Science.gov

Sample records for bakers yeast

  1. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and dried cell walls of the yeast...

  2. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  7. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  8. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  9. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  10. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  11. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  12. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. 172.381 Section 172.381... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. Vitamin D2 bakers yeast may be used safely in foods as a source of vitamin D2 and as a leavening agent in accordance with...

  13. Inventions on baker's yeast storage and activation at the bakery plant.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Baker's yeast is the gas-forming ingredient in bakery products. Methods have been invented to properly handle baker's yeast and optimize its activity at the bakery plant. Over the years, incentives for inventions on yeast storage and activation have greatly changed depending on trends in the baking industry. For example, retailer's devices for cutting bulk pressed yeast and techniques for activating dry yeast have now lost their importance. Review of patents for invention indicates that activation of baker's yeast activity has been a very important issue for bakers, for example, with baking ingredients called yeast foods. In the recent years and especially for highly automated bakeries, interest has moved to equipments and processes for optimized storage of liquid cream yeast to thoroughly control dough fermentation and bread quality.

  14. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast by reducing sucrase activity in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Feng, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Er; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Jia; Pi, Li; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Leavening ability in sweet dough is required for the commercial applications of baker's yeast. This property depends on many factors, such as glycolytic activity, sucrase activity, and osmotolerance. This study explored the importance of sucrase level on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Furthermore, the baker's yeast strains with varying sucrase activities were constructed by deleting SUC2, which encodes sucrase or replacing the SUC2 promoter with the VPS8/TEF1 promoter. The results verify that the sucrase activity negatively affects the leavening ability of baker's yeast strains under high-sucrose conditions. Based on a certain level of osmotolerance, sucrase level plays a significant role in the fermentation performance of baker's yeast, and appropriate sucrase activity is an important determinant for the leavening property of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Therefore, modification on sucrase activity is an effective method for improving the leavening properties of baker's yeast in sweet dough. This finding provides guidance for the breeding of industrial baker's yeast strains for sweet dough leavening. The transformants BS1 with deleted SUC2 genetic background provided decreased sucrase activity (a decrease of 39.3 %) and exhibited enhanced leavening property (an increase of 12.4 %). Such a strain could be useful for industrial applications.

  15. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained.

  16. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conventional bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per 100...

  17. Construction of a lactose-assimilating strain of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Adam, A C; Prieto, J A; Rubio-Texeira, M; Polaina, J

    1999-09-30

    A recombinant strain of baker's yeast has been constructed which can assimilate lactose efficiently. This strain has been designed to allow its propagation in whey, the byproduct resulting from cheese-making. The ability to metabolize lactose is conferred by the functional expression of two genes from Kluyveromyces lactis, LAC12 and LAC4, which encode a lactose permease and a beta-galactosidase, respectively. To make the recombinant strain more acceptable for its use in bread-making, the genetic transformation of the host baker's yeast was carried out with linear fragments of DNA of defined sequence, carrying as the only heterologous material the coding regions of the two K. lactis genes. Growth of the new strain on cheese whey affected neither the quality of bread nor the yeast gassing power. The significance of the newly developed strain is two-fold: it affords a cheap alternative to the procedure generally used for the propagation of baker's yeast, and it offers a profitable use for cheese whey. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Optimal quality control of bakers' yeast fed-batch culture using population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dairaku, K; Izumoto, E; Morikawa, H; Shioya, S; Takamatsu, T

    1982-12-01

    An optimal quality control policy for the overall specific growth rate of bakers' yeast, which maximizes the fermentative activity in the making of bread, was obtained by direct searching based on the mathematical model proposed previously. The mathematical model had described the age distribution of bakers' yeast which had an essential relationship to the ability of fermentation in the making of bread. The mathematical model is a simple aging model with two periods: Nonbudding and budding. Based on the result obtained by direct searching, the quality control of bakers' yeast fed-batch culture was performed and confirmed to be experimentally valid.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATα MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  20. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus: Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nerve; Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Gamero, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-06-05

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO 2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes are not unique to S. cerevisiae, but also found in several non-conventional yeast species. A small number of these yeast species with similar properties have been described, but remain poorly studied. They present a vast untapped potential for the use as leavening agents and flavor producers due to their genetic and phylogenetic diversity. We assessed the potential of several non-conventional yeasts as leavening agents and flavor producers in dough-like conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations and stressful environments mimicking conditions found in flour dough. We tested the capabilities of bread leavening and aroma formation in a microbread platform as well as in a bakery setup. Bread leavened with Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus had better overall results compared to control baker's yeast. In addition, both displayed higher stress tolerance and broader aroma profiles than the control baker's yeast. These attributes are important in bread and other farinaceous products, making K. gamospora and W. subpelliculosus highly applicable as alternative baker's yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of Bakers' Yeast in Cheese Whey Ultrafiltrate †

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, C. P.; Goulet, J.; Lachance, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of bakers' yeast in whey ultrafiltrate (WU) is described. Lactose in WU was converted to lactic acid and galactose by fermentation. Streptococcus thermophilus was selected for this purpose. Preculturing of S. thermophilus in skim milk considerably reduced its lag. Lactic fermentation in 2.3×-concentrated WU was delayed compared with that in unconcentrated whey, and fermentation could not be completed within 60 h. The growth rate of bakers' yeast in fermented WU differed among strains. The rate of galactose utilization was similar for all strains, but differences in lactic acid utilization occurred. Optimal pH ranges for galactose and lactic acid utilization were 5.5 to 6.0 and 5.0 to 5.5, respectively. The addition of 4 g of corn steep liquor per liter to fermented WU increased cell yields. Two sources of nitrogen were available for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: amino acids (corn steep liquor) and ammonium (added during the lactic acid fermentation). Ammonium was mostly assimilated during growth on lactic acid. This process could permit the substitution of molasses by WU for the industrial production of bakers' yeast. PMID:16348117

  2. New Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast displaying enhanced resistance to freezing.

    PubMed

    Codón, Antonio C; Rincón, Ana M; Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A; Delgado-Jarana, Jesús; Rey, Manuel; Limón, Carmen; Rosado, Ivan V; Cubero, Beatriz; Peñate, Xenia; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2003-01-15

    Three procedures were used to obtain new Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts with increased storage stability at -20, 4, 22, and 30 degrees C. The first used mitochondria from highly ethanol-tolerant wine yeast, which were transferred to baker's strains. Viability of the heteroplasmons was improved shortly after freezing. However, after prolonged storage, viability dramatically decreased and was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of respiratory-deficient (petite) mutant formation. This indicated that mitochondria were not stable and were incompatible with the nucleus. The strains tested regained their original resistance to freezing after recovering their own mitochondria. The second procedure used hybrid formation after protoplast fusion and isolation on selective media of fusants from baker's yeast meiotic products resistant to parafluorphenylalanine and cycloheximide, respectively. No hybrids were obtained when using the parentals, probably due to the high ploidy of the baker's strains. Hybrids obtained from nonisogenic strains manifested in all cases a resistance to freezing intermediate between those of their parental strains. Hybrids from crosses between meiotic products of the same strain were always more sensitive than their parentals. The third method was used to develop baker's yeast mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DOG) and deregulated for maltose and sucrose metabolism. Mutant DOG21 displayed a slight increase in trehalose content and viability both in frozen doughs and during storage at 4 and 22 degrees C. This mutant also displayed a capacity to ferment, under laboratory conditions, both lean and sweet fresh and frozen doughs. For industrial uses, fermented lean and sweet bakery products, both from fresh and frozen doughs obtained with mutant DOG21, were of better quality with regard to volume, texture, and organoleptic properties than those produced by the wild type.

