemical marker panels are likely needed to improve diagnostic reproducibility of histological types within high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

  19. Identification of atherosclerotic plaque components using cluster analysis of multispectral MR images: comparison with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Sharon; Rutt, Brian K.; Lucas, Alexandra; Lownie, Stephen P.; Hammond, Robert; Mitchell, Ross

    2000-04-01

    The composition of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries is believed to be an important predictor of stroke risk. Several MR contrasts may be necessary to discriminate between different plaque components, and multispectral analysis can used to integrate the information obtained from these multiple contrasts. This study presents the use of registered MR and histological images of carotid endarterectomy specimens as a tool for the quantitative assessment of maximum likelihood classification and other segmentation algorithms. Carotid endarterectomy specimens were imaged in a 1.5T GE Signa scanner. PD, T1, T2, diffusion spin echo weightings were obtained. MR images were registered with digitized images of the corresponding histology. A pathologist identified regions of collagen, calcification, cholesterol, hemorrhage on the histological images. Training and ground truth regions were selected. The accuracy of the maximum likelihood classification was assessed on a pixel by pixel basis using truth regions identified on histological images. The accuracy of multispectral analysis was calcification (73%), fibrin (68%), cholesterol (62%), fibrous plaque (53%). This technique was limited by registration inaccuracies caused by partial volume effects and histological artifacts. Despite these limitations, accuracy results were reasonable. This technique, with continued improvements, provides a framework for evaluating the accuracy of different segmentation algorithms.

  20. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  1. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  2. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease.

  3. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  4. Histology of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assist pathologists inexperienced in examining central nervous system (CNS) sections to recognize normal and abnormal cell types as well as some common artifacts. Dark neurons are the most common histologic artifact but, with experience, can readily be distinguished from degenerating (eosinophilic) neurons. Neuron degeneration stains can be useful in lowering the threshold for detecting neuron degeneration as well as for revealing degeneration within populations of neurons that are too small to show the associated eosinophilic cytoplasmic alteration within H&E-stained sections. Neuron degeneration may also be identified by the presence of associated macroglial and microglial reactions. Knowledge of the distribution of astrocyte cytoplasmic processes is helpful in determining that certain patterns of treatment-related neuropil vacuolation (as well as some artifacts) represent swelling of these processes. On the other hand, vacuoles with different distribution patterns may represent alterations of the myelin sheath. Because brains are typically undersampled for microscopic evaluation, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the circumventricuar organs (CVOs) that represent normal brain structures but are often mistaken for lesions. Therefore, the six CVOs found in the brain are also illustrated in this article.

  5. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  6. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  7. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  8. Two neutrophilic dermatoses captured simultaneously on histology

    PubMed Central

    Wlodek, Christina; Bhatt, Nidhi; Kennedy, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A number of neutrophilic dermatoses are associated with malignancies and their treatment. These rarely occur together in the same patient. A Caucasian 72-year-old male was treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with chemotherapy including daunorubicin and cytarabine. Within 48 hours of commencing treatment, he developed pyrexia and, two days later, disseminated non-tender pink plaques on the limbs and trunk. A skin biopsy showed a dermal interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytoid cells and predominantly neutrophils. This extended into the subcutis, where a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis was seen. These findings are consistent with Sweet’s syndrome. In addition, a neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate was also present around eccrine coils and lower ducts. The eccrine epithelium showed squamous metaplasia with dyskeratosis and sloughing into the lumen. These latter findings are consistent with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). These two histologically distinct entities form part of the neutrophilic dermatoses that have been described in oncology patients with reports of concurrent or sequential occurrence of various neutrophilic dermatoses in the same patient. Ours, however, is only the second reported case of simultaneously captured Sweet’s and NEH in the setting of AML. The most likely explanation is that of an epiphenomenon, whereby the neutrophilic infiltrate extended around the sweat glands in the context of the neutrophilic dermatosis. PMID:27648385

  9. Histological assessment of tangentially excised burn eschars

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Reuven; Rosenberg, Lior; Cohen, Sarit; Cohen, Arnon; Barezovsky, Alex; Cagnano, Emanuela; Singer, Adam J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The burn eschar serves as a medium for bacterial growth and a source of local and systemic infection. To prevent or minimize these complications, it is important to debride the eschar as early as possible. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of viable skin within the excisions by examining tangentially excised burn eschars. METHODS: A total of 146 samples of burned human tissue were removed during 54 routine sharp tangential excision procedures (using dermatomes). The samples were histologically examined to identify the relative thickness of the dead, intermediate and viable layers. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) thickness of the excised samples was 1.7±1.1 mm. The sacrificed viable tissue (mean thickness 0.7±0.8 mm) occupied 41.2% of the entire thickness of the excision. In 32 biopsies (21.8%; 95% CI 16.0 to 29.3), the excision did not reach viable skin. Only eight biopsies (5.4%; 95% CI 2.8 to 10.1) contained all of the necrotic tissue without removing viable tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The thickness of a single tangentially excised layer of eschar is not much greater than the actual thickness of the entire skin and often contains viable tissue. Because surgical debridement is insufficiently selective, more selective means of debriding burn eschars should be explored. PMID:21886431

  10. Chronic viral hepatitis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Mangia, Alessandra; Faa, Gavino

    2011-03-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, the role of liver biopsy as a diagnostic test has seen a decline, paralleled by its increasing importance for prognostic purposes. Nowadays, the main indication for liver biopsy in chronic viral hepatitis is to assess the severity of the disease, in terms of both necro-inflammation (grade) and fibrosis (stage), which is important for prognosis and therapeutic management. Several scoring systems have been proposed for grading and staging chronic viral hepatitis and there is no a general consensus on the best system to be used in the daily practice. All scoring systems have their drawbacks and all may be affected by sampling and observer variability. Whatever the system used, a histological score is a reductive approach since damage in chronic viral hepatitis is a complex biological process. Thus, scoring systems are not intended to replace the detailed, descriptive, pathology report. In fact, lesions other than those scored for grading and staging may have clinical relevance and should be assessed and reported. This paper aims to provide a systematic approach to the interpretation of liver biopsies obtained in cases of chronic viral hepatitis, with the hope of helping general pathologists in their diagnostic practice.

  11. Two neutrophilic dermatoses captured simultaneously on histology.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, Christina; Bhatt, Nidhi; Kennedy, Cameron

    2016-07-01

    A number of neutrophilic dermatoses are associated with malignancies and their treatment. These rarely occur together in the same patient. A Caucasian 72-year-old male was treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with chemotherapy including daunorubicin and cytarabine. Within 48 hours of commencing treatment, he developed pyrexia and, two days later, disseminated non-tender pink plaques on the limbs and trunk. A skin biopsy showed a dermal interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytoid cells and predominantly neutrophils. This extended into the subcutis, where a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis was seen. These findings are consistent with Sweet's syndrome. In addition, a neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate was also present around eccrine coils and lower ducts. The eccrine epithelium showed squamous metaplasia with dyskeratosis and sloughing into the lumen. These latter findings are consistent with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). These two histologically distinct entities form part of the neutrophilic dermatoses that have been described in oncology patients with reports of concurrent or sequential occurrence of various neutrophilic dermatoses in the same patient. Ours, however, is only the second reported case of simultaneously captured Sweet's and NEH in the setting of AML. The most likely explanation is that of an epiphenomenon, whereby the neutrophilic infiltrate extended around the sweat glands in the context of the neutrophilic dermatosis. PMID:27648385

  12. Histology of breast development in early life.

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, J; Coyne, J; Cahalane, S

    1988-01-01

    Histological examination of the breasts of 26 infants and young children who died suddenly between the ages of 3 weeks and 2 years was performed. The glands were composed of well formed lobules surrounded by dense interlobular stroma, while within the lobules there was looser connective tissue. The lobules contained ducts, many of which were dilated and contained secretions. Foci of extramedullary haematopoiesis were found, and in the older infants, fat was prominent within the connective tissue of the breast. Myoepithelial cells were regularly present. No sex differences in breast development at this time were noted. Newborn breast development did not regress rapidly after birth and secretory activity continued for many months in both sexes. This study shows that the human mammary gland remains active for many months after birth and may continue to grow and secrete. The findings are not consistent with the current view that breast development in infancy results from stimulation from 'pregnancy hormones.' It is more likely that the infant's own gonadal secretions are responsible. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3348660

  13. Histological evidence for muscle insertion in extant amniote femora: implications for muscle reconstruction in fossils

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Holger; Sander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Since the 19th century, identification of muscle attachment sites on bones has been important for muscle reconstructions, especially in fossil tetrapods, and therefore has been the subject of numerous biological and paleontological studies. At the microscopic level, in histological thin sections, the only features that can be used reliably for identifying tendon–bone or muscle–tendon-bone interactions are Sharpey's fibers. Muscles, however, do not only attach to the bone indirectly with tendons, but also directly. Previous studies failed to provide new indicators for muscle attachment, or to address the question of whether muscles with direct attachment can be identified histologically. However, histological identification of direct muscle attachments is important because these attachments do not leave visible marks (e.g. scars and rugosities) on the bone surface. We dissected the right hind limb and mapped the muscle attachment sites on the femur of one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), one Alligator mississippiensis, and one turkey (Meleagris cuniculus). We then extracted the femur and prepared four histological thin sections for the rabbit and the turkey and five histological thin sections for the alligator. Sharpey's fibers, vascular canal orientation, and a frayed periosteal margin can be indicators for indirect but also direct muscle attachment. Sharpey's fibers can be oriented to the cutting plane of the thin section at high angles, and two Sharpey's fibers orientations can occur in one area, possibly indicating a secondary force axis. However, only about 60% of mapped muscle attachment sites could be detected in thin sections, and frequently histological features suggestive of muscle attachment occurred outside mapped sites. While these insights should improve our ability to successfully identify and reconstruct muscles in extinct species, they also show the limitations of this approach. PMID:23439026

  14. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  15. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  16. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  17. Histology of Type 1 Diabetes Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Abby; Gillespie, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans play a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Islets are predominantly composed of insulin-secreting beta cells and glucagon-secreting alpha cells. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells are destroyed by autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells resulting in hyperglycemia. This is a gradual process, taking from several months to decades. Much of the beta cell destruction takes place during a silent, asymptomatic phase. Type 1 diabetes becomes clinically evident upon destruction of approximately 70-80 % of beta cell mass. Studying the decline in beta cell mass and the cells which are responsible for their demise is difficult as pancreatic biopsies are not feasible in patients with type 1 diabetes. The relative size of islets and their dispersed location throughout the pancreas means in vivo imaging of human islets is currently not manageable. At present, there are no validated biomarkers which accurately track the decline in beta cell mass in individuals who are at risk of developing, or have already developed, type 1 diabetes. Therefore, studies of pancreatic tissue retrieved at autopsy from donors with type 1 diabetes, or donors with high risk markers of type 1 diabetes such as circulating islet-associated autoantibodies, is currently the best method for studying beta cells and the associated inflammatory milieu in situ. In recent years, concerted efforts have been made to source such tissues for histological studies, enabling great insights to be made into the relationship between islets and the inflammatory insult to which they are subjected. This article describes in detail, a robust immunohistochemical method which can be utilized to study both recent, and archival human pancreatic tissue, in order to examine islet endocrine cells and the surrounding immune cells. PMID:26801316

  18. Correlation between histological grade and positron emission tomography parameters in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mocciaro, Vanessa; Scollo, Paolo; Stefano, Alessandro; Gieri, Stefania; Russo, Giorgio; Scibilia, Giuseppe; Cosentino, Sebastiano; Murè, Gabriella; Baldari, Sara; Sabini, Maria Gabriella; Fraggetta, Filippo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Ippolito, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in cervical cancer glucose metabolism for different levels of cellular differentiation. The metabolic activity was measured by standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV normalized to lean body mass, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). A correlation study of these values could be used to facilitate therapeutic choice and to improve clinical practice and outcome. This study considered 32 patients with diagnosed cervical cancers, at different International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. Glucose metabolism was assessed by PET examination, and histological specimens were examined to determine their initial grade of differentiation. A correlation study of these values was evaluated. Histological examination showed that all cases were of squamous cell carcinoma. Regarding the differentiation of the tumor, 19 well- to moderately-differentiated tumors and 13 poorly-differentiated tumors were determined. Negative findings for correlations between metabolic parameters and initial grade of histological differentiation were found, and considering that histological grade has been shown to have no consistent prognostic value in cervical cancer treatment, PET imaging could play a significant role in cervical cancer prognosis. PMID:27446445

  19. Dental students' evaluations of an interactive histology software.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Cristian; Rubí, Rafael; Donoso, Manuel; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed dental students' evaluations of a new Interactive Histology Software (IHS) developed by the authors and compared students' assessment of the extent to which this new software, as well as other histology teaching methods, supported their learning. The IHS is a computer-based tool for histology learning that presents high-resolution images of histology basics as well as specific oral histologies at different magnifications and with text labels. Survey data were collected from 204 first-year dental students at the Universidad Austral de Chile. The survey consisted of questions for the respondents to evaluate the characteristics of the IHS and the contribution of various teaching methods to their histology learning. The response rate was 85 percent. Student evaluations were positive for the design, usability, and theoretical-practical integration of the IHS, and the students reported they would recommend the method to future students. The students continued to value traditional teaching methods for histological lab work and did not think this new technology would replace traditional methods. With respect to the contribution of each teaching method to students' learning, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for an evaluation of IHS, light microscopy, and slide presentations. However, these student assessments were significantly more positive than the evaluations of other digital or printed materials. Overall, the students evaluated the IHS very positively in terms of method quality and contribution to their learning; they also evaluated use of light microscopy and teacher slide presentations positively.

  20. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Song; Wu-lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-hua, Zhang; Xiang-cai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. Materials and Methods: The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. Conclusion: The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. SUMMARY H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. “↑” and “↓” represent activity or content “up” and “down” respectively. PMID:27019566

  1. Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) powders: ultrastructural and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, M S; Maccauro, G; Graci, C; Cittadini, A; Magnani, G; Sangiorgi, S; Del Bravo, V; Manicone, P F; Raffaelli, L; Muratori, F; Sgambato, A

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic materials, as Alumina and Zirconia, has made an improvement in the choice of new biomaterials for the load bearing application in dental and orthopaedic implants. These materials has shown mechanical resistance to high stress related to weight bearing and low debris in time. For this reason they are indicated on young patients implant, with high demanding activities and long life expectance. In literature however the risk of chronic inflammation due to chronic wear debris release and the possibility of carcinogenesis, is still to be definitively investigated. Another point to investigate is the acute reaction of the tissue in case of acute release of powders of these materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible local and systemic acute effects of ceramic precursors in form of powders of different size when released into articular joint. Powders of ZTA were implanted in the knee joint of twenty-four New Zealand white adult rabbits, that were sacrificed at 1,3,6, and 12 months. Radiographic, histological and immunoistochemestry analysis were conducted on periprosthetic tissue and peripheral organs, to verifying local host response and systemic toxic effects.

  2. Age influence on periodontal tissues: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Mihai, Laurenţa Leila; Răescu, Mihaela; Tuculină, Mihaela Jana; Cumpătă, C N; Ghergic, Doina Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosa becomes thinner, smooth and looses stippling aspect with aging. From histological standpoint appears: narrowing and alteration of gingival epithelium, modification of epithelial-connective interface and decreasing of keratinization. However, it cannot be detected significant histological alterations in size, shape or arrangement of epithelial cells that could be endorsed to aging process. Histological studies indicate: decreasing of keratinization, regressive changes in epithelium and fibrosis in underlying connective tissue. Parakeratosis is frequent with aging because of microtraumas, in many cases is expression of permanent inflammation. PMID:24322032

  3. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  4. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shan; Yang, Zhengyi; Fischer, Karin; Zhong, Kai; Stadler, Jörg; Godenschweger, Frank; Steiner, Johann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Mawrin, Christian; Reutens, David C.; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods can be effectively combined at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time) the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 μm isotopic) imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information. PMID:24098272

  5. Biomarker-based ovarian carcinoma typing: a histological investigation in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium

    PubMed Central

    Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E.; Lee, Sandra; Duggan, Máire A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Prentice, Leah; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Keeney, Gary L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Chow, Christine; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Bunker, Clareann; Wozniak, Eva L.; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gilks, C. Blake; Huntsman, David G.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is composed of five major histological types which associate with outcome and predict therapeutic response. Our aim was to evaluate histological type assessments across centres participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium using an immunohistochemical (IHC) prediction model. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMAs) and clinical data were available for 524 pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinomas. Centralized IHC was performed for ARID1A, CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TP53, TFF3, VIM, and WT1, and three histological type assessments were compared: the original pathologic type, an IHC-based calculated type (termed TB_COSPv2), and a WT1-assisted TMA core review. Results The concordance between TB_COSPv2 type and original type was 73%. Applying WT1-assisted core review, the remaining 27% discordant cases subdivided into unclassifiable (6%), TB_COSPv2 error (6%), and original type error (15%). The largest discordant subgroup was classified as endometrioid carcinoma (EC) by original type and as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) by TB_COSPv2. When TB_COSPv2 classification was used, the difference in overall survival of EC compared to HGSC became significant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.93, p=0.021), consistent with previous reports. In addition, 71 cases with unclear original type could be histologically classified by TB_COSPv2. Conclusions Research cohorts, particularly those across different centres within consortia, show significant variability in original histological type diagnosis. Our IHC-based reclassification produced more homogeneous types with respect to outcome than original type. Impact Biomarker-based classification of ovarian carcinomas is feasible, improves comparability of results across research studies, and can reclassify cases which lack reliable original pathology. PMID:23880734

  6. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  7. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  8. Clinical implications of rhinoceros reproductive tract anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, N E; Foley, G L; Gill, S; Pope, C E

    2001-03-01

    Reproductive tracts or tissues from five male black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), two male white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), two male one-horned Asian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), seven female black rhinoceroses, and six female white rhinoceroses from multiple institutions were examined to characterize their anatomy and histology. Some observations and measurements were obtained from in situ tracts of intact animals before or during necropsy. Formalin-fixed tissues were dissected and examined histologically. Retrospective reproductive data from each rhinoceros was obtained from the institutions of origin. Reproductive histology of these species was similar to that of other mammals. Male accessory gland structure varied among species, and the Asian rhinoceros epididymis was more loosely attached and had larger duct diameters than did the epididymides of the African species. Although histology was typically mammalian, rhinoceros reproductive morphology combined characteristics of several different mammals. Defining this unique morphology of rhinoceroses may help in understanding their reproductive physiology and will effect the development of appropriate reproductive techniques.

  9. [Genome Abnormality and Histological Findings in Breast Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Takuya; Suzuki, Soichiro; Kanomata, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancers contain variable histologies as well as biology. Gene expression profiling and cluster analyses have been performed since the beginning of the 21st century. The use of intrinsic subtype classification has replaced histological classification of breast carcinomas, as it frequently yields the same results. For examples, around 80% of triple negative (estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cancers are of the basal-like subtype. In daily practice, adjuvant therapy is selected based on histological features, but the results of ordinal cluster analyses and histological intrinsic subtypes are not always the same for individual cases. With advanced genetic analysis, new concepts have been elucidated, ie, the molecular identification of claudin-low breast cancer. Proposals of a new classification system and a new therapeutic approach are expected in the future. PMID:27067844

  10. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  11. Insight into the Dissociation of Behavior from Histology in Synucleinopathies and in Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Kazunari; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Koike, Wakako; Waragai, Masaaki; Takenouchi, Takato; Sugama, Shuei; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2016-03-31

    Recent clinical trials using immunization approaches against Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to demonstrate improved cognitive functions in patients, despite potent suppression in the formation of both senile plaques and other amyloid-β deposits in postmortem brains. Similarly, we observed that treatment with ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was effective in improving the histopathology, such as reducing both protein aggregation and glial activation, in the brains of transgenic mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H β-synuclein. In contrast, only a small improvement in cognitive functions was observed in these mice. Collectively, it is predicted that histology does not correlate with behavior that is resilient and resistant to therapeutic stimuli. Notably, such a 'discrepancy between histology and behavior' is reminiscent of AD-like pathologies and incidental Lewy bodies, which are frequently encountered in postmortem brains of the elderly who had been asymptomatic for memory loss and Parkinsonism during their lives. We suggest that 'the discrepancy between histology and behavior' may be a universal feature that is associated with various aspects of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, given that the cognitive reserve is specifically observed in human brains, human behavior may be evolutionally distinct from that in other animals, thus, contributing to the differential efficiency of therapy between human and lower animals, an important issue in the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, it is important to better understand 'the discrepancy between histology and behavior' in the mechanism of neurodegeneration for the development of effective therapies against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27031478

  12. Kniest dysplasia: MR correlation of histologic and radiographic peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Dwek, Jerry R

    2005-02-01

    Unossified epiphyses of Kniest dysplasia patients histologically reveal a bizarre pattern of chondrocytes lying amid a highly vacuolated matrix giving rise to the name "Swiss cheese" cartilage. The ossified epiphyses also are unusual in showing clouds of dense punctate calcifications randomly distributed throughout. Both unossified and ossified epiphyses reveal on MR imaging a similar pattern of lakes of bright T2 signal against a relatively normal background, which represents an interesting analogue to the histologic and radiographic features.

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A unique report with histological diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mutalik, Vimi S; Shreshtha, Ashish; Mutalik, Sunil S; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors are a group of heterogeneous lesions, features of which have been catalogued for several decades. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively rare and distinct odontogenic tumor that is exclusively odontogenic epithelium in origin. Although considerable number of reports is available with regard to the clinical and histological spectrum of AOT, very few have highlighted its varied histological presentations. Therefore, this article focuses on the assorted histoarchitectural patterns of AOT. PMID:22438651

  14. Histology of a Harris line in a human distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J

    2015-07-01

    Identification and diagnosis of Harris lines (HLs) is usually achieved using radiography. To date, histological methods have been mainly implemented in research exploring the underlying processes of HL deposition using longitudinal sections taken from animal bone. Here, a new insight into HL formation is provided following transverse histological sectioning in a human specimen. A distinct HL was identified macroscopically, and from a radiograph, in a left distal tibia taken from an adult human male. Transverse sections were taken through the HL, and also from trabeculae immediately superior and inferior to the HL. Thin sections were produced following standard histological procedures. Micrographs were captured using a digital microscope camera. Trabeculae immediately superior and inferior to the HL displayed no indication of abnormal growth, exhibiting abundant osteocyte lacunae and a lamellar structure. However, the micro-anatomy of the HL was characterised by the following three main features: (1) non-lamellar appearance, (2) a complete lack of osteocyte lacunae, and (3) presence of irregularly distributed tubular structures. These three histological features indicate a specific process of bone deposition, implying that trapping of osteoblasts may not take place during HL formation. Pictorial and descriptive records of HL histology are provided, aiding current understanding about the nature of HL, its identification from histology, and serving as a reference point for future comparative research. PMID:25762436

  15. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Valdair F; Prando, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  16. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    PubMed Central

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. Material and methods: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50). Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). Results: At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. Conclusion: The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues. PMID:26504729

  17. Histologic models for optical tomography and spectroscopy of tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Davis, Brynmor J.

    2009-02-01

    Histologic information is often the ground truth against which imaging technology performance is measured. Typically, this information is limited, however, due to the need to excise tissue, stain it and have the tissue section manually reviewed. As a consequence, histologic models of actual tissues are difficult to acquire and are generally prohibitively expensive. Models and phantoms for imaging development, hence, have to be simple and reproducible for concordance between different groups developing the same imaging methods but may not reflect tissue structure. Here, we propose a route to histologic information that does not involve the use of human review nor does it require specialized dyes or stains. We combine mid-infrared Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with imaging to record data from tissue sections. Attendant numerical algorithms are used to convert the data to histologic information. Additionally, the biochemical nature of the recorded information can be used to generate contrast for other modalities. We propose that this histologic model and spectroscopic generation of contrast can serve as standard for testing and design aid for tomography and spectroscopy of tissues. We discuss here the biochemical and statistical issues involved in creating histologic models and demonstrate the use of the approach in generating optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of prostate tissue samples.

