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Sample records for baker protocols irradiation

  1. BAKER'S CYST

    PubMed Central

    Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule). PMID:27027065

  2. On the Real Baker Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej P.

    2012-04-01

    We provide a mathematical model for the mixing protocol used traditionally by bakers in the process of kneading dough. The model is 3-dimensional in contrast to the popular 2-dimensional version, but they share many properties. In particular the map is isomorphic to the Bernoulli shift. We also describe the speed of mixing in geometric terms. MSC: 37A25, 37N99.

  3. Dosimetry Formalism and Implementation of a Homogenous Irradiation Protocol to Improve the Accuracy of Small Animal Whole-Body Irradiation Using a 137Cs Irradiator.

    PubMed

    Brodin, N Patrik; Chen, Yong; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2016-02-01

    Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided. Mathematical simulation techniques and Gafchromic EBT film were used to describe the region within the irradiation cavity with homogeneous dose distribution (100% ± 5%), the dosimetric impact of varying source-to-subject distance, and the variation in attenuation thickness due to turntable rotation. Furthermore, an irradiation protocol and dosimetry formalism that allows calculation of irradiation time for whole-body irradiation of small animals is proposed that is designed to ensure a more consistent dose delivery between irradiated subjects. To compare this protocol with the conventional irradiation protocol suggested by the vendor, high-resolution film dosimetry measurements evaluating the dose difference between irradiation subjects and the dose distribution throughout subjects was performed using phantoms resembling small animals. Based on these results, there can be considerable variation in the delivered dose of > ± 5% using the conventional irradiation protocol for whole-body irradiation doses below 5 Gy. Using the proposed irradiation protocol this variability can be reduced to within ±3% and the dosimetry formalism allows for more accurate calculation of the irradiation time in relation to the intended prescription dose.

  4. Clarifying Baker's Law

    PubMed Central

    Cheptou, P.-O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Baker's Law states that colonization by self-compatible organisms is more likely to be successful than colonization by self-incompatible organisms because of the ability for self-compatible organisms to produce offspring without pollination agents. This simple model has proved very successful in plant ecology and has been applied to various contexts, including colonizing or ruderal species, islands colonizers, invasive species or mating system variation across distribution ranges. Moreover, it is one of the only models in population biology linking two traits of major importance in ecology, namely dispersal and mating system. Although Baker's Law has stimulated a large number of empirical studies reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability in various contexts, the data have not established a general pattern for the association of traits. Scope In this paper, a critical position is adopted to discuss and clarify Baker's Law. From the literature referring to Baker's Law, an analysis made regarding how mating success is considered in such studies and discrepancies with population genetics theory of mating systems are highlighted. The data reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability are also briefly reviewed and the potential bias in interpretation is discussed. Lastly, a recent theoretical model analysing the link between colonizing ability and self-fertilization is considered. Conclusions Evolutionary predictions are actually more complex than Baker's intuitive arguments. It appears that Baker's Law encompasses a variety of ecological scenarios, which cannot be considered a priori as equivalent. Questioning what has been considered as self-evident for more than 50 years seems a reasonable objective to analyse in-depth dispersal and mating system traits. PMID:21685434

  5. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  6. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  7. On the range of applicability of Baker`s approach to the frame problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kartha, G.N.

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the range of applicability of Baker`s approach to the frame problem using an action language. We show that for temporal projection and deterministic domains, Baker`s approach gives the intuitively expected results.

  8. Temperature of denture base resin under different protocols of microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sesma, Newton; Gil, Carlos; Kolikauskas, William Antunes; Silva, Rafael Andrade; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the temperature of dentures after different microwave irradiation protocols. Two complete dentures (one maxillary and one mandibular denture) were irradiated separately 4 times for each of the following 5 protocols: dentures immersed in water (G1- 6 min, G2- 3 min); dentures kept dry (G3- 6 min); dentures placed in the steam sterilizer (G4- 6 min, G5- 3 min). The final temperature of the dentures was gauged in a thin and in a thick area of each denture with an infrared thermometer. All groups presented an increase in the resin base temperature. The thin areas of the dentures underwent greater heating than the thick areas. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the final mean temperatures of dentures immersed in water for 6 (G1) and 3 min (G2). However, the final mean temperatures recorded in G1 and G2 exceeded 71°C and were significantly higher (<0.001) than the final mean temperatures recorded in the other groups. It may be concluded that denture base resins subjected to microwave irradiation immersed in water may be exposed to deleterious temperatures.

  9. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  10. Baker nominated to Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Warren J. Baker to the National Science Board (NSB), according to an announcement by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Baker is the president of California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. A civil engineer by training, his research specialty is soil dynamics.The 24-member NSB is the policy-making body of the NSF. Provided that the Senate confirms his appointment, Baker will serve on the board until May 1988.

  11. An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of glycopeptides under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Fayna; Hinou, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Takahiko; Hayakawa, Shun; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-02-28

    A standardized and smooth protocol for solid-phase glycopeptides synthesis under microwave irradiation was developed. Double activation system was proved to allow for highly efficient coupling of Tn-Ser/Thr and bulky core 2-Ser/Thr derivatives. Versatility and robustness of the present strategy was demonstrated by constructing a Mucine-1 (MUC1) fragment and glycosylated fragments of tau protein. The success of this approach relies on the combination of microwave energy, a resin consisting totally of polyethylene glycol, a low excess of sugar amino acid and the "double activation" method.

  12. Demography, pollination, and Baker's Law.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jeremiah W

    2011-05-01

    Baker's Law states that selfing should commonly be selected during dispersal because bottlenecks during colonization limit the availability of mates. Although this truism has broad intuitive appeal, a recent body of theory (Cheptou and Massol 2009; Massol and Cheptou 2011) casts doubt on whether adaptation favors both selfing and dispersal when both parameters are free to evolve. In these models, the joint evolution of dispersal and the selfing rate are considered in a metapopulation, with a spatially and temporally variable pollination environment. Under these conditions, adaptation favors one of two strategies: the "dispersal/outcrosser" syndrome and the "no dispersal/selfing" syndrome. These results appear to contradict the prediction of Baker's Law. These models clarify how variation in the pollination environment per se cannot generate an association between selfing and dispersal. That being said, demographic factors during dispersal episodes are likely to be important in generating patterns consistent with Baker's law. Determining whether Baker's law maintains its predictive utility requires determining whether seed banks, the perennial habit, multiple introductions, or the simultaneous arrival of many founders weaken selection for selfing during the bottleneck associated with a dispersal event. These issues highlight the many assumptions that are necessary for Baker's law to hold. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Ella Baker: An Unknown Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joni L.

    1988-01-01

    The movement to gain civil rights for Black people was largely carried out by women, such as Ella Baker. She was a consumer advocate and an executive in major civil rights organizations. She did not seek public attention but deserves acknowledgement for her contributions. (VM)

  14. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  15. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  16. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  17. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  18. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. 172.381 Section 172.381... Additives § 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. Vitamin D2 bakers yeast may be used safely in foods as a source...) Vitamin D2 bakers yeast is the substance produced by exposing bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to...

  19. DOJ News Release: Hayward Baker Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States reached a settlement with Hayward Baker, Inc., (“Hayward Baker”) in a civil case involving the Buy American provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“ARRA”).

  20. Bakers' asthma caused by alpha amylase.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Subiza, J; Subiza, J L; Hinojosa, M; de Carlos, E; Subiza, E

    1994-10-01

    Two bakers with bronchial asthma and two with rhinoconjunctivitis are described. Prick and RAST tests were positive with wheat flour in all of them, but the challenge test (nasal or bronchial) with wheat flour extract was positive only in one asthmatic baker. The prick test, RAST, and nasal or bronchial challenge done with alpha amylase extract (a glycolytic enzyme obtained from Aspergillus oryzae and used as a flour additive) were positive in all four patients. Our results support previous data indicating that alpha amylase used in bakeries is an important antigen that could cause respiratory allergy in bakers. It can function as sole causative allergen or in addition with other allergens used in the baking industry.

  1. Josephine Baker: psychoanalysis and the colonial fetish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anne Anlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces an intricate path connecting racial fantasy, aesthetic judgment, and the larger cultural problem of inter-subjective recognition. In particular, the author examines the theme of fetishism, both sexual and racial, in a Western historical, colonial context, in order to unravel a set of disturbances that cohere around the racial fetish then and now. Taking the figure of an entertainment icon of the 1920s, Josephine Baker, as a case study, the author shows how the imagination of the colonizing white male was both articulated and disrupted by Baker as a ready-made representation of the cultural, racial, and sexual other.

  2. All-reflecting Baker-Schmidt flat-field telescopes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, D J

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the Baker-Schmidt flat-field telescope with tilted reflecting corrector and an analysis of the performance of several different all-reflecting Baker-Schmidt systems is presented. A comparison is given between the performance of a flat-field Baker-Schmidt and an all-reflecting Schmidt telescope of similar focal ratio.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast,...

  4. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

    We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

  5. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  6. [Arthroscopic therapy of Baker's cyst with radiofrequency].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-jie; Wang, Zhi-gang; Li, Zhong-li; Cai, Xu; Zhang, Wen-tao; Hao, Li-bo; Chen, Ji-ying; Gao, Li

    2004-02-22

    To explore the feasibility of arthroscopic therapy of Baker's cysts with radiofrequency. Since Feb. 2000 to Oct. 2002 a surgical arthroscopic treatment for popliteal cyst in a series of 21 patients. Men 14 and female 7, the age from 45 to 66 year. To do CT scan 11 and MR in 8. To insert a arthroscope to Baker's cyst, and inject salline in the visceral layer of capsule under the arthroscope, so that remove of the capsule easily. The radiofrequency to clear the capsule of cyst and hemostasia. All of the cases studied, a connection between joint space and cyst was found in 13 cases. The popliteal cyst was found to be almost invariably associated with other knee disorders. Follow-up in all of the case. No nerve and blood vessel injure, no infection in this group. The function is well include 3 cases relapsed after re-operation by arthroscope debridement. Surgical arthroscopic therapy of Baker's cysts is safety and reliable; To removal of capsule integrity and repair of all intraarticular lesions and sealing of the junction between Baker's cyst and the dorsal recessus of the knee joint for preventing recurrent are very important.

  7. Disseminated Tuberculosis Presenting as Baker's Cyst Infection

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Sami; Waqar, Sana

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of coexisting immunocompromised state and lack of specific symptoms a reactivation of treated mycobacterial tuberculosis (MTB) infection is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis of leg pain. We present a unique case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as an infected Baker's cyst in a 73-year-old immunocompetent male. PMID:28163945

  8. Inhalant allergies to fungi: reactions to bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and identification of bakers' yeast enolase as an important allergen.

    PubMed

    Baldo, B A; Baker, R S

    1988-01-01

    Forty-seven subjects diagnosed as having inhalant allergies to fungi were tested for allergic sensitivity to bakers' yeast. Skin prick tests with yeast extract showed that 35 subjects responded with wheal reactions that were at least 3 mm while 32 subjects were regarded as clearly RAST-positive to bakers' yeast antigens. Skin and RAST testing with purified enolase from bakers' yeast and comparisons with the whole yeast extract showed that the enzyme is a major allergenic component of the extract. This conclusion was supported by results of electroblotting studies. RAST inhibition experiments demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity between bakers' yeast, bakers' yeast enolase and Candida albicans.

  9. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  10. Factors which affect the frequency of sporulation and tetrad formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Codón, A C; Gasent-Ramírez, J M; Benítez, T

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the role that respiration, the mitochondrial genome, and interactions of mitochondria and nucleus play on sporulation and to improve the sporogenic ability of several baker's yeasts, an investigation of the effects of different media and culture conditions on baker's yeast sporulation was undertaken. When standard protocols were followed, the sporulation frequency varied between 20 and 60% and the frequency of four-spore asci varied between 1 and 6%. Different presporulation and sporulation media, the use of solid versus liquid media, and incubation at 22 versus 30 degrees C were checked, and the cells were collected from presporulation media in either exponential or stationary phase. Best results, yielding sporulation and four-spore ascus formation frequencies up to 97 and 60%, respectively, were obtained by collection of the cells in exponential phase from liquid presporulation medium with 10% glucose and transfer of them to sporulation medium with 0.5% potassium acetate at 22 degrees C. Under these conditions, the most important factor was the growth phase (exponential versus stationary) at which cells from presporulation medium were collected. Changes in sporulation frequencies were also measured after transfer of mitochondria from different sources to baker's yeasts. When mitochondria from laboratory, baker's, and wine yeasts were transferred to baker's and laboratory petite strains, sporulation and four-spore ascus formation frequencies dropped dramatically either to no sporulation at all or to less than 50% in both parameters. This transfer also resulted in an increase in the frequency of petite mutant formation but yielded similar growth and respiration rates in glycerol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574601

  11. Engineering baker's yeast: room for improvement.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, F; Sanz, P; Prieto, J A

    1999-06-01

    Bread making is one of the oldest food-manufacturing processes. However, it is only in the past few years that recombinant-DNA technology has led to dramatic changes in formulation, ingredients or processing conditions. New strains of baker's yeast that produce CO2 more rapidly, are more resistant to stress or produce proteins or metabolites that can modify bread flavour, dough rheology or shelf-life are now emerging.

  12. The impact of the BP Baker report.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jennifer M; Payne, Stephanie C; Bergman, Mindy E; Beus, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of the British Petroleum (BP) Baker Panel Report, reviewing the March 2005 BP-Texas City explosion, on the field of process safety. Three hundred eighty-four subscribers of a process safety listserv responded to a survey two years after the BP Baker Report was published. Results revealed respondents in the field of process safety are familiar with the BP Baker Report, feel it is important to the future safety of chemical processing, and believe that the findings are generalizable to other plants beyond BP-Texas City. Respondents indicated that few organizations have administered the publicly available BP Process Safety Culture Survey. Our results also showed that perceptions of contractors varied depending on whether respondents were part of processing organizations (internal perspective) or government or consulting agencies (external perspective). This research provides some insight into the beliefs of chemical processing personnel regarding the transportability and generalizability of lessons learned from one organization to another. This study has implications for both organizational scientists and engineers in that it reveals perceptions about the primary mechanism used to share lessons learned within one industry about one major catastrophe (i.e., investigation reports). This study provides preliminary information about the perceived impact of a report such as this one. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10 and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. 172.381 Section 172.381... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. Vitamin D2 bakers yeast may be used safely in foods as a source of vitamin D2 and as a leavening agent in accordance with...

  15. A green protocol for Erlenmeyer-Plöchl reaction by using iron oxide nanoparticles under ultra sonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Sadjadi, Sodeh; Hosseinpour, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Azlactones have been prepared via Erlenmeyer synthesis from aromatic aldehydes and hippuric acid using Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation. Short reaction times, easy and quick isolation of the products, and excellent yields are the main advantages of this procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  17. Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L

    1986-01-01

    A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the SMR was calculated with control groups of equal social status and smoking habits. With all skilled workers as the reference group, skilled bakers in retail bakeries still had an excess, but now insignificant, risk but skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants had a significant excess risk. Compared with all self employed people in urban occupations in which an average of six or fewer workers were employed as a referent group, independent bakers had an insignificant excess risk. Suspected carcinogens in bakeries include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), reaction products of PAH, free radicals, n-nitrosodimethylamine, aflatoxin, sterigmatocystin, and zeralenone. PMID:3730301

  18. George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…

  19. History of Ideas at Baker University. Position Paper I. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, John C.

    The foundations upon which Baker University's interdisciplinary course on the history of ideas is built are described in this position paper. The particular situation of the Baker students and faculty members is analyzed by way of identifying the needs, resources, and problems to be resolved. The presuppositions and definitions from which the…

  20. George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…

  1. Giant Baker's Cyst Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bılgın, Emre; Ketencı, İsmail Emre; Ugurlar, Meriç

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of a “giant Baker's cyst-related rheumatoid arthritis (RA)” with 95 × 26 mm dimensions originating from the semimembranosus tendon. The patient presented with chronic pain and a palpable mass behind his left calf located between the posteriosuperior aspect of the popliteal fossa and the distal third of the calf. In MRI cystic lesion which was located in soft tissue at the posterior of gastrocnemius, extensive synovial pannus inside and degeneration of medial meniscus posterior horn were observed. Arthroscopic joint debridement and partial excision of the cyst via biomechanical valve excision were performed. The patient continued his follow-up visits at Rheumatology Department and there was no recurrence of cyst-related symptoms in 1-year follow-up. Similar cases were reported in the literature previously. However, as far as we know, a giant Baker's cyst-related RA, which was treated as described, has not yet been presented. PMID:28116197

  2. Alanine/EPR dosimetry applied to the verification of a total body irradiation protocol and treatment planning dose calculation using a humanoid phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeken, B.; Lelie, S.; Meijnders, P.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Janssens, H.; Verellen, D.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To avoid complications in total body irradiation (TBI), it is important to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the body and to deliver a correct dose to the lung which is an organ at risk. The purpose of this work was to validate the TBI dose protocol and to check the accuracy of the 3D dose calculations of the treatment planning system. Methods: Dosimetry based on alanine/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to measure dose at numerous locations within an anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson) that was irradiated in a clinical TBI beam setup. The alanine EPR dosimetry system was calibrated against water calorimetry in a Co-60 beam and the absorbed dose was determined by the use of ''dose-normalized amplitudes'' A{sub D}. The dose rate of the TBI beam was checked against a Farmer ionization chamber. The phantom measurements were compared to 3D dose calculations from a treatment planning system (Pinnacle) modeled for standard dose calculations. Results: Alanine dosimetry allowed accurate measurements which were in accordance with ionization chamber measurements. The combined relative standard measurement uncertainty in the Alderson phantom was U{sub r}(A{sub D})=0.6%. The humanoid phantom was irradiated to a reference dose of 10 Gy, limiting the lung dose to 7.5 Gy. The ratio of the average measured dose midplane in the craniocaudal direction to the reference dose was 1.001 with a spread of {+-}4.7% (1 sd). Dose to the lung was measured in 26 locations and found, in average, 1.8% lower than expected. Lung dose was homogeneous in the ventral-dorsal direction but a dose gradient of 0.10 Gy cm{sup -1} was observed in the craniocaudal direction midline within the lung lobe. 3D dose calculations (Pinnacle) were found, in average, 2% lower compared to dose measurements on the body axis and 3% lower for the lungs. Conclusions: The alanine/EPR dosimetry system allowed accurate dose measurements which enabled the authors to validate their TBI

  3. A Green Protocol for Synthesis of MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] Spinels Under Microwave Irradiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvasravana, R.; George, P. P.

    Nanosized metal aluminates MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] are synthesized from their nitrates solution by using pomegranate peel extract as fuel in microwave combustion. MAl2O4 [M=Cu and Co] nanoparticles are grown in microwave assisted synthesis followed by annealing at 700∘C. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PXRD analysis has confirmed their spinel composition. The green protocol and microwave combustion route for spinel synthesis are rapid, simple, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents and economical.

  4. Surgery and hyperbolic univalent Baker domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienra, G.

    2006-04-01

    We call a star with n-arms a set of n univalent Baker domains (UBDs) \\{U_{i}\\}_{i=1}^{n} , such that for all i, j = 1, ..., n and i ≠ j, \\bar{U_{i}} \\cap \\bar{U_{j}}=\\xi . In this paper we prove that for any numbers u, a >= 1, s >= 0 and numbers α1, α2, ..., αs >= 2, there exists an entire transcendental map with a attracting domains, s stars, each one with αi arms, i = 1, ..., s and u UBDs not contained in a star. Also, we construct an entire transcendental map with a period two of UBDs {U, f(U)}, such that \\overline{U} \\cap {\\overline {f(U)}}=\\xi .

  5. STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Her third spaceflight will be an historic one for Baker, a medical doctor, as she oversees the series of scientific investigations that will be conducted during the first docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. Baker and six fellow crew members -- four Americans and two Russian cosmonauts -- will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during a 10- minute launch window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

  6. STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Her third spaceflight will be an historic one for Baker, a medical doctor, as she oversees the series of scientific investigations that will be conducted during the first docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. Baker and six fellow crew members -- four Americans and two Russian cosmonauts -- will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during a 10- minute launch window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

  7. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  8. Unacceptable Cosmesis in a Protocol Investigating Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Active Breathing Control for Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Ben-David, Merav A.; Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Hayman, James A.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report interim cosmetic results and toxicity from a prospective study evaluating accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) administered using a highly conformal external beam approach. Methods and Materials: We enrolled breast cancer patients in an institutional review board-approved prospective study of APBI using beamlet intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at deep-inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy fractions twice daily. Dosimetric parameters in patients who maintained acceptable cosmesis were compared with those in patients developing unacceptable cosmesis in follow-up, using t-tests. Results: Thirty-four patients were enrolled; 2 were excluded from analysis because of fair baseline cosmesis. With a median follow-up of 2.5 years, new unacceptable cosmesis developed in 7 patients, leading to early study closure. We compared patients with new unacceptable cosmesis with those with consistently acceptable cosmesis. Retrospective analysis demonstrated that all but one plan adhered to the dosimetric requirements of the national APBI trial. The mean proportion of a whole-breast reference volume receiving 19.25 Gy (V50) was lower in patients with acceptable cosmesis than in those with unacceptable cosmesis (34.6% vs. 46.1%; p = 0.02). The mean percentage of this reference volume receiving 38.5 Gy (V100) was also lower in patients with acceptable cosmesis (15.5% vs. 23.0%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: The hypofractionated schedule and parameters commonly used for external beam APBI and prescribed by the ongoing national trial may be suboptimal, at least when highly conformal techniques such as IMRT with management of breathing motion are used. The V50 and V100 of the breast reference volume seem correlated with cosmetic outcome, and stricter limits may be appropriate in this setting.

  9. Wheat flour sensitisation and airways disease in urban bakers.

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, M G; Ryan, G; Musk, A W

    1984-01-01

    A total of 176 bakers and 24 subjects employed as bread slicers and wrappers were studied to examine the effect of occupational category on respiratory symptoms, ventilatory capacity, non-specific bronchial reactivity, and prick skin test responses to wheat and common allergens. Bakers had a greater prevalence of attacks of wheeze and dyspnoea and more frequently considered that work affected their chests than did slicers and wrappers. Bakers with a history of asthma with onset since starting work in a bakery had a greater prevalence of chronic cough and sputum, increased bronchial reactivity, and positive prick skin test responses to wheat and common allergens than other bakers. There was a significant association between the frequency of positive prick skin tests to wheat and common allergens, suggesting that prior atopy facilitates sensitisation to cereal antigens. The frequency of positive prick skin responses to common allergens, however, declined with increasing baking duration whereas the frequency of positive skin responses to wheat increased with increasing baking duration, suggesting that subjects who were sensitised to common allergens were leaving the industry whereas subjects who stayed in the industry increased their risk of developing sensitisation to wheat. Oven handlers had a greater prevalence of attacks of wheeze and dyspnoea and more frequently considered that work affected their chests than either dough makers or general bakers. They also had a greater prevalence of positive prick skin test responses to wheat than dough makers or general bakers. Oven handlers also had a lower mean standardised casual FEV1 than either general bakers or dough makers. Thus oven handlers appear to have a greater risk of developing respiratory allergy and airflow obstruction than bakers in other occupational categories. PMID:6498109

  10. The mettle of moral fundamentalism: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1998-12-01

    This article is a reply to Robert Baker's attempt to rebut moral fundamentalism, while grounding international bioethics in a form of contractarianism. Baker is mistaken in several of his interpretations of the alleged moral fundamentalism and findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He also misunderstands moral fundamentalism generally and wrongly categorizes it as morally bankrupt. His negotiated contract model is, in the final analysis, itself a form of the moral fundamentalism he declares bankrupt.

  11. Improving the stereoselectivity of bakers' yeast reductions by genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Kayser, M; Stewart, J D

    1999-10-21

    [formula: see text] The stereoselectivities of bakers' yeast catalyzed reductions of beta-keto esters can be manipulated by genetic design. Strains in which two major beta-keto ester reductases are either knocked out or overexpressed have been constructed. The former approach results in whole cell biocatalysts with reversed stereoselectivity from unmodified bakers' yeast while the latter shows useful improvements in stereoselectivity. These results indicate that the "designer yeast" approach can provide useful biocatalysts for these transformations.

  12. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  13. Growth characteristics of bakers' yeast in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wasungu, K.M.; Simard, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    The influence of temperature (15 - 40 degrees C) and pH (2.5 - 6.0) on the continuous growth of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at steady state in 1% ethanol was investigated. Optimal temperature and pH were 30 degrees C and 4.5, respectively. The short-term effect of ethanol concentration (0.1 - 10.0%) on the yeast growth was assessed in batch culture. Up to 1% of ethanol, the yeast growth increased in function of the ethanol concentration in the medium. The biomass reached a maximum within the interval of 1-4% of ethanol (7.9 and 31.6 g/L, respectively) and decreased at higher concentrations. The residual ethanol concentration in the medium increased rapidly when the initial ethanol concentration exceeded 4%. The best-fit model obtained for growth inhibition as a function of ethanol concentrations was that of Tseng and Wayman: mu m S/(K+S) - i (S-S0). With this model, the specific growth rate (mu) decreased linearly as the ethanol concentration increased between the threshold value (S0) of 11.26 g/L to be fully inhibited at 70.00 g/L (S); an inhibition constant (i) of 0.0048 g/L/hour, a maximum specific growth rate (mu m) of 0.284/hour, and a saturation constant (K) of 0.611 g/L were obtained. (Refs. 17).

  14. CRYSTALLINE INORGANIC PYROPHOSPHATASE ISOLATED FROM BAKER'S YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1952-01-01

    Crystalline inorganic pyrophosphatase has been isolated from baker's yeast. The crystalline enzyme is a protein of the albumin type with an isoelectric point near pH 4.8. Its molecular weight is of the order of 100,000. It contains about 5 per cent tyrosine and 3.5 per cent tryptophane. It is most stable at pH 6.8. The new crystalline protein acts as a specific catalyst for the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate into orthophosphate ions. It does not catalyze the hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate radical of such organic esters as adenosine di- and triphosphate, or thiamine pyrophosphate. Crystalline pyrophosphatase requires the presence of Mg, Co, or Mn ions as activators. These ions are antagonized by calcium ions. Mg is also antagonized by Co or Mn ions. The rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate is proportional to the concentration of enzyme and is a function of pH, temperature, concentration of substrate, and concentration of activating ion. The approximate conditions for optimum rate are: 40°C. and pH 7.0 at a concentration of 3 to 4 x 10–3 M Na4P2O7 and an equivalent concentration of magnesium salt. The enzymatic hydrolysis of Na4P2O7 or K4P2O7 proceeds to completion and is irreversible under the conditions at which hydrolysis is occurring. Details are given of the method of isolation of the crystalline enzyme. PMID:14898026

  15. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Ouchi, K

    1989-07-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATalpha MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains.

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodation'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: Written...; blittle@cpsc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety...

  18. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Oregon/Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Office, P.O. Box 947, Baker City, Oregon 97814. Copies of the Draft RMP/EIS are available in the Baker... Planning Area is located in Baker, Malheur, Union, Wallowa, Morrow, and Umatilla Counties in Oregon and...

  19. Radiation metabolomics. 3. Biomarker discovery in the urine of gamma-irradiated rats using a simplified metabolomics protocol of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with random forests machine learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D; Slavík, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy gamma radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to gamma radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2'-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release.

  20. Baker: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Baker apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) prepare and bake all types of high quality yeast raised products in commercial quantities; (2) produce and decorate various types of cakes, cookies and pastries commonly available in commercial bakeries; (3) use efficiently and safely all hand…

  1. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  2. The development of low temperature inactive (Lti) baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Gysler, C; Niederberger, P

    2002-02-01

    The construction of a novel baker's yeast variety via traditional genetic techniques is described. The phenotype was designated "Lti" ("Low temperature inactive"). Lti mutations with the desired characteristics within a genetically well-defined haploid laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, and two different approaches were taken to obtain baker's yeast strains, which exhibit reduced fermenting activity at refrigeration temperatures. In a first approach, a chosen Lti strain carrying mutation lti9 was combined with other laboratory strains carrying defined MAL alleles. In a second approach, the same lti mutation was introduced in the genetic background of polyploid commercial baker's yeast strains that harbor important "industrial" properties. Lti strains arising from both approaches were characterized with specifically developed screening procedures. Strains of the "academic" Lti strain family displayed between 85% and 92% of the biomass yield of a commercial reference strain, whereas strains of the "industrial" Lti strain family showed a variation between 60% and 115%. Lti strains from both families varied strongly among each other in their activity in model doughs: at 8 degrees C they displayed activities between 5% and 30%, and at 30 degrees C between 40% and 113% of a commercial reference baker's yeast strain.

  3. 61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO MILLING. LAUNDER PIERCES THE SOUTH FOUNDATION WALL BETWEEN MILL SOLUTION TANKS No. 1 AND No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Linearization of the Baker-Ball-Zachariasen gluon propagator equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.

    1984-07-01

    The linearized version of the axial-gauge gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation is shown to have a solution with the infrared behavior Ap-4 + B( p2) -0.8263, where p is the gluon momentum. This result supports the calculation by Baker, Ball and Zachariasen of the QCD dielectric constant in the IR limit.

  5. Data-Based Personnel Decisions: Baker Middle's Intensive Support List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Chopin, Scarlet Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Focused on the use of teacher evaluation data, this case was designed for use in two principal licensure courses, one on data literacy and the other on supervision and personnel. The principal of Baker Middle School has been instructed by the superintendent to use data from the state's new teacher evaluation system to determine which teachers…

  6. Languages in Industry--A Contribution from Baker Perkins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Chris

    1987-01-01

    Describes a collaborative relationship between Baker Perkins, a machinery firm, and several foreign language teachers. The project resulted in a conference between industrialists and school personnel, a video, visits, and exchange and enlightment for both groups as to the relevance of foreign language knowledge in industry. (CB)

  7. Thaumatin-like protein and baker's respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Maili; Airaksinen, Liisa; Puustinen, Anne; Tillander, Sari; Hannula, Sari; Nyman, Tuula; Toskala, Elina; Alenius, Harri; Lauerma, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Baker's asthma and rhinitis are among the most common occupational diseases. Inhaled cereal flours, such as wheat, especially cause this disease. To identify and test in vivo clinically important wheat allergens in baker's respiratory allergy in a Finnish population. Potential wheat allergens were purified using chromatographic methods from salt-soluble protein extracts of wheat flour and were used in skin prick tests with serial 10-fold dilutions (0.5-0.005 mg/mL). Twenty patients with baker's rhinitis, asthma, or both participated in this study. All the patients had positive skin prick test reactions and specific IgE antibodies to wheat flour. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals. Molecular identities of purified wheat allergens were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. Allergen concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/mL revealed that 12 patients reacted to a-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI), 9 to peroxidase I (PI), 9 to thaumatin-like protein (TLP), and 6 to lipid transfer protein 2G (LTP2G). Conversely, with allergen concentrations of 0.05 mg/mL, 5 patients responded to alpha-AI, 3 to PI, 4 to LTP2G, and 6 to TLP. Of these, TLP and LTP2G are now observed to be new allergens associated with baker's asthma. In addition to the earlier-described alpha-AI and PI, TLP and LTP2G are important in vivo wheat allergens in baker's allergies in Finland. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of these novel wheat allergens in respiratory disorders.

  8. Study of the mechanisms of Cu2+ biosorption by ethanol/caustic-pretreated baker's yeast biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunsong; Liu, Weiguo; Xu, Meng; Zheng, Fei; Zhao, Maojun

    2010-06-15

    Baker's yeast biomass was pretreated by ethanol and caustic soda, and then the pristine baker's yeast, ethanol pretreated baker's yeast (ethanol-baker's yeast) and caustic soda pretreated baker's yeast (caustic-baker's yeast) were utilized as biosorbents to adsorb Cu(2+) in aqueous solution. The influence of different parameters on Cu(2+) uptake by the three biomasses, such as initial Cu(2+) concentration, initial pH of solution, contact time and temperature, was studied. The mechanism of Cu(2+) binding by biomass was investigated by a number of techniques. Evidence from potentiometric titration revealed that the concentration of carboxyl and amino groups is higher on the caustic and ethanol-baker's yeast compared to the pristine baker's yeast and FTIR spectra confirmed carboxyl, and amino groups on the surface of baker's yeast could be available for characteristic coordination bonding with Cu(2+). In addition, SEM and Zeta potential of the three samples show that caustic and ethanol-pretreatment resulted in the change of baker's yeast surface structure and charge which is relative to adsorption. These results demonstrate that the increase of biosorption capacity for Cu(2+) by ethanol and caustic-baker's yeast was attributed to the increase and exposure of carboxyl and amino groups on the surface of biomass sample. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reinstatement of the genus Colopalpus Pritchard and Baker (1958) and re-description of Colopalpus matthyssei Pritchard and Baker (1958), the type species of this genus (Acari, Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pritchard and Baker (1958) erected the genus Colopalpus with Tenuipalpus matthyssei (Pritchard and Baker) a species described from Laguna, The Philippines, as the type species. Meyer (1979) treated the genus as a junior synonym of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu. In this paper, we re-describe the female, male...

  10. Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in commercial bakers' yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hatch, R T; Veilleux, B G

    1995-05-20

    In the highly competitive market of commercial bakers' yeast, fermentations are operated for maximum efficiency and minimum production cost. In order to maintain competitiveness, the fermentations must be highly consistent with minimum variation in yeast performance, maximum yield on raw materials, and minimum production of undesirable side products. The use of advanced instrumentation is of critical importance to achieving these goals by the production engineer. An in situ optical density probe was used to determine the yeast cell density in full-scale commercial bakers' yeast fermentations. The optical density probe results were compared with oxygen uptake rate analyses, packed cell volume, and off-line measured cell dry weights. The most accurate measurement of cell density was found to be the optical density probe. This instrument allowed the on-line determination of cell density with highly consistent results from fermentation batch to batch and with out the need for intermittent recalibration. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-12-20

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome.

  12. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  13. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  14. [Cosmetic surgery, certificates and the 'head-baker' of Eeclo].

    PubMed

    Keeman, J N

    2003-12-20

    The legend of the head-baker of Eeclo, an imaginary cosmetic surgeon, clearly illustrates that the improvement of the human physionomy was of great interest to people as long ago as the mid-16th century. In order to display their credentials the surgeons of that time and in the succeeding centuries would display certificates that testified in glowing terms to their knowledge and expertise. One only has to open a modern newspaper to see that this phenomenon has not died out.