  3. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker's Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Parash Mani; Yadav, Archana; Joshi, Yogesh; Bhujel, Sahansila; Adhikari, Rojina; Neupane, Katyayanee

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker's yeast and compare them with the commercial baker's yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree “Dar” were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar. From the differential tests which included morphological and microscopic observation and physiological and biochemical characterization such as nitrate reduction and lactose utilization tests, 8 strains were selected as possible Saccharomyces strain. The selected strains were further assessed for their efficient leavening ability by tests such as ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance, invertase test, and stress exclusion test. The three most potent strains ENG, MUR3B, and SUG1 isolated from grape, Murcha, and sugarcane, respectively, were used in the fermentation and baking of dough. These strains also carried a possibility of being used as industrial baker's yeast. PMID:29387490

  4. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker's Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Timilsina, Parash Mani; Yadav, Archana; Pandey, Gyanu Raj; Joshi, Yogesh; Bhujel, Sahansila; Adhikari, Rojina; Neupane, Katyayanee

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker's yeast and compare them with the commercial baker's yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree "Dar" were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar. From the differential tests which included morphological and microscopic observation and physiological and biochemical characterization such as nitrate reduction and lactose utilization tests, 8 strains were selected as possible Saccharomyces strain. The selected strains were further assessed for their efficient leavening ability by tests such as ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance, invertase test, and stress exclusion test. The three most potent strains ENG, MUR3B, and SUG1 isolated from grape, Murcha, and sugarcane, respectively, were used in the fermentation and baking of dough. These strains also carried a possibility of being used as industrial baker's yeast.

  5. Microbiological and fermentative properties of baker's yeast starter used in breadmaking.

    PubMed

    Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Succi, M; Tremonte, P; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the levels of microbial contaminants in liquid, compressed and dry commercial baker's yeasts used as starters in breadmaking. Eumycetes, Enterobacteriaceae, total and fecal coliforms, Bacillus spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular enterococci, were quantified. Results obtained in this study highlighted that baker's yeast could represent a potential vehicle of spoilage and undesirable microorganisms into the baking environment, even if these do not influence the leavening activity in the dough, as ascertained by rheofermentometer analysis. Different microbial groups, such as spore-forming bacteria and moulds, were found in baker's yeast starters. Moreover, different species of LAB, which are considered the main contaminants in large-scale yeast fermentations, were isolated and identified by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most recurrent species were Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus durans, isolated from both compressed and dry starters, whereas strains belonging to Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera were found only in dry ones. Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) were also used to highlight the biodiversity of the different commercial yeast strains, and to ascertain the culture purity. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Self-cloning baker's yeasts that accumulate proline enhance freeze tolerance in doughs.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Tomohiro; Tateiwa, Tetsuya; Mizukami-Murata, Satomi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    We constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains by disrupting PUT1, encoding proline oxidase, and replacing the wild-type PRO1, encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase, with a pro1(D154N) or pro1(I150T) allele. The resultant strains accumulated intracellular proline and retained higher-level fermentation abilities in the frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. These results suggest that proline-accumulating baker's yeast is suitable for frozen-dough baking.

  7. New insights on the baker's yeast-mediated hydration of oleic acid: the bacterial contaminants of yeast are responsible for the stereoselective formation of (R)-10-hydroxystearic acid.

    PubMed

    Serra, S; De Simeis, D

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of the high-value flavour γ-dodecalactone is based on the biotransformation of natural 10-HSA, which is in turn obtained by microbial hydration of oleic acid. We want to establish a reliable baker's yeast-mediated procedure for 10-HSA preparation. The previously reported yeast-mediated hydration procedures are unreliable because bacteria-free baker's yeast is not able to hydrate oleic acid. The actual responsible for performing this reaction are the bacterial contaminants present in baker's yeast. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enantioselectivity in the production of (R)-10-HSA is affected mainly by the temperature used in the biotransformation. We demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not able to hydrate oleic acid, whereas different bacterial strains present in baker's yeast transform oleic acid into (R)-10-HSA. We reported a general procedure for the preparation of (R)-10-HSA starting from oleic acid and using commercially available baker's yeast. This study holds both scientific and industrial interest. It unambiguously establishes that the eukaryote micro-organisms present in baker's yeast are not able to hydrate oleic acid. The isolation of oleic acid hydrating bacterial strains from commercial baker's yeast points to their prospective use for the industrial synthesis of 10-HSA. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering baker's yeast: room for improvement.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, F; Sanz, P; Prieto, J A

    1999-06-01

    Bread making is one of the oldest food-manufacturing processes. However, it is only in the past few years that recombinant-DNA technology has led to dramatic changes in formulation, ingredients or processing conditions. New strains of baker's yeast that produce CO2 more rapidly, are more resistant to stress or produce proteins or metabolites that can modify bread flavour, dough rheology or shelf-life are now emerging.

  10. Overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 enhances the fermentation ability of industrial baker's yeast in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We constructed a self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strain that overexpressed the transcription activator Msn2. It showed higher tolerance to freeze-thaw stress and higher intracellular trehalose level than observed in the wild-type strain. Overexpression of Msn2 also enhanced the fermentation ability of baker's yeast cells in frozen dough. Hence, Msn2-overexpressing baker's yeast should be useful in frozen-dough baking.

  11. Simultaneous accumulation of proline and trehalose in industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Freeze tolerance is a necessary characteristic for industrial baker's yeast because frozen-dough baking is one of the key technologies for supplying oven-fresh bakery products to consumers. Both proline and trehalose are known to function as cryoprotectants in yeast cells. In order to enhance the freeze tolerance of yeast cells, we constructed a self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strain with simultaneous accumulation of proline, by expressing the PRO1-I150T allele, encoding the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive γ-glutamyl kinase, and trehalose, by disrupting the NTH1 gene, encoding neutral trehalase. The resultant strain retained higher tolerance to oxidative and freezing stresses than did the single proline- or trehalose-accumulating strain. Interestingly, our results suggest that proline and trehalose protect yeast cells from short-term and long-term freezing, respectively. Simultaneous accumulation of proline and trehalose in industrial baker's yeast also enhanced the fermentation ability in the frozen dough compared with the single accumulation of proline or trehalose. These results indicate that baker's yeast that accumulates both proline and trehalose is applicable for frozen-dough baking. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    PubMed

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Looking for immunotolerance: a case of allergy to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Pajno, G B; Passalacqua, G; Salpietro, C; Vita, D; Caminiti, L; Barberio, G

    2005-09-01

    We describe one case of baker's yeast true allergy in a boy with previously diagnosed mite-allergy and atopic dermatitis. At the age of 6, being atopic dermatitis and rhinitis well controlled by drugs, he began to experience generalized urticaria and asthma after eating pizza and bread, but only fresh from the oven. The diagnostic workup revealed single sensitization to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and a severe systemic reaction also occurred during the prick-by-prick procedure. After discussing with parents, no special dietary restriction was suggested but the use of autoinjectable adrenaline and on demand salbutamol. A diary of symptoms was recorded by means of a visual-analog scale. During the subsequent 2 years, the severity of symptoms was progressively reduced, and presently urticaria has disappeared. Only cough persists, invariantly after eating just-baked and yeast-containing foods. If bread, pizza and cakes are ate more than one hour after preparation, no symptom occur at all. Baker's yeast is a common component of everyday diet and it usually acts as an allergen only by the inhalatory route. We speculate that the continuous exposure to saccharomyces in foods may have lead to an immunotolerance with a progressive reduction of symptoms, whereas why the allergens is active only in ready-baked foods remains unexplained.