  18. Efficacy of mesotherapy in facial rejuvenation: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Moawad, Osama; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Background Mesotherapy, commonly known as “biorejuvenation” or “biorevitalization”, is a technique used to rejuvenate the skin by means of a transdermal injection of a multivitamin solution and natural plant extracts that are thought to improve the signs of skin aging. Objectives This prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of mesotherapy applied to periorbital wrinkles and to quantitatively evaluate histological changes in the skin occurring in response to the same treatment. Methods Six volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types III or IV and Glogau class I–III wrinkles were subjected to a three-month course of mesotherapy injections in the periocular area (six sessions administered at two-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsies were obtained from the treatment area at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at three months post-treatment. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin was performed using a computerized morphometric analysis. Results The clinical evaluation of volunteers at baseline, end of treatment, and three months post-treatment revealed no significant differences. Histological and immunostaining analysis of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin showed no statistically significant changes (P > 0.05) after mesotherapy injection. Conclusions The present study indicates that mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation does not result in statistically significant histological changes or clinical improvement. PMID:22788806

  19. Quantitative Histological Validation of Diffusion MRI Fiber Orientation Distributions in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Crespigny, Alex; Bolstad, Ingeborg; D'Arceuil, Helen; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is widely used to measure microstructural features of brain white matter, but commonly used dMRI measures have limited capacity to resolve the orientation structure of complex fiber architectures. While several promising new approaches have been proposed, direct quantitative validation of these methods against relevant histological architectures remains missing. In this study, we quantitatively compare neuronal fiber orientation distributions (FODs) derived from ex vivo dMRI data against histological measurements of rat brain myeloarchitecture using manual recordings of individual myelin stained fiber orientations. We show that accurate FOD estimates can be obtained from dMRI data, even in regions with complex architectures of crossing fibers with an intrinsic orientation error of approximately 5–6 degrees in these regions. The reported findings have implications for both clinical and research studies based on dMRI FOD measures, and provide an important biological benchmark for improved FOD reconstruction and fiber tracking methods. PMID:20062822

  20. Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: objective histological evidence of efficacy and durability*

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Azulay, David Rubem; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Cuzzi, Tullia; Azulay, Mônica Manela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The off-label use of oral isotretinoin in photoaging is a therapeutic tool that has been used by dermatologists. There are few studies to corroborate its effectiveness and durability. OBJECTIVES To assess, both clinically and histologically, the changes caused by the use of oral isotretinoin in skin photoaging as well as the duration of the effects. METHODS 20 female patients, aged 45-50 years, with phototypes II-VI, none of whom had experienced menopause, were treated with 20mg oral isotretinoin, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks. They underwent clinical analysis and skin biopsies in the pre-auricular region, while histologic cuts enabled assessment of the solar elastosis level and morphologic analysis. RESULTS Clinically, patients, as well as the researching and the assessor physicians, noticed improvement in skin quality. One patient presented severe solar elastosis, 11 manifested the moderate form, while 8 presented the discreet type. According to histological analysis, 65% of the patients revealed alteration in the distribution and thickness of the elastic fibers, which can be interpreted as a histological improvement, while 60% showed an increase in collagen density. We observed an increase in collagen density, from 51.2% to 57.4%, (p=0.004). At the end of the 12-week follow-up period, this density decreased to 54.7% (p=0.050). There was an increase in the density of elastic fibers, from 26.5% to 31.3%, (p=0.02), which had dropped to 27.5% at the end of the 12-week follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The study confirmed the role of oral isotretinoin in remodeling the extracellular matrix against photoaging, as well as its durability after 12 weeks, especially when we consider collagen fibers. PMID:26375216

  1. Histology-directed MALDI mass spectrometry for the diagnostic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, In-Hoo

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, it has become clinically important to distinguish histologic types of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) using biopsy samples. We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may classify histology of NSCLCs. Twentyone pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, two major histologic types of NSCLC, were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set, suggesting that lipid profiles can classify NSCLCs according to the histologic type. We also found that protein and lipid MALDI MS profiles can classify 30 breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtypes. Immunohistochemistry-defined, luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by cross validation P values < 0.01. Discriminatory proteins and lipids classified tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in 100 random test sets. Potential advantages of this label-free approach may include small tissue requirement, relatively rapid procedure, and low reagent cost. Day-today variation of this technology is also acceptable, with the Pearson correlation of 0.95. Taken together, these results suggest the possible clinical utility of histology-directed, lipid and protein MALDI MS.

  2. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  3. Use of interactive live digital imaging to enhance histology learning in introductory level anatomy and physiology classes.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital imaging (LDI) of microscopic slides on a SMART board to enhance Histology laboratory teaching. The interactive LDI system consists of a digital camera-equipped microscope that projects live images on a wall-mounted SMART board via a computer. This set-up allows real-time illustration of microscopic slides with highlighted key structural components, as well as the ability to provide the students with relevant study and review material. The impact of interactive LDI on student learning of Histology was then measured based on performance in subsequent laboratory tests before and after its implementation. Student grades increased from a mean of 76% (70.3-82.0, 95% CI) before to 92% (88.8-95.3, 95% CI) after integration of LDI indicating highly significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in students' Histology laboratory performance. In addition, student ratings of the impact of the interactive LDI on their Histology learning were strongly positive, suggesting that a majority of students who valued this learning approach also improved learning and understanding of the material as a result. The interactive LDI technique is an innovative, highly efficient and affordable tool to enhance student Histology learning, which is likely to expand knowledge and student perception of the subject and in turn enrich future science careers.

  4. Multimodal image registration of ex vivo 4 Tesla MRI with whole mount histology for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Madabhushi, Anant; Rosen, Mark; Tomaszeweski, John; Feldman, Michael

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we present novel methods for registration and subsequent evaluation of whole mount prostate histological sections to corresponding 4 Tesla ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices to complement our existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detection of prostatic adenocarcinoma from high resolution MRI. The CAD system is trained using voxels labeled as cancer on MRI by experts who visually aligned histology with MRI. To address voxel labeling errors on account of manual alignment and delineation, we have developed a registration method called combined feature ensemble mutual information (COFEMI) to automatically map spatial extent of prostate cancer from histology onto corresponding MRI for prostatectomy specimens. Our method improves over intensity-based similarity metrics (mutual information) by incorporating unique information from feature spaces that are relatively robust to intensity artifacts and which accentuate the structural details in the target and template images to be registered. Our registration algorithm accounts for linear gland deformations in the histological sections resulting from gland fixing and serial sectioning. Following automatic registration of MRI and histology, cancer extent from histological sections are mapped to the corresponding registered MRI slices. The manually delineated cancer areas on MRI obtained via manual alignment of histological sections and MRI are compared with corresponding cancer extent obtained via COFEMI by a novel registration evaluation technique based on use of non-linear dimensionality reduction (locally linear embedding (LLE)). The cancer map on MRI determined by COFEMI was found to be significantly more accurate compared to the manually determined cancer mask. The performance of COFEMI was also found to be superior compared to image intensity-based mutual information registration.

  5. Mandibular histology and growth of the nonmammaliaform cynodont Tritylodon

    PubMed Central

    Jasinoski, Sandra C; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of bone microstructure of nonmammalian therapsids has revealed distinctive signals pertaining to their ontogenetic growth and biology. Until now, histological studies of the nonmammaliaform cynodonts have focused only on postcranial material. Through the examination of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans and serial thin sections, the current study provides a novel perspective on the structure and growth of the mandible of Tritylodon, a derived herbivorous cynodont from southern Africa. By tracking histological features across the serial thin sections, trends in relocation and modelling are documented for the growing Tritylodon mandible. For example, during growth, localized changes in the cross-sectional shape of the mandible occurred. Localized deposits of new lamellar and fibrolamellar bone on the lateral edge indicate widening of the mandible during different episodes of growth. The presence of radial channels indicates the deepening of the mandible at its anterior and posterior ends. The relocation of the paired mental foramina suggests that the mandibular body lengthened mainly in the posterior direction. The medial movement of a posterior postcanine tooth during growth and eruption is recorded in the histology. This histological assessment also documents the presence of Sharpey’s fibres in the cellular cementum of the first incisor, providing novel and unequivocal evidence that it was attached to the Tritylodon jaw by a periodontal ligament. This is the first comprehensive study that uses histological analysis to document the growth dynamics of the mandible of a nonmammalian therapsid, thus providing a unique perspective of localized mandibular growth in a fossil animal.

  6. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  7. Evolving Evidence of the Efficacy and Safety of nab-Paclitaxel in the Treatment of Cancers with Squamous Histologies

    PubMed Central

    Loong, Herbert H.; Chan, Alvita C.Y.; Wong, Ashley C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Taxanes, such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are well-established cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including those of squamous histology. In their formulation, both agents require solvents, which have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions, peripheral neuropathy, hepatic toxicities, and impaired drug delivery. nab-Paclitaxel is a novel, albumin-bound form of paclitaxel with improved tolerability, bioavailability, and efficacy compared with solvent-based paclitaxel. Currently, nab-paclitaxel is approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, locally advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and metastatic pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies suggest that nab-paclitaxel may be particularly effective in cancers with squamous histology, including NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging evidence supporting nab-paclitaxel as an effective agent in the treatment of malignancies of squamous histology. PMID:26918039

  8. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; Dimarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology.

  9. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology.

  10. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  11. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  12. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  13. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  14. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  15. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. PMID:26258698

  16. Microscopic esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca; Milione, Massimo; Parente, Paola; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease in industrialized countries (Europe and North America) and is associated with microscopic changes in the squamous epithelium. However, biopsy is not presently included in the routine diagnostic flow chart of GERD. In contrast, esophageal biopsy is mandatory when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus. High quality histology reports are necessary to provide information on diagnosis and can also be important for research and epidemiological studies. It has been evident for decades that pathology reports vary between institutions and even within a single institution. Standardization of reporting is the best way to ensure that information necessary for patient management is included in pathology reports. This paper details the histological criteria for diagnosing GERD-associated microscopic esophagitis, other forms of esophagitis with specific features and columnar metaplasia in the lower esophagus (Barrett's esophagus). It provides a detailed description of appropriate sampling criteria, individual lesions and how they contribute to the histology report.

  17. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  18. Pediatric infratentorial ependymoma: prognostic significance of anaplastic histology.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, In-One; Park, Kyung Duk; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric infratentorial ependymomas are difficult to cure. Despite the availability of advanced therapeutic modalities for brain tumors, total surgical resection remains the most important prognostic factor. Recently, histological grade emerged as an independent prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment outcome of 33 pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. Fourteen patients (42%) were under the age of 3 at diagnosis. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (49%). Anaplastic histology was found in 13 patients (39%). Adjuvant therapies were delayed until progression in 12 patients (36%). Actuarial PFS rates were 64% in the first year and 29% in the fifth year. Actuarial OS rates were 91% in the first year and 71% in the fifth year. On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion (P = 0.047), anaplastic histology (P = 0.004), higher mitotic count (P = 0.001), and higher Ki-67 index (P = 0.004) were significantly related to a shorter PFS. Gross total resection (P = 0.029) and a greater age at diagnosis (P = 0.033) were significantly related to a longer PFS. On multivariate analysis, anaplastic histology alone was significantly related to a shorter PFS (P = 0.023). Gross total resection (P = 0.039) was significantly related to a longer overall survival (OS) on multivariate analysis. Anaplastic histology and gross total resection were the most important clinical factors affecting PFS and OS, respectively. Anaplastic histology, mitotic count, and Ki-67 index can be used as universal and easily available prognostic parameters in infratentorial ependymomas.

  19. Association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Thomas, G; Nurko, S; Stephany, B; Fatica, R; Chiesa, A; Rule, A D; Srinivas, T; Schold, J D; Navaneethan, S D; Poggio, E D

    2013-09-01

    The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome.

  20. Robust registration of sparsely sectioned histology to ex-vivo MRI of temporal lobe resections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubran, Maged; Khan, Ali R.; Crukley, Cathie; Buchanan, Susan; Santyr, Brendan; deRibaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Surgical resection of epileptic foci is a typical treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy, however, accurate preoperative localization is challenging and often requires invasive sub-dural or intra-cranial electrode placement. The presence of cellular abnormalities in the resected tissue can be used to validate the effectiveness of multispectralMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in pre-operative foci localization and surgical planning. If successful, these techniques can lead to improved surgical outcomes and less invasive procedures. Towards this goal, a novel pipeline is presented here for post-operative imaging of temporal lobe specimens involving MRI and digital histology, and present and evaluate methods for bringing these images into spatial correspondence. The sparsely-sectioned histology images of resected tissue represents a challenge for 3D reconstruction which we address with a combined 3D and 2D rigid registration algorithm that alternates between slice-based and volume-based registration with the ex-vivo MRI. We also evaluate four methods for non-rigid within-plane registration using both images and fiducials, with the top performing method resulting in a target registration error of 0.87 mm. This work allows for the spatially-local comparison of histology with post-operative MRI and paves the way for eventual registration with pre-operative MRI images.

  1. Plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI evaluated by dense 3D correspondence with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, Arna; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan; Verhagen, Hence; Groen, Harald; Wentzel, Jolanda; van der Lugt, Aad; Niessen, Wiro

    2011-03-01

    Automatic quantification of carotid artery plaque composition is important in the development of methods that distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. MRI has shown to be capable of imaging different components noninvasively. We present a new plaque classification method which uses 3D registration of histology data with ex vivo MRI data, using non-rigid registration, both for training and evaluation. This is more objective than previously presented methods, as it eliminates selection bias that is introduced when 2D MRI slices are manually matched to histological slices before evaluation. Histological slices of human atherosclerotic plaques were manually segmented into necrotic core, fibrous tissue and calcification. Classification of these three components was voxelwise evaluated. As features the intensity, gradient magnitude and Laplacian in four MRI sequences after different degrees of Gaussian smoothing, and the distances to the lumen and the outer vessel wall, were used. Performance of linear and quadratic discriminant classifiers for different combinations of features was evaluated. Best accuracy (72.5 +/- 7.7%) was reached with the linear classifier when all features were used. Although this was only a minor improvement to the accuracy of a classifier that only included the intensities and distance features (71.6 +/- 7.9%), the difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, p<0.05). Good sensitivity and specificity for calcification was reached (83% and 95% respectively), however, differentiation between fibrous (sensitivity 85%, specificity 60%) and necrotic tissue (sensitivity 49%, specificity 89%) was more difficult.

  2. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  3. Histological diagnosis of early and suspicious leprosy by in situ PCR.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, M; Katoch, K; Katoch, V M; Das, Ram; Sharma, V D

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic mycobacterial disease whose diagnosis is primarily based on clinico-pathological examination and supported by slit skin smears for the presence of acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, definitive diagnosis of early leprosy and those suspected to have the disease but not histologically confirmed pose major public health problems. The present study reports the utility of the in situ Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification (PCR) directed at a 530bp fragment of DNA encoding the 36kd antigen of the causative Mycobacterium leprae for the diagnosis of such patients using skin biopsies of lesions. Twenty five adult patients (aged 15-50yrs) each from the clinical categories of Early and clinically Suspect leprosy were selected for the study after obtaining permission. They had solitary lesions, which were negative for AFB on slit skin smear examination. Routine histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of leprosy in 8/25 (32%) cases in the category of Early leprosy with AFB being seen in 2 biopsies, and in 5/25(20%) cases of Suspect leprosy with AFB being seen in a solitary case. The Direct in situ PCR procedure which was performed in the histologically unconfirmed cases improved the diagnosis with positive results observed in 12/17 (70.6%) cases of Early (p=0.001) and in 12/20 (60%) cases of Suspect Leprosy (p=0.005 indicating the usefulness of the Direct in situ PCR to establish the diagnosis of leprosy in histologically doubtful cases.

  4. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  5. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on tendon gliding: a biomechanical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Kain, C C; Lesker, P A

    1986-01-01

    The effect on tendon gliding of flexor sheath excision versus incision/closure following primary flexor tendon repair was examined biomechanically and histologically in forty-one chickens. There was no significant difference in either the tendon excursion required to fully flex the digit or in the work of flexion (the integration of the forces that resist tendon gliding during excursion) between the sheath excised and sheath closed groups. The results were unaffected by postoperative immobilization or intermittent passive motion. Histologically, it was noted that at 3 weeks the healing tendon was surrounded by a layer of granulation tissue that was nearly identical in both the sheath excised and the sheath closed digits. Of note was the finding that a synovial lining could not be identified in those digits that had previously undergone sheath closure. However, at 6 weeks postoperatively, a new gliding surface could be identified surrounding the tendon in both the sheath excised and the sheath closed digits. This study indicates that closure of the flexor sheath after primary tendon repair does not improve tendon gliding as measured biomechanically. Despite its repair, the flexor sheath does not maintain its synovial characteristics as demonstrated histologically, and a new sheath must subsequently be formed.

  6. [A histologic study of brain in fatal cerebral malaria].

    PubMed

    Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Effa'a, Christian; Alunni, Véronique; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Haudebourg, Juliette; Michiels, Jean-François

    2008-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection is an emergency because of the risk of cerebral malaria, that is the most severe complication. Malaria diagnosis is usually made on blood samples of feverish patients coming from endemic area. The pathologist is rarely confronted with malaria lesions. If the occasion arises, the diagnosis of malaria is often already known or suspected and the pathologist has to confirm it. Rarely, malaria is unknown before histological examination and the diagnosis is based on the identification of specific histological features. We report a case of sudden death due to cerebral malaria diagnosed on autopsy findings. PMID:19084718

  7. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  8. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  9. [Clinical and histological studies of adenoid cystic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Semba, O; Sato, T; Miyahara, H; Yoshino, K; Umatani, K; Ishiguro, S

    1983-04-01

    Forty-four salivary gland tumors were seen at The Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka, between 1979 and 1981; 30 were benign and 14 malignant. Of the latter, 7 (50%) were adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Six of 7 ACC were reviewed with special attention to their histologic pattern, atypism, connective tissue around the cell nest, tumor cell nest, tumor cell invasion into lymphatics(ly) and blood vessels(v), and mitosis. ACC was divided into 3 histological groups. Patients with ly and/or v develop cervical and/or distant metastases at the early stage or during the follow-up period. Ly and v were closely correlated with metastasis.

  10. Histology-Guided High-Resolution Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Bram; Abdelmoula, Walid M; Lou, Sha; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bovée, Judith V M G; McDonnell, Liam A

    2015-12-15

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is widely used for clinical research because when combined with histopathological analysis the molecular signatures of specific cells/regions can be extracted from the often-complex histologies of pathological tissues. The ability of MSI to stratify patients according to disease, prognosis, and response is directly attributable to this cellular specificity. MSI developments are increasingly focused on further improving specificity, through higher spatial resolution to better localize the signals or higher mass resolution to better resolve molecular ions. Higher spatial/mass resolution leads to increased data size and longer data acquisition times. For clinical applications, which analyze large series of patient tissues, this poses a challenge to keep data load and acquisition time manageable. Here we report a new tool to perform histology guided MSI; instead of analyzing large parts of each tissue section the histology from adjacent tissue sections is used to focus the analysis on the areas of interest, e.g., comparable cell types in different patient tissues, thereby minimizing data acquisition time and data load. The histology tissue section is annotated and then automatically registered to the MSI-prepared tissue section; the registration transformation is then applied to the annotations, enabling them to be used to define the MSI measurement regions. Using a series of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human myxoid liposarcoma tissues, we demonstrate an 80% reduction of data load and acquisition time, thereby enabling high resolution (mass or spatial) to be more readily applied to clinical research. The software is freely available for download. PMID:26595321

  11. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  12. Stacked Predictive Sparse Decomposition for Classification of Histology Sections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yin; Borowsky, Alexander; Barner, Kenneth; Spellman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Image-based classification of histology sections, in terms of distinct components (e.g., tumor, stroma, normal), provides a series of indices for histology composition (e.g., the percentage of each distinct components in histology sections), and enables the study of nuclear properties within each component. Furthermore, the study of these indices, constructed from each whole slide image in a large cohort, has the potential to provide predictive models of clinical outcome. For example, correlations can be established between the constructed indices and the patients’ survival information at cohort level, which is a fundamental step towards personalized medicine. However, performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., variations of color/textures in tissue images due to non-standard experimental protocols) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. We propose a system that automatically learns a series of dictionary elements for representing the underlying spatial distribution using stacked predictive sparse decomposition. The learned representation is then fed into the spatial pyramid matching framework with a linear support vector machine classifier. The system has been evaluated for classification of distinct histological components for two cohorts of tumor types. Throughput has been increased by using of graphical processing unit (GPU), and evaluation indicates a superior performance results, compared with previous research.

  13. Measuring infiltration during paraffin wax processing for histology.

    PubMed

    Allison, R T; Lloyd, D

    1996-09-01

    A method is described to allow monitoring of the penetration of processing fluids into tissue during histological processing. The method is established by evaluating the effect of incorporating dimethyl sulphoxide into paraffin wax and comparing processing times with those for pure paraffin wax.

  14. Early Renal Histological Changes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Shafi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease. Most investigators have focused on glomerular changes in diabetic kidney and non-glomerular alterations have been less attended. The present study has been conducted to find early non-glomerular histological changes in diabetic renal tissue. Twenty male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were used for the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of Alloxan. After 8 weeks, paraffin embedded blocks of kidneys were prepared for evaluating the histological changes due to diabetes. Histological study showed the deposit of eosinophilic materials in the intermediate substantial of medulla and thickening of renal arterial wall in the kidney of 70% of diabetic rats. The average weight of kidneys increased when compared to non diabetic animals. Furthermore, the amount of blood flow in arteries of all diabetic kidneys has been enhanced. The present study demonstrates some early renal histological changes in diabetes mellitus which were earlier compared to those reported previously. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease and renal care design can help better prognosis achievement. PMID:24551816

  15. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  16. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  17. [Graves' disease: ultrasonographic, color Doppler and histological aspects].

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Viceconti, N; Trinti, B

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between thyroid low echogenicity, the thyroid blood flow by color-Doppler (CD) and histological features in patients with Graves' disease (GD). Thyroid ultrasonography and CD was performed on 28 patients with GD. In 5 patients has been compared CD with histology. The thyroid volume was higher in 100% of patients with GD at the onset rather than in euthyroidism. Diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid was discovered in 100% of patients with GD at the onset and it persisted in 57.1% of patients that became euthyroid after therapy. Qualitative CD resulted in different patterns that were classified as follow: pattern A ("thyroid inferno") in 17 patients (60.7%); pattern B (mildly increased of parenchymal blood flow) in 11 patients (39.3%). In the 5 histological proven cases, in the pattern A (3 cases) there was a diffuse microfollicular hyperplasia with functional activation notes. There was lymphocytic infiltration. While in the pattern B (two cases) there were a non-follicular hypercellular nodule with pseudocapsule and rare colloid. We conclude that there are two different histological types with different CD patterns in GD.

  18. Sonographic evaluation of fetal cerebral structures correlated with histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Comănescu, Alexandru Cristian; Cernea, Nicolae; Tica, Oana Sorina; Comănescu, Maria Victoria; Niculescu, Elena Carmen; Florou, Charoula; Grosu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal development of the human brain from undifferentiated neuroepithelium, crosses numerous steps towards primordial organization and subsequent cytoarchitectural layering, ascending and progressive from the lower cortical layers to the superior ones. Our study represents a systematic, comparative assessment of imaging studies and the histological evaluation of the prenatal development of the human brain. We evaluated 232 cases using 3D ultrasound. Histological study was performed on 17 cases aged between 8 and 32 weeks pregnancy and compared with imaging results. For the ultrasound study, we chose five anatomical landmarks: the choroid plexus, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and island (Sylvian fissure). The histological study was performed on dissected brain specimens preserved in formaldehyde and was followed by immunohistochemical determination in order to complete the picture of the morphological evolution of the structures evaluated. We analyzed the accuracy of the description of marker elements (choroid plexus, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and Sylvian fissure) in three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation. This showed a good correlation with the morphological evaluation as well as with the dimensional descriptions from the literature. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment helped complete the picture of the central nervous system development. Highlighting fetal cerebral structures by three-dimensional ultrasound, together with morphological examination helped us create a dynamic array of the central nervous system development.

  19. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  20. Intravascular Ultrasound and Virtual Histology of Basilar Artery Atherosclerotic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    López-Rueda, A.; González García, A.; Aguilar Pérez, M.; Gutiérrez Jarrín, R.K.; Mayol Deyá, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary To our knowledge, this paper presents the first intravascular ultrasound and virtual histology (IVUS-VH) study in the basilar artery. IVUS-VH serves to characterize and determine the extension of the plaque and we also to check stent placement. PMID:22192552

  1. Histological and histometrical evidences for phenol immunotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Louei Monfared, Ali; Jaafari, Afsaneh; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Phenol is a common industrial and ubiquitous environmental chemical which is used to synthesize resins and plastics. Due to its anesthetic and disinfectant properties, phenol is also widely used in pharmaceutical products. Since there were no adequate data about phenol immunotoxicity, the purpose of the present study is to investigate its toxic effects on the histological structures of the lymphoid organs in the mice. A total of 80 mice were randomly distributed into one control group and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, whereas experimental groups were orally administered phenol at the concentrations of 80, 180, and 320 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 28 consecutive days, tissue samples were taken and histological changes of the spleens, thymuses, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes were examined using optical microscopy. The results showed that in the phenol treated animals; splenic megakaryocyte counts increased, the diameter of the splenic follicles decreased, the thymocyte population in both cortex and medulla reduced, the thickness of the reticular layers of adrenal gland increased and lymphatic cells populations in the lymph node were reduced, significantly (P < 0.01). Also, remarkable histological changes were noted in the various lymphatic organs of the treated mice. Overall, present findings give some histological evidences that selected qualitative and quantitative parameters of the lymphatic organs were significantly altered by phenol administration. In conclusion, the significant decreases of the immune cell populations together with histological alterations in the immunocompetent organs of the mice exposed to phenol indicate the immunosuppressive and immunotoxic properties of this chemical material. PMID:24829551

  2. Correlation of renal histology with outcome in children with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Rush, P J; Baumal, R; Shore, A; Balfe, J W; Schreiber, M

    1986-05-01

    We assessed renal histological features in 20 children with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) to determine whether they were useful in predicting clinical outcome. Renal biopsies were analyzed by assigning scores indicating an activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI). Clinical assessment of renal function at biopsy and outcome were graded according to urinalysis, serum creatinine, need for dialysis and/or transplantation, and/or death from end-stage renal failure. Renal function at biopsy correlated significantly with AI and CI. Serum complement (C3 and C4) correlated significantly with CI but not with AI. The usefulness of the clinical grading system was confirmed in ten patients who underwent repeat biopsies. Of these, four converted from DPLN to mesangial or membranous lupus and showed improvement in their grade, while only one of the six with DPLN on both biopsies improved. After a mean follow-up of 4.0 years, 14 of the 20 patients showed clinical improvement, four were unchanged, and two were worse. CI predicted clinical outcome (P less than 0.01) but AI did not. Histologic scores of AI and CI obtained from renal biopsies showing DPLN may be useful in predicting therapeutic responses and designing prospective clinical trials to determine optimum management of children with DPLN.