  15. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  16. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Ryane, Chanone; Riedel, Jon; Clague, John J.; Koch, Johannes; Clark, Douglas; Scott, Kevin; Davis, P. Thompson

    2012-08-01

    Glaciers on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest of North America offer opportunities for dating late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances because tephra and fossil wood are common in lateral moraines and in glacier forefields. We capitalize on this opportunity by examining the Holocene glacial record at Mount Baker, an active stratovolcano in northwest Washington. Earlier workers concluded that glaciers on Mount Baker during the early Holocene were more extensive than during the Little Ice Age and hypothesized that the explanation lay in unusual climatic or hypsometric effects peculiar to large volcanoes. We show that the main argument for an early Holocene glacier advance on Mount Baker, namely the absence of ca 10,000-year-old tephra on part of the south flank of the mountain, is incorrect. Moreover, a lake-sediment core indicates that a small cirque moraine previously thought be of early Holocene age is also likely older than the tephra and consequently of late Pleistocene age. Lateral and end moraines and wood mats ca 2 km downvalley of the present snout of Deming Glacier indicate that an advance during the Younger Dryas interval was little more extensive than the climactic Little Ice Age advance. Tephra and wood between tills in the left lateral moraine of Easton Glacier suggest that ice on Mount Baker was restricted in the early Holocene and that Neoglaciation began ca 6 ka. A series of progressively more extensive Neoglacial advances, dated to about 2.2, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.4 ka, are recorded by stacked tills in the right lateral moraine of Deming Glacier. Intervening retreats were long enough to allow establishment of forests on the moraine. Wood mats in moraines of Coleman and Easton glaciers indicate that Little Ice Age expansion began before 0.7 ka and was followed by retreat and a readvance ca 0.5 ka. Tree-ring and lichen data indicate glaciers on the south side of the mountain reached their maximum extents in the mid-1800s. The similarity between

  17. Monkey Baker at U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    On May 28, 1958, Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by U.S. Army team in Huntsville, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, a South American squirrel monkey and Able, an American-born rhesus monkey. Baker, pictured here and commonly known as 'Miss Baker', was later given a home at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center until her death on November 29, 1984. Able died in 1958. (Photo - Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  18. An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S L; Siewert, B; Askes, S H C; Veldhuizen, P; Zwier, R; Heger, Michal; Bonnet, Sylvestre

    2016-05-11

    Traditionally, ultraviolet light (100-400 nm) is considered an exogenous carcinogen while visible light (400-780 nm) is deemed harmless. In this work, a LED irradiation system for in vitro photocytotoxicity testing is described. The LED irradiation system was developed for testing photopharmaceutical drugs, but was used here to determine the basal level response of human cancer cell lines to visible light of different wavelengths, without any photo(chemo)therapeutic. The effects of blue (455 nm, 10.5 mW cm(-2)), green (520 nm, 20.9 mW cm(-2)), and red light (630 nm, 34.4 mW cm(-2)) irradiation was measured for A375 (human malignant melanoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), and U-87 MG (human glioblastoma-grade IV) cell lines. In response to a blue light dose of 19 J cm(-2), three cell lines exhibited a minimal (20%, MDA-MB-231) to moderate (30%, A549 and 60%, A375) reduction in cell viability, compared to dark controls. The other cell lines were not affected. Effective blue light doses that produce a therapeutic response in 50% of the cell population (ED50) compared to dark conditions were found to be 10.9 and 30.5 J cm(-2) for A375 and A549 cells, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any of the six cell lines irradiated with a 19 J cm(-2) dose of 520 nm (green) or 630 nm (red) light. The results demonstrate that blue light irradiation can have an effect on the viability of certain human cancer cell types and controls should be used in photopharmaceutical testing, which uses high-energy (blue or violet) visible light activation.

  19. A defense of fundamental principles and human rights: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    1998-12-01

    This article seeks to rebut Robert Baker's contention that attempts to ground international bioethics in fundamental principles cannot withstand the challenges posed by multiculturalism and postmodernism. First, several corrections are provided of Baker's account of the conclusions reached by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Second, a rebuttal is offered to Baker's claim that an unbridgeable moral gap exists between Western individualism and non-Western communalism. In conclusion, this article argues that Baker's "nonnegotiable primary goods" cannot do the work of "classical human rights" and that the latter framework is preferable from both a practical and a theoretical standpoint.

  20. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  1. An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2015-05-01

    A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the BakerCampbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [ X, Y] = uX + vY + cI, [ Y, Z] = wY + zZ + dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [ X, Z] = mX + nY + pZ + eI, then

  2. Staff Study Operation "BAKER-SIXTY"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-08-12

    agreed. (b) Be prepared to provide additional air cover and air support for Operation "BAKER-SIXTY" over JAPAN , as arranged with CI\\NCAFPACo (10...51’ 58" East The office and studios of Station JOAK, principal radio broad- casting station in JAPAN , are located in the block directly across from I...Eastern Japan Radio Central). b. 350 49’ 20" Northi; 1390 L9’ 15" East Two 150,000 watt transmitter stations of Station JOAK are located in the sanie

  3. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Quark confinement and the baker-ball-zachariasen approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C.

    1985-06-01

    The Yang-Mills effective action -1/4∫ dxx F {μ/v a }( D 2/ M 2) F {μ/v a } recently proposed by Baker et al., and also much earlier by the author and R.L. Stuller, is considered. An extension of the effective action to include Fermions is constructed in which quarks can be confined. The Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator is studied, and conditions are derived for the quark mass to be driven selfconsistently to infinity.

  5. Bakers' yeast, a model for fungal biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T B; Fink, G R

    2001-02-02

    Biofilms are formed by the aggregation of microorganisms into multicellular structures that adhere to surfaces. Here we show that bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can initiate biofilm formation. When grown in low-glucose medium, the yeast cells adhered avidly to a number of plastic surfaces. On semi-solid (0.3% agar) medium they formed "mats": complex multicellular structures composed of yeast-form cells. Both attachment to plastic and mat formation require Flo11p, a member of a large family of fungal cell surface glycoproteins involved in adherence. The ability to study biofilm formation in a tractable genetic system may facilitate the identification of new targets for antifungal therapy.

  6. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, seated at the forward flight deck pilots station controls, eats a freefloating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, flight deck are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel O9.

  7. 78 FR 27215 - Baker County Oregon; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...: Mason Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be located on the Powder River, at the existing U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's (Reclamation) Mason Dam, near Baker City, in Baker... current day- to-day operation of Mason dam but would operate utilizing flood control, irrigation, and...

  8. The Boisterous Beauty of the Urban Bard: Houston Baker Crusades for the Cultural Relevance of Rap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Ed, III

    1993-01-01

    Examines Houston Baker's argument for rap music's place in academe. Baker suggests rap as being one of the most creative and productive forms of cultural expression to come along in some time warranting the same kind of scholarly attention afforded the works of history's most noted philosophers and poets. (GLR)

  9. 75 FR 27287 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...

  10. 76 FR 17618 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...

  11. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  12. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast by reducing sucrase activity in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Feng, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Er; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Jia; Pi, Li; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Leavening ability in sweet dough is required for the commercial applications of baker's yeast. This property depends on many factors, such as glycolytic activity, sucrase activity, and osmotolerance. This study explored the importance of sucrase level on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Furthermore, the baker's yeast strains with varying sucrase activities were constructed by deleting SUC2, which encodes sucrase or replacing the SUC2 promoter with the VPS8/TEF1 promoter. The results verify that the sucrase activity negatively affects the leavening ability of baker's yeast strains under high-sucrose conditions. Based on a certain level of osmotolerance, sucrase level plays a significant role in the fermentation performance of baker's yeast, and appropriate sucrase activity is an important determinant for the leavening property of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Therefore, modification on sucrase activity is an effective method for improving the leavening properties of baker's yeast in sweet dough. This finding provides guidance for the breeding of industrial baker's yeast strains for sweet dough leavening. The transformants BS1 with deleted SUC2 genetic background provided decreased sucrase activity (a decrease of 39.3 %) and exhibited enhanced leavening property (an increase of 12.4 %). Such a strain could be useful for industrial applications.

  13. 75 FR 24973 - United States v. Baker Hughes Inc., et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ..., quality assurance and control, and health, safety and environment; (5) Data concerning historic and..., leading to higher prices and a reduction in service quality. 3. Absent the merger, Baker Hughes and BJ... Gulf. Baker Hughes and BJ Services have competed on price, terms of sale and service quality, and have...

  14. Baker's asthma due to the enzyme xylanase -- a new occupational allergen.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Posch, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    1998-12-01

    The asthmatic baker showed IgE-mediated sensitization to xylanase of Aspergillus niger used as a baking additive. Inhalative challenge with approximately 0.5 microg of the enzyme resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. This case, as well as a preliminary screening of symptomatic bakers, shows that xylanase is a further relevant type I-sensitizer in the baking industry.

  15. Vandals in the Stacks? A Response to Nicholson Baker's Assault on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard J.

    The book "Double Fold" is an investigation into what its author Nicholas Baker, a novelist and essayist, terms as a deception of research libraries and their maintenance of books and newspapers, their paper collections. This book is a response to Baker's writings, based on the author's perspective as an archivist. The first chapter introduces…

  16. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, seated at the forward flight deck pilots station controls, eats a freefloating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, flight deck are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel O9.

  17. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS043-02-020 (2-11 Aug. 1991) --- Astronaut Michael A. Baker, STS-43 pilot, seated at the forward flight deck pilot station controls of the Space Shuttle Atlantis, eats a free-floating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel.

  18. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  19. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  20. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  1. A Fabric of Half-Truths: A Response to Keith Baker on Structured English Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    A California teacher in a successful Structured English Program criticizes Keith Baker's November 1998 article's inaccuracies. Baker fails to recognize that gains of immersion and early-exit students in David Ramirez's study are not sustained over time. Also, he erroneously compares study results of defined and ill-defined programs. (MLH)

  2. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... inspections per year under the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. Investigators typically...

  3. Amino-acid PET versus MRI guided re-irradiation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GLIAA) - protocol of a randomized phase II trial (NOA 10/ARO 2013-1).

    PubMed

    Oehlke, Oliver; Mix, Michael; Graf, Erika; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Götz, Irina; Schneider-Fuchs, Sabine; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Mader, Irina; Baumert, Brigitta G; Short, Susan C; Meyer, Philipp T; Weber, Wolfgang A; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2016-10-05

    The higher specificity of amino-acid positron emission tomography (AA-PET) in the diagnosis of gliomas, as well as in the differentiation between recurrence and treatment-related alterations, in comparison to contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI was demonstrated in many studies and is the rationale for their implementation into radiation oncology treatment planning. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the significant differences between AA-PET and standard MRI concerning the definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV). A small single-center non-randomized prospective study in patients with recurrent high grade gliomas treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT) showed a significant improvement in survival when AA-PET was integrated in target volume delineation, in comparison to patients treated based on CT/MRI alone. This protocol describes a prospective, open label, randomized, multi-center phase II trial designed to test if radiotherapy target volume delineation based on FET-PET leads to improvement in progression free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) treated with re-irradiation, compared to target volume delineation based on T1Gd-MRI. The target sample size is 200 randomized patients with a 1:1 allocation ratio to both arms. The primary endpoint (PFS) is determined by serial MRI scans, supplemented by AA-PET-scans and/or biopsy/surgery if suspicious of progression. Secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS), locally controlled survival (time to local progression or death), volumetric assessment of GTV delineated by either method, topography of progression in relation to MRI- or PET-derived target volumes, rate of long term survivors (>1 year), localization of necrosis after re-irradiation, quality of life (QoL) assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C15 PAL questionnaire, evaluation of safety of FET-application in AA-PET imaging and toxicity of re-irradiation. This is a protocol of a randomized phase II trial

  4. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James

    2015-11-01

    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization.

  5. Comparative in vitro study among the effects of different laser and LED irradiation protocols and conventional chlorhexidine treatment for deactivation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide adherent to titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Pini, Alessandro; Formigli, Lucia; Bani, Daniele

    2011-08-01

    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of: 1) different dental laser devices used in photoablative (PA) mode, namely commercial CO(2), Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG lasers and a prototype diode laser (wavelength = 810  nm); 2) prototype low-energy laser diode or light-emitting diode (LED) (wavelength = 630  nm), used in photodynamic (PD) mode together with the photoactivated agent methylene blue; and 3) chlorhexidine, used as reference drug, to reduce the activation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major pro-inflammatory gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, adherent to titanium surface. RAW 264-7 macrophages were cultured on titanium discs, cut from commercial dental implants and precoated with Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS. Before cell seeding, the discs were treated or not with the noted lasers and LED in PA and PD modes, or with chlorhexidine. The release of nitric oxide (NO), assumed to be a marker of macrophage inflammatory activation, in the conditioned medium was related to cell viability, evaluated by the MTS assay and ultrastructural analysis. PA laser irradiation of the LPS-coated discs with Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, CO(2,) and diode (810  nm) significantly reduced NO production, with a maximal inhibition achieved by Nd:YAG and diode (810  nm). Similar effects were also obtained by PD treatment with diode laser and LED (630  nm) and methylene blue. Notably, both treatments were superior to chlorhexidine in terms of efficiency/toxicity ratio. These findings suggest that laser and LED irradiation are capable of effectively reducing the inflammatory response to LPS adherent to titanium surface, a notion that may have clinical relevance.

  6. Protocol for PIT: a phase III trial of prophylactic irradiation of tracts in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma following invasive chest wall intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bayman, N; Ardron, D; Ashcroft, L; Baldwin, D R; Booton, R; Darlison, L; Edwards, J G; Lang-Lazdunski, L; Lester, J F; Peake, M; Rintoul, R C; Snee, M; Taylor, P; Lunt, C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Histological diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma requires an invasive procedure such as CT-guided needle biopsy, thoracoscopy, video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATs) or thoracotomy. These invasive procedures encourage tumour cell seeding at the intervention site and patients can develop tumour nodules within the chest wall. In an effort to prevent nodules developing, it has been widespread practice across Europe to irradiate intervention sites postprocedure—a practice known as prophylactic irradiation of tracts (PIT). To date there has not been a suitably powered randomised trial to determine whether PIT is effective at reducing the risk of chest wall nodule development. Methods and analysis In this multicentre phase III randomised controlled superiority trial, 374 patients who can receive radiotherapy within 42 days of a chest wall intervention will be randomised to receive PIT or no PIT. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis. Radiotherapy in the PIT arm will be 21 Gy in three fractions. Subsequent chemotherapy is given at the clinicians’ discretion. A reduction in the incidence of chest wall nodules from 15% to 5% in favour of radiotherapy 6 months after randomisation would be clinically significant. All patients will be followed up for up to 2 years with monthly telephone contact and at least four outpatient visits in the first year. Ethics and dissemination PIT was approved by NRES Committee North West—Greater Manchester West (REC reference 12/NW/0249) and recruitment is currently on-going, the last patient is expected to be randomised by the end of 2015. The analysis of the primary end point, incidence of chest wall nodules 6 months after randomisation, is expected to be published in 2016 in a peer reviewed journal and results will also be presented at scientific meetings and summary results published online. A follow-up analysis is expected to be published in 2018. Trial registration number ISRCTN04240319; NCT01604005; Pre

  7. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-05-13

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  8. Improving the freeze tolerance of bakers' yeast by loading with trehalose.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, R; Yokoigawa, K; Isobe, Y; Kawai, H

    2001-03-01

    We examined the freeze tolerance of bakers' yeast loaded with exogenous trehalose. Freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive compressed bakers' yeast samples were soaked at several temperatures in 0.5 M and 1 M trehalose and analyzed. The intracellular trehalose contents in both types of bakers' yeast increased with increasing soaking period. The initial trehalose-accumulation rate increased with increasing exogenous trehalose concentration and soaking temperature. The maximum trehalose content was almost identical (200-250 mg/g of dry cells) irrespective of the soaking temperature and the type of bakers' yeast, but depended on the exogenous trehalose concentration. The leavening ability of both types of bakers' yeast loaded with trehalose was almost identical to that of the respective original cells, irrespective of the soaking conditions. The freeze-tolerant ratio (FTR) of both types of bakers' yeast increased with increasing intracellular trehalose content. However, FTR decreased during over-soaking after the maximum amount of trehalose had accumulated. FTR of the freeze-sensitive bakers' yeast was more efficiently improved than that of the freeze-tolerant type.

  9. Wheat and maize thioredoxins: a novel cross-reactive cereal allergen family related to baker's asthma.

    PubMed

    Weichel, Michael; Glaser, Andreas G; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Crameri, Reto

    2006-03-01

    Baker's asthma is a serious problem for a significant proportion of workers in bakeries, confectionaries, and the food industry. Although several wheat allergens related to baker's asthma have been described, standardized reagents for a reliable diagnosis are not yet available. To clone novel wheat allergens related to baker's asthma and investigate the cross-reactive potential of their maize and human homologues. A wheat cDNA phage display library was screened with sera from bakers with occupational asthma for IgE-binding structures. Homologous sequences from maize and human thioredoxins were amplified from corresponding cDNA libraries. Within the enriched wheat cDNA repertoire we identified, among others, the sequence encoding wheat thioredoxin-hB (Triticum aestivum allergen 25 [Tri a 25]). The recombinant protein displayed enzymatic activity, and we observed a sensitization rate of 47% among bakers with occupational asthma and of 35% among patients with grass pollen allergy, but without a clinical history of cereal allergy. Furthermore, the previously characterized maize thioredoxin-h1 (Zea mays allergen 25 [Zea m 25]), sharing 74% identity with Tri a 25, exhibited distinct IgE cross-reactivity with its wheat homologue. Two bakers also showed sensitization to human thioredoxin, which shares 29% identity with Tri a 25. In a comparative study, we included recombinant alpha-amylase inhibitor 0.19, showing a sensitization rate of 65% in individuals with baker's asthma. Thioredoxins represent a novel family of cross-reactive allergens that might contribute to the symptoms of baker's asthma and might in addition be related to grass pollen allergy, as indicated by the reactivity of grass pollen allergic patients to cereal thioredoxins. The recombinant cereal thioredoxins will, together with the already reported wheat allergens, contribute to a more reliable diagnosis of baker's asthma and, perhaps, become a tool for the development of component-resolved immunotherapy.

  10. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  11. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker’s origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War’s end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy. PMID:24587499

  12. [Occupational asthma--the case of bakers' asthma].

    PubMed

    Bishara, Hasham; Carel, Rafael S

    2013-08-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the most common of all occupational lung diseases in industrialized countries and its prevalence has been rising steadily. It is estimated that occupational factors account for one out of six cases of adult asthmatic patients causing significant morbidity, disability and costs. Due to its high prevalence and substantial health and socio-economic impacts OA represents a significant public health concern. OA can be divided into allergic and non allergic asthma. Allergic OA is further divided into IgE mediated and non IgE mediated. Baker's asthma (BA), is the leading cause of IgE mediated OA caused by high molecular weight antgens in industrialized countries. Innovations in the baking industry during the last few decades have led to the introduction of new allergens inducing OA. OA is potentially preventable, through early diagnosis and exposure cessation interventions. Thus, clinicians should consider the occupational history in every adult patient presenting with newly diagnosed asthma.

  13. Survival rate of preserved cultures contained in baker's vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kornacki, K; Klebukowska, I; Sienkiewicz, J

    2001-01-01

    The studies comprised the preparation and preservation, by the method of spray-drying, of baker's vaccine composed of lactic acid bacteria. The selection of particular strains was conducted taking into consideration the fermentation activity and growth dynamics of Lactobacillus rods isolated from plant material. Mixed vaccine was composed of chosen monocultures, characterized by the highest acidifying activity (4 strains). Before the vaccine was preserved, it had been used for making bread leaven (of rye flour) whose activity and usefulness for rye bread production was then determined The vaccine was subjected to spray-drying. The survival rate of Lactobacillus rods was determined directly after drying and during storage. It was found that the parameters of spray-drying applied in the experiment caused a considerable reduction in the number of vaccine components--by 2 log on average.

  14. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  15. Thermal imaging spectroscopy in the Kelso-Baker Region, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Malin, Michael C.; Anderson, Donald L.; Jaramillo, Linda L.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data to identify rock composition using thermal-infrared spectroscopy was assessed. A region was selected with a wide range of rock and soil types in an arid environment, and the spectra acquired by TIMS was compared to laboratory spectra of collected samples. A TIMS image was acquired of the Kelso-Baker region in the Mojave desert of California at a surface resolution of approximately 7 m. This image was then used to map the areal extent of each geologic component. The TIMS data provided an excellent means for discriminating and mapping rocks of very similar mineralogy. These findings suggest that thermal-infrared spectroscopy can provide a powerful tool for identifying and mapping rock composition on the Earth and other terrestrial planets.

  16. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  17. Leaf epidermis of the rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Lobo, Ghislaine Maria; de Souza, Thaysi Ventura; Voltolini, Caroline Heinig; Reis, Ademir; Santos, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant's rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  18. Converting baker's waste into alcohol. Revised final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, R.; Wilson, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    All types of baker's waste (including waste from candy manufacturers) can be converted into alcohol to be used as a fuel. All types of waste at any stage in process can be converted, such as: basic ingredients (including floor sweepings); dry mixes (including floor sweepings); dough at any stage; partially or fully cooked products; and day old returned products. The basic steps are the same, only the initial preparation will vary slightly. The variation will be: amount of water to be added and amount and type of nutrients (if any) to be added. The basic steps are: slurrying, liquefying to put starch into liquid state, saccharifying to convert starch into fermentable sugars, fermentation to convert sugars into alcohol, and distillation to separate the alcohol from the mash. Each step is discussed in detail along with problems that may arise. Directions are given and materials (enzymes, yeast, etc.) and equipment are descibed briefly.

  19. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Ghislaine Maria; de Souza, Thaysi Ventura; Voltolini, Caroline Heinig; Reis, Ademir

    2013-01-01

    Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant's rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment. PMID:23864825

  20. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  2. Comparative Study of the Physiotherapeutic and Drug Protocol and Low-Level Laser Irradiation in the Treatment of Pain Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Marcos Fernando Xisto Braga; Silva, Uoston Holder; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo A B; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Pallotta, Rodney Capp; Diomede, Francesca; Trubiani, Oriana; De Isla, Natalia; Frigo, Lucio

    2016-12-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a structure of the craniofacial complex affected by neurological diseases. Orthopedic and musculoskeletal changes can also cause temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy has been studied in the treatment of temporomandibular jaw (TMJ) dysfunction, and controversial results were obtained. The objective of this work was comparing the physiotherapeutic and drug protocol (PDP) to LLL therapy in the treatment of pain associated with TMD. A sample of 60 female patients, 20-50 years of age, TMD triggering agents (stress, parafunctional habits) controlled, was randomly divided into three groups, group 1 (G1)-LLL (780 nm laser, dose of 35.0 J/cm(2), for 20 sec, thrice a week, for 4 weeks); group 2 (G2)-PDP (hot packs thrice a day, morning, afternoon, and evening, for 15 min, exercise of opening and closing the mouth, twice a day, myorelaxing and anti-inflammatory drug administration); and group 3 (G3)-Placebo (450 nm halogen lamp, Max LD Gnatus, light curing unit). Patients were evaluated every return appointment for the presence (P) or absence (A) of pain for 4 weeks and results were statistically analyzed. First week: 60% of G1, 100% G2, and 70% of G3-related pain. Second week: 55% of G1, 15% of G2, and 100% of G3-related pain. Third week: 10% of G1, 15% of G2, and 85% of G3-related pain. Last week: 0% of G1, 0% of G2, and 100% of G3-related pain. Based on obtained data, we concluded that, compared to PDP, LLL treatment is effective to control pain associated with TMD.

  3. Inventions on baker's yeast storage and activation at the bakery plant.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Baker's yeast is the gas-forming ingredient in bakery products. Methods have been invented to properly handle baker's yeast and optimize its activity at the bakery plant. Over the years, incentives for inventions on yeast storage and activation have greatly changed depending on trends in the baking industry. For example, retailer's devices for cutting bulk pressed yeast and techniques for activating dry yeast have now lost their importance. Review of patents for invention indicates that activation of baker's yeast activity has been a very important issue for bakers, for example, with baking ingredients called yeast foods. In the recent years and especially for highly automated bakeries, interest has moved to equipments and processes for optimized storage of liquid cream yeast to thoroughly control dough fermentation and bread quality.

  4. 76 FR 13345 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    .... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...-Snoqualmie National Forest Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be...

  5. 77 FR 48950 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    .... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... National Forest Web site at: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be sent...

  6. 75 FR 30367 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    .... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...-Snoqualmie National Forest Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be...

  7. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING (ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER). - Salem Manufacturing Company, Arista Cotton Mill, Brookstown & Marshall Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC

  8. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES/LEH, during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker smiles from under his launch and entry helmet (LEH) and from behind the communications carrier assembly (CCA) microphones as he adjusts his parachute harness. Baker, fully outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES), prepares for emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  9. Self-cloning baker's yeasts that accumulate proline enhance freeze tolerance in doughs.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Tomohiro; Tateiwa, Tetsuya; Mizukami-Murata, Satomi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    We constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains by disrupting PUT1, encoding proline oxidase, and replacing the wild-type PRO1, encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase, with a pro1(D154N) or pro1(I150T) allele. The resultant strains accumulated intracellular proline and retained higher-level fermentation abilities in the frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. These results suggest that proline-accumulating baker's yeast is suitable for frozen-dough baking.

  10. How to appropriate appropriately: a comment on Baker and McCullough.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, Albert R

    2007-03-01

    The article by Baker and McCullough in this issue posits that bioethics has generally applied moral theories to practical problems. They propose that, rather than this "application," bioethicists should "appropriate" aspects of ethical theory. This article disagrees that bioethical writing is primary "application." It agrees that "appropriation" is the most suitable approach to bioethical analysis but claims that the description of appropriation provided by Baker and McCullough is inadequate. It must be supplemented by the rhetorical concept of "invention."

  11. Simple improvement in freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast with poly-gamma-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Yokoigawa, Kumio; Sato, Machiko; Soda, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    We examined the effect of poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA) on the freeze-tolerance of four types of commercial bakers' yeast (freeze-tolerant, osmotic-tolerant, low-temperature-sensitive, and ordinary bakers' yeasts). The survival ratio of ordinary bakers' yeast cells frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in a medium (0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% peptone, and 2% glucose: YPD medium) was improved by adding more than 1% PGA to the medium; the survival ratio increased from about 10% to more than 70%. All PGA preparations, which differed in average molecular mass (50, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, and 10,000 kDa), showed a similar cryoprotecive effect on the cells. Similar results were also obtained with other types of bakers' yeast, sake yeast and beer yeast. When the four types of bakers' yeast cell were frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in dough supplemented with more than 1% PGA, the cells (after freezing and thawing) showed higher leavening ability than those frozen in dough without PGA, irrespective of the molecular mass of PGA. Thus, PGA appears to protect bakers' yeast from lethal freeze injury, leading to a high leavening ability after freezing and thawing. PGA did not decrease the original leavening ability of the bakers' yeast, and was not decomposed by the yeast cells. PGA suppressed the decrease in leavening ability during a prolonged fermentation time, probably because PGA adsorbed inhibitory metabolites accumulated in the dough. PGA could prove useful for improving the freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast by its addition to dough.

  12. The 'take home' burden of workplace sensitizers: flour contamination in bakers' families.

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, Nara; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Semple, Sean; Dick, Finlay; Devereux, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to flour/flour constituents is a leading cause of occupational asthma. Paternal occupational exposure to flour has been associated with increased likelihood of childhood asthma, raising the possibility of para-occupational exposure whereby family members are exposed to sensitizers 'taken home' on contaminated skin/clothing. To establish whether workplace contamination of skin/clothing with wheat flour allergen (WFA) and fungal α-amylase (FAA) is associated with increased levels of these allergens in bakers' homes. Bakeries in north-east Scotland were invited to participate. Control subjects were recruited from University of Aberdeen staff and students. Exposure assessment was carried out in bakeries, bakers' cars and the homes of bakers and controls using surface wipe and vacuum sampling; samples were analyzed for total protein, FAA and WFA. 164 wipe samples and 49 vacuum samples were collected from 38 bakers (from 5 bakeries) and 10 controls. Compared to non-bakers, bakers had higher median levels of WFA and FAA in house vacuum samples; the difference was statistically significant for WFA/total protein (515.8×10(-6) vs. 163.7×10(-6), p=0.031), FAA/total protein ratios (1.45×10(-6) vs. 0.04×10(-6), p<0.001) and FAA loading (median 1.2 pg/cm(2) vs. 0.1 pg/cm(2), p<0.001) with workplace exposure-home contamination relationships between bakers with higher and lower workplace contamination. We found positive correlations between WFA contamination of the bakers' foreheads and cars (r(s)0.57, p=0.028), foreheads and houses (r(s)0.46, p=0.025), shoes and houses (r(s)0.45, p=0.029); and between FAA contamination of shoes and houses (r(s)0.46, p=0.023), and cars and houses (r(s)0.70, p=0.008). There was no evidence of bakers using work-sourced flour for domestic baking. This work demonstrates pathways for 'take home' exposure of occupationally sourced flour. Taken with our previous work, showing that bakers' children are more likely to have asthma, this

  13. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, David J.

    2005-12-01

    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  14. Complex Mafic Andesite Evolution at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towns, J.; Green, N.; Powell, J.; Garcia, B.

    2006-12-01

    The Holocene Sulphur Creek basaltic andesite of Mount Baker exhibits textural and chemical evidence of a complex crystallization-mixing history. The flow is highly porphyritic, with 25-43% phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene (average 35% crystals, comprising 66% plagioclase, 15% olivine, 18% pyroxenes and 1% oxides). Phenocrysts show somewhat variable distribution throughout the flow length, whereas microphenocryst proportions, except olivine, tend to be more regular. Most phenocryst phases show textures interpreted as reaction or resorption due to superheating, e.g. olivine (Fo66) overgrowth on corroded hypersthene (En71-68) xenocrysts. The lava exhibits a general change from mafic andesite to basaltic compositions towards its terminus. Major-element variations, which are compatible with fractional crystallization of observed phenocryst proportions from the basalt, are accompanied by increasing Cs, Rb, Ba, Sb, Tl, Th and U and decreasing Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, V, Y, Hf, Zr, and HREE contents with differentiation. Inter-element ratios (e.g., Ba/Nb, Ba/La, K/La, Ba/Th, U/La, Th/Nb, and Ba/Zr) typically associated with a subduction signature exhibit up to a two-fold variation within the lava. Magma evolution of the Sulphur Creek magma appears to have occurred within a chemically zoned system subjected to periodic injections of basaltic magma and its mixing with more evolved liquids.

  15. Kenneth Frank Baker--pioneer leader in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Cook, R James

    2005-01-01

    Kenneth F. Baker (1908-1996) made major contributions to understanding diseases of ornamental plants, seed pathology, soil-borne plant pathogens, biological control, and history of plant pathology. His work set the stage for the success of today's ornamentals and nursery industries. His leadership and writings created the scientific framework for research and teaching on soil-borne plant pathogens and biological control. After B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Washington State University in 1930 and 1934, respectively, and one year as a National Research Council Fellow with B.M. Dugger at Wisconsin, he took jobs in 1935 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Nebraska on establishment of shelter belts and 1936-39 with the Pineapple Producers Cooperative Association in Hawaii. He worked on diseases of ornamental plants at the University of California, Los Angeles, starting in 1939, moving to Berkeley in 1961 when the UCLA program closed. He retired in 1975 and moved to Corvallis, OR, as Emeritus Professor, Oregon State University, and Collaborator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He spent four sabbatical leaves in Australia, and was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1950, fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1969, and the Horticultural Hall of Fame in 1976.

  16. Lipid content and cryotolerance of bakers' yeast in frozen doughs.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, P; Fiset, G; Willemot, C; Goulet, J

    1991-02-01

    The relationship between lipid content and tolerance to freezing at -50 degrees C was studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under batch or fed-batch mode and various aeration and temperature conditions. A higher free-sterol-to-phospholipid ratio as well as higher free sterol and phospholipid contents correlated with the superior cryoresistance in dough or in water of the fed-batch-grown compared with the batch-grown cells. For both growth modes, the presence of excess dissolved oxygen in the culture medium greatly improved yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content (P. Gélinas, G. Fiset, A. LeDuy, and J. Goulet, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 26:2453-2459, 1989) without significantly changing the lipid profile. Under the batch or fed-batch modes, no correlation was found between the cryotolerance of bakers' yeast and the total cellular lipid content, the total sterol content, the phospholipid unsaturation index, the phosphate or crude protein content, or the yeast cell morphology (volume and roundness).

  17. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  18. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): a promising source of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe(+3), phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe(+3) was 19.98 to 336.48  μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity.

  19. Free radical scavenging potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Sreevidya; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Vijayakumar, Madhavan; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2006-04-06

    Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker commonly referred as 'Musli' has been widely used as a potent 'Rasayana' drug in 'Ayurveda' as a rejuvenator and tonic. Antioxidant potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum has been investigated for their ability to scavenge 1,1,diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide radical along with their capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, chelation of ferrous ion, radical scavenging potential using chemiluminescence and their total antioxidant capacity. Sugar, starch, protein, and Vitamin C content were estimated spectrophotometrically along with the percentages of the individual amino acids by HPLC and individual sugars by using HPTLC as standardization tool. The extract has been found to possess antioxidant activity in all the models tested as evident by IC50 values being 225.31, 888.44, 809.22 and 422.97 microg/ml for scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and ferry bi-pyridyl complex, respectively, along with a integral anitoxidant activity of 2.986 nmol ascorbic acid/g equivalents in photochemiluminescence assay.

  20. Overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 enhances the fermentation ability of industrial baker's yeast in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We constructed a self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strain that overexpressed the transcription activator Msn2. It showed higher tolerance to freeze-thaw stress and higher intracellular trehalose level than observed in the wild-type strain. Overexpression of Msn2 also enhanced the fermentation ability of baker's yeast cells in frozen dough. Hence, Msn2-overexpressing baker's yeast should be useful in frozen-dough baking.

  1. The relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular compounds in baker's yeasts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Chen, Jun; Li, Wenli; He, Xun; Wang, Jining

    2014-03-01

    Freeze-tolerant baker's yeasts are required for the processing of frozen doughs. The present study was carried out to investigate the cell survival rate after frozen storage and the change of fermentability in dough due to frozen storage, and to discuss quantitatively the relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular trehalose, amino acids, and glycerol, using six types of baker's yeasts as the test materials. The experimental results showed that the fermentability of yeast cells in frozen dough was strongly correlated with the cell survival rate. The baker's yeast with a higher level of cell survival rate had a larger increase in the total intracellular compound content after frozen storage, and the cell survival rate increased linearly with increasing total intracellular compound content in frozen yeast cells. Trehalose was a primary compound affecting freeze tolerance, followed by glutamic acid, arginine, proline, asparagic acid, and glycerol. The basic information provided by the present study is useful for exploring the freeze-tolerance mechanisms of baker's yeast cells, breeding better freeze-tolerant baker's yeast strains, and developing more effective cryoprotectants.