  14. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-03

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Pösö, H; Sinervirta, R; Jänne, J

    1975-01-01

    1. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.50) was purified more than 1100-fold from extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by affinity chromatography on columns of Sepharose containing covalently bound methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1,1'[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]diguanidine) [Pegg, (1974) Biochem J. 141, 581-583]. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.4. 2. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was completely separated from spermidine synthase activity [5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5'),3-aminopropyl-(1),methylsulphonium-salt-putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.16] during the purification procedure. 3. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity from crude extracts of baker's yeast was stimulated by putrescine, 1,3-diamino-propane, cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine; however, the purified enzyme, although still stimulated by the diamines, was completely insensitive to spermidine. 4. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has an apparent Km value of 0.09 mM for adenosylmethionine in the presence of saturating concentrations of putrescine. The omission of putrescine resulted in a five-fold increase in the apparent Km value for adenosylmethionine. 5. The apparent Ka value for putrescine, as the activator of the reaction, was 0.012 mM. 6. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and S-methyladenosylhomocysteamine (decarboxylated adenosylmethionine) were powerful inhibitors of the enzyme. 7. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast was inhibited by a number of conventional carbonyl reagents, but in no case could the inhibition be reversed with exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. PMID:1108876

  16. High-performance TiO(2) from Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    He, Wen; Cui, Jingjie; Yue, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xi; Liu, Hong; Lui, Suwen

    2011-02-01

    Based on the biomineralization assembly concept, a biomimetic approach has been developed to synthesize high-performance mesoporous TiO(2). The key step of this approach is to apply Baker's yeast cells as biotemplates for deriving the hierarchically ordered mesoporous anatase structure. The mechanism of formation of the yeast-TiO(2) is revealed by characterizing its morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition. The yeast-TiO(2) exhibits outstanding photocatalytic performance. Under visible-light irradiation, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of the paper industry wastewater has reached 80.3% and nearly 100%, respectively. The approach may open new vistas for fabricating advanced mesoporous materials under ambient condition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  18. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Alminger, M L; Carlsson, N G

    2001-05-01

    During food processing such as baking, phytate is dephosphorylated to produce degradation products, such as myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphates. Certain myo-inositol phosphates have been proposed to have positive effects on human health. The position of the phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring is thereby of great significance for their physiological functions. Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), D-Ins(1,2)P(2), to finally Ins(2)P (notation 3/4/5/6/1). Knowledge of the absolute stereochemical specificity of the baker's yeast phytase allows use of the enzyme to produce defined myo-inositol phosphates for kinetic and physiological studies.

  20. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  3. Quality parameters and RAPD-PCR differentiation of commercial baker's yeast and hybrid strains.

    PubMed

    El-Fiky, Zaki A; Hassan, Gamal M; Emam, Ahmed M

    2012-06-01

    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a key component in bread baking. Total of 12 commercial baker's yeast and 2 hybrid strains were compared using traditional quality parameters. Total of 5 strains with high leavening power and the 2 hybrid strains were selected and evaluated for their alpha-amylase, maltase, glucoamylase enzymes, and compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results revealed that all selected yeast strains have a low level of alpha-amylase and a high level of maltase and glucoamylase enzymes. Meanwhile, the Egyptian yeast strain (EY) had the highest content of alpha-amylase and maltase enzymes followed by the hybrid YH strain. The EY and YH strains have the highest content of glucoamylase enzyme almost with the same level. The RAPD banding patterns showed a wide variation among commercial yeast and hybrid strains. The closely related Egyptian yeast strains (EY and AL) demonstrated close similarity of their genotypes. The 2 hybrid strains were clustered to Turkish and European strains in 1 group. The authors conclude that the identification of strains and hybrids using RAPD technique was useful in determining their genetic relationship. These results can be useful not only for the basic research, but also for the quality control in baking factories. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Enhanced leavening ability of baker's yeast by overexpression of SNR84 with PGM2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Dough-leavening ability is one of the main aspects considered when selecting a baker's yeast strain for baking industry. Generally, modification of maltose metabolic pathway and known regulatory networks of maltose metabolism were used to increase maltose metabolism to improve leavening ability in lean dough. In this study, we focus on the effects of PGM2 (encoding for the phosphoglucomutase) and SNR84 (encoding for the H/ACA snoRNA) that are not directly related to both the maltose metabolic pathway and known regulatory networks of maltose metabolism on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough. The results show that the modifications on PGM2 and/or SNR84 are effective ways in improving leavening ability of baker's yeast in lean dough. Deletion of PGM2 decreased cellular glucose-1-phosphate and overexpression of SNR84 increased the maltose permease activity. These changes resulted in 11, 19 and 21% increases of the leavening ability for PGM2 deletion, SNR84 overexpression and SNR84 overexpression combining deleted PGM2, respectively.

  5. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  6. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  7. Brewer's/baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: Part II.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    Yeast is the term generally applied to a unicellular fungus, and there are hundreds of species now identified. One of the most notable and well-known species of yeast in health and wellness is known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is also known by its more common names, brewer's yeast or baker's yeast. Typically, brewer's yeast is used as a protein supplement, energy booster, immune enhancer, or other vehicle where other compounds can be inserted to create a commercialized health product. For example, one of the most notable positive findings was the encouraging results from a large randomized trial of adults recently vaccinated for seasonal influenza who also received an over-the-counter daily adjuvant modified brewer's yeast-based product (EpiCor) to prevent colds and flu symptoms. The modified yeast-based product significantly reduced the incidence and duration of this common condition. Yeast-based technology is also being used as a molecular mechanistic model of caloric restriction (CR) with the goal of improving the human life span. The current and potential impact of yeast-based technology in medicine is encouraging and should receive more attention, but the recent preliminary positive results of CR in humans may be in part due to what has been already learned from brewer's yeast.

  8. Brewer's/baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: part I.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    Yeast is the term generally applied to a unicellular fungus, and there are hundreds of species now identified. One of the most notable and well-known species of yeast in health and wellness is known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is also known by its more common names, brewer's yeast or baker's yeast. It is usually grown on hops or another substrate similar to the plant utilized in the beer-making industry, after which it is harvested and killed. The final product is generally half composed of protein, as well as a large amount of B vitamins and minerals, and depending on the technology, a diverse number of other healthy compounds. Typically, brewer's yeast is used as a protein supplement, energy booster, immune enhancer, or other vehicle where other compounds can be inserted to create a commercialized health product. A more extensive review of the preventive medical aspects of yeast will be covered in Part 2 of this article to be published in a future issue of Urologic Nursing. Yeast-based technology is also being used as a molecular mechanistic model of caloric restriction with the goal of improving the human life span. The current and potential impact of yeast-based technology in medicine is encouraging.

  9. Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using common baker's yeast is a traditional experiment that shows the stereoselective power of a biochemical system. Addition of organic solvents to aqueous reaction system increased the yields and reproducibility of the experiment thus overcoming the two problems associated with the experiment, low yield, and…

  10. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    PubMed

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  11. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    PubMed

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of tolerance to freeze-thaw stress of baker's yeast by cultivation with soy peptides.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2007-06-01

    The tolerance to freeze-thaw stress of yeast cells is critical for frozen-dough technology in the baking industry. In this study, we examined the effects of soy peptides on the freeze-thaw stress tolerance of yeast cells. We found that the cells cultured with soy peptides acquired improved tolerance to freeze-thaw stress and retained high leavening ability in dough after frozen storage for 7 days. The final quality of bread regarding its volume and texture was also improved by using yeast cells cultured with soy peptides. These findings promote the utilization of soy peptides as ingredients of culture media to improve the quality of baker's yeast.

  13. A Comparison of the Beneficial Effects of Live and Heat-Inactivated Baker's Yeast on Nile Tilapia: Suggestions on the Role and Function of the Secretory Metabolites Released from the Yeast.

    PubMed

    Ran, Chao; Huang, Lu; Liu, Zhi; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; Tacon, Philippe; Auclair, Eric; Zhou, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Yeast is frequently used as a probiotic in aquaculture with the potential to substitute for antibiotics. In this study, the involvement and extent to which the viability of yeast cells and thus the secretory metabolites released from the yeast contribute to effects of baker's yeast was investigated in Nile tilapia. No yeast, live yeast or heat-inactivated baker's yeast were added to basal diets high in fishmeal and low in soybean (diet A) or low in fishmeal and high in soybean (diet B), which were fed to fish for 8 weeks. Growth, feed utilization, gut microvilli morphology, and expressions of hsp70 and inflammation-related cytokines in the intestine and head kidney were assessed. Intestinal microbiota was investigated using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Gut alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was measured after challenging the fish with Aeromonas hydrophila. Results showed that live yeast significantly improved FBW and WG (P < 0.05), and tended to improve FCR (P = 0.06) of fish compared to the control (no yeast). No significant differences were observed between inactivated yeast and control. Live yeast improved gut microvilli length (P < 0.001) and density (P < 0.05) while inactivated yeast did not. The hsp70 expression level in both the intestine and head kidney of fish was significantly reduced by live yeast (P < 0.05) but not inactivated yeast. Live yeast but not inactivated yeast reduced intestinal expression of tnfα (P < 0.05), tgfβ (P < 0.05 under diet A) and il1β (P = 0.08). Intestinal Lactococcus spp. numbers were enriched by both live and inactivated yeast. Lastly, both live and inactivated yeast reduced the gut AKP activity compared to the control (P < 0.001), indicating protection of the host against infection by A. hydrophila. In conclusion, secretory metabolites did not play major roles in the growth promotion and disease protection effects of yeast. Nevertheless, secretory metabolites were the major contributing factor towards improved gut

  14. Comparison of melibiose utilizing baker's yeast strains produced by genetic engineering and classical breeding.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S F; Bell, P J; Bissinger, P; Nevalainen, K M

    1999-02-01

    Yeast strains currently used in the baking industry cannot fully utilize the trisaccharide raffinose found in beet molasses due to the absence of melibiase (alpha-galactosidase) activity. To overcome this deficiency, the MEL1 gene encoding melibiase enzyme was introduced into baker's yeast by both classical breeding and recombinant DNA technology. Both types of yeast strains were capable of vigorous fermentation in the presence of high levels of sucrose, making them suitable for the rapidly developing Asian markets where high levels of sugar are used in bread manufacture. Melibiase expression appeared to be dosage-dependent, with relatively low expression sufficient for complete melibiose utilization in a model fermentation system.