  3. A histological study of macroscopically normal equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Webbon, P M

    1978-10-01

    The normal appearance of the superficial (SFT) and deep (DFT) digital flexor tendons was described and the difference between their histological structures was emphasised. Further differences were recognised between different sites from the same tendon and between tendons in the fore and hind limbs of the same animal. Both of the tendons underwent changes with age but although a number of alterations in the histological appearance were described, a particular change, involving a patchy loss of stainable nuclei, was found at the common site of SFT injuries. While this appearance has been seen in injured tendons and described as tendon necrosis, the author warns that no cause and effect relationship has been established between the acellularity and the clinical lesions. Neither is it certain that the loss of tendon cells results in mechanical weakness of the tendon.

  4. Developmental palaeontology of Reptilia as revealed by histological studies.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P Martin

    2010-06-01

    Among the fossilized ontogenetic series known for tetrapods, only more basal groups like temnospondyl amphibians have been used extensively in developmental studies, whereas reptilian and synapsid data have been largely neglected so far. However, before such ontogenetic series can be subject to study, the relative age and affiliation of putative specimens within a series has to be verified. Bone histology has a long-standing tradition as being a source of palaeobiological and growth history data in fossil amniotes and indeed, the analysis of bone microstructures still remains the most important and most reliable tool for determining the absolute ontogenetic age of fossil vertebrates. It is also the only direct way to reconstruct life histories and growth strategies for extinct animals. Herein the record of bone histology among Reptilia and its application to elucidate and expand fossilized ontogenies as a source of developmental data are reviewed.

  5. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs.

  6. Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Matteo; Leutner, Monica; Mescoli, Claudia; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Gullotta, Renzo

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is growing in western countries, making their histological diagnosis an everyday task for all pathologists. Reviews from the literature strongly suggest that such diagnosis cannot be performed on the histological ground alone but requires a clinical-pathological approach. Moreover, bewildering variations can be observed in the terminology employed to report either individual lesions or diagnostic categories. The aim of the present paper is to suggest a practical diagnostic algorithm summarizing the main data from the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on minimum clinical information required and the accurate definition of individual lesions. Diagnostic categories to employ and to avoid in daily practice have furthermore been stressed.

  7. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Characteristics of Histologically Defined Prostate Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junqian; Humphrey, Peter A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Narra, Vamsidhar R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2010-01-01

    The contrast provided by diffusion-sensitive magnetic resonance offers the promise of improved tumor localization in organ-confined human prostate cancer (PCa). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements of PCa were performed in vivo, in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, and later, ex vivo, in the same patients’ prostatectomy specimens. The imaging data were coregistered to histological sections of the prostatectomy specimens, thereby enabling unambiguous characterization of diffusion parameters in cancerous and benign tissues. Increased cellularity, and hence decreased luminal spaces, in peripheral zone PCa led to approximately 40% and 50% apparent diffusion policy (ADC) decrease compared with benign peripheral zone tissues in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. In contrast, no significant diffusion anisotropy differences were observed between the cancerous and noncancerous peripheral zone tissues. However, the dense fibromuscular tissues in prostate, such as stromal tissues in benign prostatic hyperplasia in central gland, exhibited high diffusion anisotropy. A tissue classification method is proposed to combine DTI and T2-weighted image contrasts that may provide improved specificity of PCa detection over T2-weighted imaging alone. PCa identified in volume rendered MR images qualitatively correlates well with histologically determined PCa foci. PMID:19215051

  9. Glutaraldehyde-fixed kangaroo aortic wall tissue: histology, crosslink stability and calcification potential.

    PubMed

    Neethling, W M L; Hodge, A J; Glancy, R

    2003-07-15

    Stentless aortic heart valve substitutes, manufactured from biological tissues, are fixed with glutaraldehyde to cross-link collagen, reduce antigenicity, and sterilize the tissue. Despite improved cross linking, reduced antigenicity, and various anticalcification measures, the aortic wall tissue present in these prostheses tends to calcify. The aim of this study was to assess the morphology, collagen cross-link stability, and calcification potential of glutaraldehyde-preserved kangaroo aortic wall tissue as opposed to porcine aortic wall tissue. Porcine and kangaroo aortic wall tissues were fixed in 0.625% buffered glutaraldehyde. Histology and cross-link stability were examined. Calcification potential was determined in the subcutaneous rat model. Kangaroo aortic wall tissue was significantly (p < 0.01) less calcified than porcine aortic wall tissue (26.67 +/- 6.53 versus 41.959 +/- 2.75 microg/mg tissue) at 8 weeks. In conclusion, the histological differences between kangaroo and porcine aortic wall tissue correlate well with the reduced calcification potential of kangaroo aortic wall tissue. The reduced calcification potential could result in improved long-term durability of stentless kangaroo heart valves as bioprostheses.

  10. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856273

  11. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, M.; Mahankali, R. K.; Ismal, K.; Vali, P. S.; Sahay, R. K.; Swarnalata, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m2. Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  12. Robust alignment of prostate histology slices with quantified accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Cecilia; Rouviere, Olivier; Mege Lechevallier, Florence; Souchon, Rémi; Prost, Rémy

    2012-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men yet no current imaging technique is capable of detecting the tumours with precision. To evaluate each technique, the histology data must be precisely mapped to the imaged data. As it cannot be assumed that the histology slices are cut along the same plane as the imaged data is acquired, the registration is a 3D problem. This requires the prior accurate alignment of the histology slices. We propose a protocol to create in a rapid and standardised manner internal fiducial markers in fresh prostate specimens and an algorithm by which these markers can then be automatically detected and classified enabling the automatic rigid alignment of each slice. The protocol and algorithm were tested on 10 prostate specimens, with 19.2 histology slices on average per specimen. On average 90.9% of the fiducial markers created were visible in the slices, of which 96.1% were automatically correctly detected and classified. The average accuracy of the alignment was 0.19 +/- 0.15 mm at the fiducial markers. The algorithm took 5.46 min on average per specimen. The proposed protocol and algorithm were also tested using simulated images and a beef liver sample. The simulated images showed that the algorithm has no associated residual error and justified the choice of a rigid registration. In the beef liver images, the average accuracy of the alignment was 0.11 +/- 0.09 mm at the fiducial markers and 0.63 +/- 0.47 mm at a validation marker approximately 20 mm from the fiducial markers.

  13. Dyes and stains: from molecular structure to histological application.

    PubMed

    Veuthey, Tania; Herrera, Georgina; Dodero, Veronica I

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the chemistry of dyes as well as the interaction mechanisms between tissue and dye has been detailed, and also some of the key factors affecting the selectivity of dyes by certain cellular structures have been mentioned. Moreover, due to the relevance that histological stains have acquired in biomedical research, some of the most common stains have been described, pointing out previous and current applications in basic and applied research.

  14. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  15. Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, O; Cairns, A; Gray, S; Moayyedi, P; Dixon, M

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether two recently described staining methods (the modified McMullen's and the Helicobacter pylori silver stain HpSS methods) used for the histological identification of H pylori organisms are superior to two established techniques (the modified Giemsa and anti-H pylori antibody immunostain) in terms of availability, reproducibility, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost. Methods—Histological sections from 63 paired gastric biopsies from adult patients previously investigated for dyspepsia were stained with the four methods and these were assessed blindly and independently by two observers. Of the 63 patients, 30 were originally negative in all tests for H pylori infection, 30 were positive, and the remaining three cases had discordant results using a combination of five tests (rapid biopsy urease test, urea breath test, culture, serology, and histology). Results—Interobserver agreement was best with the antibody method (98%), followed by the McMullen's (90%), Giemsa (87%), and HpSS (85%). Of the 60 "gold standard" positive and negative cases, 30 were positive by the modified Giemsa stain, 29 by the McMullen's method, 29 by HpSS, and 30 by the antibody stain. However, there were two false positives with the HpSS method. The modified Giemsa is the cheapest and easiest to perform technically. Conclusions—When H pylori are present, careful examination will almost always reveal them, whichever of these stains is used. However, the modified Giemsa stain is the method of choice because it is sensitive, cheap, easy to perform, and reproducible. Key Words: Helicobacter organisms • histological identification • staining methods PMID:11064668

  16. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  17. Remote histology learning from static versus dynamic microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized. Digitized microscopy images can be presented in either a static or dynamic format. This study of remote histology education identifies whether dynamic pictures are superior to static images for the acquisition of histological knowledge. Test results of two cohorts of second-year Bachelor in Medicine students at Ghent University were analyzed in two consecutive academic years: Cohort 1 (n = 190) and Cohort 2 (n = 174). Students in Cohort 1 worked with static images whereas students in Cohort 2 were presented with dynamic images. ANCOVA was applied to study differences in microscopy performance scores between the two cohorts, taking into account any possible initial differences in prior knowledge. The results show that practical histology scores are significantly higher with dynamic images as compared to static images (F (1,361) = 15.14, P < 0.01), regardless of student's gender and performance level. Several reasons for this finding can be explained in accordance with cognitivist learning theory. Since the findings suggest that knowledge construction with dynamic pictures is stronger as compared to static images, dynamic images should be introduced in a remote setting for microscopy education. Further implementation within a larger electronic learning management system needs to be explored in future research. Anat Sci Educ 9: 222-230. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction.

  19. Uterine Receptivity to Human Embryonic Implantation: Histology, Biomarkers, and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, L; Hamilton, AE; Giudice, LC

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic implantation is a dynamic process of paracrine interactions between the maternal compartment and the conceptus and involves a receptive endometrium and a developmentally competent blastocyst. Herein, we review histology, clinical approaches, and the promise of transcriptomics in elucidating mechanisms underlying implantation and development of biomarkers of uterine receptivity - with an eye to diagnose and treat implantation-based disorders of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and infertility. PMID:18035563

  20. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  1. Histologic Lesions Induced by Murine Norovirus Infection in Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C C; Piotrowski, S L; Meeker, S M; Smith, K D; Maggio-Price, L; Treuting, P M

    2016-07-01

    Murine noroviruses (MNVs) are highly prevalent in laboratory mice, can cause persistent infections, and have been shown to infect macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. To address the potential impact of MNV infection on research outcomes, numerous studies have been conducted with various mouse models of human disease and have generated mixed results, ranging from no impact to significant disease. Many of these studies included histologic evaluations after MNV infection, and these results have similarly been variable in terms of whether MNV induces lesions, despite the fact that localization of MNV by viral culture and molecular techniques have demonstrated systemic distribution regardless of mouse immune status. The aim of this review is to summarize the histologic findings that have been reported with MNV infection in several mouse models. The studies demonstrate that experimental infection of MNV in wild-type mice results in minimal to no histologic changes. In contrast, immunodeficient mice consistently have detectable MNV-induced lesions that are typically inflammatory and, in the most severe cases, accompanied by necrosis. In these, the liver is commonly affected, with more variable lesions reported in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, brain, and spleen. In specific disease models including atherosclerosis, MNV infection had a variable impact that was dependent on the mouse model, viral strain, timing of infection, or other experimental variables. It is important to recognize the reported MNV lesions to help discern the possible influence of MNV infection on data generated in mouse models. PMID:26792844

  2. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer. PMID:24533406

  3. The biomechanical and histological sequelae of common skin banking methods.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph M B; Soldin, Mark; Shaw, Tanya J; Szarko, Matthew

    2014-03-21

    Human skin allografts are used worldwide as an adjunct for the healing of burns when autograft skin is not available or not indicated. Allograft skin comes from human cadaveric donors, and so must be preserved until use. This study forms the first investigation to compare the mechanical and histological integrity of human split-thickness skin grafts preserved by either glycerolisation or cryopreservation (with or without the cryoprotectant DMSO). Stress relaxation was used to assess mechanical properties, whilst histological analysis allowed for evaluation of structural integrity. Preservation of tissue, whether by freezing or glycerolisation, altered the relaxation behaviours of skin. Young's modulus upon initial loading significantly decreased for skin frozen without cryoprotectant, but remained unchanged for skin frozen with cryoprotectant and skin preserved with glycerol. After 1.5h of stress relaxation, both fresh skin and skin frozen without DMSO displayed similar relaxation rates. Samples frozen with DMSO or preserved with glycerol had increased relaxation rate and had not reached load equilibrium within this time. To understand the structural basis for the biomechanical changes, samples were histologically assessed. All preservation protocols resulted in a similar degree of visible damage, but cryopreservation appeared particularly damaging to the extracellular matrix, whereas glycerolisation caused dramatic separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis. The mechanical property alterations reveal that preservation results in laxity, which clinically could hinder contact dependent healing properties, but alternatively may increase capacity for coverage. The structural changes confirm that preservation techniques do not conserve grafts in an in vivo state.

  4. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  5. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer.

  6. Radiological, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Berar, Antonela Marcela; Bondor, Cosmina Ioana; Matroş, LuminiŢa; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    The loss of teeth is largely caused by supporting tissue damage, because of bacterial invasion from the infected root canals. Sixty patients with periapical lesions (PLs) of endodontic origin were included in the study. Clinical and radiological examination was performed. Periapical radiographs were analyzed by two independent observers to determine the size and severity of PLs, using Periapical Index (PAI) scores. The tissue samples collected by periapical curettage during apicoectomy or after dental extractions by alveolar curettage were histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The PLs were histologically diagnosed as: periapical granulomas (PGs), granulomas with cystic potential and radicular cysts (RCs) with various degrees of inflammation. Capillary density was evaluated using the angiogenic index after immunohistochemical staining with CD34 monoclonal antibody. A statistically significant correlation was observed between PAI scores and the size of the lesions. 68.33% of cases were PGs, 18.33% PGs with cystic potential and 18.33% RCs with different degrees of inflammation. Seventy-five percent PLs had an angiogenic index 1 and 25% had an angiogenic index 2. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the angiogenic index and lesion size (p<0.05). Capillary density within PLs did not influence the severity scores of lesions detected on radiographs. The angiogenic index appeared not to be associated with the histological lesion type and the intensity of inflammation, but was more likely correlated with the degree of granulation tissue maturation and the size of PLs. PMID:27516014

  7. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  9. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  10. Anatomy, histologic features, and vascularity of the adult acetabular labrum.

    PubMed

    Seldes, R M; Tan, V; Hunt, J; Katz, M; Winiarsky, R; Fitzgerald, R H

    2001-01-01

    Acetabular labrum tears have been implicated as a cause of hip pain in adult patients. Few studies describe the anatomy, histologic features, and microvasculature of the acetabular labrum and labral tears. Fifty-five embalmed and 12 fresh-frozen adult hips with a mean age of 78 years (range, 61-98 years) were studied. Of these, 96 % (53 of 55) of the hips had labral tears, with 74% of the tears located in the anterosuperior quadrant. Histologically, the fibrocartilaginous labrum was contiguous with the acetabular articular cartilage through a 1- to 2-mm zone of transition. A consistent projection of bone extends from the bony acetabulum into the substance of the labrum that is attached via a zone of calcified cartilage with a well-defined tidemark. Two distinct types of tears of the labrum were identified histologically. The first consisted of a detachment of the fibrocartilaginous labrum from the articular hyaline cartilage at the transition zone. The second consisted of one or more cleavage planes of variable depth within the substance of the labrum. Both types of labral tears were associated with increased microvessel formation seen within the tear. The acetabular labrum tear appears to be an acquired condition that is highly prevalent in aging adult hips. Labral tears occur early in the arthritic process of the hip and may be one of the causes of degenerative hip disease.

  11. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae.

  12. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Sciubba, James J.; Bishop, Justin A.; Zinreich, Eva; Tang, Mei; Levine, Marshall A.; Palermo, Robert A.; Fakhry, Carole; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years) exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P = 0.006). The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation. PMID:22844290

  13. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos.

    PubMed

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-03-01

    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved.

  14. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education.

  15. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education. PMID:25808044

  16. Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gary A; Sosa Peña, Maria del Pilar; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Tahiliani, Sahil; Brenner, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly prevalent throughout industry, manufacturing, and biomedical research. The need for tools and techniques that aid in the identification, localization, and characterization of nanoscale materials in biological samples is on the rise. Currently available methods, such as electron microscopy, tend to be resource-intensive, making their use prohibitive for much of the research community. Enhanced darkfield microscopy complemented with a hyperspectral imaging system may provide a solution to this bottleneck by enabling rapid and less expensive characterization of nanoparticles in histological samples. This method allows for high-contrast nanoscale imaging as well as nanomaterial identification. For this technique, histological tissue samples are prepared as they would be for light-based microscopy. First, positive control samples are analyzed to generate the reference spectra that will enable the detection of a material of interest in the sample. Negative controls without the material of interest are also analyzed in order to improve specificity (reduce false positives). Samples can then be imaged and analyzed using methods and software for hyperspectral microscopy or matched against these reference spectra in order to provide maps of the location of materials of interest in a sample. The technique is particularly well-suited for materials with highly unique reflectance spectra, such as noble metals, but is also applicable to other materials, such as semi-metallic oxides. This technique provides information that is difficult to acquire from histological samples without the use of electron microscopy techniques, which may provide higher sensitivity and resolution, but are vastly more resource-intensive and time-consuming than light microscopy. PMID:26709947

  17. Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gary A.; Sosa Peña, Maria del Pilar; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Tahiliani, Sahil; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly prevalent throughout industry, manufacturing, and biomedical research. The need for tools and techniques that aid in the identification, localization, and characterization of nanoscale materials in biological samples is on the rise. Currently available methods, such as electron microscopy, tend to be resource-intensive, making their use prohibitive for much of the research community. Enhanced darkfield microscopy complemented with a hyperspectral imaging system may provide a solution to this bottleneck by enabling rapid and less expensive characterization of nanoparticles in histological samples. This method allows for high-contrast nanoscale imaging as well as nanomaterial identification. For this technique, histological tissue samples are prepared as they would be for light-based microscopy. First, positive control samples are analyzed to generate the reference spectra that will enable the detection of a material of interest in the sample. Negative controls without the material of interest are also analyzed in order to improve specificity (reduce false positives). Samples can then be imaged and analyzed using methods and software for hyperspectral microscopy or matched against these reference spectra in order to provide maps of the location of materials of interest in a sample. The technique is particularly well-suited for materials with highly unique reflectance spectra, such as noble metals, but is also applicable to other materials, such as semi-metallic oxides. This technique provides information that is difficult to acquire from histological samples without the use of electron microscopy techniques, which may provide higher sensitivity and resolution, but are vastly more resource-intensive and time-consuming than light microscopy. PMID:26709947

  18. Non-ablative radio-frequency rejuvenation: a histological and bio-molecular report.

    PubMed

    Avantaggiato, A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Cura, F; Pascali, M; Carinci, F

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency machines for medical use are known to produce moderate clinical improvement of skin laxity without invasive procedures. Numerous equipment with different characteristics have been proposed after the introduction in 2002 of the first FDA approved device. This report is aimed to test if RF treatment is effective when performed at low frequency and low energy level. Two RF treatments were performed unilaterally 7 and 2 days before a planned eyebrow lifting surgery, with a radiofrequency device with 0.52 to 0.7 MHz frequencies, maximum energy of 200 W, used at 40% of its power. A bipolar handpiece with a diameter of 30 mm and a maximum power of 9-9.5 W was massaged along the temporal area for 10 min. Skin samples of treated and untreated sides were collected during surgery and processed for histologic examination and RT-PCR analysis, to test differences in gene activation in a panel of proteins that are relevant in extracellular matrix of dermal connective tissue. The histological examination of the samples showed that the treatment induced a loss of the typical oriented structure in the reticular dermis. The study through RT-PCR evidenced that ELN, the gene codifying for Elastine was strongly enhanced. Some collagen-tested genes (COL1A1, COL3A1 and COL9A1) were inhibited by the treatment, whereas COL2A1 and COL11 were activated. The genes responsible for Metallo-proteases (MMP) 2, 3 and 13 were depressed, while the MMP9 was stimulated. Gene codifying for Hyaluronic synthase 1 (HAS1), Hyluronidase 1 (HYAL1), Neutrophyl elastase (Elane), Desmoplakin (DSP) and GDF6 were inhibited. Insulin like growth factor (IGF1) gene activity was enhanced. RF treatment, with the tested non-ablative equipment, produced histological effects and change in DNA expression of some extracellular matrix related genes, confirming the biostimulatory role of this procedure. PMID:27469572

  19. Histostitcher™: An informatics software platform for reconstructing whole-mount prostate histology using the extensible imaging platform framework

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert J.; Shih, Natalie; Tomaszewski, John E.; Feldman, Michael D.; Kutter, Oliver; Yu, Daphne N.; Paulus, John C.; Paladini, Ginaluca; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Context: Co-registration of ex-vivo histologic images with pre-operative imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) can be used to align and map disease extent, and to identify quantitative imaging signatures. However, ex-vivo histology images are frequently sectioned into quarters prior to imaging. Aims: This work presents Histostitcher™, a software system designed to create a pseudo whole mount histology section (WMHS) from a stitching of four individual histology quadrant images. Materials and Methods: Histostitcher™ uses user-identified fiducials on the boundary of two quadrants to stitch such quadrants. An original prototype of Histostitcher™ was designed using the Matlab programming languages. However, clinical use was limited due to slow performance, computer memory constraints and an inefficient workflow. The latest version was created using the extensible imaging platform (XIP™) architecture in the C++ programming language. A fast, graphics processor unit renderer was designed to intelligently cache the visible parts of the histology quadrants and the workflow was significantly improved to allow modifying existing fiducials, fast transformations of the quadrants and saving/loading sessions. Results: The new stitching platform yielded significantly more efficient workflow and reconstruction than the previous prototype. It was tested on a traditional desktop computer, a Windows 8 Surface Pro table device and a 27 inch multi-touch display, with little performance difference between the different devices. Conclusions: Histostitcher™ is a fast, efficient framework for reconstructing pseudo WMHS from individually imaged quadrants. The highly modular XIP™ framework was used to develop an intuitive interface and future work will entail mapping the disease extent from the pseudo WMHS onto pre-operative MRI. PMID:24843820

  20. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  1. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    PubMed

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  2. 76 FR 82306 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker... ``Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies.'' This guidance is intended to assist sponsors that conduct biomarker qualification studies for which histology is a reference standard. This...

  3. Biochemical and Histological Effects of Thiamine Pyrophosphate against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hilal Bektas; Dağlı, Bekir; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Kahyaoğlu, Fadime; Gökçimen, Alparslan; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; Demirci, Buket

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) has biochemical and histological preventive effects on oxidative liver damage induced by paracetamol (APAP). Rats were divided into the following groups: healthy control (HG), APAP (AG, 1500 mg/kg, orally), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPPG, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), APAP+NAC (ANAC, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), APAP+TPP (ATPG) and APAP+NAC+TPP (ANTG). Oxidant, antioxidant parameters, liver function tests and histological assessment were performed between groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the AG, HG, TPPG, ANAC, ATPG and ANTG groups were 0.470 ± 0.210, 0.213 ± 0.004, 0.194 ± 0.001, 0.197 ± 0.06, 0.199 ± 0.008 and 0.173 ± 0.010 μmol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 7.787 ± 0.395, 14.925 ± 0.932, 13.200 ± 0.984, 13.162 ± 0.486, 13.287 ± 0.787 and 13.500 ± 0.891 μm/g protein, respectively. In the AG group, marked liver damage occurred with the elevation of liver function tests and oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide (p < 0.05). Biochemical results were congruent with the histological changes of oxidative damage. Compared to the AG group (p < 0.05), TPP significantly reduced oxidant parameter levels in the ATPG group and simultaneously increased the antioxidant parameter levels of catalase and glutathione. The histological changes were improved to almost normal hepatic structure. Moreover, TPP had nearly the same hepatoprotective effect as NAC, and there was statistically no additional benefit with NAC co-treatment. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) among the ANAC, ANTG and ATPG groups in terms of oxidant/antioxidant levels. TPP proved to be as efficacious as standard therapy and may be beneficial in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology.

  5. A prognostic score in histological node negative breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, B.; Mosseri, V.; Dauce, J. P.; Bastit, P.; Julien, J. P.; Asselain, B.

    1990-01-01

    Between October 1977 and December 1983, 379 consecutive patients have been treated for unilateral, non-metastatic breast cancer, either with conservative (n = 205) or radical surgery (n = 174), with axillary dissection in all the cases. None of them had histologically proved lymph node involvement. Oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were measured on each tumour. Levels greater than 5 fmol mg-1 cytosolic protein were considered as positive for both ER and PR. At 5 years, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) are respectively 88% and 78%. Unifactorial analysis using Kaplan and Meier estimates and the log rank test revealed that OS was significantly related to age (P less than 0.05), tumour size (P less than 0.001), histological grading (SBR) (P less than 0.01), ER (P less than 0.001) and PR (P less than 0.001). DFS was significantly related to the same factors. Menopausal status, number of breast tumour foci and previous familial history of breast cancer were not significant. Multifactorial analysis revealed that DFS was significantly related to age (bad prognosis (b.p.) less than or equal to 37 years old), tumour size and histological grading (b.p. SBR = 3), and that OS was significantly related to tumour size and PR (b.p. PR less than or equal to 5 fmol mg-1 protein). A prognostic score has been constructed for both DFS and OS. These scores divide our patients into three significantly different (P less than 0.0001) groups with good, intermediate and bad prognosis. PMID:2328212

  6. Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M.; Willis, Joseph; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. We have recently developed a system for endoscopic OCT (EOCT) to examine the gastrointestinal tract of humans in vivo. Compared to endoscopic ultrasonic devices it offers a higher resolution and does not require coupling gels or fluids. EOCT may lead to a versatile tool for biopsy site selection or optical biopsy itself. The EOCT unit is comprised of an interferometer unit with a high speed scanning reference arm and an endoscopically compatible radially scanning probe as the sample arm. Fast data acquisition allows real-time display. Temporal averaging for speckle reduction and a transformation to correct nonlinear scanning were included in the EOCT control software, both in real-time. During in vivo clinical trials, we have observe the structure of the mucosa and submucosa in several gastrointestinal organs as well as glands, blood vessels, pits, villi and crypts. The purpose of this study was to correlate images acquired in vitro with EOCT to corresponding histological sections. EOCT images were obtained on fresh specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens of stomach, ileum, colon and rectum. It was shown that he thickness of the mucosa correlates well with the first bright layer in EOCT. The R2-value was determined to be 0.69. The submucosa and the muscularis propria could be identified. Furthermore, we were able to show the effect of pressure on the tissue on the visible details in the EOCT images.