  2. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained.

  3. Ethanolic rhizome extract from Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Suwannachot, Kittiphan; Rattanapanone, Viboon; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2008-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker is a Thai herb containing many flavonoids that have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to demonstrate apoptotic effects of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker rhizome ethanolic extract on HL-60 cells in vitro. The extract suppressed HL-60 cell growth and decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell death was demonstrated by changes in cell morphology, externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and activation of caspase 3. Apoptosis induced by K. parviflora Wall. ex. Baker rhizome ethanolic extract was enhanced by treatment with paclitaxel or doxorubicin, and inhibitors of Akt, PI3-K and MEK.

  4. A Double Perturbation Method for Reducing Dynamical Degradation of the Digital Baker Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia; Liu, Bocheng

    2017-06-01

    The digital Baker map is widely used in different kinds of cryptosystems, especially for image encryption. However, any chaotic map which is realized on the finite precision device (e.g. computer) will suffer from dynamical degradation, which refers to short cycle lengths, low complexity and strong correlations. In this paper, a novel double perturbation method is proposed for reducing the dynamical degradation of the digital Baker map. Both state variables and system parameters are perturbed by the digital logistic map. Numerical experiments show that the perturbed Baker map can achieve good statistical and cryptographic properties. Furthermore, a new image encryption algorithm is provided as a simple application. With a rather simple algorithm, the encrypted image can achieve high security, which is competitive to the recently proposed image encryption algorithms.

  5. A family of chaotic pure analog coding schemes based on baker's map function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Lu, Xuanxuan; Yuen, Chau; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a family of pure analog coding schemes constructed from dynamic systems which are governed by chaotic functions—baker's map function and its variants. Various decoding methods, including maximum likelihood (ML), minimum mean square error (MMSE), and mixed ML-MMSE decoding algorithms, have been developed for these novel encoding schemes. The proposed mirrored baker's and single-input baker's analog codes perform a balanced protection against the fold error (large distortion) and weak distortion and outperform the classical chaotic analog coding and analog joint source-channel coding schemes in literature. Compared to the conventional digital communication system, where quantization and digital error correction codes are used, the proposed analog coding system has graceful performance evolution, low decoding latency, and no quantization noise. Numerical results show that under the same bandwidth expansion, the proposed analog system outperforms the digital ones over a wide signal-to-noise (SNR) range.

  6. 77 FR 46439 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in Toledo, Ohio, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Bakers Brothers site in...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in bakers in Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Nde, Francis; Ngomo, Eliane; Mapoure Njankouo, Yacouba; Njock, Louis Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis among bakers in Douala. Design A cross-sectional study; the logistic regression model was use to find the risk factors of allergic rhinitis. Setting The study was conducted in 42 bakeries randomly selected among a total of 151 bakeries in the city of Douala. Participants All bakers who consented to participate in the study between 1 May and 31 July 2013. Outcome measures Allergic rhinitis was the outcome of interest. It was defined as the presence of the following symptoms: itchy nose, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and sneezing. Results During the study period, a total of 273 bakers were invited and 229 finally agreed to participate in this study. Males were the most represented gender with 222 (96.9%) participants. The mean age of the participants was 36.29±8.9 years. Smoking was found in 55 participants (24.5%). The symptoms of allergic rhinitis were observed in 24.5% of participants. Work related nasal symptoms were present in 15% of participants. Sensitisation to wheat flour and α-amylase was found in 16.6% and 8.3% of participants, respectively. The Prick test was positive for mites in 12.2% of participants. After multivariate analysis, sensitisation to flour (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.85 to 8.47) and storage mites (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.45 to 8.18) were the factors independently associated with symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Conclusions Allergic rhinitis is frequent among bakers in Cameroon. Implementation of preventive measures against inhalation of airborne allergens in bakeries and clinical monitoring of bakers sensitised to wheat flour and mites could help to reduce the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among bakers. PMID:25180053

  8. STS-43 Pilot Baker reviews checklist on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS043-04-032 (11 Aug 1991) --- STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, wearing sunglasses, reviews a checklist on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. He is monitoring data associated with the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II) located in OV-104's payload bay (PLB) from his position in front of the aft flight deck viewing windows. Behind Baker are the closed circuit television (CCTV) monitors and above his head is overhead window W8.

  9. STS-34 Mission Specialists Chang-Diaz and Baker with EVA tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (center) and MS Ellen S. Baker (right) examine extravehicular activity (EVA) tools along with Rockwell Space Operations (RSO) technician Wayne J. Wedlake prior EVA contingency exercise (underwater simulation) in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Chang-Diaz and Baker will practice using the EVA tools and rehearse chores which would require manual action outside the spacecraft in the event of failure of remote systems in the WETF's 25 ft pool.

  10. Self-Cloning Baker's Yeasts That Accumulate Proline Enhance Freeze Tolerance in Doughs▿

    PubMed Central

    Kaino, Tomohiro; Tateiwa, Tetsuya; Mizukami-Murata, Satomi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains by disrupting PUT1, encoding proline oxidase, and replacing the wild-type PRO1, encoding γ-glutamyl kinase, with a pro1(D154N) or pro1(I150T) allele. The resultant strains accumulated intracellular proline and retained higher-level fermentation abilities in the frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. These results suggest that proline-accumulating baker's yeast is suitable for frozen-dough baking. PMID:18641164

  11. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  12. Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using common baker's yeast is a traditional experiment that shows the stereoselective power of a biochemical system. Addition of organic solvents to aqueous reaction system increased the yields and reproducibility of the experiment thus overcoming the two problems associated with the experiment, low yield, and…

  13. 78 FR 33048 - Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...: Comments must be received no later than July 8, 2013. SUMMARY: The Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest... Removal Project. A notice was originally published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2013 (Volume 78, No... more information related to the project. In response to requests for additional time, the Forest...

  14. A Baker's Dozen: Dirty Lessons I Have Learned in an Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains a bakers dozen of what the author calls "dirty" lessons, because they reveal some unpleasant surprises about academic life--surprises that institutions usually fail to mention to faculty candidates when they court them for their first job. The author hopes that one day some young faculty member will discover this list of…

  15. 78 FR 25693 - Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Peak, authorizing the use of motorized equipment and mechanical transport within the Glacier Peak... Glacier Peak Wilderness, Darrington Ranger District, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Circle Peak is... Lookout is located in the western portion of the 573,000-acre Glacier Peak Wilderness near...

  16. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Treesearch

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  17. Exact Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the contact Heisenberg algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravetti, Alessandro; Garcia-Chung, Angel; Tapias, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In this work we introduce the contact Heisenberg algebra which is the restriction of the Jacobi algebra on contact manifolds to the linear and constant functions. We give the exact expression of its corresponding Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We argue that this result is relevant to the quantization of contact systems.

  18. Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using common baker's yeast is a traditional experiment that shows the stereoselective power of a biochemical system. Addition of organic solvents to aqueous reaction system increased the yields and reproducibility of the experiment thus overcoming the two problems associated with the experiment, low yield, and…

  19. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the...

  20. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  1. Chicks in Charge: Andrea Baker & Amy Daniels--Airport High School Media Center, Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly discusses two librarians exploration of Linux. Andrea Baker and Amy Daniels were tired of telling their students that new technology items were not in the budget. They explored Linux, which is a program that recycles older computers, installs free operating systems and free software.

  2. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus: Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nerve; Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Gamero, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-03-22

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes are not unique to S. cerevisiae, but also found in several non-conventional yeast species. A small number of these yeast species with similar properties have been described, but remain poorly studied. They present a vast untapped potential for the use as leavening agents and flavor producers due to their genetic and phylogenetic diversity. We assessed the potential of several non-conventional yeasts as leavening agents and flavor producers in dough-like conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations and stressful environments mimicking conditions found in flour dough. We tested the capabilities of bread leavening and aroma formation in a microbread platform as well as in a bakery setup. Bread leavened with Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus had better overall results compared to control baker's yeast. In addition, both displayed higher stress tolerance and broader aroma profiles than the control baker's yeast. These attributes are important in bread and other farinaceous products, making K. gamospora and W. subpelliculosus highly applicable as alternative baker's yeasts.

  3. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Associated Retail Bakers of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Retail Bakers of America, Chicago, IL.

    The document presents systematic standards (adopted by the Associated Retail Bakers of America in accordance with the basic standards recommended by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training of the U.S. Department of Labor) to be used in the apprenticeship and training programs of the baking industry. Included is the following information: (1)…

  4. Remembering Community Inclusion: Stories From the Life of Jack Eldon Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millington, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Jack Eldon Baker was born, lived, and died in Gilbert, Arkansas. The story of his life is retold in excerpts from a memorial publication published by the people of the town. This article also makes the case that his story is an example of community inclusion. Through the voices of those who knew him, we see Jack as a person who gave to the…

  5. 75 FR 10249 - Baker County; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications February 25, 2010. On February 25, 2010, Baker...-502-8434 or Kenneth.hogan@ferc.gov . Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, competing... 4.36. Comments, motions to intervene, notices of intent, and competing applications may be filed...

  6. Checklist of insects associated with Salvinia minima (Baker) in Louisiana, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    his study presents a list of adult insects (excluding Diptera and Lepidoptera) collected from an infestation of an invasive aquatic weed, common salvinia (Salvinia minima Baker), in southern Louisiana, USA. Insects were sampled from May – November of 2009 and 2010 using floating pitfall traps. A to...

  7. Investigating mechanisms of edifice deflation, 1981-2007, at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Brendan E.; Crider, Juliet G.

    2010-04-01

    At Mount Baker, elevated gas and heat fluxes from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. Campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of 19 trilateration lines and provide baseline positions for future GPS study on Mount Baker. Comparison of slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with electronic distance meters (EDM) indicates that significant surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the past quarter century. Slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates <2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. A uniform surface strain rate model fit to the weighted slope change data shows contractional strain, with an areal dilation rate of -420 ± 140 nanostrain/yr. The observed strain rate is an order of magnitude greater than that expected from tectonic sources. Elastic dislocation models are used to invert for the location and strength of a point source at depth. The optimal model predicts a volume change of -11 × 106 m3, located 1500 m east-northeast of the summit, at a depth of ˜5.8 km. The model can account for most of the deformation detected, suggesting that the magmatic and hydrothermal system at Mount Baker has depressurized since 1981, from the combined result of densification and devolatilization.

  8. Characterizing Magmatic Activity at Mount Baker, Washington With Inversion of Slope Distance Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, B. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface deformation studies at active volcanoes are used to detect changes to magmatic source regions beneath the volcano. At Mount Baker, Washington, continued elevated gas (CO2 and H2S) and heat flux from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. We assess if surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the last quarter century by collecting a modern geodetic data set to compare with previous slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with EDM. Campaign GPS surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of all 19 trilateration lines on Mount Baker. These surveys determined that slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates of less than 2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected (HDLY-RSVT) is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. We fit a strain model to the weighted slope change data using a nonlinear least-squares regression to characterize a two dimensional surface strain tensor. These results indicate contractional strain centered near the crater with and aerial dilation rate of less than 0.5 microstrain/yr. We also use these data to invert source parameters for a spherical magma source at depth to provide estimates of net volume and mass change of the magma reservoir. The inversion results are analyzed in conjunction with microgravity and gas flux data to better understand the current magmatic quiescence at Mount Baker.

  9. Baker's Helper. DOT No. 313.684-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide is one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria. Each self-paced unit is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the baker's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a…

  10. Simultaneous accumulation of proline and trehalose in industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Freeze tolerance is a necessary characteristic for industrial baker's yeast because frozen-dough baking is one of the key technologies for supplying oven-fresh bakery products to consumers. Both proline and trehalose are known to function as cryoprotectants in yeast cells. In order to enhance the freeze tolerance of yeast cells, we constructed a self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strain with simultaneous accumulation of proline, by expressing the PRO1-I150T allele, encoding the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive γ-glutamyl kinase, and trehalose, by disrupting the NTH1 gene, encoding neutral trehalase. The resultant strain retained higher tolerance to oxidative and freezing stresses than did the single proline- or trehalose-accumulating strain. Interestingly, our results suggest that proline and trehalose protect yeast cells from short-term and long-term freezing, respectively. Simultaneous accumulation of proline and trehalose in industrial baker's yeast also enhanced the fermentation ability in the frozen dough compared with the single accumulation of proline or trehalose. These results indicate that baker's yeast that accumulates both proline and trehalose is applicable for frozen-dough baking. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    .... Section 1404(c) of the Act. The Act defines ``public pool and spa'' in relevant part as a ``swimming pool... a swimming pool or spa that is: Open to the public generally, whether for a fee or free of charge... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY...

  12. 77 FR 50459 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding... call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern...

  13. Baker-Akhiezer Spinor Kernel and Tau-functions on Moduli Spaces of Meromorphic Differentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalla, C.; Korotkin, D.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We introduce the Baker-Akhiezer tau-function which is related to both the Bergman tau-function (which was studied before in the context of Hurwitz spaces and spaces of holomorphic Abelian and quadratic differentials) and the KP tau-function on such spaces. In particular, we derive variational formulas of Rauch-Ahlfors type on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials with prescribed singularities: we use the system of homological coordinates, consisting of absolute and relative periods of the meromorphic differential, and show how to vary the fundamental objects associated to a Riemann surface (the matrix of b-periods, normalized Abelian differentials, the Bergman bidifferential, the Szegö kernel and the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel) with respect to these coordinates. The variational formulas encode dependence both on the moduli of the Riemann surface and on the choice of meromorphic differential (variation of the meromorphic differential while keeping the Riemann surface fixed corresponds to flows of KP type). Analyzing the global properties of the Bergman and Baker-Akhiezer tau-functions, we establish relationships between various divisor classes on the moduli spaces.

  14. Chicks in Charge: Andrea Baker & Amy Daniels--Airport High School Media Center, Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly discusses two librarians exploration of Linux. Andrea Baker and Amy Daniels were tired of telling their students that new technology items were not in the budget. They explored Linux, which is a program that recycles older computers, installs free operating systems and free software.

  15. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  16. A baker's dozen of new particle flows for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2015-05-01

    We describe a baker's dozen of new particle flows to compute Bayes' rule for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and learning as well as transport. Several of these new flows were inspired by transport theory, but others were inspired by physics or statistics or Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.

  17. The evolutionary potential of Baker's weediness traits in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Chaney, Lindsay; Baucom, Regina S

    2012-09-01

    Many reports have cited Baker's list of weediness traits, or those that exemplify the "ideal" weed, yet few have considered the evolutionary potential of such traits as a group. Thus, it is unknown whether constraints on the evolution of increased weediness, such as a lack of genetic variation or genetic correlations between the traits, are present. Ipomoea purpurea, the common morning glory, is a problematic weed that exhibits many of Baker's ideal weed traits. We used progeny from a half/full-sib breeding design in a series of three greenhouse experiments to assess the presence of genetic variation, narrow sense heritabilities, and genetic correlations in Baker's growth, competition, and fitness "weediness" traits in two populations of I. purpurea. We uncovered genetic variation underlying reproductive fitness traits and competitive ability in at least one population, but no evidence of genetic variation underlying growth rate in either population. Genetic correlations between many of the weediness characters differed significantly from zero; however, their direction and/or magnitude differed between populations. We found that increased weediness in the common morning glory is more likely to occur through selection on reproductive output and competitive ability rather than through selection on growth rate. Assessing Baker's traits in a quantitative genetics framework can provide a solid perspective on their evolutionary potential and a unique framework within which to determine how weeds will respond to different environmental stresses and/or scenarios of global climate change.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of a lysine transfer ribonucleic Acid from bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Madison, J T; Boguslawski, S J; Teetor, G H

    1972-05-12

    The nucleotide sequence of one of the two major lysine transfer RNA's from bakers' yeast has been determined. Its structure is compared to that of a lysine tRNA from a haploid yeast. A total of 21 nucleotides differ in the two molecules. Only the T-psi-C-G (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine-guanosine) loop and its supporting stem are identical.

  19. Baker's Helper. DOT No. 313.684-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide is one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria. Each self-paced unit is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the baker's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a…

  20. Transcriptional regulation of fermentative and respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial bakers' strains.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Rincón, Ana M; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía

    2012-09-01

    Bakers' yeast-producing companies grow cells under respiratory conditions, at a very high growth rate. Some desirable properties of bakers' yeast may be altered if fermentation rather than respiration occurs during biomass production. That is why differences in gene expression patterns that take place when industrial bakers' yeasts are grown under fermentative, rather than respiratory conditions, were examined. Macroarray analysis of V1 strain indicated changes in gene expression similar to those already described in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: repression of most genes related to respiration and oxidative metabolism and derepression of genes related to ribosome biogenesis and stress resistance in fermentation. Under respiratory conditions, genes related to the glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, respiration, gluconeogenesis, and energy production are activated. DOG21 strain, a partly catabolite-derepressed mutant derived from V1, displayed gene expression patterns quite similar to those of V1, although lower levels of gene expression and changes in fewer number of genes as compared to V1 were both detected in all cases. However, under fermentative conditions, DOG21 mutant significantly increased the expression of SNF1 -controlled genes and other genes involved in stress resistance, whereas the expression of the HXK2 gene, involved in catabolite repression, was considerably reduced, according to the pleiotropic stress-resistant phenotype of this mutant. These results also seemed to suggest that stress-resistant genes control desirable bakers' yeast qualities. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  2. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation.

  3. An anomalous swarm of low-frequency events at Mount Baker, Washington, June-August 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Malone, S. D.; Wright, A.

    2009-12-01

    Between June 16 and August 22, 2009, a swarm of least 39 low-frequency (LF) seismic events occurred at shallow depths beneath Mount Baker, a Cascade Range composite stratovolcano located in northern Washington. The LF events had several characteristics similar to classic volcanic low-frequency events, including narrowly peaked spectra (~3 Hz) and somewhat extended codas. They occurred at relatively regular time intervals, at first averaging one every 3-4 days and then accelerating in mid-July to one per day before tailing off in late August. Many were recorded at stations as distant as 220 km, and those that were located by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) had coda-duration magnitudes of Md 1.5-2.2. Many events had similar (cross-correlation coefficient = 0.7) waveforms, indicating that the source type and location were similar for most events. A search through the PNSN catalog from 2000-2009 found 8 LF events with similar characteristics to the 2009 events; thus shallow LF events are not unprecedented at Mount Baker, but also clearly have never been detected at rates as high as the 2009 swarm. Mount Baker has been seismically monitored since 1972, although the network has consisted of only a single short-period seismometer ~6 km west of the summit and a total of 6 weak-motion seismometers within 50 km. The location threshold at Mount Baker is thus quite poor (estimated to be Md 1.6), and it is likely that some prior shallow LF events have gone undetected. Detection of the 2009 LF events was enabled in part by addition of 2 new PNSN stations at 30 and 38 km from Mount Baker (although these stations only improved the estimated location threshold from Md 1.7 to Md 1.6) and also through automatically produced, multi-station, 10-minute spectrograms that have made visual detection of such events much easier. Thus it is difficult to know whether the 2009 swarm is unprecedented at Mount Baker, although we can be reasonably sure that no similar swarms have

  4. Reconstructing streamflow variation of the Baker River from tree-rings in Northern Patagonia since 1765

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Antonio; Bahamondez, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Alvaro; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Cuq, Emilio; Ruiz-Gómez, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of the long-term variation of large rivers streamflow with a high economic and social relevance is necessary in order to improve the planning and management of water resources in different regions of the world. The Baker River has the highest mean discharge of those draining both slopes of the Andes South of 20°S and it is among the six rivers with the highest mean streamflow in the Pacific domain of South America (1100 m3 s-1 at its outlet). It drains an international basin of 29,000 km2 shared by Chile and Argentina and has a high ecologic and economic value including conservation, tourism, recreational fishing, and projected hydropower. This study reconstructs the austral summer - early fall (January-April) streamflow for the Baker River from Nothofagus pumilio tree-rings for the period 1765-2004. Summer streamflow represents 45.2% of the annual discharge. The regression model for the period (1961-2004) explains 54% of the variance of the Baker River streamflow (R2adj = 0.54). The most significant temporal pattern in the record is the sustained decline since the 1980s (τ = -0.633, p = 1.0144 ∗ 10-5 for the 1985-2004 period), which is unprecedented since 1765. The Correlation of the Baker streamflow with the November-April observed Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is significant (1961-2004, r = -0.55, p < 0.001). The Baker record is also correlated with the available SAM tree-ring reconstruction based on other species when both series are filtered with a 25-year spline and detrended (1765-2004, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), emphasizing SAM as the main climatic forcing of the Baker streamflow. Three of the five summers with the highest streamflow in the entire reconstructed record occurred after the 1950s (1977, 1958 and 1959). The causes of this high streamflow events are not yet clear and cannot be associated with the reported recent increase in the frequency of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The decreasing trend in the observed and reconstructed

  5. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  7. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  8. Production of Aromatic Plant Terpenoids in Recombinant Baker's Yeast.

    PubMed

    Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Pichler, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Plant terpenoids are high-value compounds broadly applied as food additives or fragrances in perfumes and cosmetics. Their biotechnological production in yeast offers an attractive alternative to extraction from plants. Here, we provide two optimized protocols for the production of the plant terpenoid trans-nootkatol with recombinant S. cerevisiae by either (I) converting externally added (+)-valencene with resting cells or (II) cultivating engineered self-sufficient production strains. By synthesis of the hydrophobic compounds in self-sufficient production cells, phase transfer issues can be avoided and the highly volatile products can be enriched in and easily purified from n-dodecane, which is added to the cell broth as second phase.

  9. Validation of antifreeze properties of glutathione based on its thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Yao, Huiyuan

    2007-06-13

    The antifreeze ability of glutathione was evaluated on the basis of its thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast during cryopreservation at -30 degrees C. The thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast of glutathione were similar to those of known antifreeze proteins, such as carrot antifreeze protein and holly antifreeze protein. These properties included lowering the freezing point at about 0.20 degrees C non-colligatively, decreasing freezable water content, controlling the movement of free water for its strong hydrophilicity, and improving baker's yeast survival during the simulated processing of frozen dough. Therefore, glutathione was viewed to be an antifreeze protein like substance on the basis of its unique thermodynamic characteristics and protection of baker's yeast. The method combining thermodynamic characteristic analysis and protection evaluation is a new and simple way to screen new antifreeze proteins.

  10. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.

  11. A novel strategy for the preparation of arylhydroxylamines: chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds using bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Cui, Jingnan; Qian, Xuhong; Zhang, Rong

    2004-10-21

    Using bakers' yeast as a biocatalyst, the chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds bearing electron-withdrawing groups gave the corresponding hydroxylamines with good to excellent conversion under mild conditions.

  12. Effects of MAL61 and MAL62 overexpression on maltose fermentation of baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Song, Hai-Yan; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-08-01

    The predominant fermentable sugar in lean dough is maltose. To improve the leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough, maltose metabolism should be improved. Maltase (alpha-glucosidase, encoded by MAL62) and maltose permease (encoded by MAL61) are the major factors involved in maltose metabolism. The major rate-limiting factor in maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker's yeast remains unclear. In this work, MAL61 and/or MAL62 overexpression strains were constructed to investigate the decisive factor for maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough. Our results show that elevated maltose permease activity by MAL61 overexpression yielded less improvement in maltose fermentation compared to elevated maltase activity by MAL62 overexpression. Significant increase in maltase activity by MAL62 overexpression could result in a 44% increase in leavening ability of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough and a 39% increase in maltose metabolism in a medium containing glucose and maltose. Thus, maltase was the rate-limiting factor in maltose fermentation of industrial baker's yeast in lean dough. This study lays a foundation for breeding of industrial baker's yeast for quick dough leavening.

  13. Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

    2014-06-16

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  15. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  16. Hyperosmotic stress response by strains of bakers' yeasts in high sugar concentration medium.

    PubMed

    Attfield, P V; Kletsas, S

    2000-10-01

    Four strains of bakers' yeast were analysed for their hyperosmotic responses when in media that mimic conditions occurring in bread doughs. Two of the strains produced strong fermentative activity in medium with low osmotic stress, but produced considerably less ethanol in high sucrose concentration medium. Two other strains produced more similar fermentation activities across the range of media tested. The strains that were inhibited by high sucrose concentration were unable to produce significant amounts of glycerol under hyperosmotic conditions. By contrast, the yeasts that were not inhibited significantly by high sucrose produced a considerable amount of glycerol. The strains that produced significant glycerol exhibited efficient expression of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene GPD1. These novel data on the molecular responses of industrially relevant strains of bakers' yeasts are prerequisite to designing strategies for improving the performance of industrial yeasts in high sugar concentration media.

  17. I Want to Believe: A Short Psychobiography of Mary Baker Eddy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Taylor Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries were beset with new religious movements in the United States: Shakers, Latter Day Saints, Millerites, and Seventh Day Adventists to name a few. One group, Christian Science, held radically different views than their counterparts and their origins lay in the most unlikely of places, a perpetually ill and poor woman from New Hampshire. Much has been said about Mary Baker Eddy: some say that she was a prophet, others that she was a fraud. Herein no such judgments are made. This study seeks to look into the life of Mary Baker Eddy from a psychological lens in the hopes that insight can be gained into the founding of the First Church of Jesus Christ Scientist and perhaps to allay the binary of Mrs. Eddy as either prophet or fanatic.

  18. Demonstration of an infected popliteal (Baker's) cyst with three-phase skeletal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, R.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Croll, M.N.; Brady, L.W.

    1985-03-01

    A case is reported of an infected popliteal (Baker's) cyst demonstrated with triple phase skeletal scintigraphy. Although double-contrast arthrography and ultrasonography are currently the modalities most frequently employed to diagnose the presence of popliteal cysts, they may also be detected utilizing this radionuclide technique in the course of evaluation for knee joint disease or septic arthritis. Radionuclide studies may be more sensitive for the evaluation of associated inflammatory disease involving the knee joint.

  19. Identifying Alteration and Water on MT. Baker, WA with Geophysics: Implications for Volcanic Landslide Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bedrosian, P.; Minsley, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data, along with rock property measurements, local ground-based gravity, time domain electromagnetic (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data help identify alteration and water-saturated zones on Mount Baker, Washington. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water-saturated, can weaken volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. At Mount Baker volcano, collapses of hydrothermally altered rocks from the edifice have generated numerous debris flows that constitute their greatest volcanic hazards. Critical to quantifying this hazard is knowledge of the three-dimensional distribution of pervasively altered rock, shallow groundwater and ice that plays an important role in transforming debris avalanches to far traveled lahars. The helicopter geophysical data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of localized zones of less than 100 m thickness of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields at Mt. Baker. New stochastic inversions of the HEM data indicate variations in resistivity in inferred perched aquifers—distinguishing between fresh and saline waters, possibly indicating the influence of nearby alteration and/or hydrothermal systems on water quality. The new stochastic results better resolve ice thickness than previous inversions, and also provide important estimates of uncertainty on ice thickness and other parameters. New gravity data will help constrain the thickness of the ice and alteration. Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that the hydrothermal clays contain 50% water with no evidence for water beneath the ice. The HEM data identify water-saturated fresh volcanic rocks from the surface to the detection limit ( 100 m) over the entire summit of Mt. Baker. Localized time domain EM soundings indicate that

  20. [Baker's procedure in the treatment of pes equinus in cerebral palsy patients].

    PubMed

    Trč, T; Havlas, V; Rybk, D

    2011-01-01

    Surgical procedures on muscles in cerebral palsy are regarded as essential interventions. The tactics for surgery on the triceps surae muscle in the treatment of spastic pes equinus involve several surgical options at different muscle levels. In the 1992-2008 period, Baker's procedure, prolongation of the triceps muscle in the common part of the gastrocnemius and soleus aponeuroses, was indicated in 114 children, aged between 3 and 18 years, mostly with spastic hemipleia (45.7 %) or diplegia (42.9 %). In both groups, the isolated Baker's procedures and the combined procedures were clinically assessment at 2 and 6 months after surgery. Clinical examination at a follow-up of 8 weeks showed that all patients achieved 5 to 10 degrees of dorsiflexion of the foot. A maximum of Achilles tendon stretch-out was achieved in seven patients (6.14%) after 6 months. In one patient (0.9%) an excessive dorsiflexion was recorded. The choice of surgical tactics for treatment of spastic pes equinus is related to a positive or a negative result of the Silfverskiold test, because this shows the degree of contracture of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Prolongation at their joint aponeurosis should be indicated when the test shows partly positive results, and muscle balance at all levels of the lower extremity should be maintained. Baker's procedure is one of the options to treat spastic pes equinus. The surgery is indicated primarily in isolated pes equinus and in children with spastic hemiplegia with low risk of Achilles tendon excessive elongation. Key words: pes equinus, Silfverskiold test, Baker's procedure.

  1. The presence of dolichol in a lipid diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast).

    PubMed Central

    Reuvers, F; Boer, P; Hemming, F W

    1978-01-01

    The lipid moiety of a lipid diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine, an intermediate in glycosylation of proteins, was studied. Ozonolysis of the compound gave evidence for an alpha-saturated isoprene unit. Alkaline hydrolysis of the glycolipid, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, showed the presence of a series of polyprenol homologues identical with those isolated directly from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). No particular homologue was preferred in the enzymic transfer of N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate to endogenous dolichol monophosphate. PMID:348196

  2. Increased biomass production of industrial bakers' yeasts by overexpression of Hap4 gene.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Codón, Antonio C; Rincón, Ana M; Benítez, Tahía

    2010-10-15

    HAP4 encodes a transcriptional activator of respiration-related genes and so, redirection from fermentation to respiration flux should give rise to an increase in biomass production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants that overexpress HAP4. With this aim, three bakers' yeasts, that is, V1 used for lean doughs, its 2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant derivative DOG21, and V3 employed for sweet doughs, were transformed with integrative cassettes that carried HAP4 gene under the control of constitutive promoter pTEF2; in addition VTH, DTH and 3TH transformants were selected and characterized. Transformants showed increased expression of HAP4 and respiration-related genes such as QCR7 and QCR8 with regard to parental, and similar expression of SUC2 and MAL12; these genes are relevant in bakers' industry. Invertase (Suc2p) and maltase (Mal12p) activities, growth and sugar consumption rates in laboratory (YPD) or industrial media (MAB) were also comparable in bakers' strains and their transformants, but VTH, DTH and 3TH increased their final biomass production by 9.5, 5.0 and 5.0% respectively as compared to their parentals in MAB. Furthermore, V1 and its transformant VTH had comparable capacity to ferment lean doughs (volume increase rate and final volume) while V3 and its transformant 3TH fermented sweet doughs in a similar manner. Therefore transformants possessed increased biomass yield and appropriate characteristics to be employed in bakers' industry because they lacked drug resistant markers and bacterial DNA, and were genetically stable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  4. Functional genomic analysis of commercial baker's yeast during initial stages of model dough-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumiko; Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation (LF) media to obtain insights at the molecular level into rapid adaptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed that onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gene expression profiles within 15 min. Genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were down-regulated and genes involved in glycolysis were up-regulated, indicating a metabolic shift from respiration to fermentation. Genes involved in ethanol production (PDC genes and ADH1), in glycerol synthesis (GPD1 and HOR2), and in low-affinity hexose transporters (HXT1 and HXT3) were up-regulated at the beginning of model dough-fermentation. Among genes up-regulated at 15 min, several genes classified as transcription were down-regulated within 30 min. These down-regulated genes are involved in messenger RNA splicing and ribosomal protein biogenesis and in transcriptional regulator (SRB8, MIG1). In contrast, genes involved in amino acid metabolism and in vitamin metabolism, such as arginine biosynthesis, riboflavin biosynthesis, and thiamin biosynthesis, were subsequently up-regulated after 30 min. Interestingly, the genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway were also subsequently up-regulated. Our study presents the first overall description of the transcriptional response of baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic responses to various stresses during commercial fermentation processes.

  5. Enhanced leavening ability of baker's yeast by overexpression of SNR84 with PGM2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Dough-leavening ability is one of the main aspects considered when selecting a baker's yeast strain for baking industry. Generally, modification of maltose metabolic pathway and known regulatory networks of maltose metabolism were used to increase maltose metabolism to improve leavening ability in lean dough. In this study, we focus on the effects of PGM2 (encoding for the phosphoglucomutase) and SNR84 (encoding for the H/ACA snoRNA) that are not directly related to both the maltose metabolic pathway and known regulatory networks of maltose metabolism on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough. The results show that the modifications on PGM2 and/or SNR84 are effective ways in improving leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough. Deletion of PGM2 decreased cellular glucose-1-phosphate and overexpression of SNR84 increased the maltose permease activity. These changes resulted in 11, 19 and 21% increases of the leavening ability for PGM2 deletion, SNR84 overexpression and SNR84 overexpression combining deleted PGM2, respectively.

  6. Popliteal cyst before William Baker: first report in the Galenic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; Manios, Andreas; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    A popliteal cyst, also known as Baker cyst, is a benign fluctuant swelling of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa in the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee. The cyst is named after William Morrant Baker, who is considered to have first described this fluid collection with new sac formation outside of the knee-joint in 1877. We herein present a short description contained in the Galenic Corpus that appears to match to what we now call the Baker cyst. Α thorough survey of Kühn's Galenic Corpus was performed. The 14th book of Kühn's edition contains a brief review of all the anatomical structures and pathologies. In the 17th chapter of this treatise, devoted to skin lesions, the author states that steatomas appear in the popliteal fossa. However, it is no more believed to reflect the Galenic teaching and is ascribed to Pseudo-Galen. With regard to the descriptions survived and the anatomy knowledge in the post-Galenic era time, the brief report of the ancient text of unknown origin, appears to match what we now describe as popliteal cyst.

  7. Lung cancer risk among bakers, pastry cooks and confectionary makers: the SYNERGY study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Treppmann, Tabea; Olsson, Ann; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Gustavsson, Per; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Hans-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Tardón, Adonina; Field, John; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Benhamou, Simone; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Consonni, Dario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Plato, Nils; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Some studies have suggested increased lung cancer risks among bakers, however the results overall were inconsistent. The authors studied lung cancer risks among bakers and baking-related occupations in the SYNERGY pooled case-control database from 16 countries. Occupation in a baking-related job was identified from the subjects' job histories. ORs adjusted for log(age), study centre, smoking behaviour and ever employment in a job with known exposure to occupational lung carcinogens were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. Findings were stratified by sex, histological subtype of lung cancer and smoking status. 19 366 cases (15 606 men) and 23 670 control subjects (18 528 men) were included. 473 cases (415 men, 58 women) and 501 controls (437 men, 64 women) had ever worked in baking or a related job. We did not observe an increased risk for men in baking (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.18). No linear trends were observed for duration of employment. Some results suggested increased lung cancer risks for women, for example, for working as a baker for >30 years and in never-smokers, but after exclusion of one study these increased risks disappeared. The findings from this study do not suggest increased lung cancer risks in baking-related professions.