  15. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving industrial full-scale production of baker's yeast by optimizing aeration control.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Rayo, Julia; Giralda, José M

    2008-01-01

    This work analyzes the control of optimum dissolved oxygen of an industrial fed-batch procedure in which baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is grown under aerobic conditions. Sugar oxidative metabolism was controlled by monitoring aeration, molasses flows, and yeast concentration in the propagator along the later stage of the propagation, and keeping pH and temperature under controlled conditions. A large number of fed-batch growth experiments were performed in the tank for a period of 16 h, for each of the 3 manufactured commercial products. For optimization and control of cultivations, the growth and metabolite formation were quantified through measurement of specific growth and ethanol concentration. Data were adjusted to a model of multiple lineal regression, and correlations representing dissolved oxygen as a function of aeration, molasses, yeast concentration in the broth, temperature, and pH were obtained. The actual influence of each variable was consistent with the mathematical model, further justified by significant levels of each variable, and optimum aeration profile during the yeast propagation.

  17. Lipid Content and Cryotolerance of Bakers' Yeast in Frozen Doughs †

    PubMed Central

    Gélinas, Pierre; Fiset, Gisèle; Willemot, Claude; Goulet, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between lipid content and tolerance to freezing at −50°C was studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under batch or fed-batch mode and various aeration and temperature conditions. A higher free-sterol-to-phospholipid ratio as well as higher free sterol and phospholipid contents correlated with the superior cryoresistance in dough or in water of the fed-batch-grown compared with the batch-grown cells. For both growth modes, the presence of excess dissolved oxygen in the culture medium greatly improved yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content (P. Gélinas, G. Fiset, A. LeDuy, and J. Goulet, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 26:2453-2459, 1989) without significantly changing the lipid profile. Under the batch or fed-batch modes, no correlation was found between the cryotolerance of bakers' yeast and the total cellular lipid content, the total sterol content, the phospholipid unsaturation index, the phosphate or crude protein content, or the yeast cell morphology (volume and roundness). PMID:16348412

  18. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global expression studies in baker's yeast reveal target genes for the improvement of industrially-relevant traits: the cases of CAF16 and ORC2.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Panadero, Joaquín; Hernández-López, María José; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2010-07-13

    Recent years have seen a huge growth in the market of industrial yeasts with the need for strains affording better performance or to be used in new applications. Stress tolerance of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is, without doubt, a trait that needs improving. Such trait is, however, complex, and therefore only in-depth knowledge of their biochemical, physiological and genetic principles can help us to define improvement strategies and to identify the key factors for strain selection. We have determined the transcriptional response of commercial baker's yeast cells to both high-sucrose and lean dough by using DNA macroarrays and liquid dough (LD) model system. Cells from compressed yeast blocks display a reciprocal transcription program to that commonly reported for laboratory strains exposed to osmotic stress. This discrepancy likely reflects differences in strain background and/or experimental design. Quite remarkably, we also found that the transcriptional response of starved baker's yeast cells was qualitatively similar in the presence or absence of sucrose in the LD. Nevertheless, there was a set of differentially regulated genes, which might be relevant for cells to adapt to high osmolarity. Consistent with this, overexpression of CAF16 or ORC2, two transcriptional factor-encoding genes included in this group, had positive effects on leavening activity of baker's yeast. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during freezing and frozen storage of high-sucrose LD. Engineering of differentially regulated genes opens the possibility to improve the physiological behavior of baker's yeast cells under stress conditions like those encountered in downstream applications.

  20. Global expression studies in baker's yeast reveal target genes for the improvement of industrially-relevant traits: the cases of CAF16 and ORC2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a huge growth in the market of industrial yeasts with the need for strains affording better performance or to be used in new applications. Stress tolerance of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is, without doubt, a trait that needs improving. Such trait is, however, complex, and therefore only in-depth knowledge of their biochemical, physiological and genetic principles can help us to define improvement strategies and to identify the key factors for strain selection. Results We have determined the transcriptional response of commercial baker's yeast cells to both high-sucrose and lean dough by using DNA macroarrays and liquid dough (LD) model system. Cells from compressed yeast blocks display a reciprocal transcription program to that commonly reported for laboratory strains exposed to osmotic stress. This discrepancy likely reflects differences in strain background and/or experimental design. Quite remarkably, we also found that the transcriptional response of starved baker's yeast cells was qualitatively similar in the presence or absence of sucrose in the LD. Nevertheless, there was a set of differentially regulated genes, which might be relevant for cells to adapt to high osmolarity. Consistent with this, overexpression of CAF16 or ORC2, two transcriptional factor-encoding genes included in this group, had positive effects on leavening activity of baker's yeast. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during freezing and frozen storage of high-sucrose LD. Conclusions Engineering of differentially regulated genes opens the possibility to improve the physiological behavior of baker's yeast cells under stress conditions like those encountered in downstream applications. PMID:20626860

  1. Modeling of process of lifting power change of baker's yeast pressed depending on nature and quantity of introduced vegetable component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, S. V.; Rodionova, N. S.; Belokurova, E. V.; Alexeeva, T. V.

    2018-05-01

    The work presents data on the effect of non-traditional powdered semi-finished products of plant origin: chokeberry, walnut partitions and sea buckthorn berries on the lifting power of baker's yeast. Various amounts of powdered semi-finished products of plant origin are introduced into the dough, directly at the stage of introducing the main components of the formulation, replacing them with some of the wheat flour. Studies have shown that the addition of small amounts of unconventional powdered plant-based semi-finished products (1 ... 5%) makes it possible to correct the lifting power of baking yeast, which, in consequence, affects the quality indicators of finished products. The paper presents a mathematical model of the change in the lift strength of baker's yeast, depending on the nature and amount of the powdered semi-finished product introduced.

  2. The Baker's Yeast Reduction of Keto-Esters in Organic Solvents: A One Week Research Project for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Michael

    1998-05-01

    An experiment has been designed which allows final year undergraduate students to carry out a mini-research project in one week and thus get a flavour of the joys and tribulations of conducting chemical research before they undertake a major research project. The experiment is an investigation into the reduction of alpha- or beta-keto esters using non-fermenting Baker's yeast in petroleum ether. There are a number of advantages to this method of using Baker's yeast, including a reduction in the amount of organic solvent used, and a much simplified purification procedure. During the course of the mini-project, the substrate specificity of the yeast is investigated, and the conditions for the optimisation of a particular keto ester are determined. Each product is analysed by a variety of analytical techniques including polarimetry, IR, NMR, and GC. In addition, the use of correct stereochemical nomenclature to describe prochiral, and chiral compounds as well as chemical reactions are discussed.

  3. MAL62 overexpression and NTH1 deletion enhance the freezing tolerance and fermentation capacity of the baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Wu, Ming-Yue; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Shan-Na; Zhu, Wen-Bi; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-04-04

    Trehalose is related to several types of stress responses, especially freezing response in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). It is desirable to manipulate trehalose-related genes to create yeast strains that better tolerate freezing-thaw stress with improved fermentation capacity, which are in high demand in the baking industry. The strain overexpressing MAL62 gene showed increased trehalose content and cell viability after prefermention-freezing and long-term frozen. Deletion of NTH1 in combination of MAL62 overexpression further strengthens freezing tolerance and improves the leavening ability after freezing-thaw stress. The mutants of the industrial baker's yeast with enhanced freezing tolerance and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These strains had excellent potential industrial applications.