  7. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary.

  8. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ρ = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of

  9. Histological and histochemical studies on the chicken lingual glands.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, A M; Lorvik, S; Ceccarelli, P; Pedini, V

    1991-09-01

    1. Morphological and histochemical observations were done on the chicken anterior and posterior lingual glands. Histology, ultrastructure and glycoconjugate histochemistry were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy using staining specific for complex carbohydrates. 2. In the anterior lingual glands there are lateral and medial zones showing different morphological and tinctorial features. The secretory cells are typical mucous cells. 3. Histochemical reactions revealed the presence of acidic glycoconjugates with terminal sialic acid residues, and glycoconjugates vicinal diol and sulphate groupings in the secretory granules. 4. It is suggested that the main functions of lingual glands are the lubrication of boli and protection from micro-organisms.

  10. Histological study on the left common iliac vein spur.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Ohta, Takashi; Hayashi, Shogo; Yokoi, Toyoharu; Arima, Takahiro; Asamoto, Ken; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The spur occasionally seen in a left common iliac vein was investigated by anatomical and histological examination of cadavers so the occurrence mechanism could be discussed. Spurs were found in six cases of the 28 cadavers (21.4%) and they were classified into few different kinds of composition of endosporia, tunica media and adventitia. It is considered that there may be different formation mechanisms and stages even in cases of similar anatomical finding. (English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 43-47).

  11. Histology of vermiform appendix-like organ in slow loris.

    PubMed

    Kakuni, Masakazu; Makita, Takashi; Wijayanto, Hery; Hondo, Eiichi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The vermiform appendix-like organ (VALO) of the slow loris was investigated for its histology and immunohistochemical characteristics. The VALO has a much thinner wall with flat folded mucosa and shallower crypts than the cecal mucosa, while cellular components and population of the mucosa were similar to those of the cecum. No coalescent lymph nodules were seen in the submucosa. Immunohistochemically 5-HT-positive cells in the crypts and CD3- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the lymph nodules were shown in the VALO as well as in the cecum. These findings suggest that the VALO is a low-differentiated vermiform appendix of the slow loris.

  12. Image-processing pipelines: applications in magnetic resonance histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Anderson, Robert J.; Cook, James J.; Long, Christopher; Badea, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Image processing has become ubiquitous in imaging research—so ubiquitous that it is easy to loose track of how diverse this processing has become. The Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy has pioneered the development of Magnetic Resonance Histology (MRH), which generates large multidimensional data sets that can easily reach into the tens of gigabytes. A series of dedicated image-processing workstations and associated software have been assembled to optimize each step of acquisition, reconstruction, post-processing, registration, visualization, and dissemination. This talk will describe the image-processing pipelines from acquisition to dissemination that have become critical to our everyday work.

  13. Pigmented ameloblastic fibro-odontoma: clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Martínez Martínez, Marisol; Romero, Celeste Sánchez; Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Palma Guzmán, José Mario; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a slow-growing, expansive, benign odontogenic tumor, composed of ameloblastic epithelium embedded in an ectomesenchymal stroma resembling dental papilla, containing hard dental tissue in variable degrees of maturation, including enamel, dentin, and sometimes cementum. AFO typically affects the posterior mandible, causing bony expansion. We report a case of pigmented AFO in a 5-year-old boy, comprising clinical and histological features illustrated by immunohistochemistry using a large panel of antibodies, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. [Histological studies of normal and pathological furcations in the rat].

    PubMed

    Mattout, P; Rachlin, G

    1978-06-01

    In order to study the histological structure of healthy and pathological furcations in the rat, two groups of animals were submitted to two different diets: one normal and one rich in sucrose. In the first group, certain particularities were demonstrated in the periodontal ligament in the interradicular region: the fibrous network was very loose in this zone and the fibrous insertions were essentially cemento-cemental and not cemento-osseous. In the rats submitted to the high sucrose diet, a disequilibrium was noted between the apposition zones and the zones in bone and cementum resorption.

  15. Bacillary angiomatosis. Clinical and histologic features, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cotell, S L; Noskin, G A

    1994-03-14

    Bacillary angiomatosis is a relatively new infection affecting primarily patients with human immunodeficiency virus or others with impaired host defenses. It presents most commonly with multiple red skin lesions, but visceral involvement may also occur, including involvement of the liver and spleen. Because of the dermatologic manifestations, bacillary angiomatosis may be mistaken for Kaposi's sarcoma. The diagnosis is made by identification of the characteristic histologic findings or genetic amplification by means of polymerase chain reaction. The causative agent was recently identified as Rochalimaea henselae, although Rochalimaea quintana may also play a role. Therapy with erythromycin or doxycycline is usually effective.

  16. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  17. Beyond histology: translating tumor genotypes into clinically effective targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Meador, Catherine B; Micheel, Christine M; Levy, Mia A; Lovly, Christine M; Horn, Leora; Warner, Jeremy L; Johnson, Douglas B; Zhao, Zhongming; Anderson, Ingrid A; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L; Dahlman, Kimberly B; Pao, William

    2014-05-01

    Increased understanding of intertumoral heterogeneity at the genomic level has led to significant advancements in the treatment of solid tumors. Functional genomic alterations conferring sensitivity to targeted therapies can take many forms, and appropriate methods and tools are needed to detect these alterations. This review provides an update on genetic variability among solid tumors of similar histologic classification, using non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma as examples. We also discuss relevant technological platforms for discovery and diagnosis of clinically actionable variants and highlight the implications of specific genomic alterations for response to targeted therapy.

  18. Quantitative analysis of stain variability in histology slides and an algorithm for standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Timofeeva, Nadya; Otte-Höller, Irene; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A. W. M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents data on the sources of variation of the widely used hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological staining, as well as a new algorithm to reduce these variations in digitally scanned tissue sections. Experimental results demonstrate that staining protocols in different laboratories and staining on different days of the week are the major factors causing color variations in histopathological images. The proposed algorithm for standardizing histology slides is based on an initial clustering of the image into two tissue components having different absorption characteristics for different dyes. The color distribution for each tissue component is standardized by aligning the 2D histogram of color distribution in the hue-saturation-density (HSD) model. Qualitative evaluation of the proposed standardization algorithm shows that color constancy of the standardized images is improved. Quantitative evaluation demonstrates that the algorithm outperforms competing methods. In conclusion, the paper demonstrates that staining variations, which may potentially hamper usefulness of computer assisted analysis of histopathological images, can be reduced considerably by applying the proposed algorithm.

  19. Histology of the mucosa of gastric antrum and body before and after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Resende, L M; Queiroz, D M; Barbosa, A J; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A; Coelho, L G; Passos, M C; Castro, L P; Oliveira, C A; Lima Júnior, G F

    1993-12-01

    1. Helicobacter pylori status and the histology of the antral and oxyntic mucosa were evaluated in 25 patients with duodenal ulcer treated with a triple schedule of furazolidone, metronidazole and amoxicillin, and in 16 patients treated only with cimetidine. 2. Before treatment, H. pylori was detected in all patients. One month after treatment with the antimicrobial agents, H. pylori was not found in 18 (72.0%) of 25 patients treated with the triple schedule. In the patients treated with cimetidine (N = 16) the H. pylori tests continued to be positive after treatment. 3. Inflammatory activity and intensity of gastritis were significantly reduced in patients treated with the antimicrobial agents but not in cimetidine-treated patients. Three patients who had negative cultures and improvement of gastritis 1 month after treatment became H. pylori positive again within 2 months, with concomitant reappearance of gastritis. 4. This study provides additional evidence that histological gastritis observed in H. pylori-positive patients with duodenal ulcer is due to the presence of the microorganism.

  20. Environmental enrichment promotes robust functional and histological benefits in female rats after controlled cortical impact injury.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Christina M; Mattiola, Vincent V; Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Tay, Justin K; Yelleswarapu, Narayana K; Curatolo, Lauren M; Matter, Ashley M; Cheng, Jeffrey P; Kline, Anthony E

    2013-09-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) consistently induces marked benefits in male rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but whether similar efficacy extends to females is not well established. Hence, the aim of this study was to reassess the effect of EE on functional and histological outcome in female rats after brain trauma. Twenty-four normal cycling adult female rats underwent verification of estrous stage prior to controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham injury and then were assigned to EE or standard (STD) housing. Motor function was assessed with beam-balance/beam-walk and rotarod tasks on post-operative days 1-5 and every other day from 1-19, respectively. Spatial learning/memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze on days 14-19. Morphologically intact hippocampal CA(1/3) cells and cortical lesion volume were quantified 3 weeks after injury. No differences were observed between the EE and STD sham groups in any endpoint measure and thus the data were pooled. In the TBI groups, EE improved beam-balance, beam-walk, rotarod, and spatial learning performance vs. STD (p's<0.05). EE also provided significant histological protection as confirmed by increased CA(1/3) cell survival and decreased cortical lesion size vs. STD. These data demonstrate that EE confers robust benefits in female rats after CCI injury, which parallels numerous studies in males and lends further credence for EE as a preclinical model of neurorehabilitation.

  1. Quantitative Diagnosis of Tongue Cancer from Histological Images in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer. PMID:27656036

  2. Environmental enrichment promotes robust functional and histological benefits in female rats after controlled cortical impact injury.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Christina M; Mattiola, Vincent V; Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Tay, Justin K; Yelleswarapu, Narayana K; Curatolo, Lauren M; Matter, Ashley M; Cheng, Jeffrey P; Kline, Anthony E

    2013-09-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) consistently induces marked benefits in male rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but whether similar efficacy extends to females is not well established. Hence, the aim of this study was to reassess the effect of EE on functional and histological outcome in female rats after brain trauma. Twenty-four normal cycling adult female rats underwent verification of estrous stage prior to controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham injury and then were assigned to EE or standard (STD) housing. Motor function was assessed with beam-balance/beam-walk and rotarod tasks on post-operative days 1-5 and every other day from 1-19, respectively. Spatial learning/memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze on days 14-19. Morphologically intact hippocampal CA(1/3) cells and cortical lesion volume were quantified 3 weeks after injury. No differences were observed between the EE and STD sham groups in any endpoint measure and thus the data were pooled. In the TBI groups, EE improved beam-balance, beam-walk, rotarod, and spatial learning performance vs. STD (p's<0.05). EE also provided significant histological protection as confirmed by increased CA(1/3) cell survival and decreased cortical lesion size vs. STD. These data demonstrate that EE confers robust benefits in female rats after CCI injury, which parallels numerous studies in males and lends further credence for EE as a preclinical model of neurorehabilitation. PMID:23333563

  3. Quantitative diagnosis of tongue cancer from histological images in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer.

  4. A longitudinal, integrated, clinical, histological and mRNA profiling study of resistance exercise in myositis.

    PubMed

    Nader, Gustavo A; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Alexanderson, Helene; Grundtman, Cecilia; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Esbjörnsson, Mona; Wang, Zuyi; Rönnelid, Johan; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2010-01-01

    Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are orphan, chronic skeletal muscle disorders characterized by weakness, infiltrations by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and fibrosis. Until recently, patients were advised to refrain from physical activity because of fears of exacerbation of muscle inflammation. However, recent studies have shown that moderate exercise training in combination with immunosuppressive drugs can improve muscle performance. Despite the positive effects of exercise training, the molecular mechanisms underlying the exercise-associated clinical improvements remain poorly understood. The present study was designed to define, at the molecular level, the effects of resistance exercise training on muscle performance and disease progression in myositis patients. We evaluated changes in muscle strength, histology and genome-wide mRNA profiles to determine the beneficial effects of exercise and determine the possible molecular changes associated with improved muscle performance. A total of 8 myositis patients underwent a 7-wk resistance exercise training program that resulted in improved muscle strength and increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). Training also resulted in marked reductions in gene expression, reflecting reductions in proinflammatory and profibrotic gene networks, changes that were also accompanied by a reduction in tissue fibrosis. Consistent with the exercise-associated increase in VO(2max), a subset of transcripts was associated with a shift toward oxidative metabolism. The changes in gene expression reported in the present study are in agreement with the performance improvements induced by exercise and suggest that resistance exercise training can induce a reduction in inflammation and fibrosis in skeletal muscle.

  5. A Longitudinal, Integrated, Clinical, Histological and mRNA Profiling Study of Resistance Exercise in Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Gustavo A; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Alexanderson, Helene; Grundtman, Cecilia; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Esbjörnsson, Mona; Wang, Zuyi; Rönnelid, Johan; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2010-01-01

    Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are orphan, chronic skeletal muscle disorders characterized by weakness, infiltrations by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and fibrosis. Until recently, patients were advised to refrain from physical activity because of fears of exacerbation of muscle inflammation. However, recent studies have shown that moderate exercise training in combination with immunosuppressive drugs can improve muscle performance. Despite the positive effects of exercise training, the molecular mechanisms underlying the exercise-associated clinical improvements remain poorly understood. The present study was designed to define, at the molecular level, the effects of resistance exercise training on muscle performance and disease progression in myositis patients. We evaluated changes in muscle strength, histology and genome-wide mRNA profiles to determine the beneficial effects of exercise and determine the possible molecular changes associated with improved muscle performance. A total of 8 myositis patients underwent a 7-wk resistance exercise training program that resulted in improved muscle strength and increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Training also resulted in marked reductions in gene expression, reflecting reductions in proinflammatory and profibrotic gene networks, changes that were also accompanied by a reduction in tissue fibrosis. Consistent with the exercise-associated increase in VO2max, a subset of transcripts was associated with a shift toward oxidative metabolism. The changes in gene expression reported in the present study are in agreement with the performance improvements induced by exercise and suggest that resistance exercise training can induce a reduction in inflammation and fibrosis in skeletal muscle. PMID:20809047

  6. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  7. Histological and immunohistochemical study of Wischnewsky spots in fatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard; Rie, Manfred; Sperhake, Jan P

    2006-03-01

    Wischnewsky spots in the gastric mucosa are considered an important finding for the diagnosis of hypothermia-related deaths. In the present prospective histological and immunohistochemical investigation, 14 cases of fatal hypothermia presenting Wischnewsky spots at autopsy were studied. Macromorphologically, the lesions, varying in diameter from 0.1 to 0.4 cm, had a blackish-brownish color and appeared partly lofty, especially on the apex of gastric folds. Histologically, no erosions or ulcers were observed in the gastric mucosa. In some cases, hemorrhages in conjunction with infarctions of the mucosa were observed in the mucosal glands. Those regions, however, did not represent the lesions visible as Wischnewsky spots at the macroscopical level. Immunohistochemical stains were done with a specific antibody against hemoglobin (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). Wischnewsky spots expressed immunopositivity with antihemoglobin. Concerning the pathogenesis and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the development of Wischnewsky spots, we hypothesize that cooling of the body in the setting of cold ambient temperatures primarily leads to circumscribed hemorrhages of the gastric glands in vivo or in the agonal period, respectively. Subsequently, due to autolysis, erythrocytes are destroyed and hemoglobin is released. Following exposure to gastric acid, hemoglobin is hematinized, leading to the typical blackish-brownish appearance of Wischnewsky spots seen at gross examination. Wischnewsky spots are not equivalent to erosions in terms of histopathological diagnosis but rather represent epiphenomena generated in vivo or in the agonal period of fatal hypothermia. PMID:16501354

  8. The Impact of Histologic Variants on FSGS Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meliambro, Kristin; Campbell, Kirk N.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is highly variable with disparate responses to therapeutic intervention and rates of progression. Histologic variant subtype has been commonly used as a prognostic and therapeutic guide in the clinical management of FSGS. The tip lesion is widely considered to portend the most favorable prognosis and to be the most responsive to steroid therapy. Conversely, the collapsing lesion, more prevalent in patients of African descent, is associated with steroid resistance and higher risk of disease progression. In the 10 years since the Columbia classification system for FSGS was published, some retrospective and one prospective study explored the impact of histologic variants at the time of biopsy on FSGS outcomes. The results largely validate its clinical predictive value with respect to treatment response, though its utility in cases recurring after kidney transplantation is still unknown. Sampling and interpretation errors are additional sources of caution. More research is needed to fully define reproducible prognostic and therapeutic markers for this polymorphic disorder. PMID:27437509

  9. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  10. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  11. Clinical, biomechanical and histological study on oophorectomy induced menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bordinhon, Maristela; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical implications as well as biomechanical and histological changes and in bone tissue induced by ovariectomy in 64 rats. Methods: The rats were divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy or placebo, and subdivided into four subgroups, according to time postoperatively: three, six, nine and 12 months. The weight of the animals at the time of sacrifice was taken into consideration. The biomechanical study was performed on the right tibia, to the maximum load and stiffness coefficient. For the histological study we calculated the trabecular bone of the left tibia. Statistical analysis of body weight and mechanical properties was performed by variance analysis, complemented with Tukey's multiple comparison tests; and trabecular area, the non-parametric variance analysis. Results: Ovariectomy-induced menopause caused an increase in body weight, reduction of diaphyseal bone resistance at six months of hormone deprivation, but this effect is equalized over time by aging; bone stiffness was smaller in the ovariectomized group and reduction of bone mass occurred. Conclusion: The removal of the ovaries produced systemic alterations, characterized by metabolic changes that caused weight gain and changes in bone tissue, associated with alteration of the mechanical profile and reduced bone mass. Level of Evidence I, Clinical Study. PMID:25328434

  12. Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Ignacio A.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Rubén D.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.

    2015-01-01

    Supraspinous ossified rods have been reported in the sacra of some derived sauropod dinosaurs. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this structure, histological evidence has never been provided to support or reject any of them. In order to establish its origin, we analyse and characterize the microstructure of the supraspinous rod of two sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. The supraspinous ossified rod is almost entirely formed by dense Haversian bone. Remains of primary bone consist entirely of an avascular tissue composed of two types of fibre-like structures, which are coarse and longitudinally (parallel to the main axis of the element) oriented. These structures are differentiated on the basis of their optical properties under polarized light. Very thin fibrous strands are also observed in some regions. These small fibres are all oriented parallel to one another but perpendicular to the element main axis. Histological features of the primary bone tissue indicate that the sacral supraspinous rod corresponds to an ossified supraspinous ligament. The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element. PMID:26587248

  13. Nucleus segmentation in histology images with hierarchical multilevel thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady Phoulady, Hady; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mouton, Peter R.

    2016-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of histological images is an important step for increasing throughput while maintaining high accuracy, avoiding variation from subjective bias, and reducing the costs for diagnosing human illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we present a novel method for unsupervised segmentation of cell nuclei in stained histology tissue. Following an initial preprocessing step involving color deconvolution and image reconstruction, the segmentation step consists of multilevel thresholding and a series of morphological operations. The only parameter required for the method is the minimum region size, which is set according to the resolution of the image. Hence, the proposed method requires no training sets or parameter learning. Because the algorithm requires no assumptions or a priori information with regard to cell morphology, the automatic approach is generalizable across a wide range of tissues. Evaluation across a dataset consisting of diverse tissues, including breast, liver, gastric mucosa and bone marrow, shows superior performance over four other recent methods on the same dataset in terms of F-measure with precision and recall of 0.929 and 0.886, respectively.

  14. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  15. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    PubMed

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator.

  16. Classification of Histological Images Based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L.; Duarte, S. C.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Ramos Batista, V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are of many distinct types, and different classification systems make it difficult to diagnose them correctly. Many of these systems classify lymphomas only based on what they look like under a microscope. In 2008 the World Health Organisation (WHO) introduced the most recent system, which also considers the chromosome features of the lymphoma cells and the presence of certain proteins on their surface. The WHO system is the one that we apply in this work. Herewith we present an automatic method to classify histological images of three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our method is based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and it consists of three steps: 1) extracting sub-bands from the histological image through SWT, 2) applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to clean noise and select the most relevant information, 3) classifying it by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The kernel types Linear, RBF and Polynomial were evaluated with our method applied to 210 images of lymphoma from the National Institute on Aging. We concluded that the following combination led to the most relevant results: detail sub-band, ANOVA and SVM with Linear and RBF kernels.

  17. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

  18. Histology of the ovary of Chinchilla lanigera in captivity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Torres-Luque, A; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Bühler, M I

    2014-08-01

    Chinchilla, the lanigera variety in particular, is one of the most valuable rodents in the fur industry. The chinchilla ovary is morphologically similar to that of other South American hystricognath rodents, especially as regards its anatomy and, to a lesser degree, its histology. The presence of numerous primary follicles throughout the annual cycle suggests that a few of them are recruited to initiate growth and differentiation during folliculogenesis. Primary follicles with two or more oocytes are common; this is not the case with follicles at more advanced stages, suggesting that they do not develop. Only one or two large corpora lutea (CL) and three to five small or accessories CL were observed but no corpora albicans. The presence of accessory CL may reflect the importance of continuous hormonal production to support prolonged gestation. Atretic CL were also present, showing signs of degeneration in luteal cells. The interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex were the main histological feature shared with other species, as stated in previous reports. Antral atresia was observed in all sizes of antral follicles while basal atresia was confined exclusively to smaller follicles.

  19. [Histological study on aging changes in the human tongue].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M

    1991-04-01

    Dryness of the mouth, taste disturbance or misswallowing may appear due to physiological changes of tongue especially in old aged person. The purpose of this study is to investigate histological changes related to aging in the human tongue, qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples were collected from 100 autopsy-cases without any pathological changes consisting of 50 males and 50 females aged between 5 and 82. Five specimens (I-V) were obtained from each tongue by frontal section. Specimen I (anterior part of tongue), III (central part), V (posterior part) were studied. Each specimen with thickness of 4 microns were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Alucian-Blue. Tongue mucosa, glands such as Blandin-Nuhn gland, von Ebner gland and those glands distributed in the root of tongue, and M. longitudinalis superior were observed histologically. The study was done quantitatively by I-BAS one picture analyzer manufactured by Zeiss Co. The results of this study are as following: 1) The epithelium of lingual mucosa The thickness of epithelium decreased with aging, rather prominent on dorsal part than the lateral. 2) lingual glands Acinar atrophy increased with aging, especially quickly in females. The atrophy of the acinus started from 40 years old in Blandin-nuhn gland and 30 in von Ebner gland. However, tongue root glandular atrophy was milder in comparison with the other two glands. 3) Lingual muscles Decrease in muscle fiber diameter with aging is also observed.

  20. Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Horner, K; Testa, H J; Lloyd, J J; Sloan, P

    1994-05-01

    Scintigaphy using 99mTc-MDP is widely advocated as a method of diagnosis and presurgical assessment of patients with condylar hyperplasia. A previous study has demonstrated that hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle is characterized histologically by the presence of an uninterrupted layer of undiffentiated germinative mesenchyme cells, a layer of hypertrophic cartilage and the presence of islands of chondrocytes in the subchondral trabecular bone. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was any association between the degree of 99mTc-MDP uptake and the histological features of condylar hyperplasia. The parameters examined were trabecular bone volume, depth of cartilage islands and the presence of forming and resorbing surfaces. The images were analyzed by three experienced observers, who ranked the images according to degree of asymmetry between sides and the degree of uptake on the affected side. There was a significant correlation between the proportions of resorbing and osteoid covered bone surfaces and scintigraphic appearances. The rank correlations were rs = 0.55 (P = 0.3) between the resorptive surfaces and degree of symmetry and rs = 0.53 (P = 0.04) between the osteoid surfaces and absolute uptake. The correlation was higher for both methods (rs = 0.64 in each case) when the osteoid surface and resorptive surface measurements were combined. The results indicate that visual examination of radioisotope bone scans by experienced observers is a valid form of assessment of bone activity in condylar hyperplasia. PMID:7835500

  1. Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Emma Cristina; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; MercuŢ, Veronica; Scrieciu, Monica; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Diaconu, Oana Andreea; Oprea, Bogdan; Pascu, Roxana Maria; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The overgrowth, depending on its extension, has multiple effects on the stomatognathic apparatus: functional disorders (impaired speech), difficulty in chewing and aesthetic problems but can cause significant psychological problems. We proposed this study, motivated by the relative increased frequency of the gum outgrowth, its multifactorial etiopathogeny, but especially from the point of view of the specialist practitioner, by the problems that this pathology raises not only for the functionality of the stomatognathic apparatus but also for the facial esthetics, and especially for future therapeutic attitudes needed to solve the existing pathology at this level. We conducted a clinical study and a histological one. For the clinical study, we selected 74 patients who experienced different degrees of gingival outgrowing associated with fillings, dental caries, fixed prostheses, mobile prostheses, orthodontic apparatus. Thirty gingival fragments from patients with gingival outgrowing were processed by paraffin-embedding histological technique and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The morphological results obtained provide the necessary support for understanding the possibility of developing a therapeutic strategy to prevent or minimize the gum outgrowth by administering antibiotic and anti-inflammatory medications associated with medications, which shall cause the apoptosis of the fibroblasts. PMID:27516015

  2. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories.