  8. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Alminger, M L; Carlsson, N G

    2001-05-01

    During food processing such as baking, phytate is dephosphorylated to produce degradation products, such as myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphates. Certain myo-inositol phosphates have been proposed to have positive effects on human health. The position of the phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring is thereby of great significance for their physiological functions. Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), D-Ins(1,2)P(2), to finally Ins(2)P (notation 3/4/5/6/1). Knowledge of the absolute stereochemical specificity of the baker's yeast phytase allows use of the enzyme to produce defined myo-inositol phosphates for kinetic and physiological studies.

  9. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  10. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  11. Protocol Programmability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Michael Maass, Ligia Nistor, Larry Maccherone, Cyrus Omar, Ivan Ruchkin, Jason Tsay, and YoungSeok Yoon. Thank you to former students and post-docs... Baumgartner , and Michal Young. Compiler and tool support for debugging object protocols. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium...ACM. 2.1 Michael Hoppe and Stefan Hanenberg. Do developers benefit from generic types?: An empirical comparison of generic and raw types in java. In

  12. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk for food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  14. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  15. Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker Basalts and Andesites: Constraints From Mineral Chemistry and Phase Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.

    2009-12-01

    Basalts in continental arcs are volumetrically subordinate to andesites and this is the case for Mt. Baker in the northern Cascade magmatic arc. However, basalts provide indirect evidence on mantle compositions and processes that produce magmas parental to the abundant andesites and dacites of the stratocones. Basalts at Mt. Baker erupted from monogenetic vents peripheral to the andesitic stratocone. Flows are variable in composition; some samples would more appropriately be classified as basaltic andesites. The “basalts” have relatively low Mg/(Mg+Fe) indicating that they have evolved from their original compositions. Samples studied are Park Butte, Tarn Plateau, Lk. Shannon, Sulphur Cr. basalts, and Cathedral Crag, Hogback, and Rankin Ridge basaltic andesites. Mt. Baker lavas belong to the calc-alkaline basalt suite (CAB) defined by Bacon et al. (1997) and preserve arc geochemical features. High alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) are absent. Equilibrium mineral pairs and whole rock compositions were used to calculate pre-eruptive temperatures, water contents, and redox states of the “basalts.” All samples have zoned olivine phenocrysts with Fo68 to Fo87 cores and chromite inclusions. Cpx and zoned plagioclase occur in all flows, but opx occurs only in Cathedral Crag, Rankin Ridge, and Tarn Plateau. Ti-magnetite and ilmenite coexist in all flows except for Sulphur Cr., Lk. Shannon and Hogback, which contain a single Fe-Ti oxide. Liquidus temperatures range from 1080 to 1232°C and are negatively correlated with water contents. Water contents estimated using liquidus depression due to H2O (0.8 to 5.4 wt.%) agree well with plag core-whole rock equilibria estimates (1.2 to 3.9 wt.%). Park Butte, Sulphur Cr. and Lk. Shannon had <1.5 wt.% H2O, and Cathedral Crag is most hydrous. Redox states from ol-chr pairs (QFM +0.1 to +2.8) and Fe-Ti oxide pairs (QFM -0.6 to +1.8) indicate that Park Butte and Sulphur Cr. are most oxidized and Cathedral Crag most reduced

  16. Skin test and RAST responses to wheat and common allergens and respiratory disease in bakers.

    PubMed

    Prichard, M G; Ryan, G; Walsh, B J; Musk, A W

    1985-03-01

    Interrelationships between skin and humoral tests for immediate hypersensitivity to wheat and indicators of respiratory disease were examined in 176 male bakers. Skin tests were assessed by measuring the diameter of the weal resulting from prick innoculation of allergen extract and circulating allergen-specific IgE by radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Fifteen per cent of subjects showed positive skin-prick test responses to wheat extracts. These subjects demonstrated an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and of measurable bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Thirty per cent of subjects had positive skin test responses to common allergens but negative responses to whole wheat. Compared to subjects with no positive skin test responses they had an increased prevalence of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but a similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms. There was a significant association between skin test responses to whole wheat and skin test responses to common allergens suggesting that bakers with pre-existing sensitivity to common allergens are at increased risk of developing wheat flour sensitization. There was no significant difference between skin-prick test and RAST responses to wheat, water-soluble wheat protein and common allergens. Both tests showed similar relationships with indices of respiratory disease. The associations between skin test and RAST responses to wheat extracts and indices of respiratory disease was stronger for the water-soluble wheat proteins than for other wheat grain extracts. These results suggest that immediate hypersensitivity to wheat flour is important in the development of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity in bakers and that the water-soluble fractions of wheat flour are the most important allergenic components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Improvement of tolerance to freeze-thaw stress of baker's yeast by cultivation with soy peptides.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2007-06-01

    The tolerance to freeze-thaw stress of yeast cells is critical for frozen-dough technology in the baking industry. In this study, we examined the effects of soy peptides on the freeze-thaw stress tolerance of yeast cells. We found that the cells cultured with soy peptides acquired improved tolerance to freeze-thaw stress and retained high leavening ability in dough after frozen storage for 7 days. The final quality of bread regarding its volume and texture was also improved by using yeast cells cultured with soy peptides. These findings promote the utilization of soy peptides as ingredients of culture media to improve the quality of baker's yeast.

  18. Comment on ‘Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    Recently Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) succeeded in explicitly evaluating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion series for the noncommuting operators X and Y, provided that the two operators satisfy the commutation relation: [X,Y]={uX}+{vY}+{cI}, and the operator I commutes with both of them. In this comment we show that the closed-form BCH formula of this special case can be straightforwardly derived by the means of the Wei-Norman theorem and no summation of the infinite series is needed.

  19. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Comparison of melibiose utilizing baker's yeast strains produced by genetic engineering and classical breeding.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S F; Bell, P J; Bissinger, P; Nevalainen, K M

    1999-02-01

    Yeast strains currently used in the baking industry cannot fully utilize the trisaccharide raffinose found in beet molasses due to the absence of melibiase (alpha-galactosidase) activity. To overcome this deficiency, the MEL1 gene encoding melibiase enzyme was introduced into baker's yeast by both classical breeding and recombinant DNA technology. Both types of yeast strains were capable of vigorous fermentation in the presence of high levels of sucrose, making them suitable for the rapidly developing Asian markets where high levels of sugar are used in bread manufacture. Melibiase expression appeared to be dosage-dependent, with relatively low expression sufficient for complete melibiose utilization in a model fermentation system.

  1. Ground-water data in the Baker County-northern Malheur County area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data for the Baker County-northern Malheur area, Oregon, are tabulated for the Bureau of Land Management. The data include well and spring records, a well-location map, drillers ' logs of wells, observation-well hydrographs, and chemical analyses of ground-water samples. The reported yields of wells and springs in the area ranged from less than 1 to 2 ,500 gallons per minute. Dissolved solids in ground-water samples ranged from 50 to 1,587 milligrams per liter, and arsenic ranged from 0.001 to 0.317 milligrams per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Evidence for structural plasticity in humans: comment on Thomas and Baker (2012).

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I

    2013-06-01

    Thomas and Baker (2012) have provided a balanced and critical review of the scientific evidence claiming that training interventions have the capacity to alter the structural morphology of the brain. Here I provide some additional considerations when reading and interpreting both the review and the original empirical articles. Research proposing to examine the capacity for structural brain plasticity needs to contemplate methodological issues and factors that could moderate or mask potentially interesting effects. Overall, although this area of research is in need of circumspection, it also could have transformative implications if structural brain plasticity in humans is possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunoreactivity of PKC gammalambda and RACK1 in baker's yeast, lobster and wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Kuo, W N; Jones, D L; Ku, T W; Weeks, K D; Jordon, P M; Dopson, N C

    1995-08-01

    Varied patterns of immunoreactive bands of protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma) and receptor for activated C-kinase-1 (RACK1) were detected by analysis of Western blots in crude extracts of wheat germ, lobster tail meat, and three strains of baker's yeast. Anti-PKC lambda also reacted with wheat germ and yeast extracts, but failed to react with the lobster extract. The findings may implicate a regulatory role and an evolutionary conservation of these PKC isoenzymes and their receptor proteins in eukaryotes.

  4. On-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of baker's yeast production

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.T.; Chen, K.C.; Chiou, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    A method of on-line optimal control for fed-batch culture of bakers yeast production is proposed. The feed rate is taken as the control variable. The specific growth rate of the yeast is the output variable and is determined from the balance equation of oxygen. A moving model is obtained by using the data from the feed rate and the specific growth rate. Based on the moving model, an optimal feed rate for fed-batch culture is then achieved. 11 references.

  5. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  6. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-03

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IgE sensitization to lupine in bakers - cross-reactivity or co-sensitization to wheat flour?

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Vera; Sander, Ingrid; Quirce, Santiago; Brüning, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Raulf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy to lupine has frequently been reported in patients allergic to peanut or soy, and cross-reactivity between these legumes is known. Moreover, respiratory allergy to lupine has been described after inhalation, mostly at workplaces. Our aim was to study the frequency of lupine sensitization in European bakers with suspected bakers' allergy. Furthermore, associations between sensitizations to lupine and other plant allergens were investigated. One hundred and sixteen bakers with work-related allergic symptoms but without known food allergies were examined. Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to wheat flour, rye flour, lupine, peanut, soy and the recombinant single birch protein rBet v 1 were quantified. Selected sera were tested for cross-reactivity using ImmunoCAP inhibition and ISAC microarrays. Whereas 67% of bakers were sensitized to wheat and/or rye flour, 35% showed sIgE to peanut and 33% to lupine. All lupine-positive bakers also had sIgE to either wheat flour (89%) and/or peanut (92%), and lupine sIgE correlated significantly with sIgE to peanut, soy, wheat and rye flour. Used as an inhibitor, wheat flour inhibited IgE binding to lupine in 4 out of 8 sera, indicating cross-reactivity. In microarrays, these sera showed IgE binding to lipid transfer proteins, profilins and/or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Further inhibition experiments suggest that these single allergens are involved in cross-reactivity. One third of 116 symptomatic bakers showed sIgE to lupine. At least some of these sensitizations were based on cross-reactivity between lupine and wheat flour. However, the considerable sensitization rate could also be a sign that the use of lupine flour in bakeries may be of occupational relevance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Glacier terminus fluctuations on Mt. Baker, Washington, USA, 1940-1990, and climatic variations

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.T. )

    1993-11-01

    The terminus positions of six glaciers located on Mount Baker, Washington, were mapped by photogrammetric techniques at 2- to 7-yr intervals for the period 1940-1990. Although the timing varied slightly, each of the glaciers experienced a similar fluctuation sequence consisting of three phases: (1) rapid retreat, beginning prior to 1940 and lasting through the late 1940s to early 1950s; (2) approximately 30 yr of advance, ending in the late 1970s to early 1980s; (3) retreat though 1990. Terminus positions changed by up to 750 m during phases, with the advance phase increasing the lengths of glaciers by 13 to 24%. These fluctuations are well explained by variations in a smoothed time-series of accumulation-season precipitation and ablation-season mean temperature. The study glaciers appear to respond to interannual scale changes in climate within 20 yr or less. The glaciers on Mount Baker have a maritime location and a large percentage of area at high elevation, which may make their termini undergo greater fluctuations in response to climatic changes, especially precipitation variations, than most other glaciers in the North Cascades region. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. [Respiratory allergies among symptomatic bakers and pastry cooks: initial results of a prevalence study].

    PubMed

    Bataille, A; Anton, M; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick response to common allergens, storage mite and occupational allergens. Among 178 symptomatics bakers and pastry workers from small businesses in western France, only 65 people underwent skin prick and specific-IgE. 12 (18%) workers were skin positive to at least one common or occupational allergens. The more often skin positive were D. Ptero. mite 36 (57%); Alpha amylase 23 (35%); wheat flour 17 (26%); saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 (25%); Ephestia 15 (24%). The sensitivity of skin test was better than specific IgE for D. Ptero. Mite 36 (57%); and Alpha amylase 23 (35%). The sensitivity of specific IgE was better than skin test for wheat flour 26 (45%) and rye flour 23 (40%). Occurrence of skin positive to occupational allergen among symptomatics with rhinitis and asthma is much more frequent in workers with skin positive to common allergens (40/36) than in workers with skin negative (8/20). Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. We conclude in the necessity of a standardised allergologic exploration to be done in symptomatics bakers.

  10. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  11. Magma at depth: a retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-03-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (<3 km) low-frequency events likely related to glacier activity, as well as deep (>10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  12. Lipid composition of commercial bakers' yeasts having different freeze-tolerance in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Y; Yokoigawa, K; Kawai, F; Kawai, H

    1996-11-01

    The lipid composition of some commercial bakers' yeasts having different freeze-sensitivity in frozen dough was investigated to clarify the correlation between their lipid composition and freeze-tolerance. The total lipid content including neutral lipid, free fatty acid, sterol, and phospholipid ranged between 23.0 to 32.2 mg/100 mg protein of the yeasts tested. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine were the main phospholipids found in all yeast strains, but no distinct difference in these components between freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive strains was observed. Palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), palmitic (16:0), and stearic (C18:0) acids were the major fatty acids present in total lipid and phospholipid, and unsaturation indices of fatty acid in these lipid components were almost equal by the strains. The molar ratios of sterol to phospholipid of freeze-sensitive strains were higher than those of freeze-tolerant strains. The difference in the sterol-phospholipid ratio that influences the fluidity of plasma membranes in yeast cells was supposed to reflect the difference in freeze-sensitivity of bakers' yeast.

  13. Validation of a Flour-Free Model Dough System for Throughput Studies of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Panadero, Joaquin; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression in baker's yeast requires the extraction and collection of pure samples of RNA. However, in bread dough this task is difficult due to the complex composition of the system. We found that a liquid model system can be used to analyze the transcriptional response of industrial strains in dough with a high sugar content. The production levels of CO2 and glycerol by two commercial strains in liquid and flour-based doughs were correlated. We extracted total RNA from both a liquid and a flour-based dough. We used Northern blotting to analyze mRNA levels of three stress marker genes, HSP26, GPD1, and ENA1, and 10 genes in different metabolic subcategories. All 13 genes had the same transcriptional profile in both systems. Hence, the model appears to effectively mimic the environment encountered by baker's yeast in high-sugar dough. The liquid dough can be used to help understand the connections between technological traits and biological functions and to facilitate studies of gene expression under commercially important, but experimentally intractable, conditions. PMID:15746311

  14. [School feeding program in Guatemala: technology transfer to artisan bakers, producers of the nutritionally improved cookie].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, R; Morfin, M; Morales, J; Rivera, J; De La Cruz, R; Mendoza, J

    1989-09-01

    The Ministry of Education of Guatemala requested from the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), the development of a solid food for delivery to school children who attend the official schools throughout the country. INCAP developed and transferred the processing technology to produce a nutritionally improved cookie to artisan bakers from the different regions of the country. The present paper describes the technological process, focusing on the training, supervision and quality control actions executed with approximately 100 micro baking enterprises, in 1988 and 1989. These actions have had a positive impact on the bakeries, a fact evidenced by the significant improvement of the conditions and processes of the nutritionally improved cookie production. The performance of the above-mentioned activities has allowed us to detect necessities, for the solution of which research and development of technologies are most important for their immediate transference to artisan bakers. Nevertheless, it is necessary to monitor and control the transferred technology, and efforts must continue to increase the effectiveness of the whole system which involves technology transference model, created for this project.

  15. Immunostimulatory nature of beta-glucans and baker's yeast in gnotobiotic Artemia challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Marques, Antonio; Dhont, Jean; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The use of new preventive approaches such as immunostimulants to reduce stress and mortalities, to maintain good health of cultured organisms and to stimulate the non-specific defence mechanism, is becoming increasingly important in aquaculture. Yet detailed analysis reveals that in most experiments the validity of some conclusions with respect to the benefit of immunostimulation is still doubtful, especially in invertebrates. The use of standardized trials under controlled rearing conditions, complemented with fundamental research on defence mechanisms can provide unequivocal evidence for the beneficial effects of immunostimulants in reducing invertebrate susceptibility to diseases or infections. This study investigated the use of small amounts of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucan particles (obtained from baker's yeast) in gnotobiotic Artemia to overcome the pathogenicity of two organisms: Vibrio campbellii and V proteolyticus. Artemia supplemented with small quantities of a yeast strain presenting higher concentrations of beta-glucans or with glucan particles seemed to completely resist the detrimental effects of both pathogens. The higher amount and/or availability of beta-glucans in that yeast might play an essential role in such protection, as most probably glucans stimulate the immune response of the nauplii.

  16. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David

    1983-01-01

    Clay minerals are locally abundant in two hydrothermal areas at Mount Baker-Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Field. The silt- and clay-size fractions of volcanic debris that is undergoing alteration at and near the ground surface around areas of current fumarolic activity in Sherman Crater are largely dominated by alunite and a silica phase, either opal or cristobalite, but contain some kaolinite and smectite. Correspondingly, the chemistry of solutions at the surface of the crater, as represented by the crater lake, favors the formation of alunite over kaolinite. In contrast, vent-filling debris that was ejected to the surface from fumaroles in 1975 contains more than 20 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite and smectite are dominant. The youngest eruptive deposit (probably 19th century) on the crater rim was also altered prior to ejection and contains as much as 27 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite, smectite, pyrophyllite, and mixed-layer illitesmectite are abundant. The hydrothermal products, kaolinite and alunite, are present in significant amounts in five large Holocene mudflows that originated at the upper cone of Mount Baker. The distribution of kaolinite in crater and valley deposits indicates that, with the passage of time, increasingly greater amounts of this clay mineral have been incorporated into large mass movements from the upper cone. Either erosion has cut into more kaolinitic parts of the core of Sherman Crater, or the amount of kaolinite has increased through time in Sherman Crater.

  18. Evaluation of baker's yeast in honey using a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Roetschi, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers. The concentrations of S. cerevisiae were highest in honey of the brood frames immediately after the feeding and decreased over time to low concentrations at the end of the year. A high content of S. cerevisiae cells were also found in the honey from supers of the spring harvest. Observed S. cerevisiae cells were not able to multiply in a high-sugar environment, such as honey, and their viability decreased rapidly after addition to the honey. The screening of 200 Swiss honeys revealed the presence of S. cerevisiae in 4.5% of the samples, as determined by microscopy and qPCR. Finally, the method described here may indicate an unwanted sucrose addition to honey through bee-feeding.

  19. Lysine-overproducing mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast isolated in continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gasent-Ramírez, J M; Benítez, T

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast mutants which produce 3 to 17 times as much lysine as the wild type, depending on the nitrogen source, have been selected. The baker's yeast strain was growth in a pH-regulated chemostat in minimal medium with proline as the nitrogen source, supplemented with increasing concentrations of the toxic analog of the lysine S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine (AEC). The lysine-overproducing mutants, which were isolated as AEC-resistant mutants, were also resistant to high external concentrations of lysine and to alpha-aminoadipate and seemed to be affected in the lysine biosynthetic pathway but not in the biosynthetic pathways of other amino acids. Lysine overproduction by one of the mutants seemed to be due to, at least, the loss of repression of the homocitrate synthase encoded by the LYS20 gene. The mutant grew slower than the wild type, and its dough-raising capacity was reduced in in vitro assays, probably due to the toxic effects of lysine accumulation or of an intermediate produced in the pathway. This mutant can be added as a food supplement to enrich the nutritive qualities of bakery products, and its resistance to alpha-aminoadipate, AEC, and lysine can be used as a dominant marker. PMID:9406398

  20. Baker's Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed under ultrasound guidance. Physical therapy. Icing, a compression wrap and crutches may help reduce pain and ... E. principles. These letters stand for rest, ice, compression and elevation. Rest your leg. Ice your knee. ...

  1. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. ... Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. ...

  2. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  3. The Isolation of Invertase from Baker's Yeast: A Four-Part Exercise in Protein Purification and Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerman, Anthony P.; Fenrick, Angela M.; Zamis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A sequence of exercises for the isolation and characterization of invertase (E.C. 3.1.2.26) from baker's yeast obtained from a local grocery store is outlined. Because the enzyme is colorless, the use of colored markers and the sequence of purification steps are designed to "visualize" the process by which a colorless protein is selectively…

  4. Disruption of the CAR1 gene encoding arginase enhances freeze tolerance of the commercial baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Sakata-Tsuda, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nakajima, Ryouichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Takano, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The effect of intracellular charged amino acids on freeze tolerance in dough was determined by constructing homozygous diploid arginase-deficient mutants of commercial baker's yeast. An arginase mutant accumulated higher levels of arginine and/or glutamate and showed increased leavening ability during the frozen-dough baking process, suggesting that disruption of the CAR1 gene enhances freeze tolerance.

  5. Future Edifice Collapse as a Result of Active Hydrothermal Alteration and Geologic Structure at Mt. Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, S. N.; Watters, R. J.; Tucker, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermally argillic altered rocks are much weaker than their un-altered counterpart and progressive alteration deep within a volcano can lead to the catastrophic collapse of the edifice. This type of failure represents one of the most destructive and far-reaching natural hazards associated with volcanoes. Mapped Holocene debris flows containing hydrothermally altered rock in drainages around Mt. Baker and continuous hydrothermal activity in the Sherman Crater since 1975 suggest that Mt Baker is capable of producing a catastrophic collapse debris flow in the future. This research uses field data obtained from the Sherman Crater in August 2006 combined with laboratory testing and computer modeling to characterize the stability of Mt. Baker. Completed fieldwork includes the collection of in situ rock and clay samples and measurement of major discontinuities at three sites near the Sherman Crater. Additional laboratory work will include coring of rock samples to determine uniaxial and triaxial strength. Magnetic susceptibility data and previous detailed mapping of the Sherman Crater will supplement the data in order to construct a slope stability model of the upper portion of Mt. Baker. Modeling failures under different geologic uncertainties, groundwater pressure and seismic loading better constrain the possible size, direction, and run-out distances of a failure from the edifice. This information helps estimate the hazard and risk to residents and infrastructure in the vicinity.

  6. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  7. The Isolation of Invertase from Baker's Yeast: A Four-Part Exercise in Protein Purification and Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerman, Anthony P.; Fenrick, Angela M.; Zamis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A sequence of exercises for the isolation and characterization of invertase (E.C. 3.1.2.26) from baker's yeast obtained from a local grocery store is outlined. Because the enzyme is colorless, the use of colored markers and the sequence of purification steps are designed to "visualize" the process by which a colorless protein is selectively…

  8. Redescription of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and description of a new species collected on rubber tree from Amazonia, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 was described based only from female specimens collected on rubber trees from Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil. However, the original description does not provide essential information, and thus, it may be difficult to correctly identify the species. In this paper, we r...

  9. Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Fierstein, J.; Lanphere, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mount Baker, a steaming, ice-mantled, andesitic stratovolcano, is the most conspicuous component of a multivent Quaternary volcanic field active almost continuously since 1.3 Ma. More than 70 packages of lava flows and ~110 dikes have been mapped, ???500 samples chemically analyzed, and ~80 K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages determined. Principal components are (1) the ignimbrite-filled Kulshan caldera (1.15 Ma) and its precaldera and postcaldera rhyodacite lavas and dikes (1.29-0.99 Ma); (2)~60 intracaldera, hydrothermally altered, andesite-dacite dikes and pods-remnants of a substantial early-postcaldera volcanic center (1.1-0.6 Ma); (3) unaltered intracaldera andesite lavas and dikes, including those capping Ptarmigan and Lasiocarpa Ridges and Table Mountain (0.5-0.2 Ma); (4) the long-lived Chowder Ridge focus (1.29-0.1 Ma)-an andesite to rhyodacite eruptive complex now glacially reduced to ~50 dikes and remnants of ~10 lava flows; (5) Black Buttes stratocone, basaltic to dacitic, and several contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.5-0.2 Ma); and (6) Mount Baker stratocone and contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.1 Ma to Holocene). Glacial ice has influenced eruptions and amplified erosion throughout the lifetime of the volcanic field. Although more than half the material erupted has been eroded, liberal and conservative volume estimates for 77 increments of known age yield cumulative curves of volume erupted vs. time that indicate eruption rates in the range 0.17-0.43 km3/k.y. for major episodes and longterm background rates of 0.02-0.07 km3/k.y. Andesite and rhyodacite each make up nearly half of the 161 ?? 56 km3 of products erupted, whereas basalt and dacite represent only a few cubic kilometers, each representing 1%-3% the total. During the past 4 m.y., the principal magmatic focus has migrated stepwise 25 km southwestward, from the edge of the Chilliwack batholith to present-day Mount Baker.

  10. Meltwater palaeohydrology of the Baker River basin (Chile/Argentina) during Late Pleistocene deglaciation of the Northern Patagonia Icefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl; Bendle, Jacob; Benito, Gerardo; Sancho, Carlos; Palmer, Adrian; Rodríguez, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The Late Pleistocene deglaciation of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) was characterised by rapid ice sheet thinning and retreat, and the development of large proglacial lake systems characterised by continental scale drainage reversals. In this region, research has focused primarily on the identification of former ice-limits (e.g. moraine ridges) for geochronological analyses, with little attention given to the meltwater palaeohydrology of major river valleys. The Baker River catchment drains the majority of the eastern ice shed of the NPI, with a basin area of 29,000 km2 that includes the large transboundary lakes of General Carrera/Buenos Aires and Cochrane/Puerreydón. The Baker River valley is aligned north to south, crossing the east-west valleys of the main NPI outflow glaciers, and thus represents an important aspect of regional Late Pleistocene palaeogeography. The Baker River valley therefore has the potential to refine regional models of deglaciation through better understanding of relationships between glacier dynamics, ice dammed lakes and meltwater pathways. Here we present geomorphological mapping from the Atlantic-Pacific drainage divide (over 150 km east of the Cordillera) to the lower Baker valley, in order to reconstruct Late Pleistocene palaeohydrology. We provide new mapping of palaeolake shoreline elevations and evidence for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) pathways that require a re-evaluation of the currently accepted palaeogeographic models. For example, the palaeohydrological evidence does not support existing models of a unified Buenos Aires/Puerreydón mega-lake at ca. 400m elevation. We propose a relative chronology of palaeohydrological events that help refine the published moraine chronology derived from cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Controls on Late Pleistocene meltwater palaeohydrology of the Baker catchment are discussed, including the interplay of glacial processes and regional tectonics, in particular, dynamic

  11. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    PubMed

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1(P247S) and PRO1(E415K) gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

  12. Baker Construction, Cincinnati, Ohio. Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Baker Construction site is a single family residence in Ohio with a passive solar heating system, which consists of 302 square feet of 62 degree sloped greenhouse glazing, a 35,500-pound concrete mass wall, 10,400-pound concrete slab floor, 20 phase change storage rods, six 1-kW electric baseboard heaters, and a wood stove. A solar fraction of 55% is reported. Also the solar savings ratio and conventional fuel savings are given. The performance of the greenhouse collector subsystem, the heat storage subsystem, and the space heating subsystem are summarized as well as total system performance. Energy savings and weather data are also included. The design of the system, performance evaluation techniques, and sensor technology are also presented. (LEW)

  13. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  14. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, A

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from the raw and diluted cultivation medium from the first separation process of baker's yeasts (the average organic loading rates varied in the range 3.7-16 g COD/I/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it had insufficient COD to fulfil the denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass of raw wastewater (approximately 10%) should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high.

  15. Revision of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963 (syn. Myxosoma Heterospora) (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in African records.

    PubMed

    el-Mansy, A

    2005-02-28

    There is uncertainty regarding the validity of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963. The present study revises the taxonomy, using specimens isolated from plasmodia situated in the infected cornea of Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus or Tilapia zillii inhabiting the River Nile, Egypt. In addition, histological effects of the parasite on the infected tissue were examined. The spores of M. heterosporus had a variety of shapes expressing remarkable heteromorphism. Five main Myxobolus-like spore types and tailed-spores were found. All forms were photographed, measured, sketched and described. Light and electron microscopy supported that spores of a Myxobolus-like morphology co-existed with so-called tailed-spores in one plasmodium. Some transitional stages from Myxobolus-like spore types to tailed-spores were observed. Therefore, some tailed-spores may be simply heteromorphs of Myxobolus.

  16. Enzymatic process for the fractionation of baker's yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Blecker, Christophe; Thonart, Philippe

    2014-11-15

    β-Glucans, homopolymers of glucose, are widespread in many microorganisms, mushrooms and plants. They have attracted attention because of their bioactive and medicinal functions. One important source of β-glucans is the cell wall of yeasts, especially that of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several processes for the isolation of β-glucans, using alkali, acid or a combination of both, result in degradation of the polymeric chains. In this paper, we have an enzymatic process for the isolation of glucans from yeast cell walls. As a result, β-glucans were obtained in a yield of 18.0% of the original ratio in the yeast cell walls. Therefore, this isolation process gave a better yield and higher β-glucan content than did traditional isolation methods. Furthermore, results showed that each extraction step of β-glucan had a significant effects on its chemical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of the nondenaturational conformational change of baker's yeast phosphoglycerate kinase at 24 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Ijeoma, Opral; Hollowell, Heather N; Bodnar, Melissa A; Britt, B Mark

    2008-10-15

    A plot of the Gibbs free energy of unfolding vs. temperature is calculated for baker's yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in 150 mM sodium phosphate (pH=7.0) from a combination of reversible differential scanning calorimetry measurements and isothermal guanidine hydrochloride titrations. The stability curve reveals the existence of two stable, folded conformers with an abrupt conformational transition occurring at 24 degrees C. The transition state thermodynamics for the low- to high-temperature conformational change are calculated from slow-scan-rate differential scanning calorimetry measurements where it is found that the free energy barrier for the conversion is 90 kJ/mol and the transition state possesses a significant unfolding quality. This analysis also confirms a nondenaturational conformational transition at 24 degrees C. The data therefore suggest that X-ray structures obtained from crystals grown below this temperature may differ considerably from the physiological structure and that the two conformers are not readily interconverted.

  18. The global effect of exposing bakers' yeast to 5-fluoruracil and nystatin; a view to Toxichip.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Sara; Gullì, Mariolina; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    A genome-wide screen of a haploid deletion library of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was conducted to document the phenotypic and transcriptional impact of exposure to each of the two pharmaceutical products 5-fluorouracil (an anti-tumor agent) and nystatin (an anti-fungal agent). The combined data set was handled by applying a systems biology perspective. A Gene Ontology analysis identified functional categories previously characterized as likely targets for both compounds. Induced transcription profiles were well correlated in yeast and human HepG2 cells. The identified molecular targets for both compounds were used to suggest a small set of human orthologues as appropriate for testing on human material. The yeast system developed here (denoted "Toxichip") has likely utility for identifying biomarkers relevant for health and environmental risk assessment applications required as part of the development process for novel pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Expression Analysis of Cold and Freeze Stress in Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Vargas, Sonia; Estruch, Francisco; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    We used mRNA differential display to assess yeast gene expression under cold or freeze shock stress conditions. We found both up- and down-regulation of genes, although repression was more common. We identified and sequenced several cold-induced genes exhibiting the largest differences. We confirmed, by Northern blotting, the specificity of the response for TPI1, which encodes triose-phosphate isomerase; ERG10, the gene for acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase; and IMH1, which encodes a protein implicated in protein transport. These genes also were induced under other stress conditions, suggesting that this cold response is mediated by a general stress mechanism. We determined the physiological significance of the cold-induced expression change of these genes in two baker's yeast strains with different sensitivities to freeze stress. The mRNA level of TPI1 and ERG10 genes was higher in freeze-stressed than in control samples of the tolerant strain. In contrast, both genes were repressed in frozen cells of the sensitive strain. Next, we examined the effects of ERG10 overexpression on cold and freeze-thaw tolerance. Growth of wild-type cells at 10°C was not affected by high ERG10 expression. However, YEpERG10 transformant cells exhibited increased freezing tolerance. Consistent with this, cells of an erg10 mutant strain showed a clear phenotype of cold and freeze sensitivity. These results give support to the idea that a cause-and-effect relationship between differentially expressed genes and cryoresistance exists in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and open up the possibility of design strategies to improve the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast. PMID:12039763

  20. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥ 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤ 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  1. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-07-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  2. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    PubMed

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content.

  3. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.

    2007-06-01

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and γ-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas γ-irradiated exhibit "sugar-like" EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  4. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  5. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  6. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  7. Recombinant lipid transfer protein Tri a 14: a novel heat and proteolytic resistant tool for the diagnosis of baker's asthma.

    PubMed

    Palacin, A; Varela, J; Quirce, S; del Pozo, V; Tordesillas, L; Barranco, P; Fernandez-Nieto, M; Sastre, J; Diaz-Perales, A; Salcedo, G

    2009-08-01

    Baker's asthma is an important occupational allergic disease. Wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) Tri a 14 is a major allergen associated with wheat allergy. No panel of wheat recombinant allergens for component-resolved diagnosis of baker's asthma is currently available. To evaluate the potential role of recombinant Tri a 14 as a novel tool for the diagnosis of baker's asthma, and to test the heat and proteolytic resistance of the wheat LTP allergen. A cDNA encoding Tri a 14 was isolated and sequenced, the recombinant allergen produced in Pichia pastoris and purified by chromatographic methods. Physicochemical and immunological comparison of the natural and recombinant forms of Tri a 14 was carried out by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism (CD) analysis, IgE immunodetection, and specific IgE determination and ELISA-inhibition assays using a pool or individual sera from 26 patients with baker's asthma. Thermal denaturation and simulated gastrointestinal digestion of both Tri a 14 forms were checked by spectroscopic and electrophoretic methods, respectively, and biological activity by basophil activation test (BAT). Natural and recombinant Tri a 14 were similarly folded, as indicated by their nearly identical CD spectra and heat denaturation profiles. A high interclass correlation coefficient (0.882) was found between specific IgE levels to both Tri a 14 proteins in individual sera from baker's asthma patients, but a slightly lower IgE-binding potency of rTri a 14 was detected by ELISA-inhibition assays. Natural and recombinant Tri a 14 elicited positive BAT in two and one out of three patients, respectively. Heat denaturation profiles and simulated gastrointestinal digestion assays indicated that Tri a 14 displayed a high heat and digestive proteolytic resistance, comparable to those of peach Pru p 3, the model food allergen of the LTP family. Recombinant Tri a 14 is a potential tool

  8. Construction from a single parent of baker's yeast strains with high freeze tolerance and fermentative activity in both lean and sweet doughs.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, S; Ouchi, K

    1994-10-01

    From a freeze-tolerant baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 2,333 spore clones were obtained. To improve the leavening ability in lean dough of the parent strain, we selected 555 of the high-maltose-fermentative spore clones by using a method in which a soft agar solution containing maltose and bromocresol purple was overlaid on yeast colonies. By measuring the gassing power in the dough, we selected 66 spore clones with a good leavening ability in lean dough and a total of 694 hybrids were constructed by crossing them. Among these hybrids, we obtained 50 novel freeze-tolerant strains with good leavening ability in all lean, regular, and sweet doughs comparable to that of commercial baker's yeast. Hybrids with improved leavening ability or freeze tolerance compared with the parent yeast and commercial baker's yeasts were also obtained. These results suggest that hybridization between spore clones derived from a single parent strain is effective for improving the properties of baker's yeasts.