  4. Overexpression of the calcineurin target CRZ1 provides freeze tolerance and enhances the fermentative capacity of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Joaquín; Hernández-López, Maria José; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-08-01

    Recent years have shown a huge growth in the market of industrial baker's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with the need for strains affording better performance in prefrozen dough. Evidence suggests that during the freezing process, cells can suffer biochemical damage caused by osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the involvement of ion-responsive transcriptional factors and pathways in conferring freeze resistance has not yet been examined. Here, we have investigated the role of the salt-responsive calcineurin-Crz1p pathway in mediating tolerance to freezing by industrial baker's yeast. Overexpression of CRZ1 in the industrial HS13 strain increased both salt and freeze tolerance and improved the leavening ability of baker's yeast in high-sugar dough. Moreover, engineered cells were able to produce more gas during fermentation of prefrozen dough than the parental strain. Similar effects were observed for overexpression of TdCRZ1, the homologue to CRZ1 in Torulaspora delbrueckii, suggesting that expression of calcineurin-Crz1p target genes can alleviate the harmful effects of ionic stress during freezing. However, overexpression of STZ and FTZ, two unrelated Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc finger proteins, also conferred freeze resistance in yeast. Furthermore, experiments with Deltacnb1 and Deltacrz1 mutants failed to show a freeze-sensitive phenotype, even in cells pretreated with NaCl. Overall, our results demonstrate that overexpression of CRZ1 has the potential to be a useful tool for increasing freeze tolerance and fermentative capacity in industrial strains. However, these effects do not appear to be mediated through activation of known salt-responding pathways.

  5. Enhanced S-Adenosylmethionine Production by Increasing ATP Levels in Baker's Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yawei; Tan, Tianwei

    2018-05-23

    In the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), ATP functions as both a precursor and a driving force. However, few published reports have dealt with the control of ATP concentration using genetic design. In this study we have adopted a new ATP regulation strategy in yeast for enhancing SAM biosynthesis, including altering NADH availability and regulating the oxygen supply. Different ATP regulation systems were designed based on the introduction of water-forming NADH oxidase, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin, and phosphite dehydrogenase in combination with overexpression of the gene SAM2. Via application of this strategy, after 28 h cultivation, the SAM titer in the yeast strain ABYSM-2 reached a maximum level close to 55 mg/L, an increase of 67% compared to the control strain. The results show that the ATP regulation strategy is a valuable tool for SAM production and might further enhance the synthesis of other ATP-driven metabolites in yeast.

  6. Evaluation of baker's yeast in honey using a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Roetschi, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers. The concentrations of S. cerevisiae were highest in honey of the brood frames immediately after the feeding and decreased over time to low concentrations at the end of the year. A high content of S. cerevisiae cells were also found in the honey from supers of the spring harvest. Observed S. cerevisiae cells were not able to multiply in a high-sugar environment, such as honey, and their viability decreased rapidly after addition to the honey. The screening of 200 Swiss honeys revealed the presence of S. cerevisiae in 4.5% of the samples, as determined by microscopy and qPCR. Finally, the method described here may indicate an unwanted sucrose addition to honey through bee-feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

    2014-06-16

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acetate but not propionate induces oxidative stress in bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Abrat, Oleksandra B; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Inoue, Yoshiharu; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of acetic and propionic acids on baker's yeast was investigated in order to expand our understanding of the effect of weak organic acid food preservatives on eukaryotic cells. Both acids decreased yeast survival in a concentration-dependent manner, but with different efficiencies. The acids inhibited the fluorescein efflux from yeast cells. The inhibition constant of fluorescein extrusion from cells treated with acetate was significantly lower in parental strain than in either PDR12 (ABC-transporter Pdr12p) or WAR1 (transcriptional factor of Pdr12p) defective mutants. The constants of inhibition by propionate were virtually the same in all strains used. Yeast exposure to acetate increased the level of oxidized proteins and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, while propionate did not change these parameters. This suggests that various mechanisms underlie the yeast toxicity by acetic and propionic acids. Our studies with mutant cells clearly indicated the involvement of Yap1p transcriptional regulator and de novo protein synthesis in superoxide dismutase up-regulation by acetate. The up-regulation of catalase was Yap1p independent. Yeast pre-incubation with low concentrations of H₂O₂ caused cellular cross-protection against high concentrations of acetate. The results are discussed from the point of view that acetate induces a prooxidant effect in vivo, whereas propionate does not.

  9. Mitochondrial genetics in Bakers' yeast: a molecular mechanism for recombinational polarity and suppressiveness.

    PubMed

    Perlman, P S; Birky, C W

    1974-11-01

    Recombinational polarity and suppressiveness are two well-known but puzzling cytoplasmic genetic phenomena in bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Little progress has been made in characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. In this paper we describe a molecular model for recombinational polarity that is compatible with the available genetic evidence. The model stresses the role of small deletions and excision/repair processes in otherwise canonical recombinational events. According to the model, both phenomena require recombination and may share mechanistic elements.

  10. The Isolation of Invertase from Baker's Yeast: A Four-Part Exercise in Protein Purification and Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerman, Anthony P.; Fenrick, Angela M.; Zamis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A sequence of exercises for the isolation and characterization of invertase (E.C. 3.1.2.26) from baker's yeast obtained from a local grocery store is outlined. Because the enzyme is colorless, the use of colored markers and the sequence of purification steps are designed to "visualize" the process by which a colorless protein is selectively…

  11. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-performance mesoporous LiFePO₄ from Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Xueguang; He, Wen; Sun, Caiyun; Ma, Jingyun; Yuan, Junling; Du, Xiaoyong

    2013-03-01

    Based on the biomineralization assembly concept, a simple and inexpensive biomimetic sol-gel method is found to synthesize high-performance mesoporous LiFePO(4) (HPM-LFP). The key step of this approach is to apply Baker's yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source. The formation mechanism of ordered hierarchical mesoporous network structure is revealed by characterizing its morphology and microstructure. The HPM-LFP exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances. The HPM-LFP has a high discharge capacity (about 153 mAh g(-1) at a 0.1 C rate), only 2% capacity loss from the initial value after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 C. This simple and potentially universal design strategy is currently being pursued in the synthesis of an ideal cathode-active material for high power applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Improved, Bias-Reduced Probabilistic Functional Gene Network of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Insuk; Li, Zhihua; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Probabilistic functional gene networks are powerful theoretical frameworks for integrating heterogeneous functional genomics and proteomics data into objective models of cellular systems. Such networks provide syntheses of millions of discrete experimental observations, spanning DNA microarray experiments, physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and comparative genomics; the resulting networks can then be easily applied to generate testable hypotheses regarding specific gene functions and associations. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a significantly improved version (v. 2) of a probabilistic functional gene network [1] of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe our optimization methods and illustrate their effects in three major areas: the reduction of functional bias in network training reference sets, the application of a probabilistic model for calculating confidences in pair-wise protein physical or genetic interactions, and the introduction of simple thresholds that eliminate many false positive mRNA co-expression relationships. Using the network, we predict and experimentally verify the function of the yeast RNA binding protein Puf6 in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Conclusions/Significance YeastNet v. 2, constructed using these optimizations together with additional data, shows significant reduction in bias and improvements in precision and recall, in total covering 102,803 linkages among 5,483 yeast proteins (95% of the validated proteome). YeastNet is available from http://www.yeastnet.org. PMID:17912365

  14. A KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE ENDOGENOUS RESPIRATION OF BAKERS' YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Stier, T. J. B.; Stannard, J. N.