  3. Histological comparison of partial hydatidiform mole and trisomy gestation specimens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Yancey; Bharat, Chrianna; Crook, Maxine L; Kee, Ai Rene; Peverall, Joanne; Ruba, Sukeerat; Stewart, Colin J R

    2016-10-01

    The distinction between partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and trisomy gestation is not always straightforward histologically and it is unclear which morphological features, alone or in combination, provide the greatest diagnostic accuracy. We performed a comparative review of 89 products of conception (POC) specimens including 54 PHMs and 35 trisomy gestations, assessing the following in each case: trophoblastic atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, villous enlargement, large trophoblast inclusions, scalloped villous shape, stromal apoptosis, small round villous inclusions, and fibrillary stromal collagen. There was a significant difference in the presence of trophoblast atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, large trophoblastic inclusions, small round villous inclusions, fibrillary collagen (all p<0.01), and apoptosis (p=0.028), between PHM and trisomy cases. Fibrillary collagen was more common in trisomy specimens whereas the other features were more common in PHMs. There was no significant difference in villous enlargement or scalloped villous shape between the two groups. The combination of cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation and large trophoblast inclusions correctly classified 83 (93.3%) of cases where the presence of at least two features was considered diagnostic of PHM. While cytogenetic analysis is arguably the gold standard for diagnosis, this study demonstrates that histological assessment permits accurate distinction of PHM and trisomic gestations in the great majority of cases. PMID:27575970

  4. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    PubMed

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information. PMID:23983318

  5. [Alfred Kohn, professor of histology at German University in Prague].

    PubMed

    Nanka, O; Grim, M

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Kohn (1867-1959) was the head of the Institute of Histology at the Medical Faculty of German University in Prague for 26 years. In 2007 we commemorated his 140th birthday, and 2009 we will remember the 50th anniversary of his death. He entered the history of medicine by discovery of nature and origin of parathyroid glands and by pioneer research into chromaffin cells and sympathetic paraganglia. Kohn's papers on the pituitary, interstitial cells of testes, and ovaries are also related to endocrinology. All his studies are based on descriptive and comparative histological and embryological observations. Kohn was twice the dean of German Medical Faculty, and a member or honorary member of many important scientific societies. He was repeatedly nominated for Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. For his Jewish origin he was expelled from Deutsche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Künste für die Tschechoslowakische Republik in 1939 and transported to Terezin ghetto in 1943. After the war he lived in Prague. On the occasion of his 90th birthday he was elected honorary president of Anatomische Gesellschaft and awarded by the Czechoslovak Order of Labour. Alfred Kohn died in 1959. He was one of the outstanding personalities that Prague gave to the world of science.

  6. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  7. Renal histology and pregnancy performance in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Devoe, L D; Loy, G L; Spargo, B H

    1983-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be strongly influenced by the presence of renal disease. As the relationship between renal histology and clinical function in SLE is not consistent, prospective data on the outcomes of such pregnancies would aid patient counselling. Fifteen women with SLE had 18 pregnancies subsequent to renal biopsies, performed from 3 months to 8 years prior to conception. Their renal function was evaluated before, during and after pregnancy. Fourteen of 15 patients had evidence of renal involvement, based on by light and electron microscopic sections: 7 had mesangial involvement (WHO Class II); 5 had active focal or diffuse glomerulonephritis (Classes III and IV); two had membranous involvement (Class V); 1, no evident disease. Perinatal outcome was similar whether lesions were milder (8 continuing pregnancies, 4 term deliveries) or more severe (6 continuing pregnancies, 3 term deliveries). Clinical renal function was normal in all but 3 cases at the beginning of pregnancy; 2 additional patients experienced moderate deteriorations in renal function during pregnancy but recovered normal function in the puerperium. Fetal outcome was abnormal (3 premature deliveries, 1 neonatal death, 1 spontaneous abortion) in all cases where renal function was decreased, while 10 of 13 pregnancies in patients with normal renal function ended in term deliveries. The data suggest that currently preconceptual renal histology provides a less accurate basis for perinatal counselling than does the assessment of clinical renal function.

  8. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  9. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  10. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats.

  11. Innervation of amphibian reproductive system. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Iruzubieta Villagra, Lucrecia; Fernández, Silvia N; Ramos, Inés

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we describe for the first time in anuran amphibians the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of innervation in the female reproductive organs. The observations in Rhinella arenarum revealed the presence of nerve fibers located predominantly in the ovarian hilium and in the oviduct wall. In both organs the nerves fibers are placed near blood vessels and smooth muscles fibers. In the present study the histological observations were confirmed using antibodies against peripherin and neurofilament 200 proteins. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the innervation of the reproductive organs is constituted by unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cells. Axon terminals contain a population of small, clear, translucent vesicles that coexist with a few dense cored vesicles. The ultrastructural characteristics together with the immunopositive reaction to tyrosine hydroxylase of the nerve fibers and the type of synaptic vesicles present in the axon terminal would indicate that the reproductive organs of R. arenarum females are innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  13. The Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas by Histology in the United States Population

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Chad G.; Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Dally, Miranda J.; Barón, Anna E.; Yeh, Norman; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Liu, Arthur K.; Ney, Douglas E.; Damek, Denise M.; Lillehei, Kevin O.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the survival impact of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) for malignant gliomas of glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) histology. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2007 for patients aged ≥18 years with high-grade gliomas managed with upfront surgical resection, treated with and without adjuvant RT. Results: The primary analysis totaled 14,461 patients, with 12,115 cases of GBM (83.8%), 1312 AA (9.1%), 718 AO (4.9%), and 316 AOA (2.2%). On univariate analyses, adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) for GBMs (2-year OS, 17% vs 7%, p<.001), AAs (5-year OS, 38% vs 24%, p<.001), and AOAs (5-year OS, 55% vs 44%, p=.026). No significant differences in OS were observed for AOs (5-year OS, with RT 50% vs 56% without RT, p=.277). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models accounting for extent of resection, age, sex, race, year, marital status, and tumor registry, RT was associated with significantly improved OS for both GBMs (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50-0.55; P<.001) and AAs (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.68; P<.001) but only a trend toward improved OS for AOAs (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.09; P=.110). Due to the observation of nonproportional hazards, Cox regressions were not performed for AOs. A significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of RT and histology overall (interaction P<.001) and in a model limited to the anaplastic (WHO grade 3) histologies. (interaction P=.024), characterizing histology as a significant predictive factor for the impact of RT. Subgroup analyses demonstrated greater hazard reductions with RT among patients older than median age for both GBMs and AAs (all interaction P≤.001). No significant interactions were observed between RT and extent of resection. Identical patterns of significance were

  14. Use of eriochrome cyanine R for routine histology and histopathology: an improved dichromatic staining procedure.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, D

    2015-01-01

    A modified dichromatic iron-eriocyanine R (Fe-ECR) staining method is described. Staining obtained with this new technique generally was similar to that of hematoxylin and eosin (H & E). Cell nuclei were stained blue. Cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle, and red blood cells, were stained different shades of red. Collagen fibers were stained different shades of orange, usually faintly. Decalcified bony tissue was stained pinkish violet. Epithelial cells were strongly stained deep shades of red, magenta and violet. Cartilage matrix, and goblet and mast cells were unstained. Although Fe-ECR staining differed too much from standard H & E staining to be a substitute for diagnostic purposes, the dichromatic method described might usefully replace van Gieson or trichrome stains, especially if muscle is of interest. A pH 0.95 staining solution was used to differentiate initially over-stained sections followed by washing in distilled water. This dichromatic technique is easier to perform and more precisely controllable than other ECR dichromatic methods. The entire procedure can be completed in less than 5 min. The technique has the advantages of greater technical simplicity and speed, a larger range of polychromasia, and a longer shelf-life than H & E. ECR also is more reliably available than hematoxylin and usually is less expensive.

  15. Rationalisation and Validation of an Acrylamide-Free Procedure in Three-Dimensional Histological Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hei Ming; Liu, Alan King Lun; Ng, Wai-Lung; DeFelice, John; Lee, Wing Sang; Li, Heng; Li, Wen; Ng, Ho Man; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Lin, Bin; Wu, Wutian; Gentleman, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization of intact tissues is now being achieved by turning tissues transparent. CLARITY is a unique tissue clearing technique, which features the use of detergents to remove lipids from fixed tissues to achieve optical transparency. To preserve tissue integrity, an acrylamide-based hydrogel has been proposed to embed the tissue. In this study, we examined the rationale behind the use of acrylamide in CLARITY, and presented evidence to suggest that the omission of acrylamide-hydrogel embedding in CLARITY does not alter the preservation of tissue morphology and molecular information in fixed tissues. We therefore propose a novel and simplified workflow for formaldehyde-fixed tissue clearing, which will facilitate the laboratory implementation of this technique. Furthermore, we have investigated the basic tissue clearing process in detail and have highlighted some areas for targeted improvement of technologies essential for the emerging subject of three-dimensional histology. PMID:27359336

  16. Histological Appearance of Placental Solomonization in the Treatment of Twin–Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Stephen P.; Nguyen, Lananh; Parks, W. Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental laser equatorialization or “solomonization” during treatment for twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes. Concern exists, however, about the extent of placental injury caused by the technique, and of its ability to create “dichorionization,” or complete separation of the fetal vascular circuits. Case Study A “solomonized” placenta was histologically examined for depth of cell damage. Solomonization produces complete devascularization of the chorionic plate, but has minimal effect on the underlying villi. The median depth of the effect was 2,823 µm, or < 3 mm. Conclusion Solomonization produces complete devascularization of the chorionic plate, but has little effect on the underlying villi. “Dichorionization” is therefore not achieved. Ongoing surveillance of treated pregnancies is warranted. PMID:27127717

  17. Stent Scraping for Histology: An Alternative Method for Obtaining Tissue to Rule out Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Veerappan, Annamali; Prudente, Romulo; Kasmin, Franklin E.; Cohen, Seth A.

    1994-01-01

    Despite improvement in diagnostic modalities, confirmation of a histologic diagnosis of cancer of the biliary tree and pancreas remains elusive. Attempts to collect positive cytology specimens from vigorous brushings or washings obtained at endoscopy or percutaneously are often unsuccessful. In our unit, we have increased the yield by obtaining tissue scraped from prostheses that have been previously placed in either the bile duct or the pancreatic duct. The stents are first flushed with saline to collect cytology specimens, after which, they are bisected and scraped, and these contents are prepared in a manner similar to that used to prepare biopsy samples. Twelve of 16 scraped samples, 9 bile duct and 3 pancreas, were positive for adenocarcinoma. The cytology specimens were positive in only 4 of the 12. We recommend this method of sampling from material contained within prostheses as an adjunct when previous brushings, washings, or biopsies are negative. PMID:18493350

  18. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  19. Coblation of the canine vocal fold: a histologic study.

    PubMed

    Divi, Venu; Benninger, Michael; Kiupel, Matti; Dobbie, Allison

    2012-11-01

    Controlled ablation (coblation) is a radiofrequency bipolar method of tissue ablation, which destroys tissue at very low temperatures. It has been used in a variety of clinical settings and is most frequently used by the otolaryngologist for tonsillectomy. In this study, we have examined the effect of coblation on the canine larynx by applying coblation to the vocal fold and harvesting the larynx on postoperative days (PODs) 0, 4, and 7. Histologic examination was performed with a variety of stains to examine the healing process. Coblation injury demonstrated complete epithelialization by POD 7. No injury to the underlying vocalis muscle was seen. The inflammatory response demonstrates less inflammation than previously reported with CO(2) laser injury. Coblation is a viable method for removal of tissue from the vocal fold resulting in minimal scar formation and a controlled depth of injury. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical utility in the removal of lesions such as respiratory papillomatosis.

  20. Virtual histology of the human heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Moazami, Nader; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2009-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the visualization of micron-scale structures within nontransparent biological tissues. For the first time, we demonstrate the use of OCT in identifying components of the cardiac conduction system and other structures in the explanted human heart. Reconstructions of cardiac structures up to 2 mm below the tissue surface were achieved and validated with Masson Trichrome histology in atrial, ventricular, sinoatrial nodal, and atrioventricular nodal preparations. The high spatial resolution of OCT provides visualization of cardiac fibers within the myocardium, as well as elements of the cardiac conduction system; however, a limiting factor remains its depth penetration, demonstrated to be ~2 mm in cardiac tissues. Despite its currently limited imaging depth, the use of OCT to identify the structural determinants of both normal and abnormal function in the intact human heart is critical in its development as a potential aid to intracardiac arrhythmia diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Franz von Leydig (1821-1908), pioneer of comparative histology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R

    2012-05-01

    Franz von Leydig, a German histologist and zoologist, is known to every student of human or animal anatomy because of the testicular testosterone-producing cells carrying his name. However, he made many contributions to our knowledge of the fine structure of animal tissues, including more than 200 scientific articles and several books. His most important work, the book Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere, established him as a pioneer if not the founder of comparative histology. Leydig taught at three different universities (Würzburg, Tübingen and Bonn) and received many honours from scientific organizations worldwide, including the Royal Society. He died in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the town of his birth, aged 86 years.

  2. Liver Biopsy for Histological Assessment: The Case in Favor

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khalid A.; Mumtaz, Khalid; Jafri, Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Liver biopsy (LB) is the gold standard method for assessment of liver histology. It provides valuable, otherwise unobtainable information, regarding the degree of fibrosis, parenchymal integrity, degree and pattern of inflammation, bile duct status and deposition of materials and minerals in the liver. This information provides immense help in the diagnosis and prognostication of a variety of liver diseases. With careful selection of patients, and performance of the procedure appropriately, the complications become exceptionally rare in current clinical practice. Furthermore, the limitations of sampling error and inter-/ intra-observer variability may be avoided by obtaining adequate tissue specimen and having it reviewed by an experienced liver pathologist. Current noninvasive tools are unqualified to replace LB in clinical practice in the face of specific limitations for each tool, compounded by a poorer performance towards the assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis, particularly for intermediate stages. PMID:20339188

  3. Serological and histological diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Goudie, R. B.; Macsween, R. N. M.; Goldberg, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    A simple immunofluorescence test for antibody to a mitochondrial antigen present in many tissues is a reliable method of distinguishing most cases of primary biliary cirrhosis from jaundice due to extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction. Of 30 cases diagnosed as primary biliary cirrhosis, 26 had antimitochondrial antibody whereas none of 77 cases with jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction showed this serological abnormality. The antibody was also found in the serum of three of 42 patients who had other forms of cirrhosis and in two of 266 patients with no evidence of liver disease. Clinical, biochemical, and serological findings favour the view that primary biliary cirrhosis is a real entity which, in our present state of knowledge, cannot be defined clearly by any single method of investigation. In particular, the liver may show a variety of histological appearances which, interpreted without regard to the other features of the case, may lead to errors in diagnosis. Images PMID:5333256

  4. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones.

  5. [Qualitative histological diagnostics of the remoteness of traumatic subdural hematomas].

    PubMed

    Nedugov, G V

    2011-01-01

    The present histological study was based on the examination of dura mater, capsules, and contents of 200 subdural hematomas (SDH) obtained from the corpses of subjects with a non-penetrating craniocerebral injury within a period from 1 hour to 2.5 years after the trauma. A total of 14 well-reproducible qualitative morphological criteria have been identified for diagnostics of the prescription of subdural hematomas; the probability and the exact earliest and latest times of their manifestation at different dates of the posttraumatic period were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic value of the proposed qualitative morphological criteria for the prescription of traumatic subdural hematomas were evaluated. The results of the study can be used in the practical work of forensic medical experts.

  6. Vitiligo in two water buffaloes: histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; De Caprariis, D; Esposito, L; Maiolino, P; Restucci, B; Roperto, F

    1993-02-01

    Vitiligo, a skin disease, characterized by the spontaneous loss of melanin, has been described in several animals as well as in humans. Most of the reports of large domestic animals have dealt with clinical investigations without morphological data. In this report, the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of two cases of vitiligo in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are presented. Interestingly, many of the ultrastructural observations for vitiliginous buffaloes resemble those previously described for other species, e.g., humans, mouse, and chicken. These data suggest that one or more forms of human vitiligo may have a similar etiopathogenesis to that of the buffalo. Therefore, it is proposed that vitiliginous buffalo may prove to be a useful animal model for the human disease.

  7. Submandibular gland tumors. Adverse histologic factors and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Weber, R S; Byers, R M; Petit, B; Wolf, P; Ang, K; Luna, M

    1990-09-01

    We reviewed our 41-year experience with tumors of the submandibular gland to determine what factors influence outcome and their implications for treatment. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (21), while among malignant tumors the adenoid cystic variety (37) predominated. For the 86 patients who had malignant tumors, the 2- and 5-year survivals by the life table method were 82% and 69%, respectively. For patients with malignant tumors, histology, size, perineural invasion, and prior treatment did not affect overall survival. Factors adversely affecting outcome were extraglandular soft-tissue extension and lymph node metastasis. Local-regional control was enhanced in patients with soft-tissue extension if they were treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy rather than by surgery alone.

  8. Distribution fitting-based pixel labeling for histology image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a new pixel labeling algorithm for complex histology image segmentation. For each image pixel, a Gaussian mixture model is applied to estimate its neighborhood intensity distributions. With this local distribution fitting, a set of pixels having a full set of source classes (e.g. nuclei, stroma, connective tissue, and background) in their neighborhoods are identified as the seeds for pixel labeling. A seed pixel is labeled by measuring its intensity distance to each of its neighborhood distributions, and the one with the shortest distance is selected to label the seed. For non-seed pixels, we propose two different labeling schemes: global voting and local clustering. In global voting each seed classifies a non-seed pixel into one of the seed's local distributions, i.e., it casts one vote; the final label for the non-seed pixel is the class which gets the most votes, across all the seeds. In local clustering, each non-seed pixel is labeled by one of its own neighborhood distributions. Because the local distributions in a non-seed pixel neighborhood do not necessarily correspond to distinct source classes (i.e., two or more local distributions may be produced by the same source class), we first identify the "true" source class of each local distribution by using the source classes of the seed pixels and a minimum distance criterion to determine the closest source class. The pixel can then be labeled as belonging to this class. With both labeling schemes, experiments on a set of uterine cervix histology images show encouraging performance of our algorithm when compared with traditional multithresholding and K-means clustering, as well as state-of-the-art mean shift clustering, multiphase active contours, and Markov random field-based algorithms.

  9. Histology aging workforce and what to do about it.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2009-06-01

    There are 28,400 histotechs now working in human surgical and forensic pathology, half of whom will reach retirement age within the next 4 years, and to compensate for those retiring and to increase their number to the 31,200 needed in 2015, a 3-pronged solution is required. Firstly, each individual medical laboratory has to implement a uniform salary scale for all its members with equivalent professional level that will probably delay the retirement plans of some histotechs and will allow the flow of personnel between its different areas. Secondly, a new certification of "qualification in histology" should be created so medical technologists can cover for retiring histotechs and also could find new working positions in laboratories that may be contemplating staff reductions because of more productive instruments and workflow schemes. Finally, given the historical examination passing rates, it is necessary to enroll at least 4,965 students in accredited histology programs (709 annually), and for this to happen, either the present number of 33 programs has to be increased by 17 (to a total of 50) with a similar capacity each to those now in operation or 2 to 3 distance learning programs with a capacity of 85 to 125 each have to be created after the example of some already existing. This solution will also require that local students soon to enter junior colleges are informed about these programs and work opportunities. To assure the success of any of the 3 approaches, it is imperative that the pathologists get involved, individually for the first one, and collectively for the other two; the pathologists should bring these solutions to their respective societies and college boards and meetings and sound the alarm on this problem that will adversely impact their work and their overall patient care. The pathologists have to be aware of this very grave situation-that the histotechs' retirement clocks are ticking and that the time to act is now!

  10. Chronic histological effects of the flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventhal, Daniel K.; Cohen, Mark; Durand, Dominique M.

    2006-06-01

    The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) is designed to reshape peripheral nerves into favorable geometries for selective stimulation. Compared to cylindrical geometries, the ovoid geometries created by the FINE allow more space for contact placement. Furthermore, the amount of electrically excitable tissue between stimulating contacts and target axons is reduced. In this study, the nerve response to the presence of the FINE is examined histologically. Three different FINEs were designed to reshape peripheral nerves to different opening heights designated as 'wide' (1.3 mm), 'medium' (0.5 mm) and 'narrow' (0.1 mm) cuffs. Twelve adult cats were implanted with one cuff each (four in total of each design) on their right sciatic nerves. At least 3 months later, the animals were sacrificed and their sciatic nerves were harvested for histological evaluation. Cross-sectional areas and eccentricities (defined as the major axis divided by the minor axis of the closest fit ellipse to a region) of the nerves were measured to assess the degree of reshaping. The wide and medium cuff designs significantly reshaped the nerves compared to control nerves, though there was no significant difference in eccentricity between nerves implanted with wide and medium cuffs. There was extensive deposition of connective tissue in the epineurium of all nerves implanted with cuffs. No significant difference in fiber counts was measured in any of the groups studied. Only nerves implanted with narrow cuffs showed evidence of axonal injury and/or demyelination. These results, coupled with stimulation selectivity measurements made on the same animals, suggest that safe, selective electrodes can be designed with ovoid geometries. Moderate reshaping caused no damage, while extreme reshaping generated mild-to-moderate nerve damage. It might be possible, however, to redesign the cuffs to slowly reshape the nerves.

  11. Examining brain microstructure using structure tensor analysis of histological sections.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-10-15

    The mammalian central nervous system has a tremendous structural complexity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unique in its ability to extract microstructural tissue properties at a macroscopic scale. However, despite its widespread use and applications in clinical and research settings, accurate validation of DTI has notoriously lagged the advances in image acquisition and analysis. In this report, we demonstrate an approach to visualize and quantify the microscopic features of histological sections on multiple length scales using techniques derived from image texture analysis. Structure tensor (ST) analysis was applied to fluorescence microscopy images of rat brain sections to visualize and quantify tissue microstructure. Images were digitally color-coded based on the local orientation in the pixelwise ST implementation, which allowed direct visualization of white matter complexity at the microscopic level. A piecewise ST algorithm was also employed to quantify anisotropy and orientation at a resolution comparable to that typically acquired with DTI. Anisotropy measured with ST analysis of stained histological sections was highly correlated with anisotropy measured by ex vivo DTI of the same brains (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, angular histograms, or Fiber Orientation Distributions (FODs), were computed to mimic similar measures derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. The FODs for each pixel were fit to a mixture of von Mises distributions to identify putative regions of multiple fiber populations (i.e. crossing fibers). Despite its current application to two-dimensional microscopy, the ST analysis is a novel approach to visualize and quantify microstructure in the central nervous system in both health and disease, and advances the available set of tools for validating DTI and other diffusion MRI techniques. PMID:22759994

  12. Natural enamel caries: a comparative histological study on biochemical volumes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa de Sousa, F; Dias Soares, J; Sampaio Vianna, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that organic volume is the main variable for explaining the optical properties and predictive degree of diffusion of enamel histological points at zones of natural enamel caries (NEC; surface layer, SL, n = 30, and body of the lesion, BL, n = 58) and normal enamel (NE, n = 131). Molars with either NEC or NE were quantitatively analyzed regarding the mineral, organic and water volumes (considered as effective pore volume), opacity (predicted in 94% of cases by water volume in NEC), and water volume more easily available for diffusion, αd (squared water volume divided by the nonmineral volume; related to permeability). NEC presented lower mineral volumes and higher organic volumes, effective pore volume and opacity than NE. External origin of organic volume in NEC was evidenced by an organic gradient decreasing from the surface inward (R2 = -0.7), which was not detected in teeth with NE only; αd values of the SL and NE were similar and both were lower (p < 0.0001) than that of the BL. Comparing the SL from both NEC and artificial enamel caries (AEC; published data; n = 71), with similar mineral volumes, against developing enamel (published data), AEC showed more effective pore volume (3 times higher), higher αd and opacity than NEC mainly due to differences in organic volumes. Our results reasonably matched widely known features of NEC histological zones, and confirmed the organic volume as the main variable for explaining optical properties and αd (related to permeability).

  13. New criteria for histologic grading of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hideki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Shinto, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Maekawa, Kazunari; Katsurada, Yuka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Conventional tumor grading systems based on the degree of tumor differentiation may not always be optimal because of difficulty in objective assessment and insufficient prognostic value for decision making in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. This study aimed to determine the importance of assessing the number of poorly differentiated clusters as the primary criterion for histologic grading of CRC. Five hundred consecutive patients with curatively resected stage II and III CRCs (2000 to 2005) were pathologically reviewed. Cancer clusters of ≥5 cancer cells and lacking a gland-like structure were counted under a ×20 objective lens in a field containing the highest number of clusters. Tumors with <5, 5 to 9, and ≥10 clusters were classified as grade (G)1, G2, and G3, respectively (n=156, 198, and 146 tumors, respectively). Five-year disease-free survival rates were 96%, 85%, and 59% for G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P<0.0001). Poorly differentiated clusters affected survival outcome independent of T and N stages and could help in more effective stratification of patients by survival outcome compared with tumor staging (Akaike information criterion, 1086.7 vs. 1117.0; Harrell concordance index, 0.73 vs. 0.67). The poorly differentiated cluster-based grading system showed a higher weighted κ coefficient for interobserver variability (5 observers) compared with conventional grading systems (mean, 0.66 vs. 0.52; range, 0.55 to 0.73 vs. 0.39 to 0.68). Our novel histologic grading system is expected to be less subjective and more informative for prognostic prediction compared with conventional tumor grading systems and TNM staging. It could be valuable in determining individualized postoperative CRC treatment.