  9. Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D. )

    1989-03-01

    Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.

  10. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking.

  11. Fed-batch cultivation of bakers' yeast: effect of nutrient depletion and heat stress on cell composition.

    PubMed

    Ertugay, N; Hamamci, H; Bayindirli, A

    1997-01-01

    The physiology of a commercial strain of bakers' yeast was studied in terms of the cell composition under different growth conditions and of its response to stress. The study comprised fed-batch experiments since this is the system used in bakers' yeast industry. The classical fed-batch fermentation procedure was modified in that the yeast cells were continuously grown to a steady-state at a dilution rate of 0.1/h in order to achieve more or less the same initial starting point in terms of cell composition. This steady-state culture was then switched to fed-batch concomitantly with exposure to stress. The highest amount of trehalose accumulation was achieved when nutrient depletion and heat stress were applied concomitantly. The highest amount of trehalose, 12%, was attained in cells stressed by both nitrogen depletion and heat stress. The protein content remained constant, although with some oscillations, at a value of 30% throughout this dual stress experiment.

  12. Licensing a new industrial irradiator.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nicolas K; Entwistle, Frederick B

    2010-02-01

    After nearly three decades of medical product sterilization, 3M launched a major new project to build and license an irradiator facility. 3M Corporate Health Physics was responsible for the licensing aspect of this project. The licensing process consisted of six amendments, over 30 submissions to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) and four U.S. NRC site visits. It took approximately 22 months to complete. The six license amendments are reviewed and several of the submissions are discussed. These include 3M's response to the U.S. NRC's interest in the shielding calculations used for the bioshield, the development of a protocol of radiation safety system test methods, and an analysis to show that a dropped cask during loading operations would not fall on sealed sources. A number of lessons were learned during the course of licensing the new irradiator. Among these were the importance of understanding the U.S. NRC license reviewer's perspective, the need to thoroughly review the irradiator manufacturer's licensing package during project negotiations, the benefits of leaving the Health Physics Office and meeting with the non-health physicists involved in the project, and the necessity of maintaining the solid relationships that already existed with the site Radiation Safety Officer and Sterilization Engineer.

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of coeval andesite flows at Mount Baker, North Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the Mt. Baker volcanic field in the northern Cascade arc, the coeval Coleman Pinnacle (CP) hornblende andesite and the Table Mountain (TM) two-pyroxene andesite have overlapping eruption ages (305±5 ka) and field relations show flow interlayering (Hildreth et al., 2003). Although primary vents can no longer be recognized, the distribution of dikes and outcrop patterns are consistent with eruption from vents close to the southern rim of Kulshan Caldera. Although both flow sets have similar ranges in SiO2, they have markedly different phenocryst assemblages, initial water contents, oxidation states, K2O contents, isotopic ratios and trace element abundances. In the more silicic CP andesite samples, plagioclase and hornblende are the dominant phenocrysts with microphenocrysts of titanomagnetite, ilmenite and apatite set in a fine-grained, crystalline groundmass. The most mafic CP andesite flow also contains orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene and inclusions of two-pyroxene andesite rich in apatite, Fe-Ti oxides (including pseudobrookite) and abundant quenched interstitial rhyolitic glass. In Table Mountain andesites, phenocrysts are plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, titanomagnetite and ilmenite with minor resorbed olivine and late-stage amphibole in the lowermost flow. Coleman Pinnacle andesite is richer in K2O (2.7-3.2 wt.%), H2O (5-6 wt.%) and is more oxidized (fO2: NNO+1 to +1.7) than Table Mountain andesite (K2O: 1.6-2.4 wt.%, H2O: ~3 wt.%, fO2: NNO to NNO+0.7). Breakdown rims on CP amphibole are absent or very narrow while TM amphibole rims range from 25-30 μm, indicating integrated ascent rates of ~0.003 m/sec. Mg-rich rims on most CP amphiboles provide evidence for late magma mixing. High Fe3+ contents of amphiboles indicate dehydrogenation during the eruptive event. Phase equilibria for CP and TM flows are consistent with crystallization at PH2O of ~2kb but both flow sequences define distinct fractionation trends on [Pl] Ol-Wo-Qz projections. In Pb

  14. Seasonal changes in the intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic invertebrate community structure in Baker Bay, lower Columbia River estuary. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Furota, T.; Emmett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Macrobenthic invertebrates and sediments at 1 subtidal and 10 intertidal stations along a transect in Baker Bay of the lower Columbia River estuary were sampled monthly from November 1980 to October 1981. Water column temperatures and salinities were also recorded at the subtidal station. The intertidal community consisted primarily of estuarine species, whereas the subtidal community had additional marine species. Marine species declined in abundance after the interstitial salinity minimum (June), indicating the important role of salinity in determining benthic community structure.

  15. Isolation of diploid baker's yeast capable of strongly activating immune cells and analyses of the cell wall structure.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yuki; Mizobuchi, Ayano; Kato, Takayuki; Kasahara, Emiko; Ito, Chinatsu; Watanabe, Hajime; Kanzaki, Ken; Kitagawa, Seiichi; Tachibana, Taro; Azuma, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Diploid baker's yeast capable of strongly activating a mouse macrophage was constructed based on haploid mutant AQ-37 obtained previously. The obtained strain BQ-55 activated also human immune cells. To clarify a factor for the activation, the cell wall structure, especially the β-glucan structure, was analyzed, suggesting that the length of branching, β-1,6-glucan, may be one of the factors.

  16. An Unusual Cluster of Low-Frequency Earthquakes at Mount Baker, Washington, as Detected by a Local Broadband Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thelen, W. A.; Moran, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    A recent cluster of shallow low-frequency earthquakes on Mount Baker volcano marks one of the most seismically active periods in the volcano’s instrumented history (since 1972). Although Mount Baker, the northernmost of the U. S. Cascade volcanoes, has a history of recorded unrest (including an episode of geothermal unrest in 1975-6), it has never exhibited high levels of seismicity. Most of Baker’s seismicity has been associated with glacial earthquakes and deep long-period events. However, between June and September 2009 at least 39 low-frequency events were recorded at Mount Baker, 21 of which were located by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). Locations are shallow and are scattered over a 5 x 5 km area around the southwest flank of the edifice. However, waveform similarity between many events suggests that most are located fairly close together and that the scatter apparent in PNSN locations is largely because of picking errors and a sparse network. To better constrain earthquake locations and source mechanism, a network of five broadband seismometers was deployed on Mount Baker between July and October 2009. This network greatly reduced the magnitude threshold for locatable events, with approximately three times as many earthquakes located by the local network than with the existing regional network. The additional stations also provided better depth constraints. The local network detected a larger number of events than identical temporary networks deployed in 2007 and 2008, suggesting that the increase in seismicity is real. Earthquakes located with the addition of data from the local network still locate at shallow depths beneath the southwest flank, but location uncertainty is significantly improved. We are using waveform similarity to evaluate relative event locations and investigate possible source mechanisms for the earthquakes, and are developing a more accurate velocity model that includes station elevations. This will better determine

  17. The Influence of Baker Bay and Sand Island on Circulations in the Mouth of the Columbia River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    estuary is the scene of a collision between strong river discharge, considerable tidal magnitude and violent surface gravity waves that have claimed...influence of Baker Bay and the Sand Island pile dikes. Tidal range and river discharge are the key drivers in the dynamic lower Columbia River, and...greater in the South Channel, which is dominated by river discharge, than the North Channel, which is more heavily influenced by tidal oscillations

  18. Study of the kinetic parameters for synthesis and hydrolysis of pharmacologically active salicin isomer catalyzed by baker's yeast maltase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veličković, D. V.; Dimitrijević, A. S.; Bihelović, F. J.; Jankov, R. M.; Milosavić, N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key elements for understanding enzyme reactions is determination of its kinetic parameters. Since transglucosylation is kinetically controlled reaction, besides the reaction of synthesis, very important is the reaction of enzymatic hydrolysis of created product. Therefore, in this study, kinetic parameters for synthesis and secondary hydrolysis of pharmacologically active α isosalicin by baker's yeast maltase were calculated, and it was shown that specifity of maltase for hydrolysis is approximately 150 times higher then for synthesis.

  19. Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle, rice flour beetle)--an occupational allergen in bakers: demonstration of IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Zachgo, W; Rotermund, H; Wiewrodt, R; Merget, R; Wahl, R; Burow, G; zur Strassen, R

    1991-01-01

    Specific IgE to proteins from Tribolium confusum (TC), a flour beetle, was detected in 9/125 sera of subjects exposed to rye and wheat flour. TC RAST was not inhibited by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, rye or wheat flour. Immunoblot experiments showed specific binding to three proteins from adult TC or pupae, not present in rye or wheat flour. These findings suggest that TC might act as an occupational allergen in a proportion of bakers.

  20. Geochemical results of a hydrothermally altered area at Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Moye, Falma J.; Theobald, Paul K.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Larsen, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    The area immediately east of Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, is underlain by a thick section of mafic to intermediate lava flows of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. Widespread propylitic alteration surrounds a zone of argillic alteration and an inner core of phyllic alteration. Silicified breccia is present along an east-trending fault within the zone of phyllic alteration. As part of a reconnaissance geochemical survey, soils and plants were sampled. Several species of plants (Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii ], mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana ], and elk sedge [ Carex geyerii ]) were collected from 10 upland localities and stream sediments, panned concentrates, and aquatic mosses were collected from 16 drainage basin localities all of which were generally within the area of alteration. Geochemical results yielded anomalous concentrations of molybenum, zinc, silver, and lead in at least half of the seven different sample media and of gold, thallium, arsenic, antimony, manganese, boron, cadmium, bismuth, copper, and beryllium in from one to four of the various media. Part of this suite of elements? silver, gold, arsenic, antimony, thallium, and manganese? suggests that the mineralization in the area is epithermal. Barite and pyrite (commonly botryoidal-framboidal) are widespread throughout the area sampled. Visible gold and pyromorphite (a secondary lead mineral) were identified in only one small drainage basin, but high levels of gold were detected in aquatic mosses over a larger area. Data from the upland and stream sampling indicate two possible mineralized areas. The first mineralized area was identified by a grab sample from an outcrop of quartz stockwork that contained 50 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Ag, and 50 ppm Mo. Although the soil and plant species that were sampled in the area indicated mineralized bedrock, the Douglas-fir samples were the best indicators of the silver anomaly. The second possible mineralized area centers on the

  1. Simplifying the Reinsch algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-02-01

    The Goldberg version of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity Z ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y ) = ∑ w g ( w ) w ( X , Y ) , where X and Y are not necessarily commuting in terms of "words" constructed from the {X, Y} "alphabet." The so-called Goldberg coefficients g(w) are the central topic of this article. This Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of very wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate the Goldberg coefficients up to some fixed word length |w| by using nilpotent (|w| + 1) × (|w| + 1) matrices. We shall show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making its implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward using "off the shelf" symbolic manipulation software. Specific computations provide examples which help to provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance, we shall establish some strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of nonzero Goldberg coefficients often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the word length |w|. Furthermore, the simplified Reinsch algorithm readily generalizes to many closely related but still quite distinct problems—we shall also present closely related results for the symmetric product S ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X / 2 e Y e X / 2 ) = ∑ w g S ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . Variations on such themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the "loop" product L ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y e - X e - Y ) = ∑ w g L ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . This "loop" type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering either differential geometric parallel transport around a closed curve, non-Abelian versions of Stokes' theorem, or even Wigner rotation/Thomas precession in special

  2. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater - Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by steam explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces of processes that gradually decrease stability. large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava or by hot rock debris could affect valley floors many tens of kilometers from the volcano and could have especially severe effects if they were to

  3. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P < 0.001). The specific IgE against quaternary ammonium ions recognized also two compounds widely used by hairdressers, benzalkonium chloride and polyquaternium-10, in competitive inhibition of IgE RIA. When considering the whole study population, hairdresser professional exposure and total IgE > 100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in

  4. [Biodegradation of pyridine under UV irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Miao-Miao; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2012-02-01

    Pyridine, a complex nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, is usually difficult to degrade by means of single biological method. The internal loop photobiodegradation reactor (ILPBR) was used for degradation of pyridine in batch and continuous experiments following three protocols: photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B) to investigate the regularity of pyridine degradation. The experimental results indicated that pyridine removal rate by P&B was fastest among three protocols in batch experiment, in which protocol B was faster than P. For initial pyridine concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the pyridine removal rates were respectively 4.95, 10.2 and 14.58 mg (L x h)(-1) corresponding to protocol P, B and P&B. Pyridine degradation kinetic equations were established based on Monod model, and the saturation constants decreased from 1920.4 mg x L(-1) for protocol B to 1094.1 mg x L(-1) for protocol P&B. Protocols P, B and P&B were also used for pyridine degradation in continuous flow and influent pyridine concentration increased from 50 to 300 mg x L(-1), and their average removal rates were respectively 15.8 mg (L x h)(-1) for protocol P, 23.1 mg x (L x h)(-1) for protocol B and 24.9 mg x (L x h)(-1) for protocol P&B, in which the removal rates were higher than that in batch. Experiments suggested that the inhibition of pyridine to biofilm could be relieved due to UV irradiation in process of intimately coupled UV photolysis and biodegradation, and biofilm had kept its bioactivity degrading pyridine and enhanced pyridine removal rates.

  5. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  6. Improving freeze-tolerance of baker's yeast through seamless gene deletion of NTH1 and PUT1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Chen, Didi; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Cuiying; Du, Liping; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-06-01

    Baker's yeast strains with freeze-tolerance are highly desirable to maintain high leavening ability after freezing. Enhanced intracellular concentration of trehalose and proline in yeast is linked with freeze-tolerance. In this study, we constructed baker's yeast with enhanced freeze-tolerance by simultaneous deletion of the neutral trehalase-encoded gene NTH1 and the proline oxidase-encoded gene PUT1. We first used the two-step integration-based seamless gene deletion method to separately delete NTH1 and PUT1 in haploid yeast. Subsequently, through two rounds of hybridization and sporulation-based allelic exchange and colony PCR-mediated tetrad analysis, we obtained strains with restored URA3 and deletion of NTH1 and/or PUT1. The resulting strain showed higher cell survival and dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to the wild-type strain due to enhanced accumulation of trehalose and/or proline. Moreover, mutant with simultaneous deletion of NTH1 and PUT1 exhibits the highest relative dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to mutants with single-gene deletion perhaps due to elevated levels of both trehalose and proline. These results verified that it is applicable to construct frozen dough baker's yeast using the method proposed in this paper.

  7. Improving industrial full-scale production of baker's yeast by optimizing aeration control.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Rayo, Julia; Giralda, José M

    2008-01-01

    This work analyzes the control of optimum dissolved oxygen of an industrial fed-batch procedure in which baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is grown under aerobic conditions. Sugar oxidative metabolism was controlled by monitoring aeration, molasses flows, and yeast concentration in the propagator along the later stage of the propagation, and keeping pH and temperature under controlled conditions. A large number of fed-batch growth experiments were performed in the tank for a period of 16 h, for each of the 3 manufactured commercial products. For optimization and control of cultivations, the growth and metabolite formation were quantified through measurement of specific growth and ethanol concentration. Data were adjusted to a model of multiple lineal regression, and correlations representing dissolved oxygen as a function of aeration, molasses, yeast concentration in the broth, temperature, and pH were obtained. The actual influence of each variable was consistent with the mathematical model, further justified by significant levels of each variable, and optimum aeration profile during the yeast propagation.

  8. Bronchial Challenge With Tri a 14 as an Alternative Diagnostic Test for Baker's Asthma.

    PubMed

    Armentia, A; Garrido-Arandia, M; Cubells-Baeza, N; Gómez-Casado, C; Díaz-Perales, A

    2015-01-01

    Baker's asthma (BA) is the most prevalent occupational respiratory disease in developed countries. It is caused by inhalation of wheat dust in the working environment and affects 1%-10% of workers in the baking industry. Diagnosis of BA is based on bronchial challenge with wheat, a technique that carries a high risk for patients. The wheat lipid transfer protein Tri a 14 is a major allergen in BA. The aim of our study was to characterize Tri a 14 as a marker of BA in order to prevent patients from having to undergo bronchial challenge with wheat. The study population comprised 55 patients selected at the Rio Hortega Hospital, Valladolid, Spain. Patients with BA were diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) with wheat and Tri a 14 and bronchial challenge test (BCT) with wheat. Patients with food allergy had a clear clinical history of allergy to peach confirmed by positive SPT to peach extract and Pru p 3. All patients in the BA group had a positive SPT result with wheat (100%), and most had positive results with Tri a 14 (95%). A positive BCT result with Tri a 14 was also observed in 22 of 27 of the patients with BA (82%). The response to Tri a 14 was specifically associated with BA. Tri a 14 is a good marker of BA and can be used in SPT and BCT as an alternative diagnostic method, thus avoiding bronchial challenge with wheat and reducing the risk associated with this technique.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints.

  10. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.

  11. Mineral resource potential map of the Natural Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    The Natural Area Roadless Area, which is in the Osceola National Forest in Baker County, Fla., is underlain by sedimentary rocks containing phosphate deposits that are not a potential mineral resource by todays standards. The region has a low potential for oil and gas and virtually no potential for other valuable minerals. The phosphate deposits are either slightly low in tonnage and P2O5 content, high in MgO and/or Fe2O3 + Al2O3, or the ratio of CaO to P2O5 is too high for deposits that can be mined profitably at the present time. A low potential for oil and gas is indicated by the numerous dry holes in the region and the absence of the formations that contain these hydrocarbons in southern and westernmost Florida. The only mineral material that has been produced in the study area is clayey sand, used in stabilizing Forest Service roads. This type of clayey sand has no particular value because there are virtually unlimited quantities in the surrounding region. The peaty material in the area is too high in ash content to be mined. Large quantities of limestone underlie the area but are too deeply buried to be quarried. Heavy-mineral and clay deposits, which are mined elsewhere in northern peninsular Florida, are not present in the study area.

  12. Expression of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Harmsen, M M; Chua, K Y; Thomas, W R; Aalberse, R C; Van Ree, R

    1998-01-01

    The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant mature protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast produces the protein fused to the invertase signal peptide, leading to the secretion of Der p 2 as a soluble protein into the culture medium. The signal peptide is hereby cleaved off, resulting in a mature allergen. In this system Der p 2 was produced in 7.6 (+/-2.9) mg/L growth culture. Purification of the recombinant allergen was achieved by a single gel filtration step, resulting in a purity > or = 95%. The yeast-derived Der p 2 was almost indistinguishable from natural Der p 2 with respect to IgE-reactivity and binding to the majority of Der p 2 specific MoAbs -- as was shown in RAST analysis (n = 168) and a sandwich ELISA and RIA analysis, respectively. Recombinant and natural Der p 2 also showed similar biological activity in histamine release assays (n = 4). An expression system for Der p 2 was developed that enables the production of a soluble allergen in the culture supernatant with immunological characteristics similar to the natural allergen. In addition, yeast offers the advantage of the absence of endotoxin in comparison to E. coli. This might facilitate acceptance of recombinant allergens for in vivo applications as immunotherapy or skin-prick testing.

  13. The amino acid sequence of the aspartate aminotransferase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, V B; Maras, B; Barra, D; Doonan, S

    1991-01-01

    1. The single (cytosolic) aspartate aminotransferase was purified in high yield from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 2. Amino-acid-sequence analysis was carried out by digestion of the protein with trypsin and with CNBr; some of the peptides produced were further subdigested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase or with pepsin. Peptides were sequenced by the dansyl-Edman method and/or by automated gas-phase methods. The amino acid sequence obtained was complete except for a probable gap of two residues as indicated by comparison with the structures of counterpart proteins in other species. 3. The N-terminus of the enzyme is blocked. Fast-atom-bombardment m.s. was used to identify the blocking group as an acetyl one. 4. Alignment of the sequence of the enzyme with those of vertebrate cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases and with the enzyme from Escherichia coli showed that about 25% of residues are conserved between these distantly related forms. 5. Experimental details and confirmatory data for the results presented here are given in a Supplementary Publication (SUP 50164, 25 pages) that has been deposited at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa. Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7 BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1991) 273, 5. PMID:1859361

  14. Quiescent hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide degassing from Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Doukas, Michael P.; Gerlach, Terrence M.

    Volcanic H2S emission rate data are scant despite their importance in understanding magma degassing. We present results from direct airborne plume measurements of H2S and CO2 on a 21-orbit survey at eleven different altitudes around Mount Baker volcano in September 2000 utilizing instrumentation mounted in a light aircraft. Measured emission rates of H2S and CO2 were 5.5 td-1 and 187 td-1 respectively. Maximum concentrations of H2S and CO2 encountered within the 4-km-wide plume were 75 ppb and 2 ppm respectively. Utilizing the H2S signal as a marker for the plume allows the corresponding CO2 signal to be more easily and accurately distinguished from ambient CO2 background. This technique is sensitive enough for monitoring weakly degassing volcanoes in a pre-eruptive condition when scrubbing by hydrothermal fluid or aquifers might mask the presence of more acid magmatic gases such as SO2.

  15. Basalt-basaltic andesite mixing at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, I. Estimation of mixing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Nathan L.

    1988-05-01

    The Holocene Sulphur Creek basaltic andesite, which erupted from a small cinder cone on the southern flank of Mount Baker, locally contains 1-15 cm spheroidal to tongue-shaped inclusions of high-alumina basalt. Textural and chemical relationships indicate that the basalt was mixed with and quenched within the host lava, but that there was little or no homogenization of the two magmas. Both Sulphur Creek liquids had temperatures in excess of 1000°C, and mixing probably occurred at temperatures less than 1150°C at a pressure betweeen 0.5 and 2.0 kbar. Available evidence suggests that mixing of the two magmas did not result from simultaneous flow within the Sulphur Creek conduit, but rather occurred within a density-stratified magma chamber. The initial density contrast between basaltic and basaltic andesite liquids was determined by the thermal and compositional contrast across their interface, and the oxidation state, water content, and crystallinity of the two magma columns. The bulk density of the basalt was probably only slightly greater than that of basaltic andesite due to the high crystal content of the more-differentiated liquid. The basalt would not have had to reach water-saturation in order for the densities of the two liquids to become equal. Overturning of the magma chamber could have occurred without the requirement of volatile exsolution in the lower mafic layer.

  16. Telescope Fabra ROA Montsec: A New Robotic Wide Field Baker-Nunn Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Octavi; Núñez, Jorge; Muiños, José Luis; Montojo, Francisco Javier; Baena-Gallé, Roberto; Boloix, Jaime; Morcillo, Ricardo; Merino, María Teresa; Downey, Elwood C.; Mazur, Michael J.

    2013-05-01

    A Baker-Nunn Camera (BNC), originally installed at the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in 1958, was refurbished and robotized. The new facility, called Telescope Fabra ROA Montsec (TFRM), was installed at the Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM). The process of refurbishment is described in detail. Most of the steps of the refurbishment project were accomplished by purchasing commercial components, which involve little posterior engineering assembling work. The TFRM is a 0.5 m aperture f/0.96 optically modified BNC, which offers a unique combination of instrumental specifications: fully robotic and remote operation, wide field of view (4°.4 × 4°.4), moderate limiting magnitude (V ˜ 19.5 mag), ability of tracking at arbitrary right ascension (α) and declination (δ) rates, as well as opening and closing CCD shutter at will during an exposure. Nearly all kinds of image survey programs can benefit from those specifications. Apart from other less time-consuming programs, since the beginning of science TFRM operations we have been conducting two specific and distinct surveys: super-Earths transiting around M-type dwarfs stars, and geostationary debris in the context of Space Situational Awareness/Space Surveillance and Tracking (SSA/SST) programs. Preliminary results for both cases will be shown.

  17. Topical Antinociceptive Effect of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker on Acute Corneal Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inocêncio Leite, Laura Hévila; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Silva Coutinho, Thales; de Sousa, Severino Denício Gonçalves; Sampaio, Renata Souza; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the possible topical antinociceptive activity of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute model of chemical (eye wiping) nociception in mice. EOVA (25 to 200 mg/kg; p.o. and topical) evidenced significant antinociception against chemogenic pain in the test model of formalin-induced neuroinflammatory pain. Local application of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye produced a significant nociceptive behavior, characterized by eye wiping. The number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30 s. EOVA (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; p.o. and topical) significantly decreased the number of eye wipes. Naloxone, yohimbine, L-NAME, theophylline, glibenclamide, and ruthenium red had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of EOVA. However, ondansetron, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), capsazepine, prazosin, and atropine prevented the antinociception induced by EOVA. These results indicate the topical antinociceptive effect of EOVA and showed that 5-HT, α1, TRPV1, and central muscarinic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effect of EOVA in the acute corneal model of pain in mice. PMID:24660017

  18. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads.

  19. Quiescent hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide degassing from Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volcanic H2S emission rate data are scant despite their importance in understanding magma degassing. We present results from direct airborne plume measurements of H2S and CO2 on a 21-orbit survey at eleven different altitudes around Mount Baker volcano in September 2000 utilizing instrumentation mounted in a light aircraft. Measured emission rates of H2S and CO2 were 5.5 td-1 and 187 td-1 respectively. Maximum concentrations of H2S and CO2 encountered within the 4-km-wide plume were 75 ppb and 2 ppm respectively. Utilizing the H2S signal as a marker for the plume allows the corresponding CO2 signal to be more easily and accurately distinguished from ambient CO2 background. This technique is sensitive enough for monitoring weakly degassing volcanoes in a pre-eruptive condition when scrubbing by hydrothermal fluid or aquifers might mask the presence of more acid magmatic gases such as SO2.

  20. Adaptive evolution of baker's yeast in a dough‐like environment enhances freeze and salinity tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Jaime; Andreu, Pasqual; Randez‐Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Summary We used adaptive evolution to improve freeze tolerance of industrial baker's yeast. Our hypothesis was that adaptation to low temperature is accompanied by enhanced resistance of yeast to freezing. Based on this hypothesis, yeast was propagated in a flour‐free liquid dough model system, which contained sorbitol and NaCl, by successive batch refreshments maintained constantly at 12°C over at least 200 generations. Relative to the parental population, the maximal growth rate (µmax) under the restrictive conditions, increased gradually over the time course of the experiment. This increase was accompanied by enhanced freeze tolerance. However, these changes were not the consequence of genetic adaptation to low temperature, a fact that was confirmed by prolonged selection of yeast cells in YPD at 12°C. Instead, the experimental populations showed a progressive increase in NaCl tolerance. This phenotype was likely achieved at the expense of others traits, since evolved cells showed a ploidy reduction, a defect in the glucose derepression mechanism and a loss in their ability to utilize gluconeogenic carbon sources. We discuss the genetic flexibility of S. cerevisiae in terms of adaptation to the multiple constraints of the experimental design applied to drive adaptive evolution and the technologically advantageous phenotype of the evolved population. PMID:21255321

  1. Effect of growth conditions and trehalose content on cryotolerance of bakers' yeast in frozen doughs.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, P; Fiset, G; Leduy, A; Goulet, J

    1989-10-01

    The cryotolerance in frozen doughs and in water suspensions of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) previously grown under various industrial conditions was evaluated on a laboratory scale. Fed-batch cultures were very superior to batch cultures, and strong aeration enhanced cryoresistance in both cases for freezing rates of 1 to 56 degrees C min. Loss of cell viability in frozen dough or water was related to the duration of the dissolved-oxygen deficit during fed-batch growth. Strongly aerobic fed-batch cultures grown at a reduced average specific rate (mu = 0.088 h compared with 0.117 h) also showed greater trehalose synthesis and improved frozen-dough stability. Insufficient aeration (dissolved-oxygen deficit) and lower growth temperature (20 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C) decreased both fed-batch-grown yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content. Although trehalose had a cryoprotective effect in S. cerevisiae, its effect was neutralized by even a momentary lack of excess dissolved oxygen in the fed-batch growth medium.

  2. Adaptive evolution of baker's yeast in a dough-like environment enhances freeze and salinity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Andreu, Pasqual; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2010-03-01

    We used adaptive evolution to improve freeze tolerance of industrial baker's yeast. Our hypothesis was that adaptation to low temperature is accompanied by enhanced resistance of yeast to freezing. Based on this hypothesis, yeast was propagated in a flour-free liquid dough model system, which contained sorbitol and NaCl, by successive batch refreshments maintained constantly at 12°C over at least 200 generations. Relative to the parental population, the maximal growth rate (µ(max)) under the restrictive conditions, increased gradually over the time course of the experiment. This increase was accompanied by enhanced freeze tolerance. However, these changes were not the consequence of genetic adaptation to low temperature, a fact that was confirmed by prolonged selection of yeast cells in YPD at 12°C. Instead, the experimental populations showed a progressive increase in NaCl tolerance. This phenotype was likely achieved at the expense of others traits, since evolved cells showed a ploidy reduction, a defect in the glucose derepression mechanism and a loss in their ability to utilize gluconeogenic carbon sources. We discuss the genetic flexibility of S. cerevisiae in terms of adaptation to the multiple constraints of the experimental design applied to drive adaptive evolution and the technologically advantageous phenotype of the evolved population.

  3. Impairment of the glycolytic system and actin in baker's yeast during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Hatano, S; Udou, M; Koga, N; Honjoh, K; Miyamoto, T

    1996-01-01

    After frozen storage for 7 d, the viability and CO2 productivity of a conventional baker's yeast strain D greatly decreased. The viability of a freeze-tolerant strain, DFT, used for the frozen dough method slightly decreased after the same storage period, while the CO2 productivity greatly decreased. The CO2 productivity and DNase I inhibitory activity of actin of the cell-free extracts prepared immediately after thawing from 7-d frozen-stored cells markedly decreased in both strains. In DFT, however, the productivity and the inhibitory activity of the cell-free extract increased when the extract was prepared after incubation of the frozen-thawed cells at 30 degrees C. The increase in the inhibitory activity first occurred and then the increase in the CO2 productivity. Gel filtration patterns of actin and glycolytic enzymes were compared between cell-free extracts of both strains. Peaks of actin and activity peaks of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase decreased in the strain D after frozen storage, but only slightly in the strain DFT. After frozen storage, phosphofructokinase activity peak shifted to a lower molecular weight in strain D.

  4. Stress tolerance in doughs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae trehalase mutants derived from commercial Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Shima, J; Hino, A; Yamada-Iyo, C; Suzuki, Y; Nakajima, R; Watanabe, H; Mori, K; Takano, H

    1999-07-01

    Accumulation of trehalose is widely believed to be a critical determinant in improving the stress tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used in commercial bread dough. To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cells, we constructed, for the first time, diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Deltanth1), acid trehalase mutants (Deltaath1), and double mutants (Deltanth1 ath1) by using commercial baker's yeast strains as the parent strains and the gene disruption method. During fermentation in a liquid fermentation medium, degradation of intracellular trehalose was inhibited with all of the trehalase mutants. The gassing power of frozen doughs made with these mutants was greater than the gassing power of doughs made with the parent strains. The Deltanth1 and Deltaath1 strains also exhibited higher levels of tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strains exhibited; however, the Deltanth1 ath1 strain exhibited lower tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strain exhibited. The improved freeze tolerance exhibited by all of the trehalase mutants may make these strains useful in frozen dough.

  5. The extraction and purification of a cysteine transfer ribonucleic acid from baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Holness, N J; Atfield, G

    1976-01-01

    1. A modification of the RPC 1 system of A.D. Kelmers, G.D. Novelli & M.P. Stulberg (1965) (J. Biol. Chem. 240, 3979-3983) is described in which the support medium is a Celite of narrow range particle size treated with dichlorodimethylsilane. 2. By using this system an apparently pure preparation of tRNA Cys was isolated from baker's yeast tRNA. 3. This preparation accepted at least 60% of the theoretical quantity of [3-14C]cysteine in a conventional assay and failed to accept isoleucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine or tyrosine. 4. A theoretical countercurrent-distribution curve calculated by assuming a distribution coefficient K of 2.03 was in excellent agreement with the profiles of E260 and cysteine-acceptor ability after 537 transfers in the 1.85 M-phosphate/formamide/propan-2-ol system of C.M. Connelly & B.P. Doctor (1965) (J. Biol. Chem. 241, 715-719). 5. Chromatography of tRNA Cys on Bio-Gel P100 polyacrylamide beads afforded two components one of which was far less efficient than the other in accepting cysteine. The base compositions of the two were similar. PMID:776175

  6. De novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Esben H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R; Bünner, Camilla M; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R; Okkels, Finn T; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin beta-D-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity.

  7. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps.

  8. Effect of Growth Conditions and Trehalose Content on Cryotolerance of Bakers' Yeast in Frozen Doughs

    PubMed Central

    Gélinas, Pierre; Fiset, Gisèle; LeDuy, Anh; Goulet, Jacques

    1989-01-01

    The cryotolerance in frozen doughs and in water suspensions of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) previously grown under various industrial conditions was evaluated on a laboratory scale. Fed-batch cultures were very superior to batch cultures, and strong aeration enhanced cryoresistance in both cases for freezing rates of 1 to 56°C min−1. Loss of cell viability in frozen dough or water was related to the duration of the dissolved-oxygen deficit during fed-batch growth. Strongly aerobic fed-batch cultures grown at a reduced average specific rate (μ = 0.088 h−1 compared with 0.117 h−1) also showed greater trehalose synthesis and improved frozen-dough stability. Insufficient aeration (dissolved-oxygen deficit) and lower growth temperature (20°C instead of 30°C) decreased both fed-batch-grown yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content. Although trehalose had a cryoprotective effect in S. cerevisiae, its effect was neutralized by even a momentary lack of excess dissolved oxygen in the fed-batch growth medium. PMID:16348024

  9. Derepression of galactose metabolism in melibiase producing bakers' and distillers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Rønnow, B; Olsson, L; Nielsen, J; Mikkelsen, J D

    1999-06-11

    Beet molasses is widely used as a growth substrate for bakers' and distillers' yeast in the production of biomass and ethanol. Most commercial yeasts do not fully utilise the carbohydrates in molasses since they are incapable of hydrolysing the disaccharide melibiose to glucose and galactose. Also, expression of genes encoding enzymes for the utilisation of carbon sources that are alternatives to glucose is tightly regulated, sometimes rates of yeast growth and/or ethanol production. The GAL genes are regulated by specific induction by galactose and repression during growth on glucose. In an industrial distillers' yeast, two genes interacting synergistically in glucose repression of galactose utilization, MIG1 and GAL80, have been disrupted with MEL1, encoding melibiase. The physiology of the wild-type strain and the recombinant strains was investigated on mixtures of glucose and galactose and on molasses. The recombinant strain started to ferment galactose when 9.7 g 1(-1) glucose was still present during a batch fermentation, whereas the wild-type strain did not consume any galactose in the presence of glucose. The ethanol yield in the recombinant strain was 0.50 g ethanol g sugar (-1) in an ethanol fermentation on molasses, compared with 0.48 g ethanol g sugar (-1) for the wild-type strain. The increased ethanol yield was due to utilization of melibiose in the molasses.