    1936-01-01

    The process of endogenous respiration of two strains of bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was examined kinetically. The rate of respiration with respect to time in a non-nutrient medium was found to exhibit two phases: (a) a period of constant rate of O2 consumption and CO2 production (R.Q. = 1) characteristic of cells with ample concentrations of stored material; (b) a first order decline in rate of respiration with respect to time, where the rate was proportional to the concentration of some substrate, S. (R.Q. = 1 throughout second phase.) The nature of this substrate was reexamined and the evidence summarized confirms the notion that it is a carbohydrate, probably glycogen. These phases of endogenous respiration were shown to depend upon the age of the culture and the amount of substrate available. PMID:19872942

  15. Disruption of the CAR1 gene encoding arginase enhances freeze tolerance of the commercial baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Sakata-Tsuda, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nakajima, Ryouichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Takano, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The effect of intracellular charged amino acids on freeze tolerance in dough was determined by constructing homozygous diploid arginase-deficient mutants of commercial baker's yeast. An arginase mutant accumulated higher levels of arginine and/or glutamate and showed increased leavening ability during the frozen-dough baking process, suggesting that disruption of the CAR1 gene enhances freeze tolerance.

  16. Improved Properties of Baker's Yeast Mutants Resistant to 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Ana M.; Codón, Antonio C.; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2001-01-01

    We isolated spontaneous mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast V1) that were resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose and had improved fermentative capacity on sweet doughs. Three mutants could grow at the same rate as the wild type in minimal SD medium (0.17% Difco yeast nitrogen base without amino acids and ammonium sulfate, 0.5% ammonium sulfate, 2% glucose) and had stable elevated levels of maltase and/or invertase under repression conditions but lower levels in maltose-supplemented media. Two of the mutants also had high levels of phosphatase active on 2-deoxy-d-glucose-6-phosphate. Dough fermentation (CO2 liberation) by two of the mutants was faster and/or produced higher final volumes than that by the wild type, both under laboratory and industrial conditions, when the doughs were supplemented with glucose or sucrose. However, the three mutants were slower when fermenting plain doughs. Fermented sweet bakery products obtained with these mutants were of better quality than those produced by the wild type, with regard to their texture and their organoleptic properties. PMID:11526034

  17. Development of a novel microbial sensor with baker's yeast cells for monitoring temperature control during cold food chain.

    PubMed

    Kogure, H; Kawasaki, S; Nakajima, K; Sakai, N; Futase, K; Inatsu, Y; Bari, M L; Isshiki, K; Kawamoto, S

    2005-01-01

    A novel microbial sensor containing a commercial baker's yeast with a high freeze tolerance was developed for visibly detecting inappropriate temperature control of food. When the yeast cells fermented glucose, the resulting gas production triggered the microbial sensor. The biosensor was a simple, small bag containing a solution of yeast cells, yeast extract, glucose, and glycerol sealed up with multilayer transparent film with barriers against oxygen and humidity. Fine adjustment of gas productivity in the biosensor at low temperatures was achieved by changing either or both concentrations of glucose and yeast cells. Moreover, the amount of time that food was exposed to inappropriate temperatures could be deduced by the amount of gas produced in the biosensor. The biosensor was stable without any functional loss for up to 1 week in frozen storage. The biosensor could offer a useful tool for securing food safety by maintaining low-temperature control in every stage from farm to fork, including during transportation, in the store, and at home.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.

  20. Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose.

  1. Enhanced freeze tolerance of baker's yeast by overexpressed trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1) and deleted trehalase genes in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haigang; Dong, Jian; Wang, Guanglu; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2014-08-01

    Several recombinant strains with overexpressed trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1) and/or deleted trehalase genes were obtained to elucidate the relationships between TPS1, trehalase genes, content of intracellular trehalose and freeze tolerance of baker's yeast, as well as improve the fermentation properties of lean dough after freezing. In this study, strain TL301(TPS1) overexpressing TPS1 showed 62.92 % higher trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity and enhanced the content of intracellular trehalose than the parental strain. Deleting ATH1 exerted a significant effect on trehalase activities and the degradation amount of intracellular trehalose during the first 30 min of prefermentation. This finding indicates that acid trehalase (Ath1) plays a role in intracellular trehalose degradation. NTH2 encodes a functional neutral trehalase (Nth2) that was significantly involved in intracellular trehalose degradation in the absence of the NTH1 and/or ATH1 gene. The survival ratio, freeze-tolerance ratio and relative fermentation ability of strain TL301(TPS1) were approximately twice as high as those of the parental strain (BY6-9α). The increase in freeze tolerance of strain TL301(TPS1) was accompanied by relatively low trehalase activity, high Tps1 activity and high residual content of intracellular trehalose. Our results suggest that overexpressing TPS1 and deleting trehalase genes are sufficient to improve the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast in frozen dough. The present study provides guidance for the commercial baking industry as well as the research on the intracellular trehalose mobilization and freeze tolerance of baker's yeast.

  2. Adaptive evolution of baker's yeast in a dough‐like environment enhances freeze and salinity tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Jaime; Andreu, Pasqual; Randez‐Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Summary We used adaptive evolution to improve freeze tolerance of industrial baker's yeast. Our hypothesis was that adaptation to low temperature is accompanied by enhanced resistance of yeast to freezing. Based on this hypothesis, yeast was propagated in a flour‐free liquid dough model system, which contained sorbitol and NaCl, by successive batch refreshments maintained constantly at 12°C over at least 200 generations. Relative to the parental population, the maximal growth rate (µmax) under the restrictive conditions, increased gradually over the time course of the experiment. This increase was accompanied by enhanced freeze tolerance. However, these changes were not the consequence of genetic adaptation to low temperature, a fact that was confirmed by prolonged selection of yeast cells in YPD at 12°C. Instead, the experimental populations showed a progressive increase in NaCl tolerance. This phenotype was likely achieved at the expense of others traits, since evolved cells showed a ploidy reduction, a defect in the glucose derepression mechanism and a loss in their ability to utilize gluconeogenic carbon sources. We discuss the genetic flexibility of S. cerevisiae in terms of adaptation to the multiple constraints of the experimental design applied to drive adaptive evolution and the technologically advantageous phenotype of the evolved population. PMID:21255321

  3. CRYSTALLINE INORGANIC PYROPHOSPHATASE ISOLATED FROM BAKER'S YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1952-01-01

    Crystalline inorganic pyrophosphatase has been isolated from baker's yeast. The crystalline enzyme is a protein of the albumin type with an isoelectric point near pH 4.8. Its molecular weight is of the order of 100,000. It contains about 5 per cent tyrosine and 3.5 per cent tryptophane. It is most stable at pH 6.8. The new crystalline protein acts as a specific catalyst for the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate into orthophosphate ions. It does not catalyze the hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate radical of such organic esters as adenosine di- and triphosphate, or thiamine pyrophosphate. Crystalline pyrophosphatase requires the presence of Mg, Co, or Mn ions as activators. These ions are antagonized by calcium ions. Mg is also antagonized by Co or Mn ions. The rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate is proportional to the concentration of enzyme and is a function of pH, temperature, concentration of substrate, and concentration of activating ion. The approximate conditions for optimum rate are: 40°C. and pH 7.0 at a concentration of 3 to 4 x 10–3 M Na4P2O7 and an equivalent concentration of magnesium salt. The enzymatic hydrolysis of Na4P2O7 or K4P2O7 proceeds to completion and is irreversible under the conditions at which hydrolysis is occurring. Details are given of the method of isolation of the crystalline enzyme. PMID:14898026

  4. Effects of dietary live and heat-inactive baker's yeast on growth, gut health, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia under high rearing density.