  14. Detection of preneoplasia in histologically normal prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Delprado, W J; Murphy, C R; Barden, J A

    2001-01-01

    P2X immunolabeling of prostate detected preneoplastic changes in apparently normal tissue. Labeling occurred in two well-defined stages before the diagnostic histological markers of cancer were visible. As cancer progressed, the location of P2X expression changed from confinement within individual nuclei in the acini (stage 1) to a cytoplasmic punctate label in the acinal epithelium, with an associated removal of nuclear stain (stage 2). Finally, in advanced cases, where clear morphological evidence of cancer was apparent, the P2X label condensed exclusively on the apical epithelium (stage 3). BPH/normal tissue was entirely devoid of P2X label. Biopsy samples (77) were tested in three categories. One group (35) were diagnosed as normal benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on the basis of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, although underlying disease was suspected. Of these, 14 (40%) were clearly normal and appeared entirely devoid of label, 13 (37%) exhibited the first stage of P2X receptor labeling and the remaining eight (23%) exhibited second stage labeling. The accompanying H&E-stained sections of all these cases had a normal appearance. Low grade cancer biopsy samples with Gleason scores G4-7 (25) all revealed widespread second stage receptor labeling in areas of both normal and cancerous morphology, while 17 high grade cancer biopsy samples (Gleason G8-10) all showed third stage labeling along with some residual second stage labeling. The features of each P2X labeling stage occupied the entire histological area affected, offering more opportunity to diagnose the tissue than was supplied by the more-localised diagnostic features identified by H&E-stain. Besides detecting cases of preneoplasia in biopsies with a normal H&E appearance, this technique was also able to rule out the presence of neoplasia in purely hyperplasic prostates by the absence of any P2X labeling.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2001) 4, 92-96 PMID:12497044

  15. The presence of two local myocardial sheet populations confirmed by diffusion tensor MRI and histological validation

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Geoff; Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Aki; Skare, Stefan; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To establish the correspondence between the two histologically observable and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) measurements of myolaminae orientation for the first time and show that single myolaminar orientations observed in local histology may result from histological artifact. Materials and Methods DTMRI was performed on six sheep left ventricles (LV), then corresponding direct histological transmural measurements were made within the antero-basal and lateral-equatorial LV. Secondary and tertiary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor were compared to each of the two locally observable sheet orientations from histology. Diffusion tensor invariants were calculated to compare differences in microstructural diffusive properties between histological locations with one observable sheet population and two observable sheet populations. Results Mean difference ± one standard deviation between DTMRI and histology measured sheet angles was 8° ± 27°. Diffusion tensor invariants showed no significant differences between histological locations with one observable sheet population and locations with two observable sheet populations. Conclusion DTMRI measurements of myolaminae orientations derived from the secondary and tertiary eigenvectors correspond to each of the two local myolaminae orientations observed in histology. Two local sheet populations may exist throughout LV myocardium and one local sheet population observed in histology may be a result of preparation artifact. PMID:21932362

  16. The Custom Endosteal Implant: histology and case report of a retrieved maxillary custom osseous-integrated implant nine years in service.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, William D; Krutchkoff, David J

    2014-04-01

    The Custom Endosteal Implant (CEI) is a custom-cast osseo-integrated implant that has evolved to replace the "old" fibro-integrated subperiosteal variant. This newly developed implant achieves osseous integration by utilizing a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, and a specialized grafting technique that produces much improved success rates relative to its fibro-integrated subperiosteal predecessor. This case reported here represents a maxillary CEI implant that was placed and in functional service for 9 years before being retrieved and processed for histologic examination subsequent to the patient's demise. In addition, due to infection that occurred shortly after placement, an early provisional procedure with fluoridated HA was also performed. Histologic analysis of the postmortem specimen revealed a fully integrated new bone formation intimately surrounding the previously dehisced implant strut. The latter had previously been decontaminated and grafted with a thin layer of fluorapatite (FA) material. Results including histologic analysis confirmed complete osseo-integration of the implant following successful FA graft revision.

  17. Morpho-histological characterisation of the alimentary canal of an important food fish, Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Lau, Doreen; Saju, Jolly M; Musthaq Sk, Syed; Lunny, Declan Patrick; Vij, Shubha; Orbán, László

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a food fish of increasing aquaculture importance. In order to improve our understanding on the digestive system and feeding of this species, morphological and histological features of the gut were studied. Morphologically, the Asian seabass gut is defined by a short and muscular esophagus, well-developed stomach and comparatively short intestine. Mucous secreting goblet cells reactive to PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and AB (Alcian Blue) stain were present throughout the esophagus. The stomach was sac-like and could be distinguished into the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Gastric glands and mucus cells were predominately present in the cardiac and fundic regions. Five finger-like pyloric caeca were present between the stomach and intestine. The intestine was a short, tubular structure with no morphological differences between the various regions. Histologically, the intestinal regions were similar, the main difference being in the number of goblet cells that increased from anterior to posterior intestine, with 114 ± 9, 153 ± 7 and 317 ± 21 goblet cells in the anterior, mid and posterior regions, respectively. The intestinal epithelium stained positively for PAS, but the staining was stronger for acidic glycoproteins. The rectum was similar to intestine, except for increased goblet cell numbers (anterior rectum: 529 ± 26; posterior rectum: 745 ± 29). Gut morpho-histology did not respond to salinity changes, however, there was a significant reduction of mucosal height, goblet cell numbers and muscularis thickness upon food deprivation. PMID:27635341

  18. Analysis of repeated 24-core saturation prostate biopsy: Inverse association between asymptomatic histological inflammation and prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomonori; Komiya, Akira; Morii, Akihiro; Iida, Hiroaki; Ito, Takatoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Saturation prostate biopsy protocols have been developed to improve the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate, particularly in the setting of repeat biopsies. The present study attempted to clarify the association between PCa detection and various risk factors in repeat saturation biopsies. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 78 Japanese patients for whom findings had caused suspicion of PCa despite previous negative prostate biopsies, and who consecutively underwent a 24-core transperineal repeat biopsy at Toyama University Hospital (Toyama, Japan). PCa was confirmed histologically in 16 of the 78 patients (20.5%). A univariate analysis revealed that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at repeat biopsy was higher (P<0.01), the fPSA/tPSA ratio was lower (P=0.04), the total prostate volume was smaller (P=0.01) and the PSA density was higher (P<0.01) in PCa patients than in patients with benign prostatic disease (BPD). Histological inflammation was more frequently observed in BPD patients than in PCa patients (P<0.01). A multivariate analysis revealed that histological inflammation was the only independent predictor of the presence of a malignant lesion on repeat biopsy (odds ratio, 0.027; P=0.01). It must be considered that inflammation may cause a PSA increase in some patients with a negative initial biopsy, leading to unnecessary repeat biopsy. PMID:27446407

  19. Morpho-histological characterisation of the alimentary canal of an important food fish, Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Lau, Doreen; Saju, Jolly M.; Musthaq SK, Syed; Lunny, Declan Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a food fish of increasing aquaculture importance. In order to improve our understanding on the digestive system and feeding of this species, morphological and histological features of the gut were studied. Morphologically, the Asian seabass gut is defined by a short and muscular esophagus, well-developed stomach and comparatively short intestine. Mucous secreting goblet cells reactive to PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and AB (Alcian Blue) stain were present throughout the esophagus. The stomach was sac-like and could be distinguished into the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Gastric glands and mucus cells were predominately present in the cardiac and fundic regions. Five finger-like pyloric caeca were present between the stomach and intestine. The intestine was a short, tubular structure with no morphological differences between the various regions. Histologically, the intestinal regions were similar, the main difference being in the number of goblet cells that increased from anterior to posterior intestine, with 114 ± 9, 153 ± 7 and 317 ± 21 goblet cells in the anterior, mid and posterior regions, respectively. The intestinal epithelium stained positively for PAS, but the staining was stronger for acidic glycoproteins. The rectum was similar to intestine, except for increased goblet cell numbers (anterior rectum: 529 ± 26; posterior rectum: 745 ± 29). Gut morpho-histology did not respond to salinity changes, however, there was a significant reduction of mucosal height, goblet cell numbers and muscularis thickness upon food deprivation. PMID:27635341

  20. Morpho-histological characterisation of the alimentary canal of an important food fish, Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Lau, Doreen; Saju, Jolly M.; Musthaq SK, Syed; Lunny, Declan Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a food fish of increasing aquaculture importance. In order to improve our understanding on the digestive system and feeding of this species, morphological and histological features of the gut were studied. Morphologically, the Asian seabass gut is defined by a short and muscular esophagus, well-developed stomach and comparatively short intestine. Mucous secreting goblet cells reactive to PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and AB (Alcian Blue) stain were present throughout the esophagus. The stomach was sac-like and could be distinguished into the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Gastric glands and mucus cells were predominately present in the cardiac and fundic regions. Five finger-like pyloric caeca were present between the stomach and intestine. The intestine was a short, tubular structure with no morphological differences between the various regions. Histologically, the intestinal regions were similar, the main difference being in the number of goblet cells that increased from anterior to posterior intestine, with 114 ± 9, 153 ± 7 and 317 ± 21 goblet cells in the anterior, mid and posterior regions, respectively. The intestinal epithelium stained positively for PAS, but the staining was stronger for acidic glycoproteins. The rectum was similar to intestine, except for increased goblet cell numbers (anterior rectum: 529 ± 26; posterior rectum: 745 ± 29). Gut morpho-histology did not respond to salinity changes, however, there was a significant reduction of mucosal height, goblet cell numbers and muscularis thickness upon food deprivation.

  1. Development of a Computational High-Throughput Tool for the Quantitative Examination of Dose-Dependent Histological Features

    PubMed Central

    Nault, Rance; Colbry, Dirk; Brandenberger, Christina; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution digitalizing of histology slides facilitates the development of computational alternatives to manual quantitation of features of interest. We developed a MATLAB-based quantitative histological analysis tool (QuHAnT) for the high-throughput assessment of distinguishable histological features. QuHAnT validation was demonstrated by comparison with manual quantitation using liver sections from mice orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 0.001–30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days, which elicits hepatic steatosis with mild fibrosis. A quality control module of QuHAnT reduced the number of quantifiable Oil Red O (ORO)-stained images from 3,123 to 2,756. Increased ORO staining was measured at 10 and 30 µg/kg TCDD with a high correlation between manual and computational volume densities (Vv), although the dynamic range of QuHAnT was 10-fold greater. Additionally, QuHAnT determined the size of each ORO vacuole, which could not be accurately quantitated by visual examination or manual point counting. PicroSirius Red quantitation demonstrated superior collagen deposition detection due to the ability to consider all images within each section. QuHAnT dramatically reduced analysis time and facilitated the comprehensive assessment of features improving accuracy and sensitivity and represents a complementary tool for tissue/cellular features that are difficult and tedious to assess via subjective or semiquantitative methods. PMID:25274660

  2. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  3. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  4. Degree of Enhancement on Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography (CESM) and Lesion Type on Mammography (MG): Comparison Based on Histological Results

    PubMed Central

    Łuczyńska, Elżbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Hendrick, Edward; Heinze, Sylwia; Jaszczyński, Janusz; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata; Rys, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Background Contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a new method of breast cancer diagnosis in which an iodinated contrast agent is injected and dual-energy mammography is obtained in multiple views of the breasts. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of enhancement on CESM with lesion characteristics on mammography (MG) and lesion histology in women with suspicious breast lesions. Material/Methods The degree of enhancement on CESM (absent, weak, medium, or strong) was compared to lesion characteristics on MG (mass, mass with microcalcifications, or microcalcifications alone) and histology (infiltrating carcinoma, intraductal carcinoma, or benign) to compare sensitivity of the two modalities and to establish correlations that might improve diagnostic accuracy. Results Among 225 lesions identified with CESM and MG, histological evaluation revealed 143 carcinomas (127 infiltrating, 16 intraductal) and 82 benign lesions. This is the largest cohort investigated with CESM to date. The sensitivity of CESM was higher than that of MG (100% and 90%, respectively, p=0.010). Medium or strong enhancement on CESM and the presence of a mass on MG was the most likely indictor of malignancy (55.1% p=0.002). Among benign lesions, 60% presented as enhancement on CESM (were false-positive), and most frequently as medium or weak enhancement, together with a mass on MG (53%, p=0.047). Unfortunately, the study did not find combinations of MG findings and CESM enhancement patterns that would be helpful in defining false-positive lesions. We observed systematic overestimation of maximum lesion diameter on CESM compared to histology (mean difference: 2.29 mm). Conclusions Strong or medium enhancement on CESM and mass or mass with microcalcifications on MG were strong indicators of malignant transformation. However, we found no combination of MG and CESM characteristics helpful in defining false-positive lesions. PMID:27768681

  5. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  6. A reproducible grading scale for histological assessment of inflammation in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Geboes, K; Riddell, R; Ost, A; Jensfelt, B; Persson, T; Lofberg, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Evaluation of histological activity in ulcerative colitis needs to be reproducible but has rarely been tested. This could be useful both clinically and in clinical trials.
AIM—To develop reproducible criteria which are valid in the assessment of acute inflammation (activity) and chronicity, and to evaluate these features in an interobserver variability study.
METHODS—A six grade classification system for inflammation was developed which could also be fine tuned within each grade. The grades were: 0, structural change only; 1, chronic inflammation; 2, lamina propria neutrophils; 3, neutrophils in epithelium; 4, crypt destruction; and 5, erosions or ulcers. Ninety nine haematoxylin-eosin sections from endoscopically inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa from patients with distal ulcerative colitis were assessed in two separate readings by three pathologists independently and without knowledge of the clinical status. Interobserver agreement was compared pairwise using kappa statistics.
RESULTS—Initially, kappa values between the observers were 0.20, 0.42, and 0.26, which are too low to be of value. Following development of a semiquantitative pictorial scale for each criterion, kappa values improved to 0.62, 0.70, and 0.59. For activity defined by neutrophils between epithelial cells, kappa values were 0.903, 1.000, and 0.907. Complete agreement was reached in 64% of samples of endoscopically normal and in 66% of endoscopically inflamed tissue. Neutrophils in epithelium correlated with the presence of crypt destruction and ulceration.
CONCLUSION—A histological activity system was developed for ulcerative colitis that showed good reproducibility and modest agreement with the endoscopic grading system which it complemented. It has potential value both clinically and in clinical trials.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; biopsy; inflammation; scoring system PMID:10940279

  7. Early Cerebral Hemodynamic, Metabolic, and Histological Changes in Hypoxic–Ischemic Fetal Lambs during Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Santano, Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria E.; Gastiasoro, Elena; Murgia, Xabier; Lafuente, Hector; Ruiz-del-Yerro, Estibaliz; Valls-i-Soler, Adolf; Hilario, Enrique; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The hemodynamic, metabolic, and biochemical changes produced during the transition from fetal to neonatal life may be aggravated if an episode of asphyxia occurs during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF), histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress in the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. Eighteen chronically instrumented newborn lambs were randomly assigned to either a control group or the hypoxic–ischemic (HI) group, in which case fetal asphyxia was induced just before delivery. All the animals were maintained on intermittent positive pressure ventilation for 3 h after delivery. During the HI insult, the injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, lactic acidosis, and tachycardia (relative to the control group), without hypotension. The intermittent positive pressure ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilatory support, there continued to be an increased RCBF in inner regions among the HI group, but no significant differences were detected in cortical flow compared to the control group. Also, the magnitude of the increase in TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis) and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly greater in the brain regions where the RCBF was not higher. In conclusion, our findings identify early metabolic, histological, and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage in premature asphyxiated lambs. Such changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the safety and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilation strategies applied in the first hours after fetal HI injury. PMID:21960958

  8. Modeling ancient Egyptian mummification on fresh human tissue: macroscopic and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Shved, Natallia; Wanek, Johann; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been concerned with the ancient Egyptian mummification method; nevertheless, little effort has been made to explore it experimentally. The goal of this study is to apply evidence-based diagnostic criteria and state-of-the art methodology in order to improve knowledge on soft tissues preservation and postmortem alterations. Two human lower limbs (LL) from a female donor were (1) "naturally" mummified by dry heat and (2) artificially in natron. At specific time intervals a macroscopic and radiological examination of the LL was performed and skin and muscle samples were taken for histological and biomolecular analysis. Temperature, humidity, pH, and weight of the LL were systematically measured. The mummification by dry heat was stopped after 7 days due to unexpected lack of mummification progress. The mummification in natron was completed successfully after 208 days. The humidity, the external temperature, and the pH were proven with Pearson correlation and principal component analysis as important factors for the mummification process. The steady removal of water from the tissues through the natron has prevented the putrefaction. This is also evident in the absence of bacteria or fungi through the microbiological analysis. The histological analysis revealed very good preservation of the skin and the muscle tissues. In the muscular sample certain degree of structural disintegration can be seen, particularly affecting the epimysium whilst in the skin samples the epidermis, especially the stratum corneum, is mostly affected. The samples show better preservation compared with ancient Egyptian sections and other mummified tissues from historic or forensic context.

  9. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Mendes, Larissa Sena Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic

  10. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  11. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  12. [Do histologic changes of the upper renal pole in double ectopic ureterocele justify a conservative approach?].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, P A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper pole segment in patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele to verify if a less aggressive surgery is justified in the prenatally diagnosed patients. We reviewed the histology of the upper pole segment of 15 consecutive patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele treated between 1991 and 1999 at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of University Hospital of Messina. The diagnosis of duplex system ectopic ureterocele was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Paediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory and obstructive changes. All 15 patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele were surgically treated with heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine of the 15 patients were prenatally diagnosed. The histology of the upper pole segment of the 9 prenatally diagnosed showed in all patients segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands and an inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in 6 patients (66.6%) and in 2 (22.2%) nephroblastomatosis. The histology of six the postnatal postnatally diagnosed patients showed in all patients segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper pole histology of the patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele diagnosed prenatally did not show any evidence of reversible histological change. Considering the histology and the good outcome of patients treated with upper pole nephroureterectomy a less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  13. [The importance of histological verification in the conservative surgery of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Marinova, L; Todorov, I; Terziev, I

    1996-01-01

    The place and significance of the histological verification in the team method of approach in case of conservative breast cancer treatment are discussed. An accent is made on the histological risk factors increasing the recurrence appearance probability that gathers such patients in a high risk group. On the basis of our own material representing breast cancer patients treated in the period 1987-1993 the significance of the histological verification in the treatment approach is estimated. Requirements for comprehensive histological verification being much needed for breast cancer patients are risen for the pathohistologists.

  14. [A case of S-1/CDDP chemotherapy for inoperable advanced gastric cancer which led to gastrectomy with histological complete response].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Tanizaki, Keiko; Aoki, Taro; Takachi, Kou; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Matsumoto, Takashi; Komori, Takamichi; Chono, Teruhiro; Kato, Aya; Hyuga, Satoshi; Watanabe, Risa; Uemura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    As the treatment for inoperable advanced gastric cancer, S-1/CDDP combination therapy (SP chemotherapy) has become a standard treatment. In our hospital, a second course of chemotherapy was performed on an outpatient basis in order to improve a traditional QOL. In this case, it showed remarkable effects in 15 months after starting chemotherapy. Then gastrectomy was performed. Histological findings of the resected specimens confirmed pCR in all tumors. We report on progress of this case and explain about the ingenuity of SP chemotherapy.

  15. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  16. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. PMID:23769456

  17. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancers with Uncommon Histology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc curative resection of early gastric cancers (EGCs) with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Although ESD for EGCs with absolute and expanded indications is safe, the results differ between EGCs with specialized and common histologies. EGC with papillary adenocarcinoma is a differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. At present, it is treated with ESD according to the same criteria as other differentiated-type adenocarcinomas. The LNM rate under the current indication criteria is high, and over half of the patients who undergo ESD as a primary treatment for EGC with papillary adenocarcinoma achieve an out-of-ESD result. Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma in EGC has a low LNM rate and a favorable outcome, despite deep submucosal invasion. Patients with this gastric cancer subtype may be good candidates for ESD, even with deep submucosal invasion. Large-scale prospective multi-center studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to set proper ESD criteria for these tumors. Clinicians should be aware of these disease entities and ESD should be more carefully considered for EGCs with papillary adenocarcinoma and gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma. PMID:27744663

  18. Microscopic morphology and histology of the human meninges.

    PubMed

    Weller, R O

    2005-03-01

    The meninges comprise the dura mater and the leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia mater). Dura forms an outer endosteal layer related to the bones of the skull and spine and an inner layer closely applied to the arachnoid mater. Leptomeninges have multiple functions and anatomical relationships. The outer parietal layer of arachnoid is impermeable to CSF due to tight intercellular junctions; elsewhere leptomeningeal cells form demosomes and gap junctions. Trabeculae of leptomeninges compartmentalize the subarachnoid space and join the pia to arachnoid mater. In bacterial meningitis leptomeningeal cells secrete cytokines. Pia mater is reflected from the surface of the brain and spinal cord onto arteries and veins, thus separating the subarachnoid space from the brain and cord. A sheath of leptomeninges accompanies arteries into the brain and is related to the pathways for the drainage of interstitial fluid that play a role in inflammatory responses in the brain and appear to be blocked by amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease. Specialised leptomeningeal cells in the stroma of the choroid plexus form collagen whorls that become calcified with age. Leptomeningeal cells also form channels in the core and apical cap of arachnoid granulations for the drainage of CSF into venous sinuses. In the spine, leptomeninges form highly perforated intermediate sheets of arachnoid and delicate ligaments that compartmentalize the subarachnoid space; dentate ligaments anchor subpial collagen to the dura mater and stabilize the spinal cord. Despite the multiple anatomical arrangements and physiological functions, leptomeningeal cells retain many histological features that are similar from site to site.

  19. Review of Arthroscopic and Histological Findings Following Knee Inlay Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Gregory G; Kambour, Michael T; Uribe, John W

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of cartilage rim loading in defects exceeding the threshold diameter of 10 mm is well documented. Contoured defect fill off-loads the perimeter and counteracts further delamination and progression of defects. When biological procedures have failed, inlay arthroplasty follows these concepts. The human biological response to contoured metallic surface implants has not been described. Four patients underwent non-implant-related, second-look arthroscopy following inlay arthroplasty for bi- (n=3) and tricompartmental (n=1) knee arthrosis without subchondral bone collapse. Arthroscopic probing of the implant-cartilage interface of nine prosthetic components did not show signs of implant-cartilage gap formation, loosening, or subsidence. The implant periphery was consistently covered by cartilage confluence leading to a reduction of the original defect size diameter. Femoral condyle cartilage flow appeared to have more hyaline characteristics. Trochlear cartilage flow showed greater histological variability and less organization with fibrocartilage and synovialized scar tissue. This review reconfirmed previous basic science results and demonstrated effective defect fill and rim off-loading with inlay arthroplasty.

  20. Review of Arthroscopic and Histological Findings Following Knee Inlay Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Gregory G; Kambour, Michael T; Uribe, John W

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of cartilage rim loading in defects exceeding the threshold diameter of 10 mm is well documented. Contoured defect fill off-loads the perimeter and counteracts further delamination and progression of defects. When biological procedures have failed, inlay arthroplasty follows these concepts. The human biological response to contoured metallic surface implants has not been described. Four patients underwent non-implant-related, second-look arthroscopy following inlay arthroplasty for bi- (n=3) and tricompartmental (n=1) knee arthrosis without subchondral bone collapse. Arthroscopic probing of the implant-cartilage interface of nine prosthetic components did not show signs of implant-cartilage gap formation, loosening, or subsidence. The implant periphery was consistently covered by cartilage confluence leading to a reduction of the original defect size diameter. Femoral condyle cartilage flow appeared to have more hyaline characteristics. Trochlear cartilage flow showed greater histological variability and less organization with fibrocartilage and synovialized scar tissue. This review reconfirmed previous basic science results and demonstrated effective defect fill and rim off-loading with inlay arthroplasty. PMID:27082884

  1. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  2. Effective topical delivery systems for corticosteroids: dermatological and histological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, İpek; Azizoğlu, Erkan; Özyazıcı, Mine; Nenni, Merve; Gürer Orhan, Hande; Özbal, Seda; Tekmen, Işıl; Ertam, İlgen; Ünal, İdil; Özer, Özgen

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increase. A new treatment approach was needed to reduce the risk by dermal targeting. For this purpose, Betamethasone valerate (BMV)/Diflucortolone valerate (DFV)-loaded liposomes (220-350 nm) were prepared and incorporated into chitosan gel to obtain adequate viscosity (∼13 000 cps). Drugs were localized in stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin in ex-vivo permeation studies. The toxicity was assessed on human fibroblast cells. In point of in-vivo studies, pharmacodynamic responses, treatment efficacy and skin irritation were evaluated and compared with previously prepared nanoparticles. Liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations produced higher paw edema inhibition in rats with respect to the commercial cream. Similar skin blanching effect with commercial creams was obtained via liposome in gels although they contain 10 times less drug. Dermatological scoring results, prognostic histological parameters and suppression of mast cell numbers showed higher treatment efficiency of liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations in AD-induced rats. TEWL and erythema measurements confirmed these results. Overview of obtained results showed that liposomes might be an effective and safe carrier for corticosteroids in skin disease treatment. PMID:25259424

  3. A Histologically Diagnosed Case with Infantile Osteopetrosis Complicated by Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Gulden; Olukman, Ozgur; Calkavur, Sebnem; Buyukinan, Muammer; Altay, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rarely seen severe disorder which appears early in life with general sclerosis of the skeleton. It is caused by functionally defective osteoclasts which fail to resorb bone. Affected infants can exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including impaired hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment, and hypocalcemia. With the exception of secondary hyperparathyroidism, involvement of the endocrine system seems to be quite rare. Hypopituitarism is defined as underproduction of the growth hormone in combination with deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Any lesion that damages hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, or anterior pituitary can cause secondary hypopituitarism. In this report, we presented a rare combination of malignant infantile osteopetrosis and secondary hypopituitarism in a newborn who presented predominantly with endocrinological symptoms. This is the first case report of malignant infantile osteopetrosis accompanied by hypopituitarism secondary to sclerosis of the sella turcica. On the other hand, this is a very interesting case which was diagnosed based on histological examination of bone marrow biopsy specimens despite lack of any clinical suspicion. PMID:26576309

  4. Relationship of ultrasonographic findings to histology in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Sakamoto, N

    1994-01-01

    We compared ultrasonic findings and histology in 25 patients with prostate cancer. Ultrasonically guided transperineal biopsy of focal prostatic lesions was performed in 19 patients, in whom prostate cancer was suspected. Six of them had two different echogenic areas in the same focal lesion, so a total of 25 echogenic areas were assessed. Fourteen of these 25 areas were hypoechoic. The Gleason score varied, but residual prostatic glands and cancer glands with slightly enlarged lumen did not exist. Six of the areas were slightly more echogenic than the above 14 areas, and cribriform cancer with slightly enlarged glands occupied the greater part of these specimens. Four of the areas were isoechoic, and they contained residual prostatic glands showing a normal distribution, regardless of the Gleason score or grade of tumor infiltration. The only hyperechoic lesion contained numerous tiny areas of calcification. In the 6 patients without focal lesions, the peripheral and transition zones showed a normal echogenicity. Two of these patients had cancer in the transition zone, and biopsy showed tumor glands with slightly enlarged lumens. In the 4 patients, various-sized tumors were seen, but there was a normal distribution of residual prostatic glands and stroma. These results indicated that prostatic echogenicity is determined by the presence of tumor glands with enlarged lumina as well as residual prostatic glands and stroma.