  10. Acetate but not propionate induces oxidative stress in bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Abrat, Oleksandra B; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Inoue, Yoshiharu; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of acetic and propionic acids on baker's yeast was investigated in order to expand our understanding of the effect of weak organic acid food preservatives on eukaryotic cells. Both acids decreased yeast survival in a concentration-dependent manner, but with different efficiencies. The acids inhibited the fluorescein efflux from yeast cells. The inhibition constant of fluorescein extrusion from cells treated with acetate was significantly lower in parental strain than in either PDR12 (ABC-transporter Pdr12p) or WAR1 (transcriptional factor of Pdr12p) defective mutants. The constants of inhibition by propionate were virtually the same in all strains used. Yeast exposure to acetate increased the level of oxidized proteins and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, while propionate did not change these parameters. This suggests that various mechanisms underlie the yeast toxicity by acetic and propionic acids. Our studies with mutant cells clearly indicated the involvement of Yap1p transcriptional regulator and de novo protein synthesis in superoxide dismutase up-regulation by acetate. The up-regulation of catalase was Yap1p independent. Yeast pre-incubation with low concentrations of H₂O₂ caused cellular cross-protection against high concentrations of acetate. The results are discussed from the point of view that acetate induces a prooxidant effect in vivo, whereas propionate does not.

  11. Improved Properties of Baker's Yeast Mutants Resistant to 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Ana M.; Codón, Antonio C.; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2001-01-01

    We isolated spontaneous mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast V1) that were resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose and had improved fermentative capacity on sweet doughs. Three mutants could grow at the same rate as the wild type in minimal SD medium (0.17% Difco yeast nitrogen base without amino acids and ammonium sulfate, 0.5% ammonium sulfate, 2% glucose) and had stable elevated levels of maltase and/or invertase under repression conditions but lower levels in maltose-supplemented media. Two of the mutants also had high levels of phosphatase active on 2-deoxy-d-glucose-6-phosphate. Dough fermentation (CO2 liberation) by two of the mutants was faster and/or produced higher final volumes than that by the wild type, both under laboratory and industrial conditions, when the doughs were supplemented with glucose or sucrose. However, the three mutants were slower when fermenting plain doughs. Fermented sweet bakery products obtained with these mutants were of better quality than those produced by the wild type, with regard to their texture and their organoleptic properties. PMID:11526034

  12. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  13. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  14. Sr, Nd, Pb and Os Isotopic Compositions of Lavas From the Mount Baker Volcanic Field, Cascade Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. K.; McCallum, I.; Brandon, A. D.

    2008-12-01

    We present the results of a trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotopic study of the Mt. Baker volcanic field (MBVF), part of the northern segment of the Cascade magmatic arc known as the Garibaldi Belt. To date, only 4 Sr isotopic ratios (all from the Sulphur Creek flow) have been published. The Mount Baker volcanic field extends to 3.72 Ma and a case can be made for continuous magmatic activity in this region extending from 34 Ma to present. Our goal is to use isotope ratios to characterize the mantle source regions that underlie the Garibaldi Belt, to document the chemical inputs of slab fluid/melt, sediment, and lower crust, and to assess temporal and spatial variations in these factors. We measured 29 Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, 8 Pb isotopic ratios, and 9 Os isotopic ratios, representing the full age range and compositional diversity (calc- alkaline basalt through rhyolite) of the MBVF, including all known MBVF basalts. A 22.86-Ma gabbronorite from the adjacent Chilliwack batholith was analyzed as an analog for the modern mafic lower crust. All Mt. Baker lavas are calc-alkaline with the arc-characteristic signatures of HFSE depletion and LILE enrichment. MBVF 87Sr/86Sr values (0.703932 to 0.703057) and ɛNd (+4.71 to +7.79) are well correlated and lie within the mantle array. Mt. Baker Sr and Nd data are indistinguishable from other Garibaldi belt lavas (Green & Harry 1999, Green & Sinha 2005), and also overlap data from the neighboring Chilliwack batholith (Tepper 1996; Tepper et al. 1993). In contrast, central and southern Cascade arc lavas with similar Sr ratios have corresponding ɛNd values that are lower by ~2 epsilon units. The Garibaldi Belt and Chilliwack magmas are tapping a mantle source distinct from that of the rest of the Cascade arc. 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of MBVF basalts plot close to the NHRL, in a linear trend between Juan de Fuca MORB and Pacific sediment, indicating a sediment contribution to the MBVF magmas. With

  15. Modeling Transport Layer Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Weingaertner, Elias

    In a layered communication architecture, transport layer protocols handle the data exchange between processes on different hosts over potentially lossy communication channels. Typically, transport layer protocols are either connection-oriented or are based on the transmission of individual datagrams. Well known transport protocols are the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [372] and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [370] as well as the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [340] and DCCP, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol [259]. In this chapter, we focus on the modeling process of the transport layer. While we mostly use TCP and UDP as a base of comparison from this point, we emphasize that the methodologies discussed further on are conferrable to virtually any transport layer in any layered communication architecture.

  16. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  17. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2004-04-16

    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  18. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  19. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  20. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming Li, Wei; Li, An; Ming Ha, Yi; Wang, Feng; Li Zhang, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption.

  2. Pain assessment in children undergoing venipuncture: the Wong–Baker faces scale versus skin conductance fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Vagliano, Liliana; Ceratto, Simone; Viviani, Fabio; Miniero, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subjective Wong–Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFS) and of the objective skin conductance fluctuation (SCF) test in assessing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. One-hundred and fifty children (aged 5–16 years) entered the study. All underwent venipuncture at the antecubital fossa to collect blood specimens for routine testing in the same environmental conditions. After venipuncture, the children indicated their pain intensity using the WBFS, whereas the number of SCFs was recorded before, during and after venipuncture. So, pain level was measured in each child with WBFS and SCF. We found that the level of WBFS-assessed pain was lower in all children, particularly those above 8 years of age, than SCF-assessed pain (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the number of SCFs was significantly higher during venipuncture than before or after venipuncture (p < 0.0001). At multivariate regression analysis, age and previous experience of venipuncture influenced the WBFS (β = −1.81, p < 0.001, and β = −0.86, p < 0.001, respectively) but not SCFs. In conclusion, although both procedures can be useful for research and clinical practice, our findings show that WBFS was affected by age and previous venipuncture, whereas SCF produced uniform data. If verified in other studies, our results should be taken into account when using these tools to evaluate pain in children. PMID:23638373

  3. Pain assessment in children undergoing venipuncture: the Wong-Baker faces scale versus skin conductance fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Vagliano, Liliana; Ceratto, Simone; Viviani, Fabio; Miniero, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subjective Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFS) and of the objective skin conductance fluctuation (SCF) test in assessing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. One-hundred and fifty children (aged 5-16 years) entered the study. All underwent venipuncture at the antecubital fossa to collect blood specimens for routine testing in the same environmental conditions. After venipuncture, the children indicated their pain intensity using the WBFS, whereas the number of SCFs was recorded before, during and after venipuncture. So, pain level was measured in each child with WBFS and SCF. We found that the level of WBFS-assessed pain was lower in all children, particularly those above 8 years of age, than SCF-assessed pain (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the number of SCFs was significantly higher during venipuncture than before or after venipuncture (p < 0.0001). At multivariate regression analysis, age and previous experience of venipuncture influenced the WBFS (β = -1.81, p < 0.001, and β = -0.86, p < 0.001, respectively) but not SCFs. In conclusion, although both procedures can be useful for research and clinical practice, our findings show that WBFS was affected by age and previous venipuncture, whereas SCF produced uniform data. If verified in other studies, our results should be taken into account when using these tools to evaluate pain in children.

  4. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as ‘confirmed’ or ‘probable’ OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31). Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 – 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 – 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 – 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 – 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings. PMID:22642690

  5. Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose.

  6. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  7. A molecular physiological review of vegetative desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa (Baker).

    PubMed

    Farrant, Jill M; Cooper, Keren; Hilgart, Amelia; Abdalla, Kamal O; Bentley, Joanne; Thomson, Jennifer A; Dace, Halford J W; Peton, Nashied; Mundree, Sagadevan G; Rafudeen, Mohamed S

    2015-08-01

    Provides a first comprehensive review of integrated physiological and molecular aspects of desiccation tolerance Xerophyta viscosa. A synopsis of biotechnological studies being undertaken to improve drought tolerance in maize is given. Xerophyta viscosa (Baker) is a monocotyledonous resurrection plant from the family Vellociacea that occurs in summer-rainfall areas of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. It inhabits rocky terrain in exposed grasslands and frequently experiences periods of water deficit. Being a resurrection plant it tolerates the loss of 95% of total cellular water, regaining full metabolic competency within 3 days of rehydration. In this paper, we review some of the molecular and physiological adaptations that occur during various stages of dehydration of X. viscosa, these being functionally grouped into early and late responses, which might be relevant to the attainment of desiccation tolerance. During early drying (to 55% RWC) photosynthesis is shut down, there is increased presence and activity of housekeeping antioxidants and a redirection of metabolism to the increased formation of sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides. Other metabolic shifts suggest water replacement in vacuoles proposed to facilitate mechanical stabilization. Some regulatory processes observed include increased presence of a linker histone H1 variant, a Type 2C protein phosphatase, a calmodulin- and an ERD15-like protein. During the late stages of drying (to 10% RWC) there was increased expression of several proteins involved in signal transduction, and retroelements speculated to be instrumental in gene silencing. There was induction of antioxidants not typically found in desiccation-sensitive systems, classical stress-associated proteins (HSP and LEAs), proteins involved in structural stabilization and those associated with changes in various metabolite pools during drying. Metabolites accumulated in this stage are proposed, inter alia, to facilitate subcellular

  8. De Novo Biosynthesis of Vanillin in Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Esben H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R.; Bünner, Camilla M.; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R.; Okkels, Finn T.; Olsen, Carl E.; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin β-d-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity. PMID:19286778

  9. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

  10. Growth characteristics of freeze-tolerant baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFY in aerobic batch culture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Meng; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; You, Yebing; Liu, Feilong; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFY is a novel baker's yeast strain with strong freeze-tolerance, and can be used for frozen-dough processing. The present study armed to clarify the growth characteristics of the yeast AFY. Aerobic batch culture experiments of yeast AFY were carried out using media with various initial glucose concentrations, and the culture process was analyzed kinetically. The growth of the yeast AFY exhibited a diauxic pattern with the first growth stage consuming glucose and the second growth stage consuming ethanol. The cell yield decreased with increasing initial glucose concentration in the first growth stage, and also decreased with increasing initial ethanol concentration in the second growth stage. In the initial glucose concentration range of 5.0-40.0 g/L, the simultaneous equations of Monod equation, Luedeking-Piret equation and pseudo-Luedeking-Piret equation could be used to describe the concentrations of cell, ethanol and glucose in either of the two exponential growth phases. At the initial glucose concentrations of 5.0, 10.0 and 40.0 g/L, the first exponential growth phase had a maximal specific cell growth rate of 0.52, 0.98 and 0.99 h(-1), while the second exponential growth phase had a maximal specific cell growth rate of 0.11, 0.06 and 0.07 h(-1), respectively. It was indicated that the efficiency of the yeast production could be improved by reducing the ethanol production in the first growth stage.

  11. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  12. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker on sexual activity of male rats and its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sudwan, Paiwan; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Saenphet, Supap; Suwansirikul, Songkiet

    2006-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker (Krachaidum) has long been used among Thai men for sexual enhancement. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of K. parviflora ethanolic extract on the sexual behavior of male rats and its toxicity. The experiment was divided into three groups of rats given K. parviflora extract at doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg BW for 60 days, whilst a control group received distilled water at 1 ml/day per oral. The results showed that all groups of male rats had significantly higher courtship behavior during the first 10-minute period of observation than in the 2nd and 3rd 10-minute periods, except those receiving the highest dose of K. parviflora. They revealed the same amount of courtship behavior throughout a whole 30-minute period, which was significantly lower than the control group. There was no significant difference between treated and control groups in other sexual behaviors; mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), mount latency (ML), or intromission latency (IL). Toxicological study revealed no significant difference of hemoglobin, WBC or differential cell count. All dosages had no effect on kidney and liver function, according to the normal values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Crea), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Nevertheless, the histopathological study showed a morphological change in the liver. It was concluded that K. parviflora extract at 240 mg/kg BW reduced the time in the first 10 mintues of rat courtship behavior and the use of high and chronic doses of K. parviflora in humans should be considered inadvisable.

  13. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Rémen, Thomas; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2012-05-29

    The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. A nested case-control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as 'confirmed' or 'probable' OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31). Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 - 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 - 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 - 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 - 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01). This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  14. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) antigen in obese and normal weight subjects.

    PubMed

    Salamati, S; Martins, C; Kulseng, B

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell wall components have been used as one of the alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in the feed industry. Antibodies to cell wall mannan of this yeast (ASCA) have been traditionally used in the study of Crohn's disease (CD). We applied ASCA in relation to obesity. This study aims (i) to determine the concentration of ASCA (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and immunoglobulin G [IgG]) in obese compared with normal weight individuals and (ii) to determine if there is a correlation between ASCA concentrations, obesity indices and C-reactive protein. Forty obese individuals (body mass index [BMI] > 35 kg m(-2) ) and 18 healthy (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ) volunteers participated in this case-control study. Binding activity of serum IgA and IgG to the cell wall mannan of S. cerevisiae was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than one-third of the obese individual (35%) showed elevated titres of ASCA compared with the control group (5%). This antibody was positively associated with weight (P = 0.01), BMI (P = 0.02) and waist circumference (P = 0.02), but not with C-reactive protein. It seems that ASCA are not only specific for CD but are also associated with obesity. S. cerevisiae or a related antigen may play a role in the matrix of this complex condition. © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. [Presence of nitrates and nitrites in baker's products and in certain other flour products].

    PubMed

    Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study demonstrated that the content of nitrates and nitrites in various baker's products varied from 0.96 (in wheat rolls and baguettes) to 44.07 mg KO3/kg in pumpernickel bread. In wholemeal bread, village bread, tourist bread, rye brown bread and Graham bread the content of these compounds was from 1.46 to 27.10 mg KNO3/kg. The mean content of nitrites in these bread sorts was 1.76 mg NaNo2/kg, range 0.10-4.40 mg NaNo2/kg. In white wheat flours (Wrocław flour, cake flour and Poznań flour) the content of nitrates ranged from 1.10 to 19.08 mg KNO3/kg, and in the dishes produced from them in household was from 0.50 to 16.33 mg KNO3/kg. The content of nitrites in these flours was in the range from 0.00 to 4.16 mg NaNo2/kg, and in the products prepared from them it was from 0.00 to 1.60 mg NaNO2/kg. Eleven types were tested also of popular biscuits, wafers, gingerbread and hard cakes in which the content of nitrates was from 3.66 to 17.72 mg/kg, and that of nitrites was from 0.00 to 8.80 mg NaNo2/kg. Considering the average consumption of these products per one person in the seashore region and the mean values of nitrates and nitrites it was calculated that they provided daily about 3.9 mg KNO3 and 0.4 NaNo2, that is about 1.8% of nitrates and 7.7% of nitrites consumed by adults in daily food ration.

  16. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  17. Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

    2005-06-25

    Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process.

  18. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  20. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included. PMID:27023535

  1. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    when composing abstract protocols. To evaluate the expres- siveness of our protocol framework for ensuring safe shared memory interference, we show how...progress and preservation theorems that show the ab- sence of unsafe interference in correctly typed programs. Our design ensures memory safety and data...system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms. Next, we briefly

  2. Overexpression of the Calcineurin Target CRZ1 Provides Freeze Tolerance and Enhances the Fermentative Capacity of Baker's Yeast▿

    PubMed Central

    Panadero, Joaquín; Hernández-López, Maria José; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have shown a huge growth in the market of industrial baker's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with the need for strains affording better performance in prefrozen dough. Evidence suggests that during the freezing process, cells can suffer biochemical damage caused by osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the involvement of ion-responsive transcriptional factors and pathways in conferring freeze resistance has not yet been examined. Here, we have investigated the role of the salt-responsive calcineurin-Crz1p pathway in mediating tolerance to freezing by industrial baker's yeast. Overexpression of CRZ1 in the industrial HS13 strain increased both salt and freeze tolerance and improved the leavening ability of baker's yeast in high-sugar dough. Moreover, engineered cells were able to produce more gas during fermentation of prefrozen dough than the parental strain. Similar effects were observed for overexpression of TdCRZ1, the homologue to CRZ1 in Torulaspora delbrueckii, suggesting that expression of calcineurin-Crz1p target genes can alleviate the harmful effects of ionic stress during freezing. However, overexpression of STZ and FTZ, two unrelated Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding Cys2/His2-type zinc finger proteins, also conferred freeze resistance in yeast. Furthermore, experiments with Δcnb1 and Δcrz1 mutants failed to show a freeze-sensitive phenotype, even in cells pretreated with NaCl. Overall, our results demonstrate that overexpression of CRZ1 has the potential to be a useful tool for increasing freeze tolerance and fermentative capacity in industrial strains. However, these effects do not appear to be mediated through activation of known salt-responding pathways. PMID:17557846

  3. Overexpression of the calcineurin target CRZ1 provides freeze tolerance and enhances the fermentative capacity of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Joaquín; Hernández-López, Maria José; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-08-01

    Recent years have shown a huge growth in the market of industrial baker's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with the need for strains affording better performance in prefrozen dough. Evidence suggests that during the freezing process, cells can suffer biochemical damage caused by osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the involvement of ion-responsive transcriptional factors and pathways in conferring freeze resistance has not yet been examined. Here, we have investigated the role of the salt-responsive calcineurin-Crz1p pathway in mediating tolerance to freezing by industrial baker's yeast. Overexpression of CRZ1 in the industrial HS13 strain increased both salt and freeze tolerance and improved the leavening ability of baker's yeast in high-sugar dough. Moreover, engineered cells were able to produce more gas during fermentation of prefrozen dough than the parental strain. Similar effects were observed for overexpression of TdCRZ1, the homologue to CRZ1 in Torulaspora delbrueckii, suggesting that expression of calcineurin-Crz1p target genes can alleviate the harmful effects of ionic stress during freezing. However, overexpression of STZ and FTZ, two unrelated Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc finger proteins, also conferred freeze resistance in yeast. Furthermore, experiments with Deltacnb1 and Deltacrz1 mutants failed to show a freeze-sensitive phenotype, even in cells pretreated with NaCl. Overall, our results demonstrate that overexpression of CRZ1 has the potential to be a useful tool for increasing freeze tolerance and fermentative capacity in industrial strains. However, these effects do not appear to be mediated through activation of known salt-responding pathways.

  4. Identifying Water on Mt. Baker and Mt. St. Helens, WA with Geophysics: Implications for Volcanic Landslide Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater position, abundance, and flow rates within a volcano affect the transmission of fluid pressure, transport of mass and heat and formation of mechanically weak hydrothermal alteration influencing the stability of volcanoes. In addition, eruptions can shatter volcanic rocks, weakening the edifice. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data collected over Mt. Baker and Mt. St. Helens volcanoes reveal the distribution of water, shattered volcanic rocks and hydrothermal alteration essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of localized <100 m thick zones of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields at Mt. Baker. Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that the hydrothermal clays contain ~50% bound water with no evidence for free water ponded beneath the ice. The HEM data suggest water-saturated fresh volcanic rocks from the surface to the detection limit (~100 m) over the entire summit of Mt. Baker (below the ice). A 50-100 m thick high resistivity layer (>1500 ohm-m) corresponding to domes, debris avalanche, volcanic rocks and glaciers mantles the crater at Mt. St. Helens. Shallow low resistivity layers corresponding to fresh, cold water and hot brines are observed below the high resistivity surface in EM data. Shallow ground water mainly concentrates in shattered dome material in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. Aeromagnetic data indicate the location of basalts sandwiched between debris avalanche deposits and shattered dome material. The combination of the EM and magnetic data help map the location of the shattered dome material that is considered to be the failure surface for the 1980 debris avalanche. The EM data image the regional groundwater table near the base of the volcano. The geophysical identification of groundwater and weak layers constrain landslide hazards assessments.

  5. Life cycle of a plant parasitic mite, Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two hosts from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sagata; Gupta, Salil Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The present paper reports duration of different developmental stages as well as fecundity, longevity, oviposition periods, sex ratio, etc. of Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard on two medicinal plants, viz. Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult and Justicia adhatoda L. under laboratory condition at 27.5 °C and 65% R.H. during February-March, 2016. The two hosts in which the life cycle was studied form two new records of hosts for this mite. It appears that C. buchanani is better host among the two hosts as because the life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in shorter time, recording high fecundity and longer longevity.

  6. Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduko, J. M.; Spyrou, N. M.

    Measurements have been made of the thermoluminescent response of a number of foodstuffs, namely spices, chicken bone, eggshell and strawberries. From the results, irradiated samples can be clearly distinguished from unirradiated ones for several weeks after irradiation of 5-10 kGy, or in the case of some spices for up to 20 months. It is concluded that measurement of thermoluminescence is a promising technique for detecting the irradiation of foodstuffs.

  7. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  8. Application of Intermittent Microwave Irradiation to Western Blot Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We established a shortened protocol for Western blot analysis using intermittent microwave irradiation. With this method, the procedure is completed within 1 h after applying the primary antibody, and thus greatly saves time. This procedure appears to be applicable to any antibody based on our experience of several years.

  9. Creation and genomic analysis of irradiation hybrids in Populus

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Zinkgraf; K. Haiby; M.C. Lieberman; L. Comai; I.M. Henry; Andrew Groover

    2016-01-01

    Establishing efficient functional genomic systems for creating and characterizing genetic variation in forest trees is challenging. Here we describe protocols for creating novel gene-dosage variation in Populus through gamma-irradiation of pollen, followed by genomic analysis to identify chromosomal regions that have been deleted or inserted in...

  10. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  11. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  12. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  13. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  14. Ground penetrating radar survey of the ice-filled active crater of Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Clark, D. H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sherman Crater, the center of volcanic activity at Mount Baker, in northwest Washington, provides an excellent site to study glacier dynamics in an active crater because of its history of sudden, significant increases in geothermal activity, its confined geometry, the potential hazards it poses to downstream reservoirs, and the paucity of recent research related to these hazards. We present results from a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the crater conducted in the summers of 2009 and 2010, including characterization of the subglacial crater morphology, estimates for the crater glacier’s volume, maximum depth, annual mass balance and surface velocity and for the crater’s geothermal flux density. We used a GSSI SIR-3000 GPR system and a low frequency (80 MHz) antenna in common-offset (reflection) collection mode to image subglacial conditions along several west-east and south-north transects within the crater. We processed the GPR data with GSSI’s RADAN 6.0 and paired the surface elevations of each transect to the ice-surface topography using GPS locations and spot altimeter readings. GPR profiles reveal several sets of distinct basal and englacial reflectors. Along west-east (longitudinal) transects, the crater’s bedrock topography largely follows the glacier’s surface (high to the west, descending to the east), but the ice thins dramatically along the margin nearest the crater rim’s eastern breach. The prominent basal reflectors in the GPR transects are consistent with an ice/hydrothermally altered rock interface, but short more well-defined segments suggest the presence of bedrock (towards the center of the crater) and water (near the eastern breach) at the base of the ice. GPR data combined with surface ice melting measurements yield a first-order estimate for the area-averaged accumulation rate of 4.8 +/- 0.1 m yr-1 and ablation rate of 2.4 +/- 0.3 m yr-1 water equivalent from surface melting. The resulting calculated geothermal flux for

  15. Influence of silicon on cobalt, zinc, and magnesium in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brasser, H J; Krijger, G C; van Meerten, T G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2006-08-01

    Silicon (Si, as silicate) is involved in numerous important structure and function roles in a wide range of organisms, including man. Silicate availability influences metal concentrations within various cell and tissue types, but, as yet, clear mechanisms for such an influence have been discovered only within the diatoms and sponges. In this study, the influence of silicate on the intracellular accumulation of metals was investigated in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). It was found that at concentrations up to 10 mM, silicate did not influence the growth rate of S. cerevisiae within a standard complete medium. However, an 11% growth inhibition was observed when silicate was present at 100 mM. Intracellular metal concentrations were investigated in yeast cultures grown without added silicate (-Si) or with the addition of 10 mM silicate (+Si). Decreased amounts of Co (52%), Mn (35%), and Fe (20%) were found within +Sigrown yeast cultures as compared to -Si-grown ones, whereas increased amounts of Mo (56%) and Mg (38%) were found. The amounts of Zn and K were apparently unaffected by the presence of silicon. +Si enhanced the yeast growth rate for low-Zn2+ medium, but it decreased the growth rate under conditions of a low Mg2+ medium and did not alter the growth rates in high Zn2+ and Co2+ media. +Si doubled the uptake rate of Co2+ but did not influence that of Zn2+. We propose that a possible explanation for these results is that polysilicate formation at the cell wall changes the cell wall binding capacity for metal ions. The toxicity of silicate was compared to germanium (Ge, as GeO2), a member of the same group of elements as Si (group 14). Hence, Si and Ge are chemically similar, but silicate starts to polymerize to oligomers above 5 mM, whereas Ge salts remain as monomers at such concentrations. Ge proved to be far more toxic to yeast than Si and no influence of Si on Ge toxicity was found. We propose that these results relate to differences in cellular

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and water deficit on fructan metabolism in Viguiera discolor Baker.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V F; Silva, E A; Zaidan, L B P; Carvalho, M A M

    2013-05-01

    Elevated [CO2 ] is suggested to mitigate the negative effects of water stress in plants; however responses vary among species. Fructans are recognised as protective compounds against drought and other stresses, as well as having a role as reserve carbohydrates. We analysed the combined effects of elevated [CO2 ] and water deficit on fructan metabolism in the Cerrado species Viguiera discolor Baker. Plants were cultivated for 18 days in open-top chambers (OTC) under ambient (∼380 ppm), and high (∼760 ppm) [CO2 ]. In each OTC, plants were submitted to three treatments: (i) daily watering (control), (ii) withholding water (WS) for 18 days and (iii) re-watering (RW) on day 11. Analyses were performed at time 0 and days 5, 8, 11, 15 and 18. High [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis in control plants and increased water use efficiency in WS plants. The decline in soil water content was more distinct in WS 760 (WS under 760 ppm), although the leaf and tuberous root water status was similar to WS 380 plants (WS under 380 ppm). Regarding fructan active enzymes, 1-SST activity decreased in WS plants in both CO2 concentrations, a result consistent with the decline in photosynthesis and, consequently, in substrate availability. Under WS and both [CO2 ] treatments, 1-FFT and 1-FEH seemed to act in combination to generate osmotically active compounds and thus overcome water deficit. The proportion of hexoses to sucrose, 1-kestose and nystose (SKN) was higher in WS plants. In WS 760, this increase was higher than in WS 380, and was not accompanied by decreases in SKN at the beginning of the treatment, as observed in WS 380 plants. These results suggest that the higher [CO2 ] in the atmosphere contributed to maintain, for a longer period, the pool of hexoses and of low DP fructans, favouring the maintenance of the water status and plant survival under drought. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Influence of the extent of disruption of Bakers' yeast on protein adsorption in expanded beds.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2008-02-01

    Expanded bed adsorption chromatography is used to capture the protein product of interest from a crude biological suspension directly, thereby eliminating the need for the removal of the cell debris. While this technique may replace three or four unit operations in a typical downstream process for biological product recovery, the adsorption process is influenced by the interaction between the microbial cells or cell debris and the adsorbent as well as the presence of contaminating solutes. The influence of the extent and nature of disruption of Bakers' yeast on the adsorption of the total soluble protein and alpha-glucosidase was investigated in this study. Two different techniques were used for cell disruption: high pressure homogenisation and hydrodynamic cavitation. Two different adsorbents were chosen: anionic Streamline DEAE and cationic Streamline SP. The settled bed height and the superficial velocity were constant across all experiments. The feedstock was characterised in terms of viscosity, pH, conductivity, particle size distribution of the cell debris and the extent of protein and alpha-glucosidase released. The performance of the adsorption process was found to be influenced by the electrostatic interactions of cell debris with the anionic adsorbent Streamline DEAE and the intraparticle diffusional resistance inside the pores of the adsorbent matrix. The increase in the intensity of disruption resulted in an increase in the dynamic binding capacity (10% feed) of both the total soluble protein and the alpha-glucosidase. However, the increase in the DBC of protein and alpha-glucosidase were not proportional. The amount of protein that could be adsorbed per ml of adsorbent from the samples subjected to a lower intensity of disruption was found to exceed that obtained at a higher disruption intensity on increasing the volume of feed suggesting multilayer adsorption. In this case, selective adsorption of the model protein alpha-glucosidase was reduced

  18. The 'electric stroke' and the 'electric spark': anatomists and eroticism at George Baker's electric eel exhibition in 1776 and 1777.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    In 1776 and 1777 five living electric eels exhibited in London became a sensational spectacle that appealed to anatomists, electricians and connoisseurs of erotica. George Baker's exhibition made visible the 'electric spark' of the electrical eel and a series of experiments were both witnessed by and participated in by members of the Royal Society and the metropolitan elite. Some participants even grasped the eels firmly in their hands and felt the 'electric stroke' of the eel in addition to observing the spark. In their observation of the electric eel some of these spectators transposed the vivid electric spark from the sphere of electricians and anatomists into that of satirical and erotic literature. Here the erotic electric eel proliferated in the literature and the eel took on quite different connotations that nonetheless were reliant on readers knowledge and experience of the exhibition, experiments and the preoccupations of anatomists. George Baker's electric eel exhibition of 1776 and 1777 is then instructive in exploring the production and circulation of knowledge in Georgian Britain. The story of the electric eel in Georgian culture charts the creation of the electric spark and stroke as objects of observation and encounter, their exhibitionary context, and finally their divergent meanings as the electric eel became erotically charged for a metropolitan masculine elite.

  19. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast.

  20. Functional Similarities between the Protein O-Mannosyltransferases Pmt4 from Bakers' Yeast and Human POMT1*

    PubMed Central

    Bausewein, Daniela; Engel, Jakob; Jank, Thomas; Schoedl, Maria; Strahl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Protein O-mannosylation is an essential post-translational modification. It is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum by a family of protein O-mannosyltransferases that are conserved from yeast (PMTs) to human (POMTs). The degree of functional conservation between yeast and human protein O-mannosyltransferases is uncharacterized. In bakers' yeast, the main in vivo activities are due to heteromeric Pmt1-Pmt2 and homomeric Pmt4 complexes. Here we describe an enzymatic assay that allowed us to monitor Pmt4 activity in vitro. We demonstrate that detergent requirements and acceptor substrates of yeast Pmt4 are different from Pmt1-Pmt2, but resemble that of human POMTs. Furthermore, we mimicked two POMT1 amino acid exchanges (G76R and V428D) that result in severe congenital muscular dystrophies in humans, in yeast Pmt4 (I112R and I435D). In vivo and in vitro analyses showed that general features such as protein stability of the Pmt4 variants were not significantly affected, however, the mutants proved largely enzymatically inactive. Our results demonstrate functional and biochemical similarities between POMT1 and its orthologue from bakers' yeast Pmt4. PMID:27358400

  1. Aquaporin Expression Correlates with Freeze Tolerance in Baker's Yeast, and Overexpression Improves Freeze Tolerance in Industrial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Françoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2002-01-01

    Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes, as well as heterologous expression of the human aquaporin gene hAQP1, improved freeze tolerance. These findings support a role for plasma membrane water transport activity in determination of freeze tolerance in yeast. This appears to be the first clear physiological function identified for microbial aquaporins. We suggest that a rapid, osmotically driven efflux of water during the freezing process reduces intracellular ice crystal formation and resulting cell damage. Aquaporin overexpression also improved maintenance of the viability of industrial yeast strains, both in cell suspensions and in small doughs stored frozen or submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, an aquaporin overexpression transformant could be selected based on its improved freeze-thaw resistance without the need for a selectable marker gene. Since aquaporin overexpression does not seem to affect the growth and fermentation characteristics of yeast, these results open new perspectives for the successful development of freeze-resistant baker's yeast strains for use in frozen dough applications. PMID:12450819

  2. Aquaporin expression correlates with freeze tolerance in baker's yeast, and overexpression improves freeze tolerance in industrial strains.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Françoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M

    2002-12-01

    Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes, as well as heterologous expression of the human aquaporin gene hAQP1, improved freeze tolerance. These findings support a role for plasma membrane water transport activity in determination of freeze tolerance in yeast. This appears to be the first clear physiological function identified for microbial aquaporins. We suggest that a rapid, osmotically driven efflux of water during the freezing process reduces intracellular ice crystal formation and resulting cell damage. Aquaporin overexpression also improved maintenance of the viability of industrial yeast strains, both in cell suspensions and in small doughs stored frozen or submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, an aquaporin overexpression transformant could be selected based on its improved freeze-thaw resistance without the need for a selectable marker gene. Since aquaporin overexpression does not seem to affect the growth and fermentation characteristics of yeast, these results open new perspectives for the successful development of freeze-resistant baker's yeast strains for use in frozen dough applications.

  3. Superior molasses assimilation, stress tolerance, and trehalose accumulation of baker's yeast isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo).

    PubMed

    Nishida, Osamu; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2004-07-01

    Yeast strains were isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo), a traditional preserved food in Japan. Dough fermentation ability, freeze tolerance, and growth rates in molasses, which are important characteristics of commercial baker's yeast, were compared between these yeast strains and a commercial yeast derivative that had typical characteristics of commercial strains. Classification tests including pulse-field gel electrophoresis and fermentation/assimilation ability of sugars showed that almost the stains isolated belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One strain, ONY1, accumulated intracellular trehalose at a higher level than commercial strain T128. Correlated with intracellular trehalose contents, the fermentation ability of high-sugar dough containing ONY1 was higher. ONY1 also showed higher freeze tolerance in both low-sugar and high-sugar doughs. The growth rate of ONY1 was significantly higher under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions using either molasses or synthetic medium than that of strain T128. These results suggest that ONY1 has potential commercial use as baker's yeast for frozen dough and high-sugar dough.