    PubMed

    Ran, Chao; Huang, Lu; Hu, Jun; Tacon, Philippe; He, Suxu; Li, Zhimin; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Zhi; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of baker's yeast as probiotics was evaluated in Nile tilapia reared at high density. Juvenile tilapia were distributed to tanks at high density (436 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet (CK) or diets supplemented with live (LY) or heat-inactivated yeast (HIY). Another group of fish reared at low density (218 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet was also included (LowCK). After 8 weeks of feeding, growth, feed utilization, gut microvilli morphology, digestive enzymes, and expressions of hsp70 and inflammation-related cytokines in the intestine were assessed. Intestinal microbiota was investigated using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila to evaluate disease resistance. High rearing density significantly decreased the growth, feed utilization, microvilli length, and disease resistance of fish (CK versus LowCK). Moreover, the intestinal hsp70 expression was increased in fish reared at high density, supporting a stress condition. Compared to CK group, supplementation of live yeast significantly increased gut microvilli length and trypsin activity, decreased intestinal hsp70 expression, and enhanced resistance of fish against A. hydrophila (reflected by reduced intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity 24 h post infection). The gut microbiota was not markedly influenced by either rearing density or yeast supplementation. Heat-inactivated yeast (HIY) didn't display the beneficial effects observed in LY except an increase in gut trypsin activity, suggesting the importance of yeast viability and thus secretory metabolites of yeast. In conclusion, live baker's yeast may alleviate the negative effects induced by crowding stress, and has the potential to be used as probiotics for tilapia reared at high density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Living organisms as an alternative to hyphenated techniques for metal speciation. Evaluation of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for Hg speciation*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Madrid-Albarrán, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Beceiro, Elisa

    1998-02-01

    The use of living organisms for metal preconcentration and speciation is discussed. Among substrates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast has been successfully used for the speciation of mercury [Hg(II) and CH 3Hg +], selenium [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] and antimony [Sb(III) and Sb(V)]. To illustrate the capabilities of these organisms, the analytical performance of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for on-line preconcentration and speciation of Hg(II) and methylmercury is reported. The immobilized cells were packed in a PTFE microcolumn, through which mixtures of organic and inorganic mercury solutions were passed. Retention of inorganic and organic mercury solutions took place simultaneously, with the former retained in the silica and the latter on the yeast. The efficiency uptake for both species was higher than 95% over a wide pH range. The speciation was carried out by selective and sequential elution with 0.02 mol L -1 HCl for methylmercury and 0.8 mol L -1 CN - for Hg(II). This method allows both preconcentration and speciation of mercury. The preconcentration factors were around 15 and 100 for methylmercury and mercury(II), respectively. The method has been successfully applied to spiked sea water samples.

  6. Effect of Growth Conditions and Trehalose Content on Cryotolerance of Bakers' Yeast in Frozen Doughs

    PubMed Central

    Gélinas, Pierre; Fiset, Gisèle; LeDuy, Anh; Goulet, Jacques

    1989-01-01

    The cryotolerance in frozen doughs and in water suspensions of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) previously grown under various industrial conditions was evaluated on a laboratory scale. Fed-batch cultures were very superior to batch cultures, and strong aeration enhanced cryoresistance in both cases for freezing rates of 1 to 56°C min−1. Loss of cell viability in frozen dough or water was related to the duration of the dissolved-oxygen deficit during fed-batch growth. Strongly aerobic fed-batch cultures grown at a reduced average specific rate (μ = 0.088 h−1 compared with 0.117 h−1) also showed greater trehalose synthesis and improved frozen-dough stability. Insufficient aeration (dissolved-oxygen deficit) and lower growth temperature (20°C instead of 30°C) decreased both fed-batch-grown yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content. Although trehalose had a cryoprotective effect in S. cerevisiae, its effect was neutralized by even a momentary lack of excess dissolved oxygen in the fed-batch growth medium. PMID:16348024

  7. Heterologous expression of type I antifreeze peptide GS-5 in baker's yeast increases freeze tolerance and provides enhanced gas production in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Joaquin; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2005-12-28

    The demand for frozen-dough products has increased notably in the baking industry. Nowadays, no appropriate industrial baker's yeast with optimal gassing capacity in frozen dough is, however, available, and it is unlikely that classical breeding programs could provide significant improvements of this trait. Antifreeze proteins, found in diverse organisms, display the ability to inhibit the growth of ice, allowing them to survive at temperatures below 0 degrees C. In this study a recombinant antifreeze peptide GS-5 was expressed from the polar fish grubby sculpin (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) in laboratory and industrial baker's yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Production of the recombinant protein increased freezing tolerance in both strains tested. Furthermore, expression of the GS-5 encoding gene enhanced notably the gassing rate and total gas production in frozen and frozen sweet doughs. These effects are unlikely to be due to reduced osmotic damage during freezing/thawing, because recombinant cells showed growth behavior similar to that of the parent under hypermosmotic stress conditions.

  8. Facile one-pot fabrication of nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites and their application in methylene blue dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zongjun; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhengjie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Guangtu; Zou, Ping; Chen, Huaping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2017-01-01

    Nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites (NF/CF-BYs) were prepared for the first time based on the ultrasonic cavitation assisted oxygen implosion method using single Fe2+ as iron source. The series of characterization analysis results showed that the obtained NF/CF-BYs had not only the superparamagnetic properties of nano-Fe3O4, but their surface also had plenty of functional groups (especially carboxyl groups) introduced by strong oxidization. The adsorption properties of NF/CF-BYs for methylene blue (MB) were also evaluated. The results displayed that the uptakes of NF/CF-BYs for MB were higher than that of pristine baker's yeast (P-BYs), and the adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of NF/CF-BYs for MB was estimated to be 141.75 mg g-1 at pH 6. The regeneration efficiency of the obtained NF/CF-BYs was attained to be more than 90%.

  9. Expression of LIP1 and LIP2 genes from Geotrichum species in Baker's yeast strains and their application to the bread-making process.

    PubMed

    Monfort, A; Blasco, A; Sanz, P; Prieto, J A

    1999-02-01

    Lipolytic baker's yeast strains able to produce extracellular active lipase have been constructed by transformation with plasmids containing the LIP1 and LIP2 genes from Geotrichum sp. under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1). Lipase productivity differed between both constructs, YEpACT-LIP1-t and YEpACT-LIP2-t, being higher for the strain bearing the LIP2 gene in all culture media tested. This result appeared not to be the consequence of a defect in the transcription of the LIP1 gene as revealed by Northern blot analysis. Replacing the signal sequence of LIP1 by that of LIP2 in the YEpACT-LIP1-t plasmid enhanced significantly the secretion of lipase 1, but the levels of lipase activity were still lower than those found for the YEpACT-LIP2-t transformant. Recombinant lipase 2 protein produced by baker's yeast exhibited biochemical properties similar to those of the natural enzyme. Fermented dough prepared with YEpACT-LIP2-t-carrying cells rendered a bread with a higher loaf volume and a more uniform crumb structure than that prepared with control yeast. These effects were stronger by the addition in the bread dough formulas of a preferment enriched in recombinant lipase 2.

  10. Study of the kinetic parameters for synthesis and hydrolysis of pharmacologically active salicin isomer catalyzed by baker's yeast maltase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veličković, D. V.; Dimitrijević, A. S.; Bihelović, F. J.; Jankov, R. M.; Milosavić, N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key elements for understanding enzyme reactions is determination of its kinetic parameters. Since transglucosylation is kinetically controlled reaction, besides the reaction of synthesis, very important is the reaction of enzymatic hydrolysis of created product. Therefore, in this study, kinetic parameters for synthesis and secondary hydrolysis of pharmacologically active α isosalicin by baker's yeast maltase were calculated, and it was shown that specifity of maltase for hydrolysis is approximately 150 times higher then for synthesis.

  11. Stress-tolerance of baker's-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells: stress-protective molecules and genes involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    During the fermentation of dough and the production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cells are exposed to numerous environmental stresses (baking-associated stresses) such as freeze-thaw, high sugar concentrations, air-drying and oxidative stresses. Cellular macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and membranes, are seriously damaged under stress conditions, leading to the inhibition of cell growth, cell viability and fermentation. To avoid lethal damage, yeast cells need to acquire a variety of stress-tolerant mechanisms, for example the induction of stress proteins, the accumulation of stress protectants, changes in membrane composition and repression of translation, and by regulating the corresponding gene expression via stress-triggered signal-transduction pathways. Trehalose and proline are considered to be critical stress protectants, as is glycerol. It is known that these molecules are effective for providing protection against various types of environmental stresses. Modifications of the metabolic pathways of trehalose and proline by self-cloning methods have significantly increased tolerance to baking-associated stresses. To clarify which genes are required for stress tolerance, both a comprehensive phenomics analysis and a functional genomics analysis were carried out under stress conditions that simulated those occurring during the commercial baking process. These analyses indicated that many genes are involved in stress tolerance in yeast. In particular, it was suggested that vacuolar H+-ATPase plays important roles in yeast cells under stress conditions.