  5. Mycological and histological investigations in humans with middle ear infections.

    PubMed

    Vennewald, I; Schönlebe, J; Klemm, E

    2003-02-01

    The aim of our investigations was to characterize fungal colonization of the ear in immunocompetent patients. From 1993 to 2000, 128 patients supposed to suffer from otomycosis were included. Mycological examination conducted by direct microscopy and fungal cultures was performed on 139 specimens. Among these, 115 patients suffered from chronic otitis media with persisting tympanum perforation and otorrhea. A further 13 patients had clinical signs of an otitis externa only. Out of 139 samples, fungi were identified in the auditory canal (n = 54), on the tympanic membrane (n = 5), and in the middle ear (n = 5). Two-thirds were as moulds and one-third yeasts. The dominating species were Aspergillus niger and Candida parapsilosis. Samples from 15 patients supposed to have mastoiditis or cholesteatoma were examined histologically. Fungal hyphae were observed in the middle ear cavity and/or between horny lamellae of cholesteatoma in four patients. In the middle ear of immunocompetent patients chronic-hyperplastic (polypoid) inflammation was detected with increased production of mucus, which probably promotes colonization by pathogenic fungi in the middle ear as well as in the auditory canal. Invasive fungal growth into the subepithelial connective tissue was not observed.

  6. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  7. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  8. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  9. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  10. Kidney histology and clinical correlates in malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kadiri, S; Thomas, J O

    1993-02-01

    In this clinico-pathologic study, post-mortem kidney material from 30 cases with malignant hypertension (MHT) defined as severe hypertension with bilateral retinal haemorrhages and exudates (grade III retinopathy) with (grade IV retinopathy) or without papilloedema, were studied. Mucoid intimal proliferation (MIP) in interlobular artery and ischaemic collapse of the glomerular tufts occurred in all cases, whereas fibrinoid necrosis (FN) was seen in only 24 (80%) of the cases. FN was not correlated nor associated with sex, age, blood pressure, retinopathy or serum creatinine. Tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis occurred in 24 (80%) and correlated best (rS = 0.8, p < 0.05) with serum creatinine in comparison to glomerular sclerosis (rS = 0.6, p = n.s), fibrinoid necrosis (rS = 0.49, p = n.s) and epithelial crescents (rS = 0.43, p = n.s). This study provides histologic evidence of lack of difference between grades III and IV retinopathy, shows MIP as the more characteristic vascular lesion in MHT and also, good correlation between renal function and tubulointerstitial involvement.

  11. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of tissue engineered odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki J; Sumita, Yoshinori; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    The successful regeneration of complex tooth structures based on tissue-engineering principles was recently reported. The process of this regeneration, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we have used histochemistry to examine the regeneration process of tissue engineered teeth in order to determine the cell types that give rise to these engineered tooth structures. Porcine third molar tooth buds were dissociated into single-cell suspensions and seeded onto a biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer scaffold. Following varying periods of growth in rat hosts, the specimens were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Aggregates of epithelial cells were first observed 4-6 weeks after implantation. These aggregates assumed three different shapes: a natural tooth germ-like shape, a circular shape, or a bilayer-bundle. Based on the structure of the stellate reticulum in the dental epithelium, the circular and bilayer-bundle aggregates could be clearly classified into two types: one with extensively developed stellate reticulum, and the other with negligible stellate reticulum. The epithelial cells in the circular aggregates differentiated into ameloblasts. The continuous bilayer bundles eventually formed the epithelial sheath, and dentin tissue was evident at the apex of these bundles. Finally, enamel-covered dentin and cementum-covered dentin formed, a process most likely mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. These results suggest that the development of these engineered teeth closely parallels that of natural odontogenesis derived from the immature epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  12. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  13. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  14. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact.

  15. Histologic grade and karyotype of immature teratoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ihara, T; Ohama, K; Satoh, H; Fujii, T; Nomura, K; Fujiwara, A

    1984-12-15

    Seven cases of ovarian "pure" immature teratoma were encountered in patients 10 to 38 years of age, six cases being in Stage Ia and one case in Stage IIc. The primary tumors and recurrent growth observed in one case were histologically graded from 0 to 3 according to the criteria of Norris et al. Karyotypes of the tumors and the patients were determined using culture and banding techniques. The only nonsurviving case was in Stage IIc. Four primary tumors belonging to grades 0, 1, and 2 showed a normal 46,XX female karyotype and the patients are alive and healthy. Three grade 3 tumors showed various types of karyotype abnormalities (48,XX,+14,+21; 47,XX,+20; 47,XXX). One patient died, one is alive after experiencing a recurrent tumor, and one has only been followed for 22 months. All seven patients had a normal 46,XX female chromosome constitution. Evidence to date indicates that karyotype of ovarian immature teratoma is either normal female 46,XX or a slight deviation from normal. It is postulated that in ovarian immature teratoma normal 46,XX karyotype is an indicator of favorable prognosis, whereas deviations in karyotype suggest a possibility of poor prognosis. PMID:6498772

  16. Rare synchronous parotid tumors of different histologic types.

    PubMed

    Janecka, I P; Perzin, K H; Sternschein, M J

    1983-12-01

    A review of the approximately 2000 parotid salivary gland tumors studied at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York from 1918 to 1978 showed that separate, synchronous neoplasms of different histologic types were found in the parotid gland in only 7 patients. In 6 of these patients, there was a clinically solitary mass; in the other patient, two separate nodules were palpated. In each case, subtotal or total parotidectomy was performed. On examination of the resected tissue, two separate nodules were identified grossly in three patients; in one, a benign mixed tumor and a mucoepidermoid carcinoma; in the second, a benign mixed tumor and a Warthin's tumor; and in the third, a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and a Warthin's tumor. In the remaining 4 patients, only one grossly evident tumor was found, including benign mixed tumor in 3 patients and a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 1 patient. In each of these cases, the second tumor, discovered only microscopically, was a Warthin's tumor. Thus, in 6 of the 7 patients, the second neoplasm was a Warthin's tumor.

  17. Gleason grading of prostate histology utilizing manifold regularization via statistical shape model of manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Rachel; Madabhushi, Anant

    2012-03-01

    Gleason patterns of prostate cancer histopathology, characterized primarily by morphological and architectural attributes of histological structures (glands and nuclei), have been found to be highly correlated with disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. Gleason patterns 4 and 5 are highly correlated with more aggressive disease and poorer patient outcome, while Gleason patterns 1-3 tend to reflect more favorable patient outcome. Because Gleason grading is done manually by a pathologist visually examining glass (or digital) slides, subtle morphologic and architectural differences of histological attributes may result in grading errors and hence cause high inter-observer variability. Recently some researchers have proposed computerized decision support systems to automatically grade Gleason patterns by using features pertaining to nuclear architecture, gland morphology, as well as tissue texture. Automated characterization of gland morphology has been shown to distinguish between intermediate Gleason patterns 3 and 4 with high accuracy. Manifold learning (ML) schemes attempt to generate a low dimensional manifold representation of a higher dimensional feature space while simultaneously preserving nonlinear relationships between object instances. Classification can then be performed in the low dimensional space with high accuracy. However ML is sensitive to the samples contained in the dataset; changes in the dataset may alter the manifold structure. In this paper we present a manifold regularization technique to constrain the low dimensional manifold to a specific range of possible manifold shapes, the range being determined via a statistical shape model of manifolds (SSMM). In this work we demonstrate applications of the SSMM in (1) identifying samples on the manifold which contain noise, defined as those samples which deviate from the SSMM, and (2) accurate out-of-sample extrapolation (OSE) of newly acquired samples onto a manifold constrained by the SSMM. We

  18. Effect of Gallic Acid on Dementia Type of Alzheimer Disease in Rats: Electrophysiological and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoob; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Valizadeh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To study the effect of gallic acid (GA) on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and histological changes in animal model of Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ). Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats (300±20 g) were divided into 8 groups: 1) Control (Cont); 2) AD; 3) Sham; 4–7) AD+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 10 days, orally) or vehicle, 8) Cont+GA100, Aβ (1μg/μL in each site) was infused into hippocampus bilaterally. Changes of amplitude and slope of LTP induced in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were evaluated by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of perforant path (PP). Results: Data showed that LTP amplitude and area under curve significantly impaired in AD rats (P<0.001), while significantly improved in AD rats treated with GA (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Current findings suggest that GA reduces neural damage and brain amyloid neuropathology and improves cognitive function via free radicals scavenging and inhibiting oligomerization of Aβ but with no effect on healthy rats. PMID:27303604

  19. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  20. Hydroxyapatite coating on PEEK implants: Biomechanical and histological study in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Durham, John W; Montelongo, Sergio A; Ong, Joo L; Guda, Teja; Allen, Matthew J; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2016-11-01

    A bioactive two-layer coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated on cylindrical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Post-deposition heat treatments via variable frequency microwave annealing with and without subsequent autoclaving were used to crystallize the as-deposited amorphous HA layer. Microstructural analysis, performed by TEM and EDS, showed that these methods were capable of crystallizing HA coating on PEEK. The in vivo response to cylindrical PEEK samples with and without coating was studied by implanting uncoated PEEK and coated PEEK implants in the lateral femoral condyle of 18 rabbits. Animals were studied in two groups of 9 for observation at 6 or 18weeks post surgery. Micro-CT analysis, histology, and mechanical pull-out tests were performed to determine the effect of the coating on osseointegration. The heat-treated HA/YSZ coatings showed improved implant fixation as well as higher bone regeneration and bone-implant contact area compared to uncoated PEEK. The study offers a novel method to coat PEEK implants with improved osseointegration. PMID:27524073

  1. Antihypertensive effect of thymectomy in Lyon hypertensive rats. Vascular reactivity, renal histology, and sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Bataillard, A; Blanc-Brunat, N; Vivier, G; Medeiros, I; Zhang, B L; Touraine, J L; Sassard, J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to search for the possible mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of neonatal thymectomy that we previously observed in Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats. To that end, we studied in LH and normotensive control (LN) rats the consequences of neonatal thymectomy on vascular reactivity, renal structure, and pressure-natriuresis. The increase in pressor responses to angiotensin I and phenylephrine noted in LH rats as compared to LN animals was abolished by neonatal thymectomy. Histological study showed that kidneys from LH rats exhibited arterial wall hypertrophy, segmental hyalinization of the glomeruli, and were infiltrated by mononuclear cells. All these features of kidney injury were reduced in neonatally thymectomized LH rats. Lastly, the responses of isolated perfused kidneys from LH rats to stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure differed from those of LN rats by decreased renal perfusion flow and natriuresis. Neonatal thymectomy tended to improve sodium excretion in parallel with a slight decrease in renal vascular resistances. It is concluded that the normalization of vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor factors, the alleviation of renal lesions and, to a lesser extent, the moderate improvement of pressure natriuresis may account, at least in part, for the antihypertensive effect of neonatal thymectomy in LH rats.

  2. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); TalEr, George A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  3. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Taler, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health is discussed. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  4. [Theory and practice in developing a system of artificial intelligence for recognizing histologic specimens].

    PubMed

    Bereznaia, I Ia; Gurevich, E Ia; Matsko, D E; Mikhal'chenko, A I

    1993-01-01

    A system is described for an automatic analysis and recognition of a fresh and reference histologic material. The system includes a microscope, TV camera and personal computer. The system proved applicable in identification of two tumor types: astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. The system can be used in pathology, histology, embryology, cytology, histochemistry, clinical laboratory microscopy and in borderline fields.

  5. Prognostic impact of histological categorisation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, H; Shinto, E; Kajiwara, Y; Fukazawa, S; Shimazaki, H; Yamamoto, J; Hase, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The crosstalk between cancer cells and stroma is involved in the acquired capability for metastasis through the induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). We aimed to clarify the prognostic value of the histological category of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Tumour EMT was graded into one of three histological categories on the basis of integrated assessment of poorly differentiated clusters and pro-EMT desmoplasia at the leading edge of the primary tumour (HistologyEMT). Stage II and III CRC patients (cohort 1, N=500) and stage IV patients (cohort 2, N=196) were retrospectively analysed. Results: In cohort 1, patients were stratified into three groups with widely different disease-free survival rates (95%, 83% and 39%) on the basis of HistologyEMT (P<0.0001). In cohort 2, HistologyEMT significantly stratified overall survival of patients irrespective of metasectomy. Multivariate analyses indicated that HistologyEMT had a strong prognostic impact independent of staging factors. Statistically, HistologyEMT had a better prognostic stratification power than T and N stages; however, in cohort 2, the power of M substage was superior. Conclusions: A histological model to categorise EMT by integrated assessment of dedifferentiation and desmoplastic environment is a potent prognostic index independent of staging factors. PMID:25247323

  6. Computerized methodology for micro-CT and histological data inflation using an IVUS based translation map.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Rigas, George A; Sakellarios, Antonis I; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Naka, Katerina K; Panetta, Daniele; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Vozzi, Federico; Michalis, Lampros K; Parodi, Oberdan; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-10-01

    A framework for the inflation of micro-CT and histology data using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images, is presented. The proposed methodology consists of three steps. In the first step the micro-CT/histological images are manually co-registered with IVUS by experts using fiducial points as landmarks. In the second step the lumen of both the micro-CT/histological images and IVUS images are automatically segmented. Finally, in the third step the micro-CT/histological images are inflated by applying a transformation method on each image. The transformation method is based on the IVUS and micro-CT/histological contour difference. In order to validate the proposed image inflation methodology, plaque areas in the inflated micro-CT and histological images are compared with the ones in the IVUS images. The proposed methodology for inflating micro-CT/histological images increases the sensitivity of plaque area matching between the inflated and the IVUS images (7% and 22% in histological and micro-CT images, respectively). PMID:25771781

  7. Determination of Stent Stenosis: An In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography with Histology

    SciTech Connect

    Schuermann, Karl; Vorwerk, Dierk; Uppenkamp, Robert; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Buecker, Arno; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To compare intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and angiography with histology in determining the degree of stent stenosis in an in vivo experiment. Methods: In 16 sheep, a total of 64 stents were implanted into the external iliac arteries. Two stents were inserted on either side. Patency was followed by angiography and IVUS. Four types of stent were used: two Dacron-covered (Cragg Endopro and heparinized Cragg Endopro) and two non-covered (Cragg and Memotherm stents). Eight animals were killed after 1 month, eight others after 6 months. Histological sections were prepared from the stented vessels. Measurements of the patent and total stent diameters determined by IVUS, angiography, and histology were compared. Results: Correlation between IVUS and angiography was 0.75, between IVUS and histology 0.77, and between angiography and histology 0.85. A mean stent stenosis of 17 {+-} 11% (range 0-51%) was found on angiography, of 10 {+-} 11% (0-46%) on IVUS, and of 20 {+-} 11% (4%-49%) on histology. In comparison with histology, IVUS underestimated the degree of stenosis by 10 {+-} 8%, and angiography underestimated it by 3 {+-} 6%. Resolution of IVUS was calculated to be about 0.35 mm and that of angiography to be about 0.15 mm. Conclusion: Under experimental conditions, IVUS was not superior to angiography in determining the degree of stent stenosis in long-segment stenoses of iliac artery stents, when measurements were correlated with histology. Angiography is sufficient for following the patency of iliac artery stents.

  8. The importance of histologic parameters of lacteal involvement in cases of canine lymphoplasmacytic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Giacomo; Cerquetella, Matteo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Pengo, Graziano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Spaterna, Andrea; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most frequent form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs is represented histologically, by lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE), a histological category, often associated with other morphologic alterations including lymphangiectasia (LE). However, literature data on this latter topic are quite scarce and have mostly been obtained in single reports or in small series. Aim: We evaluated some morphologic parameters of intestinal villi and lacteals in a large cohort of dogs, and correlated them with serum albumin and cholesterol values. Patients and methods: We investigated 136 dogs (94 with LPE, and 42 with gastrointestinal problems different from IBD) and analyzed their clinical, laboratory (albumin and cholesterol values), endoscopic, and histologic variables. Results: The LPE group showed significantly impaired clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histologic variables compared to controls. Affected dogs showed significant correlations between canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) scores and endoscopic and histologic variables. Moreover, the grade of hematologic changes were strongly related to the intestinal histologic variables, in particular those concerning villous and lacteals morphology. Conclusion: Dogs with LPE had intestinal histologic abnormalities (height, width, height/width ratio, calculated for both villi and lacteals), whose degree correlated with the severity of hypoalbuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Evaluation of endoscopic and histologic variables in association to the clinical findings may reveal useful insights for the pathogenesis of LPE and, hopefully, might lead to more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25584174

  9. Reconstruction of 3-dimensional histology volume and its application to study mouse mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Rushin; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Spyropoulos, Demetri; Raouf, Afshin; Martel, Anne; Seth, Arun

    2014-07-26

    Histology volume reconstruction facilitates the study of 3D shape and volume change of an organ at the level of macrostructures made up of cells. It can also be used to investigate and validate novel techniques and algorithms in volumetric medical imaging and therapies. Creating 3D high-resolution atlases of different organs(1,2,3) is another application of histology volume reconstruction. This provides a resource for investigating tissue structures and the spatial relationship between various cellular features. We present an image registration approach for histology volume reconstruction, which uses a set of optical blockface images. The reconstructed histology volume represents a reliable shape of the processed specimen with no propagated post-processing registration error. The Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections of two mouse mammary glands were registered to their corresponding blockface images using boundary points extracted from the edges of the specimen in histology and blockface images. The accuracy of the registration was visually evaluated. The alignment of the macrostructures of the mammary glands was also visually assessed at high resolution. This study delineates the different steps of this image registration pipeline, ranging from excision of the mammary gland through to 3D histology volume reconstruction. While 2D histology images reveal the structural differences between pairs of sections, 3D histology volume provides the ability to visualize the differences in shape and volume of the mammary glands.

  10. Clinical, histological, and biochemical predictors of postsurgical neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Valéria; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Ben Ammar, Skander; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Gaudot, Fabrice; Sommer, Claudia; Bouhassira, Didier; Fletcher, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    Surgical nerve injury sometimes leads to chronic postsurgical neuropathic pain (CPSNP). The risk factors for this condition are not well understood. We prospectively assessed 46 patients scheduled for iliac crest bone harvest, 2 days (D2) and 3 months (M3) after surgery, to determine the time course of nerve fiber degeneration and expression of the TNF-α and NGF genes in skin punch biopsies. Mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds were evaluated at D2 and M3, by quantitative sensory testing. Skin punch biopsies were also obtained from the thighs ipsilateral and contralateral to iliac crest bone harvest. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and cutaneous TNF-α and NGF gene expression were analyzed. Forty-five volunteers matched for age, sex, skin color were examined as controls. Chronic postsurgical neuropathic pain was defined as pain in an area of hypesthesia with a positive Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score. Overall, 73% (N = 32) of patients developed hypesthesia and 40% (N = 13) of these patients had developed CPSNP at M3. Quantitative sensory testing results, IENFD, and skin TNF-α and NGF gene expression at D2 and M3 did not differ between patients with and without CPSNP. However, in patients with CPSNP, burning, compression, and pain provoked by brushing were correlated with IENFD at M3, suggesting a possible association between partial nerve lesions and more intense CPSNP, than with total nerve lesion. Furthermore, preoperative pain and opioid use were higher in patients who developed CPSNP than in those without CPSNP. These findings suggest that the predictors of CPSNP development are clinical rather than histological or biochemical.

  11. Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.

    PubMed

    McGavin, M D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components.

  12. 3D morphological measurement of whole slide histological vasculature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. G.; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of the microvasculature that contribute to tissue perfusion can be assessed using immunohistochemistry on 2D histology sections. However, the vasculature is inherently 3D and the ability to measure and visualize the vessel wall components in 3D will aid in detecting focal pathologies. Our objectives were (1) to develop a method for 3D measurement and visualization of microvasculature in 3D, (2) to compare the normal and regenerated post-ischemia mouse hind limb microvasculature, and (3) to compare the 2D and 3D vessel morphology measures. Vessels were stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain for both normal (n = 6 mice) and regenerated vasculature (n = 5 mice). 2D vessel segmentations were reconstructed into 3D using landmark based registration. No substantial bias was found in the 2D measurements relative to 3D, but larger differences were observed for individual vessels oriented non-orthogonally to the plane of sectioning. A larger value of area, perimeter, and vessel wall thickness was found in the normal vasculature as compared to the regenerated vasculature, for both the 2D and 3D measurements (p < 0.01). Aggregated 2D measurements are sufficient for identifying morphological differences between groups of mice; however, one must interpret individual 2D measurements with caution if the vessel centerline direction is unknown. Visualization of 3D measurements permits the detection of localized vessel morphology aberrations that are not revealed by 2D measurements. With vascular measure visualization methodologies in 3D, we are now capable of locating focal pathologies on a whole slide level.

  13. The normal uncinate process: histology and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gilead; Eviatar, Ephraim; Kogan, Tatiana; Landsberg, Roee

    2013-03-01

    In this three-center, prospective, non-randomized, controlled trial, we performed a qualitative and quantitative histological and morphometric assessment of the normal uncinate process (UP). The soft tissue and bony elements of the normal UP of 16 adults were investigated and compared with 28 age- and gender-matched archival reference-group samples of neighboring structures of the inferior and middle turbinates. A series of measurements were taken and included the thickness of the mucosal layers and bone, epithelial height, basement membrane thickness, number of lamina propria inflammatory cells, and the area fraction (AF) of the epithelium, connective tissue, glands, veins and arteries. The data showed that the medial and lateral mucosal layers are built of loose connective tissue and harbor various inflammatory cell population, abundant glands, and thin-walled small-caliber venules. In-between, there is a thin lamellar compact bone (≤ 80 μm) or a significantly thicker cancellous bone (110-400 μm; P < 0.001). Both mucosal layers are similar in thickness, epithelial height, basement membrane thickness, and AF of soft-tissue constituents. A comparison with the lateral aspect of the inferior and middle turbinates showed that the AF of the connective tissue, total submucosal glands, submucosal serous and mucous glands, and veins of the lateral mucosa are significantly different (all P < 0.001). This diversity may point to different physiological roles for the UP and the inferior and middle turbinates. The UP rich glandular network, which is probably responsible for drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus into the ethmoid infundibulum laterally and the frontal sinus into the middle meatus medially, supports the argument that it is preferable, particularly for the less complicated cases, to keep the normal physiology of the ethmoid infundibulum and use bone- and mucosa-sparing techniques for the management of refractory chronic sinus disease.

  14. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  15. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  16. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  17. [Inter-observes agreement of Ishak and Metavir scores in histological evaluation of chronic viral hepatitis B and C].

    PubMed

    Rammeh, Soumaya; Khadra, Hajer Ben; Znaidi, Nadia Sabbegh; Romdhane, Neila Attia; Najjar, Taoufik; Bouzaidi, Slim; Zermani, Rachida

    2014-01-01

    Many classification systems are currently used for histological evaluation of the severity of chronic viral hepatitis, including the Ishak and Metavir scores, but there is not a consensus classification. The objective of this work was to study the intra and inter-observers agreement of these two scores in the histopathological analysis of liver biopsies in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C. Fifty nine patients were included in the study, 26 had chronic hepatitis C and 33 had chronic hepatitis B. To investigate the inter-observers agreement, the liver biopsies were analyzed separately by two pathologists without prior consensus reading. The two pathologists conducted then a consensual reading before reviewing all cases independently. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated and in case of asymmetry Spearman's rho coefficient. Before the consensus reading, the agreement was moderate for the analysis of histological activity with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.41, Ishak: rho=0.58). For the analysis of fibrosis, the agreement was good with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.61, Ishak: rho=0.86). The consensus reading has improved the reproducibility of the activity that has become good with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.77, Ishak: rho=0.76). For fibrosis improvement was observed with the Ishak score which agreement became excellent (kappa=0.81). In conclusion, we recommend in routine practice, a combined score: Metavir for activity and Ishak for fibrosis and to make a double reading for each biopsy.

  18. Histology of the regeneration of Paulownia tomentosa (Paulowniaceae) by organogenesis.

    PubMed

    San José, Ma del Carmen; Cernadas, Ma José; Corredoira, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with a considerable economic potential because of its value for wood as well as its high biomass production, and elevated stress tolerance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the development of adventitious buds in leaves obtained from four-week-old shoots of P. tomentosa, in order to identify the cells involved in in vitro adventitious bud development. Leaves (proximal halves with the petiole) from the first node were excised from four-week-old micropropagated shoots, and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) Sigma agar, 22.7 microM thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2.9 microM indole-3-acetic acid for two weeks, explants were then transferred to the same medium with 0.44 microM N6-benzyladenine for another four weeks. Five explants were collected daily during the two first weeks in TDZ treatment. A total of 140 samples were processed. Most of the buds developed indirectly from the callus formed in the petiole stub, and they became visible after eight-ten days of culture, although some buds were also observed in the area of the laminar cut at the level of the veins. The first histological changes could be observed after two-three days of culture, with the dedifferentiation of some subepidermal and inner parenchyma cells, which exhibited a large, prominent nucleus, densely-stained cytoplasm and a high nucleus-to-cell area ratio. Proliferation of these cells gives rise to meristemoid formation after seven-ten days of culture. Organized cell division in meristemoids allows the formation of bud primordia that emerged from the explants surface. The progressive structural differentiation of the apical meristem, leaf primordia, and procambium strands, led to formation of complete buds that were observed in the exterior of the explants after 10-15 days of culture. Direct development of buds from cells in the subepidermic and/or epidermic layers were observed on the

  19. Placental fetal stem segmentation in a sequence of histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, Prashant; Vese, Luminita A.