  4. Functional Similarities between the Protein O-Mannosyltransferases Pmt4 from Bakers' Yeast and Human POMT1.

    PubMed

    Bausewein, Daniela; Engel, Jakob; Jank, Thomas; Schoedl, Maria; Strahl, Sabine

    2016-08-19

    Protein O-mannosylation is an essential post-translational modification. It is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum by a family of protein O-mannosyltransferases that are conserved from yeast (PMTs) to human (POMTs). The degree of functional conservation between yeast and human protein O-mannosyltransferases is uncharacterized. In bakers' yeast, the main in vivo activities are due to heteromeric Pmt1-Pmt2 and homomeric Pmt4 complexes. Here we describe an enzymatic assay that allowed us to monitor Pmt4 activity in vitro We demonstrate that detergent requirements and acceptor substrates of yeast Pmt4 are different from Pmt1-Pmt2, but resemble that of human POMTs. Furthermore, we mimicked two POMT1 amino acid exchanges (G76R and V428D) that result in severe congenital muscular dystrophies in humans, in yeast Pmt4 (I112R and I435D). In vivo and in vitro analyses showed that general features such as protein stability of the Pmt4 variants were not significantly affected, however, the mutants proved largely enzymatically inactive. Our results demonstrate functional and biochemical similarities between POMT1 and its orthologue from bakers' yeast Pmt4. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Skin prick test response to enzyme enolase of the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in diagnosis of respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, M; Wójcicka-Kustrzeba, I; Bogacka, E; Patkowski, J; Dobek, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to prove that Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase, the major allergen of the baker's yeast, induces allergic immediate response in patients with inhalant allergy sensitized to Candida albicans extract. The study was performed in three groups of patients: I. 20 atopic patients with respiratory allergy sensitized to Candida albicans and inhalant allergens (mite, feather, pollens) II. 30 patients with respiratory allergy, positive skin tests to inhalant allergens but negative skin tests to Candida albicans and other fungi; III. 20 nonatopic, healthy individuals. Skin prick test of purified enolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) at concentration 1 and 10 mg/ml was performed in all groups. The results were documented planimetrically. 95% of patients sensitized to Candida albicans extract showed positive skin reactions to Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase, 10% of patients of group II and none of the patients of the control group had positive skin responses to enolase. The mean wheal size (mm2) in skin prick test to Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase at concentration 10 mg/ml was x = 15.17 +/- 11.08, 15.76 +/- 19.67 and at concentration 1 mg/ml 10.02 +/- 10.49, respectively. 1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase induces an immediate allergic reaction in skin in subjects with respiratory allergy and positive skin prick test results to Candida albicans and other fungi. 2. Enolase can be an important allergenic component of the Candida albicans extract.

  6. Effects of GLC7 and REG1 deletion on maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-09-10

    Maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. In this study, we focus on the effects of regulators (GLC7 encoding the catalytic and REG1 encoding the regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase type 1) of glucose repression on maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough. To this end, GLC7 and/or REG1 deletions were constructed and characterized in terms of the growth characteristics, maltose metabolism, leavening ability, and enzyme activities. The results suggest that GLC7 and/or REG1 deletions increased maltose metabolism and leavening ability at different level with glucose derepression and increased enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. In a medium containing glucose and maltose, at the point of glucose exhaustion the maltose metabolized and the leavening ability were increased 59.3% and 23.1%, respectively, in the case of a REG1 single gene deletion.

  7. Mechanical properties of acellular mouse lungs after sterilization by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Juan J; Nonaka, Paula N; Campillo, Noelia; Palma, Renata K; Melo, Esther; de Oliveira, Luis V F; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.

  8. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  9. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  10. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  11. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  12. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  13. Protocols — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    EDRN investigators protocols. The following is a list of the EDRN protocols that have been captured and curated. Additional information will be added as it is available. Contact information is provided as part of the detail for each protocol.

  14. Optical imaging of irradiated and non-irradiated hearts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Stephanie; Chen, Guanchu; Medhora, Meetha M.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Objective: In this study, the metabolic state of the heart tissue is studied in a rodent model of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in rats exposed to irradiation injury using a cryofluorescence imaging technique. Mitochondrial metabolic state is evaluated by autofluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD. The redox ratio (NADH/FAD) is used as a biochemical/metabolic marker of oxidative stress, before, during and after IR. Materials and methods: Hearts were extracted from non-irradiated (control) and irradiated rats (Irr) given 15 Gy whole thorax irradiation rats (WTI). After 35 days, before the onset of radiation pneumonitis, these two groups of hearts were subjected to one of three treatments; Time control (TC; hearts perfused for the duration of the protocol without ischemia or IR), 25 minutes ischemia with no reperfusion and 25 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion (IR). Hearts were removed from the Langendorff perfusion system and immediately snap frozen in liquid N2 to preserve the metabolic state after injury; 3-dimensional (3D) cryo-fluorescent imager was used to obtain in fixed time NADH and FAD fluorescence images and their distribution across the entire ventricles. In this study, a 30-μm axial resolution was used resulting in 550 cross-section images per heart. The 3D images of the redox ratio and their respective histograms were calculated in the six groups of hearts. Results: We compared the mean values of the redox ratio in each group, which demonstrate a reduced mitochondrial redox state in both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemic hearts and an oxidized mitochondrial redox state for both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemia-reperfusion hearts compared to control hearts. For non-irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 61% increase and 54% decrease in redox ratio when compared with TC. For irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 90% increase and 50% decrease

  15. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  16. Internet Protocol Transition Workbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    i~yif.al Pi.y~iiy wi -! b , ..aye meaning. U [Page il March 1982 Internet Protocol Transition Workbook CONTACTS ARPANET MANAGEMENT. POLICY, AND SERVICE...C) September 1981 Internet Protocol Example 2: In this example, we show fi -st a moderate size internet datagram (452 data octets), then two...00111100. fI Note that the assumed maximum segment lifetime is two minutes. Here we explicitly ask that a segment be destroyed if it cannot be delivered by

  17. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

    Treesearch

    Peter Z. Fule; Thomas W. Swetnam; Peter M. Brown; Donald A. Falk; David L. Peterson; Craig D. Allen; Gregory H. Aplet; Mike A. Battaglia; Dan Binkley; Calvin Farris; Robert E. Keane; Ellis Q. Margolis; Henri Grissino-Mayer; Carol Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Carl Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Alan Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042-1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large,...

  18. Turning the history of medical ethics from its head onto its feet: a critical commentary on Baker and McCullough.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ulf

    2007-03-01

    The paper provides a critical commentary on the article by Baker and McCullough on Medical Ethic's Appropriation of Moral Philosophy. The author argues that Baker and McCullough offer a more "pragmatic" approach to the history of medical ethics that has the potential to enrich the bioethics field with a greater historical grounding and sound methodology. Their approach can help us to come to a more nuanced understanding about the way in which medical ethics has connected, disconnected, and reconnected with philosophical ideas throughout the centuries. The author points out that Baker and McCullough's model can run the danger of overemphasizing the role of medical ethicists whilst marginalizing the influence of philosophers and of other historical actors and forces. He critically reviews the two case studies on which Baker and McCullough focus and concludes that scholars need to bear in mind the levels of uncertainty and ambivalence that accompany the process of transformation and dissemination of moral values in medicine and medical practice.

  19. Adults of the Waterfern Weevil, Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on a Non-Host Plant Salvinia minima Baker, in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waterfern weevil, Stenopelmus refinasus Gyllenhal, has previously been reported as host-specific, only feeding on plants in the genus Azolla. We report the first observations of S. rufinasus feeding on a non-host plant, Salvinia minima Baker, within the United States....

  20. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  1. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  2. Changing the Behaviour of Traditional Bakers in a Chinese Multi-Family Owned Food Company through Workplace Action Learning in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Tse, Rex Chi-Hang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for designing and implementing an action learning and research process to significantly transform the work behaviour of tradition-bound bakers to embrace leading ideas of a new workplace culture in order to diversify the product range of the moon cake and generally improve the…

  3. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  4. Dr. Kathleen Drew-Baker, "Mother of the Sea", a Manchester scientist celebrated each year for half a century in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Constance; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2013-09-01

    2013 marks the 50th annual Drew festival in Uto City, Japan, celebrating the work of University of Manchester botanist, Dr. Kathleen Drew-Baker. Her insight into the reproductive biology of algae was the key to efficient farming of the seaweed "nori" which is a familiar component of Japanese food.

  5. Changing the Behaviour of Traditional Bakers in a Chinese Multi-Family Owned Food Company through Workplace Action Learning in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Tse, Rex Chi-Hang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for designing and implementing an action learning and research process to significantly transform the work behaviour of tradition-bound bakers to embrace leading ideas of a new workplace culture in order to diversify the product range of the moon cake and generally improve the…

  6. Phase-based cell imaging techniques for microbeam irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, G. J.; Bigelow, A. W.; Randers–Pehrson, G.; Peng, C. C.; Brenner, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    The microbeam facility at Columbia University is expanding current protocols for single-particle, single-cell irradiations, so experimenters can locate and irradiate nuclei and cytoplasm of unstained cells. The ion beamline is located directly under the dish, therefore, any new techniques must use reflection microscopy. Two approaches are being integrated and neither require the removal of the cell growth medium prior to irradiation. A novel immersion-based Mirau interferometry lens which uses low-coherence light sources to inhibit unwanted fringing is under design. The process requires tens of nanometers or better precision of vertical stage motion, which will be accomplished with our custom high-precision z-stage. Quantitative Phase microscopy is under testing, also using the z-stage. Future plans include optimization of software routines to decrease time between irradiations. Both methods will be compared further with the automated location routines which use nuclear and cytoplasm stains.

  7. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  8. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  9. Conditions of basaltic magma generation at Mount Baker Volcanic Field, North Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, I. S.; Mullen, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    Significant unresolved questions remain on the processes of mantle melting throughout the wide range of thermal conditions encompassed by subduction zones. For example, subducting slabs in "hot" arc settings are thought to dehydrate at relatively shallow depths, yet volcanoes develop in locations indistinguishable from those in "cold" arcs. The northern Cascade arc is considered a classic end-member example of a "hot" subduction zone because the subducting crust is extremely young, 6-10 Ma at the trench [1], with a thick layer of insulating sediment and a relatively low convergence rate [2]. The most magmatically productive volcanic center of the northern Cascades is the Mt. Baker volcanic field (MBVF) [3], and here we glean information from the most primitive MBVF lavas to develop a petrogenetic model for basalt generation in a "hot" arc setting. Whole-rock geochemical data and the compositions of coexisting minerals are used to establish the initial water contents and redox states of the magmas, and the temperatures and pressures of segregation from the mantle. Melt silica activities indicate the MBVF magmas segregated from their residual mantle source assemblages at depths ranging from 60 to 40 km, corresponding to a few km shallower than the hot core of the mantle wedge [4] to the base of the crust. Plagioclase core compositions indicate that the initial water contents of the magmas ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 wt. % H2O, and show a good inverse correlation with segregation depths. Fe-Ti oxide pairs and spinel inclusions in olivine phenocrysts indicate redox states slightly more oxidizing than the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. Segregation depths are also strongly correlated with temperatures calculated from olivine-liquid equilibria, which range from 1286°C to 1350°C. Coupled with the most recent thermal model for the subducting slab in northern Cascadia [4], we use petrologic phase equilibria for the P-T stability of mineral assemblages in the mantle and

  10. Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker basalts (Cascade arc): Constraints from thermobarometry, phase equilibria, trace elements and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. K.; McCallum, I. S.

    2010-12-01

    Primitive arc basalts provide information on sub-arc mantle compositions and processes. The relative abundance of basalts in the Cascade arc decreases northward, and basalts are rare in the most northerly segment of the arc (Garibaldi belt) where the Mt. Baker volcanic field (MBVF) is located. Following reconstruction of the compositions of the primary basalts at MBVF (olivine addition ± plag subtraction), we have applied phase equilibria and forward-modeled trace element abundances and isotope ratios to obtain petrogenetic constraints. The most primitive lavas are the Sulphur Cr, Lk Shannon, and Park Butte basalts and the Hogback, Tarn Plateau, and Cathedral Crag basaltic andesites, ranging from 716 to 10 ka. Most erupted peripheral to the major centers. Spinel/olivine and Fe-Ti oxide oxybarometry indicate redox states of ~QFM + 1 corresponding to Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.20. Mg# ranges from 51 to 71. The lavas are medium-K and similar to calc-alkaline basalts and high-Mg basaltic andesites from the High Cascades. MBVF basalts have higher MgO and lower CaO and Al2O3 than typical CAB and HAOT, grading to alkalic compositions with TiO2 and Na2O of up to 1.65 and 5.4 wt%, respectively (Sulphur Cr). Phenocryst contents are 5 to 33% (plag + olivine ± cpx) and the lavas are holo- or hypocrystalline with glass contents of up to 15%. The whole rocks are close to equilibrium with olivine cores (range Fo 87-68). Plagioclase cores range from An 88-68. Reconstructed primary basalt compositions give liquidus T and P values (from olivine-liquid equilibria and silica activities) ranging from 1280°C and 1 GPa (Tarn Plateau) to 1350°C and 1.4 GPa (Sulphur Cr), corresponding to the upper mantle above the core of the mantle wedge. These estimates take into account the 1 to 3 wt% initial H2O contents of the basalts calculated using plagioclase cores. Phase equilibria of the primary basalts indicate a similar pressure range of 1-2 GPa and indicate a residual mantle assemblage of harzburgite

  11. Seismic Velocities and Thicknesses of Alluvial Deposits along Baker Creek in the Great Basin National Park, East-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allander, Kip K.; Berger, David L.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how proposed large-scale water withdrawals in Snake Valley may affect the water resources and hydrologic processes in the Great Basin National Park, the National Park Service needs to have a better understanding of the relations between streamflow and groundwater flow through alluvium and karst topography of the Pole Canyon Limestone. Information that is critical to understanding these relations is the thickness of alluvial deposits that overlay the Pole Canyon Limestone. In mid-April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service used seismic refraction along three profiles adjacent to Baker Creek to further refine understanding of the local geology. Two refractors and three distinct velocity layers were detected along two of the profiles and a single refractor and two distinct velocity layers were detected along a third profile. In the unsaturated alluvium, average velocity was 2,000 feet per second, thickness ranged from about 7 to 20 feet along two profiles downstream of the Narrows, and thickness was at least 100 feet along a single profile upstream of the Narrows. Saturated alluvium was only present downstream of the Narrows - average velocity was 4,400 feet per second, and thickness ranged from about 40 to 110 feet. The third layer probably represented Pole Canyon Limestone or Tertiary granitic rock units with an average velocity of 12,500 feet per second. Along the upstream and middle profiles (profiles 3 and 1, respectively), the depth to top of the third layer ranged from at least 60 to 110 feet below land surface and is most likely the Pole Canyon Limestone. The third layer at the farthest downstream profile (profile 2) may be a Tertiary granitic rock unit. Baker Creek is disconnected from the groundwater system along the upstream profile (profile 3) and streamflow losses infiltrate vertically downward to the Pole Canyon Limestone. Along the downstream and middle profiles (profiles 2 and 1, respectively), the presence of

  12. Human cell engraftment after busulfan or irradiation conditioning of NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Robert-Richard, Elodie; Ged, Cécile; Ortet, Jacqueline; Santarelli, Xavier; Lamrissi-Garcia, Isabelle; de Verneuil, Hubert; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2006-10-01

    Human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) xenotransplantation in NOD/SCID mice requires recipient conditioning, classically achieved by sublethal irradiation. Pretreatment with immunosuppressive and alkylating agents has been reported, but has not been rigorously tested against standard irradiation protocols. Here, we report that treatment of mice with a single dose (35 mg/kg) of Busilvex, an injectable form of busulfan, enables equivalent engraftment compared to 3.5 Gy irradiation. Mice treated with two doses of 25 mg/kg to reduce busulfan toxicity showed increased chimerism. Busulfan conditioning and irradiation resulted in comparable sensitivity of HSC detection as evaluated by limiting dilution analysis.

  13. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  14. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  15. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas; Windes, William; Swank, W. David

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  16. Cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Penêda, José; Barros Lima, Nuno; Ribeiro, Leandro; Helena, Diamantino; Domingues, Bruno; Condé, Artur

    2017-05-10

    Cochlear damage is frequent in long-term aminoglycosides therapy or chemotherapeutic treatments with platinum-based agents. Despite its prevalence, it is currently underestimated and underdiagnosed. A monitoring protocol is vital to the early detection of cochleotoxicity and its implementation is widely encouraged in every hospital unit. Our aim was to elaborate a cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol for patients treated with platinum compounds or aminoglycosides antibiotics. PubMed® database was searched using terms relevant to drug cochleotoxicity in order to identify the most adequate protocol. Several articles and guidelines influenced our decision. There is no consensus on a universal monitoring protocol. Its formulation and application rely heavily on available resources and personnel. High-frequency audiometry and otoacoustic emissions play an important role on early detection of cochleotoxicity caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics and platinum compounds. A cochleotoxicity monitoring protocol consisting on an initial evaluation, treatment follow-up and post-treatment evaluation is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. Detections of Acoustic-Tagged Green Sturgeon in Baker Bay on the Lower Columbia River during September - November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic transmitters implanted in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) captured in rivers in California were detected by acoustic receivers deployed within and around Baker Bay. The receivers were deployed at eight locations in the Bay and adjacent navigation channels of the Lower Columbia River during a period of anticipated channel dredging. Three of the transmitters detected were confirmed to have been implanted into green sturgeon in previous years; two were from the Sacramento River and one was from the Klamath River. The transmitters (fish) were within detection range of the receivers for only a short period, which is consistent with findings of earlier studies that green sturgeon make rapid and extensive intra-estuary movements.

  18. Thirty-year gravity change at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA: Extracting the signal from under the ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Hill Johnsen, Kristin; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2008-10-01

    Mount Baker in the Cascade Volcanic Arc displayed an unexplained period of increased fumarolic activity in 1975 and has since been quiescently degassing. We reoccupied gravity stations near the active crater and on the south flank of the volcano, initially measured in 1975-1981. We observe 1800 +/- 300 μGal gravity increase at the crater since 1977. Estimates of snow and ice volume change suggest these environmental factors significantly mask gravity change due to magmatic and hydrothermal sources; correcting for environmental factors could double the observed gravity increase. Hydrothermal recharge, magma intrusion, and significant deflation are rejected as explanations for the source of the gravity change. Densification of a magma body emplaced in 1975 is consistent with our gravity observations and with deformation and degassing data. Shallow pyrite precipitation may also contribute to the gravity increase.

  19. A simple method for bakers' yeast cell disruption using a three-phase fluidized bed equipped with an agitator.

    PubMed

    Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2008-12-01

    A three-phase fluidized bed equipped with a turbine agitator was utilized as a simple device for disrupting bakers' yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The degree of yeast cell disruption was evaluated based on the number of broken cells and its validity was confirmed by the total amount of crude soluble proteins released and by microscopic observation. It was found that the equipment could yield 90% of yeast cell disruption. With the presence of glass beads, the degree of cell disruption became higher as agitating speed is increased. The disruption enhancement would be attributed to the grinding effect resulting from the interaction between yeast cells and glass beads. One-thousand micrometers of glass beads yielded a higher degree of disruption than larger ones. An increase in liquid flow rate hindered the degree of disruption because of shorter contact time although the shear rates in the yeast suspension would become more rigorous.

  20. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker-Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    PubMed

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker-Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200-750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11-0.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03-0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus.

  1. Baker's yeast β-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk?

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K C; Breslin, W L; Davidson, T; Adams, A; McFarlin, B K

    2013-02-14

    Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation with a defined source of baker's yeast β-glucan (BG, Wellmune WGP®) could minimise post-exercise immunosuppression. Recreationally active men and women (n 60) completed two 10 d trial conditions using a cross-over design with a 7 d washout period: placebo (rice flour) and baker's yeast BG (250 mg/d of β-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) before a bout of cycling (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (38 ± 2°C), humid (45 ± 2 % relative humidity) environment. Blood was collected at baseline (before supplement), pre- (PRE), post- (POST) and 2 h (2H) post-exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production were measured using separate multiplex assays. Total (CD14⁺) and pro-inflammatory monocyte concentrations (CD14⁺/CD16⁺) were significantly greater at POST and 2H (P<0·05) with BG supplementation. BG supplementation boosted LPS-stimulated production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) at PRE and POST (P<0·05). Plasma IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ concentrations were greater at 2H following BG supplementation. It appears that 10 d of supplementation with BG increased the potential of blood leucocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.

  2. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  3. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  4. Comprehensive pain management protocol reduces children's memory of pain at discharge from the pediatric ED.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Patrick J; Higginbotham, Eric; King, Benjamin T; Taylor, Diane; Milling, Truman J

    2012-07-01

    Historically, pain has been poorly managed in the pediatric emergency department (ED) (PED), resulting in measurable psychosocial issues both acute and delayed. The aim of the study was to measure the impact of protocolized pain management on patients with painful conditions or undergoing painful procedures in the PED. We performed an analysis before and after the implementation of the protocol, dubbed the "Comfort Zone." Validated, age-appropriate pain scales were performed. Validation (using Cronbach α, confirmatory factor analysis) was followed by comparison of responses between the pre- and posttests collected (χ(2) and Wilcoxon rank sum tests). Pain scores were collected at triage and at discharge. At triage, patients were asked to report pain levels. At discharge, they were asked to report their current pain and recall the level of pain during their stay. At triage, parents were asked to report about their perception of the child's pain. At discharge, they were asked to report about their perception of the child's current pain and recall the level of pain during the stay and during procedures, if done. Five hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled in the preprotocol group; 47% were women with a median age of 5 years (range, 30 days-18 years). Two hundred sixty-three patients were enrolled in the protocol group; 39% were women with a median age of 6 years (range, 30 days-18 years). Patient-recalled pain scores of the ED visit in the protocol group were significantly lower than those of the preprotocol group (Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, 5.07-4.01; P < .001); yet parent estimates of pain did not show a significant change at any point. Patient assessment of pain at ED discharge did not show a significant change either (Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, 1.99-1.56; P = .09). The Faces scale is not well validated for patients younger than 4, so that group had only parental assessment of pain and, consistent with the larger data set, showed no significant pain scale

  5. What's a Research Protocol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Philip J; Mooney, Jeanette A

    2004-01-01

    A clinical trial needs a carefully structured, written plan in order not only to ensure its smooth running and successful conclusion but also to gain the compulsory agreement of an ethical committee. Such a plan is called a protocol. It consists of several stages. These are: (1) An introduction; (2) A statement of aims, objectives, hypotheses and…

  6. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  7. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  8. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  9. Advanced Quantum Communication Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-17

    theoretically optimal configuration, and compared hyperentangled and multi-pair encoding. Table of Contents: Summary 2 Relativistic Quantum Cryptography ( RQC ...error rates, for 4- and 6-state RQC 4. Intensity pulses to generate uniform time-interval probability distributions 5. Schematic of photon-arrival...Protocols: Scientific Progress and Accomplishments “Relativistic” Quantum Cryptography We have implemented relativistic quantum cryptography ( RQC ) using

  10. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  11. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  12. An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5pp00424a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, S. L.; Siewert, B.; Askes, S. H. C.; Veldhuizen, P.; Zwier, R.; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, ultraviolet light (100–400 nm) is considered an exogenous carcinogen while visible light (400–780 nm) is deemed harmless. In this work, a LED irradiation system for in vitro photocytotoxicity testing is described. The LED irradiation system was developed for testing photopharmaceutical drugs, but was used here to determine the basal level response of human cancer cell lines to visible light of different wavelengths, without any photo(chemo)therapeutic. The effects of blue (455 nm, 10.5 mW cm–2), green (520 nm, 20.9 mW cm–2), and red light (630 nm, 34.4 mW cm–2) irradiation was measured for A375 (human malignant melanoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), and U-87 MG (human glioblastoma-grade IV) cell lines. In response to a blue light dose of 19 J cm–2, three cell lines exhibited a minimal (20%, MDA-MB-231) to moderate (30%, A549 and 60%, A375) reduction in cell viability, compared to dark controls. The other cell lines were not affected. Effective blue light doses that produce a therapeutic response in 50% of the cell population (ED50) compared to dark conditions were found to be 10.9 and 30.5 J cm–2 for A375 and A549 cells, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any of the six cell lines irradiated with a 19 J cm–2 dose of 520 nm (green) or 630 nm (red) light. The results demonstrate that blue light irradiation can have an effect on the viability of certain human cancer cell types and controls should be used in photopharmaceutical testing, which uses high-energy (blue or violet) visible light activation. PMID:27098927

  13. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  14. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  15. Economics of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  16. A new species of Neocosmocercella Baker & Vaucher, 1983 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae), a parasite of Phyllomedusa vaillantii Boulenger (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) in the Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Nunes; Rodrigues, Allan Rodrigo Oliveira; Dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; González, Cynthya Elizabeth; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos

    2017-05-01

    Neocosmocercella bakeri n. sp. is described from the large intestine of Phyllomedusa vaillantii Boulenger collected in the Caxiuanã National Forest in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. The new species is easily distinguished from the type-species of the genus, Neocosmocercella paraguayensis Baker & Vaucher, 1983 in possessing a triangular mouth opening with three simple lips (vs three bi-lobed lips and hexagonal mouth opening) and somatic papillae, which are absent in N. paraguayensis. The males of the new species are distinguished by the distribution of the sessile cloacal papillae and the dimensions of the gubernaculum, whereas the females are distinguished by their smaller size and opisthodelphic uterus. This study expands the diagnostic characters of Neocosmocercella Baker & Vaucher, 1983, reports the first species parasitising anurans of the Brazilian Amazon, a new host record for the genus, and the description of the second species of the genus.

  17. MAL62 overexpression and NTH1 deletion enhance the freezing tolerance and fermentation capacity of the baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Wu, Ming-Yue; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Shan-Na; Zhu, Wen-Bi; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-04-04

    Trehalose is related to several types of stress responses, especially freezing response in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). It is desirable to manipulate trehalose-related genes to create yeast strains that better tolerate freezing-thaw stress with improved fermentation capacity, which are in high demand in the baking industry. The strain overexpressing MAL62 gene showed increased trehalose content and cell viability after prefermention-freezing and long-term frozen. Deletion of NTH1 in combination of MAL62 overexpression further strengthens freezing tolerance and improves the leavening ability after freezing-thaw stress. The mutants of the industrial baker's yeast with enhanced freezing tolerance and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These strains had excellent potential industrial applications.

  18. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  19. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  20. Protocols for multisatellite military networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavennu, V. R.; Aronson, M. H.; Sites, M. J.

    The performance of a number of network control protocols applicable to multisatellite networks using single and multiple antenna beams is evaluated. The protocols analyzed include: token passing, polled TDMA, adaptive TDMA, and a reservation assignment with TDMA orderwire. The effects of varying the number of network terminals in the system, message arrival rates and length, propagation delay, and interleaver span-times on the performance of the protocols are investigated. The capabilities of a reservation assignment protocol with slotted-Aloha orderwire and an in-band network control protocol with congestion control and multiple user priorities are examined. It is observed that the token passing protocol is most applicable to an EHF tactical network; the reservation assignment protocol is suited to networks with many terminals requiring short, bursty data communication capability; and the in-band network control protocol is useful for tactical networks that require interoperability.

  1. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  2. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  3. Global expression studies in baker's yeast reveal target genes for the improvement of industrially-relevant traits: the cases of CAF16 and ORC2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a huge growth in the market of industrial yeasts with the need for strains affording better performance or to be used in new applications. Stress tolerance of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is, without doubt, a trait that needs improving. Such trait is, however, complex, and therefore only in-depth knowledge of their biochemical, physiological and genetic principles can help us to define improvement strategies and to identify the key factors for strain selection. Results We have determined the transcriptional response of commercial baker's yeast cells to both high-sucrose and lean dough by using DNA macroarrays and liquid dough (LD) model system. Cells from compressed yeast blocks display a reciprocal transcription program to that commonly reported for laboratory strains exposed to osmotic stress. This discrepancy likely reflects differences in strain background and/or experimental design. Quite remarkably, we also found that the transcriptional response of starved baker's yeast cells was qualitatively similar in the presence or absence of sucrose in the LD. Nevertheless, there was a set of differentially regulated genes, which might be relevant for cells to adapt to high osmolarity. Consistent with this, overexpression of CAF16 or ORC2, two transcriptional factor-encoding genes included in this group, had positive effects on leavening activity of baker's yeast. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during freezing and frozen storage of high-sucrose LD. Conclusions Engineering of differentially regulated genes opens the possibility to improve the physiological behavior of baker's yeast cells under stress conditions like those encountered in downstream applications. PMID:20626860

  4. Global expression studies in baker's yeast reveal target genes for the improvement of industrially-relevant traits: the cases of CAF16 and ORC2.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Panadero, Joaquín; Hernández-López, María José; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2010-07-13

    Recent years have seen a huge growth in the market of industrial yeasts with the need for strains affording better performance or to be used in new applications. Stress tolerance of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is, without doubt, a trait that needs improving. Such trait is, however, complex, and therefore only in-depth knowledge of their biochemical, physiological and genetic principles can help us to define improvement strategies and to identify the key factors for strain selection. We have determined the transcriptional response of commercial baker's yeast cells to both high-sucrose and lean dough by using DNA macroarrays and liquid dough (LD) model system. Cells from compressed yeast blocks display a reciprocal transcription program to that commonly reported for laboratory strains exposed to osmotic stress. This discrepancy likely reflects differences in strain background and/or experimental design. Quite remarkably, we also found that the transcriptional response of starved baker's yeast cells was qualitatively similar in the presence or absence of sucrose in the LD. Nevertheless, there was a set of differentially regulated genes, which might be relevant for cells to adapt to high osmolarity. Consistent with this, overexpression of CAF16 or ORC2, two transcriptional factor-encoding genes included in this group, had positive effects on leavening activity of baker's yeast. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during freezing and frozen storage of high-sucrose LD. Engineering of differentially regulated genes opens the possibility to improve the physiological behavior of baker's yeast cells under stress conditions like those encountered in downstream applications.

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  6. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  7. Irradiating insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  8. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  9. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  10. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  11. Dysphonia risk screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; Duarte, João Marcos da Trindade; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-03-01

    To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  12. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  13. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in

  14. The glucan components of the cell wall of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) considered in relation to its ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bacon, J S; Farmer, V C; Jones, D; Taylor, I F

    1969-09-01

    1. Commercial pressed baker's yeast, and cell walls prepared from it, were extracted in various ways and the products examined by a number of techniques, including infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. 2. The glucan components of the walls cannot be extracted from intact yeast cells by 3% (w/v) sodium hydroxide at 75 degrees , but at least one-third of the glucan of cell wall preparations is dissolved under these conditions, and more will dissolve after ultrasonic treatment. 3. If intact cells are given a preliminary treatment with acid the wall glucans dissolve in dilute aqueous alkali. 4. Acid conditions as mild as sodium acetate buffer, pH5.0, for 3hr. at 75 degrees are sufficient for this preliminary treatment; the glucan then dissolves in 3% sodium hydroxide at 75 degrees leaving a very small residue, which contains chitin and about 1% of the initial glucan of the wall. Dissolution is hindered by exclusion of air, or by a preliminary reduction with sodium borohydride, suggesting that some degradation of the glucan by alkali is taking place. 5. After treatment with 0.5m-acetic acid for 24hr. at 90 degrees the glucan dissolves slowly at room temperature in 3% sodium hydroxide, or in dimethyl sulphoxide. The extraction with acetic acid removes glycogen and a predominantly beta-(1-->6)-linked glucan (not hitherto recognized as a component of baker's yeast), but none of the beta-(1-->3)-glucan, which remains water-insoluble. 6. Without treatment with acid, the glucan is not significantly soluble in dimethyl sulphoxide, but can be induced to dissolve by ultrasonic treatment. 7. These results are interpreted by postulating the presence of an enclosing membrane, composed of chitin and glucan, that when intact acts as a semipermeable membrane preventing the escape of the alkali- and dimethyl sulphoxide-soluble fraction of the glucan. Mild acid treatments damage this membrane, and ultrasonic and ballistic disintegration disrupt it. 8. Some support for this

  15. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the former Baker Brothers, Inc., Site, Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1995-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Baker Brothers, Inc., site in Toledo, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluation indicates that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the former Baker Brothers site did not exceed 710 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 210 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident - municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 500 pCi/g for Scenario C (subsistence farmer - on-site well water, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  16. Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Increases Salivary IgA and Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise

    PubMed Central

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Carpenter, Katie C.; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209–221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1–9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32

  17. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities.

  18. Optimized enzymatic dual functions of PaPrx protein by proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Kye Ryung; Jung, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Eun Ju; Singh, Sudhir; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of proton irradiation on the function and structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa peroxiredoxin (PaPrx). Polyacrylamide gel demonstrated that PaPrx proteins exposed to proton irradiation at several doses exhibited simultaneous formation of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes and fragmentation. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis revealed that the number of fragments and very low molecular weight (LMW) structures increased as the proton irradiation dose increased. The peroxidase activity of irradiated PaPrx was preserved, and its chaperone activity was significantly increased by increasing the proton irradiation dose. The chaperone activity increased about 3–4 fold after 2.5 kGy proton irradiation, compared with that of non-irradiated PaPrx, and increased to almost the maximum activity after 10 kGy proton irradiation. We previously obtained functional switching in PaPrx proteins, by using gamma rays and electron beams as radiation sources, and found that the proteins exhibited increased chaperone activity but decreased peroxidase activity. Interestingly, in this study we newly found that proton irradiation could enhance both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Therefore, we can suggest proton irradiation as a novel protocol for conserved 2-Cys protein engineering. PMID:23753570

  19. Planarian Immobilization, Partial Irradiation, and Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guedelhoefer IV, Otto C.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology1,2. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts3. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal4, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation5,6 and partial irradiation7 have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We

  20. Planarian immobilization, partial irradiation, and tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guedelhoefer, Otto C; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-08-06

    The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation and partial irradiation have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We cover the

  1. Development of a 3D remote dosimetry protocol compatible with MRgIMRT.

    PubMed

    Mein, Stewart; Rankine, Leith; Adamovics, John; Li, Harold; Oldham, Mark

    2017-09-06

    To develop a novel remote 3D dosimetry protocol to verify Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) treatments. The protocol was applied to investigate the accuracy of TG-119 IMRT irradiations delivered by the MRIdian(®) system (ViewRay(®) , Oakwood Village, Ohio) allowing for a 48 hour delay between irradiation at a field institution and subsequent readout at a base institution. The 3D dosimetry protocol utilizes a novel formulation of PRESAGE(®) radiochromic dosimeters developed for high post-irradiation stability and compatibility with optical-CT readout. Optical-CT readout was performed with an in-house system utilizing telecentric lenses affording high-resolution scanning. The protocol was developed from preparatory experiments to characterize PRESAGE(®) response in relevant conditions. First, linearity and sensitivity of PRESAGE(®) dose-response in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated in a small volume study (4 ml cuvettes) conducted under MRgRT conditions and irradiated with doses 0-15 Gy. Temporal and spatial stability of the dose-response were investigated in large volume studies utilizing large field-of-view (FOV) 2 kg cylindrical PRESAGE(®) dosimeters. Dosimeters were imaged at t=1hr and t=48hrs enabling the development of correction terms to model any observed spatial and temporal changes post-irradiation. Polynomial correction factors for temporal and spatial changes in PRESAGE(®) dosimeters (CT and CR respectively) were obtained by numerical fitting to time-point data acquired in six irradiated dosimeters. A remote dosimetry protocol was developed where PRESAGE(®) change in optical-density (ΔOD) readings at time t=X (the irradiation to return shipment time interval) were corrected back to a convenient standard time t=1hr using the CT and CR corrections. This refined protocol was then applied to TG-119 (American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 119) plan deliveries on the MRIdian(®) system to evaluate the

  2. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  3. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  4. Communitywide cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with a surface water-supplied municipal water system--Baker City, Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, M B; Schafer, S; Kendall Scott, M; Robinson, B; Hills, A; Buser, G L; Salis, K; Gargano, J; Yoder, J; Hill, V; Xiao, L; Roellig, D; Hedberg, K

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a parasite known to cause large drinking and recreational water outbreaks, is tolerant of chlorine concentrations used for drinking water treatment. Human laboratory-based surveillance for enteric pathogens detected a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Baker City, Oregon during July 2013 associated with municipal drinking water. Objectives of the investigation were to confirm the outbreak source and assess outbreak extent. The watershed was inspected and city water was tested for contamination. To determine the community attack rate, a standardized questionnaire was administered to randomly sampled households. Weighted attack rates and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Water samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium species; a Cryptosporidium parvum subtype common in cattle was detected in human stool specimens. Cattle were observed grazing along watershed borders; cattle faeces were observed within watershed barriers. The city water treatment facility chlorinated, but did not filter, water. The community attack rate was 28·3% (95% CI 22·1-33·6), sickening an estimated 2780 persons. Watershed contamination by cattle probably caused this outbreak; water treatments effective against Cryptosporidium were not in place. This outbreak highlights vulnerability of drinking water systems to pathogen contamination and underscores the need for communities to invest in system improvements to maintain multiple barriers to drinking water contamination.

  5. The algebra of complex 2 × 2 matrices and a general closed Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulis, D. L.

    2017-07-01

    We derive a closed formula for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series expansion in the case of complex 2×2 matrices. For arbitrary matrices A and B, and a matrix Z such that \\exp Z = \\exp A \\exp B , our result expresses Z as a linear combination of A and B, their commutator [A, B] , and the identity matrix I. The coefficients in this linear combination are functions of the traces and determinants of A and B, and the trace of their product. The derivation proceeds purely via algebraic manipulations of the given matrices and their products, making use of relations developed here, based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, as well as a characterization of the consequences of [A, B] and/or its determinant being zero or otherwise. As a corollary of our main result we also derive a closed formula for the Zassenhaus expansion. We apply our results to several special cases, most notably the parametrization of the product of two SU(2) matrices and a verification of the recent result of Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) for complex 2×2 matrices, in this latter case deriving also the related Zassenhaus formula which turns out to be quite simple. We then show that this simple formula should be valid for all matrices and operators.

  6. Genetic Analysis of Baker's Yeast Msh4-Msh5 Reveals a Threshold Crossover Level for Meiotic Viability

    PubMed Central

    Nishant, K. T.; Chen, Cheng; Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira; Alani, Eric

    2010-01-01

    During meiosis, the Msh4-Msh5 complex is thought to stabilize single-end invasion intermediates that form during early stages of recombination and subsequently bind to Holliday junctions to facilitate crossover formation. To analyze Msh4-Msh5 function, we mutagenized 57 residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh4 and Msh5 that are either conserved across all Msh4/5 family members or are specific to Msh4 and Msh5. The Msh5 subunit appeared more sensitive to mutagenesis. We identified msh4 and msh5 threshold (msh4/5-t) mutants that showed wild-type spore viability and crossover interference but displayed, compared to wild-type, up to a two-fold decrease in crossing over on large and medium sized chromosomes (XV, VII, VIII). Crossing over on a small chromosome, however, approached wild-type levels. The msh4/5-t mutants also displayed synaptonemal complex assembly defects. A triple mutant containing a msh4/5-t allele and mutations that decreased meiotic double-strand break levels (spo11-HA) and crossover interference (pch2Δ) showed synergistic defects in spore viability. Together these results indicate that the baker's yeast meiotic cell does not require the ∼90 crossovers maintained by crossover homeostasis to form viable spores. They also show that Pch2-mediated crossover interference is important to maintain meiotic viability when crossovers become limiting. PMID:20865162

  7. Database for the geologic map of the Mount Baker 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington (I-2660)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Haugerud, R.A.; Hildreth, Wes; Brown, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R.W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Mount Baker 30- by 60-Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the geology at 1:100,000. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  8. Selenium enrichment and anti-oxidant status in baker's yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae at different sodium selenite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kaur, T; Bansal, M P

    2006-01-01

    The use of selenized yeast as enriched selenium supplements in human nutrition has become a topic of increasing interest over the last decade. The present study was designed with the aim to achieve a balance between selenium (Se) incorporation and optimal growth of yeast cells along with effect of Se enrichment on antioxidant defense status of yeast cells. Since oxidative stress has been known to play a role in the life span of all types of cells, so in the present studies anti-oxidant defense status was evaluated in the Se- enriched baker's yeast cell culture model. Upon Se supplementation as sodium selenite at various concentrations in the growth medium, a continuous increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and Se content was observed. In case of reduced glutathione (GSH) decreasing trend were observed with increasing Se concentrations. An increasing trend in total glutathione as well as glutathione-s-transferase activity was observed at increasing Se concentrations. Thus, Se supplementation significantly enhanced GSH-Px levels along with alterations in other anti-oxidant enzymes, suggesting the role of Se in the enzyme defense system of yeast against oxidative damage. Further, as Se exerts growth inhibitory effect on cells, the growth inhibition study was carried out and decrease in biomass was observed with increasing concentrations of Se. Due to nutritional benefits, Se-enriched yeast may be considered a safe source of Se supplementation.

  9. Stress-tolerance of baker's-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells: stress-protective molecules and genes involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    During the fermentation of dough and the production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cells are exposed to numerous environmental stresses (baking-associated stresses) such as freeze-thaw, high sugar concentrations, air-drying and oxidative stresses. Cellular macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and membranes, are seriously damaged under stress conditions, leading to the inhibition of cell growth, cell viability and fermentation. To avoid lethal damage, yeast cells need to acquire a variety of stress-tolerant mechanisms, for example the induction of stress proteins, the accumulation of stress protectants, changes in membrane composition and repression of translation, and by regulating the corresponding gene expression via stress-triggered signal-transduction pathways. Trehalose and proline are considered to be critical stress protectants, as is glycerol. It is known that these molecules are effective for providing protection against various types of environmental stresses. Modifications of the metabolic pathways of trehalose and proline by self-cloning methods have significantly increased tolerance to baking-associated stresses. To clarify which genes are required for stress tolerance, both a comprehensive phenomics analysis and a functional genomics analysis were carried out under stress conditions that simulated those occurring during the commercial baking process. These analyses indicated that many genes are involved in stress tolerance in yeast. In particular, it was suggested that vacuolar H+-ATPase plays important roles in yeast cells under stress conditions.

  10. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  11. Photochemical and antioxidant responses in the leaves of Xerophyta viscosa Baker and Digitaria sanguinalis L. under water deficit.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Yasemin; Bohms, Andreas; Thomson, Jennifer A; Mundree, Sagadevan G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, photochemical and antioxidant responses of the monocotyledonous resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa Baker and the crab grass Digitaria sanguinalis L. under water deficit were investigated as a function of time. Water deficit was imposed by withholding irrigation for 21 d. Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence analyses indicated that the dehydration treatment caused photoinhibition in both species. The reduction in the photosynthesis rate in both species during water deficit probably contributed to the decline in the photochemical efficiency of PSII and electron transport rate. However, the stomatal conductance of both species did not change during treatment whereas the intercellular CO2 pressure increased after 10 d of water deficit treatment. These observations could be related to nonstomatal limitations. The increasing net transpiration rate of both species may have contributed to leaf cooling because of water limitations. Prolonged water deficit resulted in photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll (a + b) and carotenoids content loss in only D. sanguinalis. Both species especially D. sanguinalis had increased the level of anthocyanin after 15 d of treatment, possibly to prevent the damaging effect of photooxidation. The total SOD activity of D. sanguinalis was significantly different from X. viscosa during the treatment. The total peroxidase activity in D. sanguinalis was significantly higher than in X. viscosa. X. viscosa acclimated to water deficit with no ultimate apparent oxidative damage due to endogenous protective mechanisms of resurrection. In case of D. sanguinalis, water deficit induced considerable stress and possibly caused some oxidative damage, despite the upregulation of protection mechanisms.

  12. Performance comparison of differential evolution techniques on optimization of feeding profile for an industrial scale baker's yeast fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Yüzgeç, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the novel evolutionary optimization methods used for solving the problems that consist of nondifferentiable, nonlinear and multi-objective functions. In this presented work, the classical DE technique and its various versions, such as opposition based on differential evolution (ODE), adaptive differential evolution (ADE), adaptive opposition based on differential evolution (AODE) which is an advanced version of ODE, are presented to determine the optimal feeding flow profile of an industrial scale fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation process. The main objective in any fed-batch fermentation process optimization is both to maximize the amount of the biomass at the end of the process and to minimize the ethanol formation during the process. Four different cases regarding the initial condition of the fermentation process were considered so as to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms. Besides, two strategies of mutation and crossover operators, which are the most popular in DE's applications, were utilized for performance comparison tests. The influence of initial seed value, initial condition of the process, and both of the mutation and crossover strategies have been investigated for all the different classic, opposition-based, self-adaptive and adaptive opposition-based mechanisms. To demonstrate the performance comparison of the of DE's techniques, the experimental data collected from the fermentor with volume of 100 m(3) are presented with the optimization results obtained by using all the interested DE techniques for the same initial conditions. 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp (X) exp (Y)=exp (W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp (X) exp (Y) exp (Z)=exp (W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper.

  14. Applying the Taguchi robust design to the optimization of the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate by bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Houng, Jer Yiing; Hsu, Hsia Fen; Liu, Yung Hau; Wu, Jiumn Yih

    2003-02-13

    This study examined the characteristics and operational parameters of the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate by bakers' yeast in order to produce S-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. Eight operational variables were also optimized using the Taguchi method with consideration of the freshness of yeast cells as a noise factor. An L(18) orthogonal array was used to design the experiments. The reaction yield and the product's optical purity were considered as two product quality variables. A desirability function was applied to combine these two qualities as a single objective function. Additionally, the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio was used to estimate the variability in product quality. Optimization was undertaken not only to yield the best performance, but also to minimize the variation in quality. The confirmation experiments indicated that the reaction performance and the robustness of the product quality under the optimized conditions were higher than those obtained in other experiments in this study. Our results further demonstrate that the product's optical purity could be increased to >95% by adjusting the operational level of the main factors.

  15. Storage of pork by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupei, Liu; Renli, Yang; Chixum, Chen; Yongzhi, Wang; Zhen, Sun

    In this paper the study of storage of pork, irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays, is recommended. The changes of the appearance and the main qualitative, indexes of pork, irradiated with 1.5 M rad radiation and after two month's storage, were analysed. The evaluation of storage. Transportation and nutritional acceptability of the two kinds of irradiated pork products was made. Systematic toxicological tests of rats and dogs, fed with irradiated pork, were given. The comparison of the economic facilitation of refrigerated pork and irradiated pork was made

  16. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  17. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  18. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  19. Surface segregation during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. II. Kidney graft after conventional total lymphoid irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Fradelizi, D.; Mahouy, G.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Alhomme, P.; Douard, M.C.; Chotin, G.; Martelli, H.; Daburon, F.; Vaiman, M.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed in order to establish bone marrow chimerism and kidney graft tolerance between SLA genotyped semi-incompatible animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of conventional fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) delivered by a vertical cobalt source. The principal lymphoid regions of the pig, including thymus and spleen, were submitted to irradiation. Two protocols were tested: A = 250 cGy four times a week x 13 times (TLI) (two animals) and B = 350 cGy three times a week x 8 times (TLI) (four animals). Bone marrow cells were injected 24 h after the last irradiation. One day later, bilateral nephrectomy and the graft of one kidney from the bone marrow cell donor were performed simultaneously. Results convinced us that application of the TLI protocol to humans is not yet practicable and that further experimental work is needed.

  1. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  2. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  3. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  4. A novel 785-nm laser diode-based system for standardization of cell culture irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lins, Emery C; Oliveira, Camila F; Guimarães, Orlando C C; Costa, Carlos A de Souza; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel device that concatenates alignment of infrared lasers and parallel procedure of irradiation. The purpose of this is to seek standardization of in vitro cell irradiation, which allows analysis and credible comparisons between outcomes of different experiments. Experimental data obtained from infrared laser therapies have been strongly dependent upon the irradiation setup. Although further optical alignment is difficult to achieve, in contact irradiation it usually occurs. Moreover, these methods eventually use laser in a serial procedure, extending the time to irradiate experimental samples. A LASERTable (LT) device was designed to provide similar infrared laser irradiation in 12 wells of a 24 well test plate. It irradiated each well by expanding the laser beam until it covers the well bottom, as occurs with unexpanded irradiation. To evaluate the effectiveness of this device, the spatial distribution of radiation was measured, and the heating of plain culture medium was monitored during the LT operation. The irradiation of LT (up to 25 J/cm(2) - 20 mW/cm(2); 1.250 sec) was assessed on odontoblast-like cells adhered to the bottom of wells containing 1 mL of plain culture medium. Cell morphology and metabolism were also evaluated. Irradiation with LT presented a Gaussian-like profile when the culture medium was not heated >1°C. It was also observed that the LT made it 10 times faster to perform the experiment than did serial laser irradiation. In addition, the data of this study revealed that the odontoblast-like cells exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using the LT presented higher metabolism and normal morphology. The experimental LASERTable assessed in this study provided parameters for standardization of infrared cell irradiation, minimizing the time spent to irradiate all samples. Therefore, this device is a helpful tool that can be effectively used to evaluate experimental LLLT protocols.

  5. Synthesizing a protocol converter from executable protocol traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopal, Murali; Miller, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    Communicating finite state machines (CFSM's) with FIFO (first in, first out) queues are used to model a protocol converter. A protocol conversion algorithm is developed and presented for the CSFM model of the protocols A and B. A converter H for protocols A = (A0, A1) and B = (B0, B1) is viewed as a black box such that H is between sender A0 and receiver B1. This gives a resulting protocol X = (A0, H, B1). The conversion algorithm requires a specification of the message relationships between the messages of protocols A and B. It is assumed that protocols A and B have the required progress properties. The algorithm includes a search for related messages from the two protocols in an FIFO from a composite space formed by a Cartesian cross-product of state spaces A1 and B0. The search produces finite-length traces which are combined to form a state machine H, which is examined for freedom from unspecified receptions, deadlocks, and livelocks. A protocol conversion example demonstrates the applicability of the algorithm.

  6. Synthesizing a protocol converter from executable protocol traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopal, Murali; Miller, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    Communicating finite state machines (CFSM's) with FIFO (first in, first out) queues are used to model a protocol converter. A protocol conversion algorithm is developed and presented for the CSFM model of the protocols A and B. A converter H for protocols A = (A0, A1) and B = (B0, B1) is viewed as a black box such that H is between sender A0 and receiver B1. This gives a resulting protocol X = (A0, H, B1). The conversion algorithm requires a specification of the message relationships between the messages of protocols A and B. It is assumed that protocols A and B have the required progress properties. The algorithm includes a search for related messages from the two protocols in an FIFO from a composite space formed by a Cartesian cross-product of state spaces A1 and B0. The search produces finite-length traces which are combined to form a state machine H, which is examined for freedom from unspecified receptions, deadlocks, and livelocks. A protocol conversion example demonstrates the applicability of the algorithm.

  7. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Geringer, J. W.; Katoh, Yutai; Howard, Richard H.; Cetiner, N. O.; Petrie, Christian M.; Smith, Kurt R.; McDuffee, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  8. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  9. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  10. Post-irradiation effects in polyethylenes irradiated under various atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suljovrujic, E.

    2013-08-01

    If a large amount of polymer free radicals remain trapped after irradiation of polymers, the post-irradiation effects may result in a significant alteration of physical properties during long-term shelf storage and use. In the case of polyethylenes (PEs) some failures are attributed to the post-irradiation oxidative degradation initiated by the reaction of residual free radicals (mainly trapped in crystal phase) with oxygen. Oxidation products such as carbonyl groups act as deep traps and introduce changes in carrier mobility and significant deterioration in the PEs electrical insulating properties. The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied; previously, the post-irradiation behaviour of the PEs was investigated after the irradiation in air (Suljovrujic, 2010). In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of different irradiation media on the post-irradiation behaviour, the samples were irradiated in air and nitrogen gas, to an absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The annealing treatment of irradiated PEs, which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals, is used in this study, too. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to the difference in the initial structure of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity etc.), to the changes induced by irradiation in different media and to the post-irradiation changes induced by storage of the samples in air. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in the free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively.

  11. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  12. Rock property measurements guide interpretation of electromagnetic, magnetic and gravity models at Mts. Adams, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Horton, R.; Polster, S.

    2010-12-01

    Mt. Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mt. Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumerole Fields. The presence of water not only helps form clay minerals that weaken the edifice but also can reduce the pore pressures, increasing the potential for slope failure. In addition, water with entrained melting ice acts as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. The EM data identified water-saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100 - 200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. At Mt. St. Helens, perched aquifers are identified in the 1980 avalanche deposits as well as in older, thick breccia or avalanche deposits. The modeled distribution of alteration and pore fluids helps identify likely sources for future alteration-related debris flows and clearly shows that debris flow hazard studies on altered volcanoes are greatly enhanced by magnetic, EM and gravity data.

  13. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  14. A comparative clinical study of Jethimala (Taverniera nummularia Baker.) and Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in the management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shashikant M.; Patel, Bhupesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Amlapitta is very common disease in society. In present era hectic lifestyle, irregular and faulty dietary habits, etc. are the causative factors of Amlapitta. Most of the symptoms of hyper acidity are enumerated in the conditions of Amlapitta delineated in Ayurvedic classics. The local people and Vaidyas of Saurashtra and Kutchh region have been frequently using Jethimala as Yashtimadhu, botanically known as Taverniera nummularia Baker. Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of Jethimala (T. nummularia) and Yasthimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in Amlapitta. Materials and Methods: In this present clinical study, total 40 patients of Amlapitta were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In group A, Yashtimadhu Moola Choorna (G. glabra root powder) and in group B Jethimala Moola Choorna (T. nummularia root powder) was given for 2 weeks with water. A clinical research proforma was specially designed on the basis of classically reported signs and symptoms of Amlapitta for assessing the efficacy of the study drugs. Results: Yashtimadhu and Jethimala significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms of Amlapitta like, Tikta-Amlodgara (eryctations with bitter or sour taste) 67.64% in group A and 60% in group B, Hrit-Kanthadaha (burning sensation in the chest and throat) 69% in group A and 66.06% in group B and Utklesha (nausea) 65.35% in group A and 61.70% in group B. Conclusion: Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the symptoms in both the groups. While in comparison Jethimala showed better effect than Yashtimadhu (G. glabra) in Aruchi. It is concluded that Jethimala can be used as a substitute for Yashtimadhu. PMID:27011716

  15. A comparative clinical study of Jethimala (Taverniera nummularia Baker.) and Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in the management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Shashikant M; Patel, Bhupesh R

    2015-01-01

    Amlapitta is very common disease in society. In present era hectic lifestyle, irregular and faulty dietary habits, etc. are the causative factors of Amlapitta. Most of the symptoms of hyper acidity are enumerated in the conditions of Amlapitta delineated in Ayurvedic classics. The local people and Vaidyas of Saurashtra and Kutchh region have been frequently using Jethimala as Yashtimadhu, botanically known as Taverniera nummularia Baker. To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of Jethimala (T. nummularia) and Yasthimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in Amlapitta. In this present clinical study, total 40 patients of Amlapitta were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In group A, Yashtimadhu Moola Choorna (G. glabra root powder) and in group B Jethimala Moola Choorna (T. nummularia root powder) was given for 2 weeks with water. A clinical research proforma was specially designed on the basis of classically reported signs and symptoms of Amlapitta for assessing the efficacy of the study drugs. Yashtimadhu and Jethimala significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms of Amlapitta like, Tikta-Amlodgara (eryctations with bitter or sour taste) 67.64% in group A and 60% in group B, Hrit-Kanthadaha (burning sensation in the chest and throat) 69% in group A and 66.06% in group B and Utklesha (nausea) 65.35% in group A and 61.70% in group B. Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the symptoms in both the groups. While in comparison Jethimala showed better effect than Yashtimadhu (G. glabra) in Aruchi. It is concluded that Jethimala can be used as a substitute for Yashtimadhu.

  16. Preparing for Volcanic Hazards: An Examination of Lahar Knowledge, Risk Perception, and Preparedness around Mount Baker and Glacier Peak, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest continues to rise, so does the need for improved hazard science, mitigation, and response planning. The effectiveness of these efforts relies not only on scientists and policymakers, but on individuals and their risk perception and preparedness levels. This study examines the individual knowledge, perception, and preparedness of over 500 survey respondents living or working within the lahar zones of Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes. We (1) explore the common disconnect between accurate risk perception and adequate preparedness; (2) determine how participation in hazard response planning influences knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness; and (3) assess the effectiveness of current lahar hazard maps for public risk communication. Results indicate that a disconnect exists between perception and preparedness for the majority of respondents. While 82% of respondents accurately anticipate that future volcanic hazards will impact the Skagit Valley, this knowledge fails to motivate increased preparedness. A majority of respondents also feel "very responsible" for their own protection and provision of resources during a hazardous event (83%) and believe they have the knowledge and skills necessary to respond effectively to such an event (56%); however, many of these individuals still do not adequately prepare. When asked what barriers prevent them from preparing, respondents primarily cite a lack of knowledge about relevant local hazards. Results show that participation in response-related activities—a commonly recommended solution to this disconnect—minimally influences preparedness. Additionally, although local hazard maps successfully communicate the primary hazard—97% of respondents recognize the lahar hazard—many individuals incorrectly interpret other important facets of the maps. Those who participate in response-related activities fail to understand these

  17. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin and age of postglacial deposits and assessment of potential hazards from future eruptions of Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1975-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic processes at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, and especially the valleys that head at the volcano. Most mudflows from the volcano were caused by massive avalanches of volcanic rock that had been partly altered to clay by steam and other gases. Future mudflows like these could move down valleys for distances of tens of kilometres. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava flows or hot rock debris could affect valley floors far from the volcano, especially if they occurred at a time of high stream discharge due to other causes. Small amounts of tephra (airborne rock debris) have been erupted at least four times during the last 10,000 years. Eruptions like these in the future probably would not seriously endanger human life except within a distance of perhaps a few kilometres of the vent. Lava flows have been erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years, but have moved down only two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because movement typically is so slow that escape is possible. Eruptions which caused pyroclastic flows (flows of hot rock debris) evidently occurred during only one period, and the flows were restricted to only one valley. Pyroclastic flows seriously endanger human life in areas they affect. Such flows move at speeds of as much as 100 km/hr and can bury valley floors under tens of metres of hot rock debris to distances of as much as 15 km from the volcano.

  19. Volcanic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Communities within the Mount Baker and Glacier Peak Lahar Hazard Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community's ability to effectively respond to and recover from natural hazards depends on both the physical characteristics of the hazard and the community's inherent resilience. Resilience is shaped by a number of factors including the residents' perception of and preparedness for a natural hazard as well as the level of institutional preparedness. This study examines perception of and preparedness for lahar hazards from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak in Washington's Skagit Valley. Through an online survey, this study isolates the influence of specific variables (e.g., knowledge, past experience, scientific background, trust in various information sources, occupation, self-efficacy, sense of community) on risk perception and explores reasons behind the frequent disconnect between perception and preparedness. We anticipate that individuals with more extensive education in the sciences, especially geology or earth science, foster greater trust in scientists and a more accurate knowledge, understanding, and perception of the volcanic hazards in their community. Additionally, little research exists examining the extent to which first responders and leaders in response-related institutions prepare on a personal level. Since these individuals work toward community preparedness professionally, we hypothesize that they will be more prepared at home than members of the general public. Finally, the Skagit Valley has a significant history of flooding. We expect that the need to respond to and recover from frequent flooding creates a community with an inherently higher level of preparedness for other hazards such as lahars. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of what controls risk perception and the interplay between perception and preparedness. At a broader level, this study provides local and state-level emergency managers information to evaluate and improve response capabilities and communication with the public and key institutions in order to

  20. Survival of genetically modified and self-cloned strains of commercial baker's yeast in simulated natural environments: environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Although genetic engineering techniques for baker's yeast might improve the yeast's fermentation characteristics, the lack of scientific data on the survival of such strains in natural environments as well as the effects on human health prevent their commercial use. Disruption of acid trehalase gene (ATH1) improves freeze tolerance, which is a crucial characteristic in frozen-dough baking. In this study, ATH1 disruptants constructed by genetic modification (GM) and self-cloning (SC) techniques were used as models to study such effects because these strains have higher freeze tolerance and are expected to be used commercially. Behavior of the strains in simulated natural environments, namely, in soil and water, was studied by measuring the change in the number of viable cells and in the concentration of DNA that contains ATH1 loci. Measurements were made using a real-time PCR method during 40 days of cultivation. Results showed that the number of viable cells of GM and SC strains decreased in a time-dependent manner and that the decrease rate was nearly equal to or higher than that for wild-type (WT) yeast. For all three strains (SC, GM, and WT) in the two simulated natural environments (water and soil), the DNA remained longer than did viable cells but the decrease patterns of either the DNA or the viable cells of SC and GM strains had tendencies similar to those of the WT strain. In conclusion, disruption of ATH1 by genetic engineering apparently does not promote the survival of viable cells and DNA in natural environments.

  1. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity study of Baker Cleansers Bitters - a polyherbal drug on experimental rats

    PubMed Central

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K.C.; Amadi, U.; Charles, I. A.; Ayalogu, E.O.

    2012-01-01

    Baker Cleanser Bitters (BCB) - a polyherbal formula commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney failure, rheumatism and arthritis was evaluated in an acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in Wistar albino rats. A single administration of BCB was given orally at the highest dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight in the acute toxicity study. Signs of toxicity were observed every hour for the first 6 h and every day for 7 days. In the sub-chronic oral toxicity study, BCB was administered to rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters were monitored during the study period. There were no mortalities or clinical signs observed in rats in the acute toxicity study. In the sub-chronic study in rats, daily oral administration of BCB at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a drop in percentage increase in body weight at the end of the 4th week. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), fasting blood sugar and packed cell volume (PCV) decreased significantly (p≤0.05) whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and platelets increased significantly (p≤0.05) when compared to control. The high no-observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) value of 2000 mg/kg body weight implies that the drug could be safe. The study also revealed that the polyherbal drug may have good hypoglycemic effects and favourable reducing effects on the cardiovascular risk factors and explains the basis for the continual use of this plant by traditional medical practitioners. PMID:27847451

  2. A validated UV-HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid in Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides (Baker) Ching, Polypodiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiagen; Kang, Liqun; Liu, Huan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Chen, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides (Baker) Ching (L. drymoglossoides), a member of the Polypodiaceae family, was used in the treatment of numerous diseases. However, none of the potential ingredients and the quality control methods concerning this plant medicine was pronounced. Objective: To identify chlorogenic acid (CGA) from L. drymoglossoides and develop a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of CGA. Materials and Methods: UV, TLC, and HPLC were utilized to identify the phytochemicals of L. drymoglossoides and determine the CGA content, respectively. The HPLC conditions were as following: a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (250 × 4.6 mm i.d.; 5 μm particle size; 100 Å pore size) column; the mobile phase of the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (11.5:88.5 v/v); the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and determination wavelength of 327 nm. Results: The proposed HPLC method has been developed and validated. The calibration curve was y = 28328x + 16610 (R2 = 0.9997). The intra-day and inter-day precision and intermediate precision were validated with the RSD less than 5%. The mean recovery rate of the method ranged from 95% to 104%, with the RSD less than 5%. The LOD and LQD values were 0.049 and 0.132 mg/L, respectively. The content of CGA in L. drymoglossoides approximately reached 0.24% (v/v) by the proposed extraction and determination methods. Conclusion: The assay method was simple, convenient, and accurate to the quantification of CGA and can be used for the quality control of the herb. PMID:22923952

  3. New aspects on the hepatoprotective potential associated with the antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Vernonia condensata Baker.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jucélia Barbosa da; Mendes, Renata de Freitas; Tomasco, Vívian; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Rodrigues, Matheus Nehrer; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Aguiar, Jair Adriano Kopke de; Alves, Maria Silvana; Castañon, Maria Christina Nogueira Marques; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita

    2017-02-23

    Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae) is traditionally used in South American Countries as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hepatoprotective. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant, and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate partition (EAP) from the ethanolic extract of this medicinal plant leaves. For the in vivo hepatoprotective activity, rats were pretreated orally for seven days with vehicle, silymarin 100mg/kg or EAP 50, 100 and 200mg/kg. Then, acetaminophen 3g/kg was also orally administrated. Animals were euthanatized 24h after the damage inducement. The levels of the serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP were determined, as well as the triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by TBARS assay and by the measurement of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the rats liver tissue. The in vitro anti-inflammatory assay using Raw 264.7 cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide was conducted to verify EAP ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. EAP was able to inhibit all the acute biochemical alterations caused by acetaminophen overdose. EAP inhibited malondialdehyde formation, maintained the catalase and increased the glutathione reductase activities. Also, EAP decreased NO, IL-6 and TNF-α levels at concentrations from 10 to 20µg/mL. 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid was isolated and identified as the major compound in EAP. Apigenin, luteolin, chlorogenic acid were also identified. EAP anti-inflammatory action may be due to its antioxidant activity or its capacity to inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results strongly suggested that V. condensata may be useful as a possible therapy against liver damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Models of Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.

    2015-08-01

    Models of solar irradiance variability have an important role to play due to the relatively short (although steadily increasing) length of measured irradiance time series. Advanced models also allow identifying the source of solar irradiance variations and give insight into the variation of irradiance as a function of wavelength. The first generation of models of solar irradiance were proxy-based, i.e. purely empirical. These were followed by models that combine spectra computed from semi-empirical model atmospheres, with a measure of solar activity variations. In future, models will build increasingly on 3D MHD simulations instead of 1D model atmospheres to compute the spectra. On longer timescales models are generally simpler, although there too considerable progress has been made, with irradiance reconstructions now available for multiple millennia, albeit with lower resolution and accuracy than at shorter timescales.

  5. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  6. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  7. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  8. Enhanced freeze tolerance of baker's yeast by overexpressed trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1) and deleted trehalase genes in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haigang; Dong, Jian; Wang, Guanglu; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2014-08-01

    Several recombinant strains with overexpressed trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1) and/or deleted trehalase genes were obtained to elucidate the relationships between TPS1, trehalase genes, content of intracellular trehalose and freeze tolerance of baker's yeast, as well as improve the fermentation properties of lean dough after freezing. In this study, strain TL301(TPS1) overexpressing TPS1 showed 62.92 % higher trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity and enhanced the content of intracellular trehalose than the parental strain. Deleting ATH1 exerted a significant effect on trehalase activities and the degradation amount of intracellular trehalose during the first 30 min of prefermentation. This finding indicates that acid trehalase (Ath1) plays a role in intracellular trehalose degradation. NTH2 encodes a functional neutral trehalase (Nth2) that was significantly involved in intracellular trehalose degradation in the absence of the NTH1 and/or ATH1 gene. The survival ratio, freeze-tolerance ratio and relative fermentation ability of strain TL301(TPS1) were approximately twice as high as those of the parental strain (BY6-9α). The increase in freeze tolerance of strain TL301(TPS1) was accompanied by relatively low trehalase activity, high Tps1 activity and high residual content of intracellular trehalose. Our results suggest that overexpressing TPS1 and deleting trehalase genes are sufficient to improve the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast in frozen dough. The present study provides guidance for the commercial baking industry as well as the research on the intracellular trehalose mobilization and freeze tolerance of baker's yeast.

  9. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  10. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  11. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 2. (Amco Engineering Co.-Baker/TSA, Inc.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) DIOR/ST18-88-PT- 2 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE...Place, FY 88 Part 2 (Amco Engineering Co.-Baker/TSA, Inc.) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month...00 IIo 0000 0000 P. 00 00 fl, rl 00-0-00101 a*0 00 43000 I 0000 000a* 00 00 00 Go 00 W0000000000000 0000 (A - S ItooN I e- NY 1- -4 m IC 1 CO N S N 00

  13. Covalent aspartylation of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Bakers' yeast by its cognat aspartyl adenylate: identification of the labeled residues

    SciTech Connect

    Mejdoub, H.; Kern, D.; Giege, R.; Ebel, J.P.; Boulanger, Y.; Reinbolt, J.

    1987-04-07

    Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from bakers' yeast gives an unstable complex with the cognate adenylate, which reacts after dissociation with amino acid side chains of the protein. This leads to a covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-aspartic acid into aspartyl-tRNA synthetase via amide or ester bonds formed between the ..cap alpha..-carboxyl group of activated aspartic acid and accessible lysines, serines, and threonines. This property is used to label the peptides at the surface of the enzyme. The main labeled residues have been identified, and their location in the primary structure is discussed in relation to structural properties of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase.

  14. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols.

  15. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  16. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  17. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-11-01

    Pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90-850 °C to 0.03-2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relatively modest dose (>0.6 dpa). The precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  18. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  19. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  20. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.