    2012-02-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental fetal stems. Analysis of the fetal stems in a placenta could be useful in the study and diagnosis of some diseases like autism. To study the fetal stem structure effectively, we need to automatically and accurately track fetal stems through a sequence of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histology slides. There are many problems in successfully achieving this goal. A few of the problems are: large size of images, misalignment of the consecutive H&E slides, unpredictable inaccuracies of manual tracing, very complicated texture patterns of various tissue types without clear characteristics, just to name a few. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to achieve automatic tracing of the fetal stem in a sequence of H&E images, based on an inaccurate manual segmentation of a fetal stem in one of the images. This algorithm combines global affine registration, local non-affine registration and a novel 'dynamic' version of the active contours model without edges. We first use global affine image registration of all the images based on displacement, scaling and rotation. This gives us approximate location of the corresponding fetal stem in the image that needs to be traced. We then use the affine registration algorithm "locally" near this location. At this point, we use a fast non-affine registration based on L2-similarity measure and diffusion regularization to get a better location of the fetal stem. Finally, we have to take into account inaccuracies in the initial tracing. This is achieved through a novel dynamic version of the active contours model without edges where the coefficients of the fitting terms are computed iteratively to ensure that we obtain a unique stem in the segmentation. The segmentation thus obtained can then be used as an

  20. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  1. [A clinicopathological study of IgA nephropathy after tonsillectomy--with emphasis on renal histology and the timing of tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Koichi, K; Yamaji, S; Kimura, T; Yosizawa, T; Tujie, H

    1993-08-01

    We studied the effects and the timing of tonsillectomy on IgA nephropathy by urinalysis, serum Cr, IgA, ASLO and renal histology. The renal histology was classified into three groups according to its progression. Tonsillectomy was carried out in 31 patients (12 males and 19 females) with IgA nephropathies diagnosed by renal biopsy. The average age at tonsillectomy was 30.4 years old. The effects of tonsillectomy were followed up from more than 1 year (average 36.9 months) after operation. An improvement in urinary findings was observed in 77% and in 22 cases (71%) the tonsillectomy was evaluated as having been effective based on urinary findings and renal function. The difference between the effective group and the ineffective group, in terms of the tonsillectomy, was significant for serum Cr but not for urinary findings, serum IgA or ASLO. The effective rate in groups I and II, based on renal histological classification, was 96%. In group III (advanced stage), no case was considered to show an effective response. We conclude that tonsillectomy in IgA nephropathies should be carried out at an early stage, while renal function is normal and before renal histology has progressed to that of group III.

  2. Can histologic changes of the upper pole justify a conservative approach in neonatal duplex ectopic ureterocele?

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper-pole segment in patients with duplex-system ectopic ureterocele (DEU) to determine if less aggressive surgery is justified in prenatally-diagnosed cases. The study included 15 consecutive patients with DEU treated between 1991 and 1999. The diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory, and obstructive changes. All 15 patients were surgically treated by heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine cases were diagnosed prenatally; the histology of the upper-pole segment in these patients showed segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands, and an inflammatory tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 6 (66.6%) and nephroblastomatosis in 2 (22.2%). The histology of the 6 postnatally-diagnosed patients showed segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy, and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper-pole histology of the prenatally-diagnosed patients did not show any evidence of reversible histologic changes. Considering this findings and the good outcome of patients treated with upper-pole nephroureterectomy, less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  3. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  4. 3D reconstruction of prostate histology based on quantified tissue cutting and deformation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Eli; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Crukley, Cathie; Bauman, Glenn; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2012-03-01

    Methods for 3D histology reconstruction from sparse 2D digital histology images depend on knowledge about the positions, orientations, and deformations of tissue slices due to the histology process. This work quantitatively evaluates typical assumptions about the position and orientation of whole-mount prostate histology sections within coarsely sliced tissue blocks and about the deformation of tissue during histological processing and sectioning. 3-5 midgland tissue blocks from each of 7 radical prostatectomy specimens were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging before histology processing. After standard whole-mount paraffin processing and sectioning, the resulting sections were digitised. Homologous anatomic landmarks were identified on 22 midgland histology and MR images. Orientations and depths of sections relative to the front faces of the tissue blocks were measured based on the best-fit plane through the landmarks on the MR images. The mean+/-std section orientation was 1.7+/-1.1° and the mean+/-std depth of the sections was 1.0+/-0.5 mm. Deformation was assessed by using four transformation models (rigid, rigid+scale, affine and thin-plate-spline (TPS)) to align landmarks from histology and MR images, and evaluating each by measuring the target registration error (TRE) using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The rigid transformation model had higher mean TRE (p<0.001) than the other models, and the rigid+scale and affine models had higher mean TRE than the TPS model (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). These results informed the design and development of a method for 3D prostate histology reconstruction based on extrinsic strand-shaped fiducial markers which yielded a 0.7+/-0.4 mm mean+/-std TRE.

  5. EX VIVO CORRELATION OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC SMALL INTESTINAL WALL LAYERING WITH HISTOLOGY IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Alexandre B; Granger, L Abbigail; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-09-01

    Canine ultrasonographic intestinal layers have been reported to correlate with histological layering. However, discrepancies have been reported in people, and additional layers visualized. The aim of this method comparison study was to describe ex vivo canine small intestinal layering and correlate it with histology. Small intestinal samples of 12 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease were resected immediately following euthanasia, pinned on a Petri dish, and transverse ultrasonographic images acquired in a water bath, using a high-frequency linear transducer. Transverse histological sections were obtained at the same level. Measurements of the intestinal layers were performed on the ultrasonographic and histological images. No significant statistical differences were noted between the ultrasonographic and histological measurements and strong to very strong (r > 0.7) positive correlation was observed for all layers, except for the serosa, which had a low moderate positive correlation (r = 0.479). In addition to the five established layers, a dual mucosal echogenicity was consistently observed, with seven samples presenting an additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity. Histologically, this dual echogenicity was attributed to the intestinal villi (mildly echogenic) and lamina propria (hypoechoic). The additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity observed in seven samples was attributed to mild-to-moderate lacteal dilation histologically. In 4/12 ileal samples, an additional hyperechoic mucosal line was also observed parallel to the submucosa, corresponding histologically to prominent Peyer's patches. Finally, a hyperechoic line was observed within the muscularis of all samples, corresponding histologically to the interface between the muscularis longitudinal and circular layers. PMID:27377194

  6. A histologic assessment of a HYBENX® oral tissue decontaminant in vital pulp therapy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, M D; Prasad, H S; Savord, E G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess HYBENX® Oral Tissue Decontaminant (HOTD) in treating vital pulp exposure in a canine model. The use of HOTD solution was compared to an accepted and standard regimen for vital pulp exposure, an application of a commercial calcium hydroxide product (Ca(OH)2). Both control and experimental treatments were followed by restoration with a commercial zinc oxide and eugenol obtundant intermediate restorative material and thermal insulator (ZOE). At 7 days there was 100% pulp vitality with HOTD and 50% with Ca(OH)2. New dentin formation was seen in 62.5% of the HOTD treated pulps and none of the Ca(OH)2 treatment group. The vital pulp exposures at day 21 post treatment with HOTD also showed significant improvement over Ca(OH)2 in the presence of odontoblasts, new dentin formation and pulp survivability. The presence of odontoblasts and new dentin was noted in 71% of the HOTD cases versus 50% of the survivable Ca(OH)2 cases. Furthermore, 100% of HOTD cases had vital pulps versus 62.5% of Ca(OH)2 cases. The 60-day specimens of both experimental and control techniques exhibited histologically similar appearances and were similar in outcomes. HOTD treatment at day 7 showed a significant positive difference, both in the formation of new dentin and tooth vitality. HOTD proved better for the post 21-day specimens and equivalent for the 60-day pulp specimens with no evidence of untoward tissue reactions or results.

  7. Histological and biochemical study of the superficial abdominal fascia and its implication in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Aithal, Srinivas Kodavoor; Kotian, Sushma R.; Thittamaranahalli, Honnegowda; Bangera, Hemalatha; Prasad, Keerthana; Souza, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of liposculpturing and fascial flaps in reconstructive surgery has renewed interest in the superficial fascia of abdomen. Its histological and biochemical composition may play a vital role in maintaining strength and elasticity of the fascia. Hence, study of abdominal fascia for the elastic, collagen, and hydroxyproline contents is desirable to understand asymmetrical bulges and skin folds and in improving surgical treatment of obesity. Samples of superficial fascia were collected from of upper and lower abdomen from 21 fresh cadavers (15 males and 6 females). Samples were stained using Verhoeff–Van Gieson stain. Digital images of superficial fascia were analyzed using TissueQuant software. The samples were also subjected to hydroxyproline estimation. The superficial fascia was formed by loosely packed collagen fibers mixed with abundant elastic fibers and adipose tissue. Elastic contents and collagen contents of superficial fascia were significantly more in the upper abdomen than that in the lower abdomen in males. Hydroxyproline content of superficial fascia of upper abdomen was significantly more than that of lower abdomen in both males and females. The elastic, collagen and hydroxyproline contents of superficial fascia of upper abdomen were higher compared to the lower abdomen. This may be a reason for asymmetric bulging over abdomen and more sagging fold of skin in the lower abdomen than in the upper abdomen. This study may therefore be helpful in finding new ways to manage obesity and other body contour deformities. PMID:27722011

  8. Development and evaluation of an interactive electronic laboratory manual for cooperative learning of medical histology.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Kirkley, Debbie L; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual includes guided instruction for students to navigate virtual slides, exercises for students to monitor learning, and cases to provide clinical relevance. At the end of the laboratory activities, student groups can generate a laboratory report that may be used to provide formative feedback. The instructional value of the manual was evaluated by a questionnaire containing both closed-ended and open-ended items. Closed-ended items using a five-point Likert-scale assessed the format and navigation, instructional contents, group process, and learning process. Open-ended items assessed student's perception on the effectiveness of the manual in facilitating their learning. After implementation for two consecutive years, student evaluation of the manual was highly positive and indicated that it facilitated their learning by reinforcing and clarifying classroom sessions, improved their understanding, facilitated active and cooperative learning, and supported self-monitoring of their learning.

  9. Histological data in a combined phylogenetic analysis of scleractinian reef corals.

    PubMed

    Cordie, David R; Budd, Ann F

    2016-04-01

    Scleractinian systematics have undergone rapid changes due to increased use of molecular phylogenetics and new perspectives on skeletal morphology from micromorphology and microstructure. Despite this increase in characters there are still unresolved clades in the phylogeny, indicating that more characters are needed. This study investigates a new source of morphological data within the soft tissue of Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Features of tissue layers, especially cnidocytes, are described in hematoxylin and eosin stained thin sections. Based on this new histological data source, a combined analysis with mitochondrial DNA and skeletal data is performed using parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Parsimony analysis yields three most-parsimonious trees similar to trees based on Bayesian analysis. Character maps are also produced that show origination of histomorphological traits at deep nodes within the phylogeny. In general, both analyses retain the previously designated families Lobophylliidae and Merulinidae, but some genera are found to be paraphyletic. Nonetheless, the combined analysis produces a highly resolved and well-supported phylogeny, which could lead to more effective use of biological conservation metrics based on evolutionary distinctiveness. These results show for the first time that inclusion of histomorphological characters improves the resolution of phylogenetic analyses of reef corals. PMID:26843148

  10. Mitochondrial cofactors in experimental Huntington's disease: behavioral, biochemical and histological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-03-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the beneficial effect of mitochondrial cofactors; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced experimental model of Huntington's disease (HD). HD was developed by administering sub-chronic doses of 3-NP, intraperitoneally, twice daily for 17 days. The animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of motor (spontaneous locomotor activity, narrow beam walk test, footprint analysis and rotarod test) and cognitive (elevated plus maze and T-maze tests) functions. 3-NP treated animals showed impairment in motor coordination such as decreased stride length, increased distance between inner toes, and increased gait angle. Increased transfer latency on elevated plus maze and T-maze tasks revealed cognition deficits in 3-NP treated animals. Increased lipid peroxidation and concomitant decrease in thiol levels were also observed. 3-NP administration also induced histopathological changes in terms of enhanced striatal lesion volume, presence of pyknotic nuclei and astrogliosis. However, combined supplementation with ALA+ALCAR to 3-NP administered animals for 21 days was able to efficiently improve behavioral deficits, attenuate oxidative stress and histological changes, suggesting a putative role of these two supplements if given together in ameliorating 3-NP induced impairments and thus could be engaged in managing HD. PMID:24393741

  11. Towards Automated Three-Dimensional Tracking of Nephrons through Stacked Histological Image Sets.

    PubMed

    Bhikha, Charita; Andreasen, Arne; Christensen, Erik I; Letts, Robyn F R; Pantanowitz, Adam; Rubin, David M; Thomsen, Jesper S; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    An automated approach for tracking individual nephrons through three-dimensional histological image sets of mouse and rat kidneys is presented. In a previous study, the available images were tracked manually through the image sets in order to explore renal microarchitecture. The purpose of the current research is to reduce the time and effort required to manually trace nephrons by creating an automated, intelligent system as a standard tool for such datasets. The algorithm is robust enough to isolate closely packed nephrons and track their convoluted paths despite a number of nonideal, interfering conditions such as local image distortions, artefacts, and interstitial tissue interference. The system comprises image preprocessing, feature extraction, and a custom graph-based tracking algorithm, which is validated by a rule base and a machine learning algorithm. A study of a selection of automatically tracked nephrons, when compared with manual tracking, yields a 95% tracking accuracy for structures in the cortex, while those in the medulla have lower accuracy due to narrower diameter and higher density. Limited manual intervention is introduced to improve tracking, enabling full nephron paths to be obtained with an average of 17 manual corrections per mouse nephron and 58 manual corrections per rat nephron.

  12. Eye Histology and Ganglion Cell Topography of Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Smodlaka, Hrvoje; Khamas, Wael A; Palmer, Lauren; Lui, Bryan; Borovac, Josip A; Cohn, Brian A; Schmitz, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Northern elephant seals are one of the deepest diving marine mammals. As northern elephant seals often reach the bathypelagic zone, it is usually assumed that their eyes possess evolutionary adaptations that provide better ability to see in dim or scotopic environments. The purpose of this study was to carefully describe anatomical and histological traits of the eye that may improve light sensitivity. Northern elephant seals have large, somewhat elliptical eyes, with equatorial and anteroposterior diameters of 5.03 and 4.4 cm, respectively. The cornea is large in diameter and the lens is completely spherical. The iris has pronounced constrictor and dilator muscles, whereas the ciliary muscle is notably less developed. The tapetum lucidum is more prominent than in other pinnipeds, making up about 63% of retinal thickness in the posterior aspect of the globe. Within the retina, the pigmented epithelium lacks pigment except for the region close to the ora serrata. Parts of the photoreceptor and outer nuclear layers are folded. Although the photoreceptor layer is composed predominantly of rods, cone photoreceptors were also observed. Cells within the retinal ganglion cell layer are arranged in a single level. Ganglion cells reach their maximum density (∼1,300 cells per mm(2) ) dorsal to the optic disc, whereas the periphery of the retina is sparsely populated (<100 cells per mm(2) ). All above mentioned features are consistent with the predicted evolutionary adaptations to the photic environment of the bathypelagic zone. Anat Rec, 299:798-805, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+)-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Resende, Marco A. C.; Pantoja, Alberto V.; Barcellos, Bruno M.; Reis, Eduardo P.; Consolo, Thays D.; Módolo, Renata P.; Domingues, Maria A. C.; Assad, Alexandra R.; Cavalcanti, Ismar L.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Módolo, Norma S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP) in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10), control; KG (10), S(+)-ketamine infusion; IPG (10), IP; and KIPG (11), S(+)-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG), whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model. PMID:26413552

  14. Clinical and Histologic Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Accelerated Epithelization of Gingival Wound

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Mansi; Kumar, Ashish; Puri, Komal; Khatri, Manish; Gupta, Geeti; Vij, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    The foremost indication for gingival depigmentation is patient demand for improved aesthetics. In most cases after the removal of pigmented layer, the area is covered with periodontal packs. These dressings have no curative properties. They only minimise the likelihood of surface trauma during mastication. However, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) accelerates wound healing by effective neovascularisation and promoting fast cicatricial tissue remodelling. In the present split mouth study, PRF membrane was applied in the first quadrant and non-eugenol dressing (Coe-Pack) in the second quadrant after depigmentation. Clinical evaluation of epithelization with toluidine blue revealed that PRF treated sites stained substantially less indicating better wound healing as compared to Coe-Pack sites, which appeared more erythematous after 5 days. The histologic evaluation also revealed greater inflammatory cell infiltrate on Coe-Pack sites as compared to PRF. Thus, PRF membrane as a periodontal dressing is a successful approach to protect the raw wound area of the depigmented site to reduce healing time and patient discomfort. PMID:27761092

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis with histologically proven lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis with granulocytic epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kusuda, Takeo; Kurishima, Akiko; Fukui, Yuri; Sumimoto, Kimi; Satoi, Sohei; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent histological and clinical studies have suggested the existence of 2 distinct types of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 AIP related to IgG4, exhibiting lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), and type 2 AIP related to granulocyte epithelial lesions (GELs), exhibiting idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (IDCP). We herein present a case of type 1 AIP with histologically proven LPSP with GELs. This patient had neither serum IgG4 elevation nor MPD narrowing. In this case, the clinically and histologically atypical findings for type 1 AIP are intriguing. PMID:22466829

  16. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Newman, John D; Kenkel, William M; Aronoff, Emily C; Bock, Nicholas A; Zametkin, Molly R; Silva, Afonso C

    2009-12-11

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was performed utilizing current terminology. The histological sections and a simplified schematic atlas are available online at http://udn.nichd.nih.gov/brainatlas_home.html.

  17. Histological observation of complete closure of anterior capsulotomy in 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sai-Ichi; Saika, Shizuya; Tamura, Manabu; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2004-06-01

    We report the histological finding of complete closure of the anterior capsulotomy window in 2 cases. The cases were successfully treated with surgery after neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy failed. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the pathogenesis. Histology revealed the presence of elongated, fibroblast-like lens epithelial cells in association with extracellular matrix accumulation, which were positive for collagen types, fibronectin, and osteopontin. The cells were labeled with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody. The finding indicates that phenotypic modulation in lens epithelial cell to contractile cell type and accumulation of matrix are involved in closure of the anterior capsulotomy window.

  18. Growth and Histological Effects to Protothaca staminea (Littleneck Clam) of Long-Term Exposure to Chlorinated Sea Water

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. I.; Hillman, A. E.; Wilkinson, P.; Woodruff, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    There has been considerable concern about the potential for long-term effects to marine organisms from chlorinated sea water. As part of a larger study to investigate the effects of materials resulting from seawater chlorination on marine organisms, groups of littleneck clams, Protothaca staminea, were exposed to sea water that had been chlorinated. Two experiments were conducted. In one test, groups of littleneck clams were exposed to dilutions of chlorinated sea water that had average chlorine produced oxidant (CPO) concentrations of 16 {micro}g/l or less. In the second test, groups of clams were exposed to chlorinated seawater-unchlorinated seawater mixtures that had target CPO concentrations of 0, 6, 12, 25, 50 and 100 {micro}g/l. In the first experiment, length measurements were made on all clams at approximately one-month intervals for three months. In the second test, length, weight, depth, width and edge etching were used to measure growth, and subsamples were harvested and measured at one-month intervals. In addition, clams were preserved for histological examination. The clams in the first experiment all had negative growth. In the second test, growth was inhibited under all conditions through the first four months of exposure. During the last four months, there was positive signs of growth at the 0, 6 and 12 {micro}g/l CPO test conditions. Histological examination indicates that P. staminea does not adapt well to being held in aquaria. Most clams, tram all test and control conditions, showed evidence of necrosis at one month. This condition seemed to improve with longer exposure at lower CPO concentrations but persisted at CPO concentrations of 25 {micro}g/l and higher. Other histological effects were apparent at the higher exposure concentrations as the length of exposure increased.

  19. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids by fractional carbon dioxide laser: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, O A; Bassiouny, D A; El-Hawary, M S; El Maadawi, Z M; Sobhi, R M; El-Mesidy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of keloids (K) and hypertrophic scars (HTS) is challenging. A few case reports reported good results in HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the clinical response as well as histological changes in K and HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser and the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the response. A randomized half of the scar was treated by fractional CO2 laser in 30 patients (18 K, 12 HTS) for a total of four sessions 6 weeks apart. Vancouver scar score (VSS) was done before and 1, 3, and 6 months after the last laser session by a blinded observer. Biopsies taken from normal skin, untreated scar, and treated scar tissue 1 and 3 months after the laser sessions were stained by HX & E for histological changes and Masson trichrome for collagen fiber arrangement. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP9 was done in before and 1 month after samples. Quantitative morphometric analysis was done for collagen and MMP9 by image analyzer. Nineteen patients completed the 6-month follow-up period (12 K, 7 HTS). VSS score was significantly lower in the treated compared to untreated areas after 3 and 6 months in both K and HTS but was mainly due to improved pliability of the scar. Histologically, dense inflammatory infiltrate and increased vascularity was apparent 1 month after laser sessions and disappeared at 3 months. Thinner better organized collagen bundle could be seen in 3 months after samples. MMP9 was significantly increased in after treatment samples but without significant correlation with VSS. Fractional CO2 resurfacing is safe but affects mainly pliability of K and HTS with collagen remodeling apparent 3 months after therapy. MMP9 may play a role in mechanism of action of CO2 laser in K and HTS.

  20. Proposal of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors to more accurately predict biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiupel, M; Webster, J D; Bailey, K L; Best, S; DeLay, J; Detrisac, C J; Fitzgerald, S D; Gamble, D; Ginn, P E; Goldschmidt, M H; Hendrick, M J; Howerth, E W; Janovitz, E B; Langohr, I; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; Miller, M A; Misdorp, W; Moroff, S; Mullaney, T P; Neyens, I; O'Toole, D; Ramos-Vara, J; Scase, T J; Schulman, F Y; Sledge, D; Smedley, R C; Smith, K; W Snyder, P; Southorn, E; Stedman, N L; Steficek, B A; Stromberg, P C; Valli, V E; Weisbrode, S E; Yager, J; Heller, J; Miller, R

    2011-01-01

    Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic grading among veterinary pathologists and the prognostic significance of the Patnaik grading system, 95 cutaneous MCTs from 95 dogs were graded in a blinded study by 28 veterinary pathologists from 16 institutions. Concordance among veterinary pathologists was 75% for the diagnosis of grade 3 MCTs and less than 64% for the diagnosis of grade 1 and 2 MCTs. To improve concordance among pathologists and to provide better prognostic significance, a 2-tier histologic grading system was devised. The diagnosis of high-grade MCTs is based on the presence of any one of the following criteria: at least 7 mitotic figures in 10 high-power fields (hpf); at least 3 multinucleated (3 or more nuclei) cells in 10 hpf; at least 3 bizarre nuclei in 10 hpf; karyomegaly (ie, nuclear diameters of at least 10% of neoplastic cells vary by at least two-fold). Fields with the highest mitotic activity or with the highest degree of anisokaryosis were selected to assess the different parameters. According to the novel grading system, high-grade MCTs were significantly associated with shorter time to metastasis or new tumor development, and with shorter survival time. The median survival time was less than 4 months for high-grade MCTs but more than 2 years for low-grade MCTs.

  1. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids by fractional carbon dioxide laser: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, O A; Bassiouny, D A; El-Hawary, M S; El Maadawi, Z M; Sobhi, R M; El-Mesidy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of keloids (K) and hypertrophic scars (HTS) is challenging. A few case reports reported good results in HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the clinical response as well as histological changes in K and HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser and the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the response. A randomized half of the scar was treated by fractional CO2 laser in 30 patients (18 K, 12 HTS) for a total of four sessions 6 weeks apart. Vancouver scar score (VSS) was done before and 1, 3, and 6 months after the last laser session by a blinded observer. Biopsies taken from normal skin, untreated scar, and treated scar tissue 1 and 3 months after the laser sessions were stained by HX & E for histological changes and Masson trichrome for collagen fiber arrangement. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP9 was done in before and 1 month after samples. Quantitative morphometric analysis was done for collagen and MMP9 by image analyzer. Nineteen patients completed the 6-month follow-up period (12 K, 7 HTS). VSS score was significantly lower in the treated compared to untreated areas after 3 and 6 months in both K and HTS but was mainly due to improved pliability of the scar. Histologically, dense inflammatory infiltrate and increased vascularity was apparent 1 month after laser sessions and disappeared at 3 months. Thinner better organized collagen bundle could be seen in 3 months after samples. MMP9 was significantly increased in after treatment samples but without significant correlation with VSS. Fractional CO2 resurfacing is safe but affects mainly pliability of K and HTS with collagen remodeling apparent 3 months after therapy. MMP9 may play a role in mechanism of action of CO2 laser in K and HTS. PMID:26498451

  2. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  3. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  4. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  5. Direct Comparison of Virtual-Histology Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging for Identification of Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adam J.; Obaid, Daniel R.; Costopoulos, Charis; Parker, Richard A.; Calvert, Patrick A.; Teng, Zhongzhao; Hool