  12. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly

    2002-06-01

    We describe an integrated set of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory that allows students to compare and contrast biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule. The racemic reduction of ethyl acetoacetate with sodium borohydride and the same reduction in the presence of a tartaric acid ligand are described, and a capillary gas chromatography column packed with a chiral material for product analysis is introduced. The results of these two hydride reactions are compared with the results of a common undergraduate experiment, the baker's yeast reduction of ethyl acetoacetate.

  14. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps.

  15. Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making.

    PubMed

    Monfort, A; Blasco, A; Prieto, J A; Sanz, P

    1996-10-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density.

  16. The extraction and purification of a cysteine transfer ribonucleic acid from baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Holness, N J; Atfield, G

    1976-01-01

    1. A modification of the RPC 1 system of A.D. Kelmers, G.D. Novelli & M.P. Stulberg (1965) (J. Biol. Chem. 240, 3979-3983) is described in which the support medium is a Celite of narrow range particle size treated with dichlorodimethylsilane. 2. By using this system an apparently pure preparation of tRNA Cys was isolated from baker's yeast tRNA. 3. This preparation accepted at least 60% of the theoretical quantity of [3-14C]cysteine in a conventional assay and failed to accept isoleucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine or tyrosine. 4. A theoretical countercurrent-distribution curve calculated by assuming a distribution coefficient K of 2.03 was in excellent agreement with the profiles of E260 and cysteine-acceptor ability after 537 transfers in the 1.85 M-phosphate/formamide/propan-2-ol system of C.M. Connelly & B.P. Doctor (1965) (J. Biol. Chem. 241, 715-719). 5. Chromatography of tRNA Cys on Bio-Gel P100 polyacrylamide beads afforded two components one of which was far less efficient than the other in accepting cysteine. The base compositions of the two were similar. PMID:776175

  17. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  18. Baker: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Baker apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) prepare and bake all types of high quality yeast raised products in commercial quantities; (2) produce and decorate various types of cakes, cookies and pastries commonly available in commercial bakeries; (3) use efficiently and safely all hand…

  19. Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, A.; Blasco, A.; Prieto, J. A.; Sanz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density. PMID:16535419

  20. Activities of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes, Glyoxylate Cycle Enzymes, and Fructose Diphosphatase in Bakers' Yeast During Adaptation to Acetate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, J. P.; Duggan, P. F.

    1971-01-01

    Bakers' yeast oxidizes acetate at a high rate only after an adaptation period during which the capacity of the glyoxylate cycle is found to increase. There was apparently no necessity for the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, the capacity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, or the concentrations of the cytochromes to increase for this adaptation to occur. Elevation of fructose 1,6 diphosphatase occurred only when acetate oxidation was nearly maximal. Cycloheximide almost completely inhibited adaptation as well as increases in the activities of isocitrate lyase and aconitate hydratase, the only enzymes assayed. p-Fluorophenylalanine was partially effective and chloramphenicol did not inhibit at all. The presence of ammonium, which considerably delayed adaptation of the yeast to acetate oxidation, inhibited the increases in the activities of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes to different degrees, demonstrating noncoordinate control of these enzymes. Under the various conditions, the only enzyme activity increase consistently related to the rising oxygen uptake rate was that of isocitrate lyase which apparently limited the activity of the cycle. PMID:5557595

  1. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  2. Survival of genetically modified and self-cloned strains of commercial baker's yeast in simulated natural environments: environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Although genetic engineering techniques for baker's yeast might improve the yeast's fermentation characteristics, the lack of scientific data on the survival of such strains in natural environments as well as the effects on human health prevent their commercial use. Disruption of acid trehalase gene (ATH1) improves freeze tolerance, which is a crucial characteristic in frozen-dough baking. In this study, ATH1 disruptants constructed by genetic modification (GM) and self-cloning (SC) techniques were used as models to study such effects because these strains have higher freeze tolerance and are expected to be used commercially. Behavior of the strains in simulated natural environments, namely, in soil and water, was studied by measuring the change in the number of viable cells and in the concentration of DNA that contains ATH1 loci. Measurements were made using a real-time PCR method during 40 days of cultivation. Results showed that the number of viable cells of GM and SC strains decreased in a time-dependent manner and that the decrease rate was nearly equal to or higher than that for wild-type (WT) yeast. For all three strains (SC, GM, and WT) in the two simulated natural environments (water and soil), the DNA remained longer than did viable cells but the decrease patterns of either the DNA or the viable cells of SC and GM strains had tendencies similar to those of the WT strain. In conclusion, disruption of ATH1 by genetic engineering apparently does not promote the survival of viable cells and DNA in natural environments.

  3. Use of flow cytometry to monitor cell damage and predict fermentation activity of dried yeasts.

    PubMed

    Attfield, P V; Kletsas, S; Veal, D A; van Rooijen, R; Bell, P J

    2000-08-01

    Viable dried yeast is used as an inoculum for many fermentations in the baking and wine industries. The fermentative activity of yeast in bread dough or grape must is a critical parameter of process efficiency. Here, it is shown that fluorescent stains and flow cytometry can be used in concert to predict the abilities of populations of dried bakers' and wine yeasts to ferment after rehydration. Fluorescent dyes that stain cells only if they have damaged membrane potential (oxonol) or have increased membrane permeability (propidium iodide) were used to analyse, by flow cytometry, populations of rehydrated yeasts. A strong relationship (r2 = 0.99) was found between the percentages of populations staining with the oxonol and the degree of cell membrane damage as measured by the more traditional method of leakage of intracellular compounds. There were also were good negative relationships (r2 > or = 0.83) between fermentation by rehydrated bakers' or wine dry yeasts and percentage of populations staining with either oxonol or propidium iodide. Fluorescent staining with flow cytometry confirmed that factors such as vigour of dried yeast mixing in water, soaking before stirring, rehydration in water or fermentation medium and temperature of rehydration have profound effects on subsequent yeast vitality. These experiments indicate the potential of flow cytometry as a rapid means of predicting the fermentation performance of dried bakers' and wine yeasts.

  4. Septin Organization and Functions in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Glomb, Oliver; Gronemeyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins present in all eukaryotic cells except plants. They were originally discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that serves until today as an important model organism for septin research. In yeast, the septins assemble into a highly ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck. The septins are regulators of spatial compartmentalization in yeast and act as key players in cytokinesis. This minireview summarizes the recent findings about structural features and cell biology of the yeast septins. PMID:27857941

  5. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in

  6. Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Increases Salivary IgA and Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise

    PubMed Central

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Carpenter, Katie C.; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209–221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1–9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32

  7. Comparison of fermentative capacities of industrial baking and wild-type yeasts of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different sugar media.

    PubMed

    Bell, P J; Higgins, V J; Attfield, P V

    2001-04-01

    To compare the fermentative capacity of wild and domesticated isolates of the genus Saccharomyces. The fermentative capacity of yeasts from a variety of wild and domesticated sources was tested in synthetic dough media that mimic major bread dough types. Domesticated yeast strains were found to have better maltose-utilizing capacity than wild yeast strains. The capacity to ferment sugars under high osmotic stress was randomly distributed amongst wild and baking strains of Saccharomyces. The domestication of bakers' yeast has enhanced the ability of yeasts to ferment maltose, without a similar impact on the fermentative capacity under high osmotic conditions. This study, combined with molecular studies of both wild and domesticated yeast, showed that domestication of bakers' yeast has resulted in improved maltose utilization, apparently via the duplication and mutation of the MAL genes.

  8. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  9. Experimental Systems to Study Yeast Pexophagy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shun-Ichi; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Fujiki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome abundance is tightly regulated according to the physiological contexts, through regulations of both proliferation and degradation of the organelles. Here, we describe detailed methods to analyze processes for autophagic degradation of peroxisomes, termed pexophagy, in yeast organisms. The assay systems include a method for biochemical detection of pexophagy completion, and one for microscopic visualization of specialized membrane structures acting in pexophagy. As a model yeast organism utilized in studies of pexophagy, the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) is referred to in this chapter and related information on the studies with baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is also included. The described techniques facilitate elucidation of molecular machineries for pexophagy and understanding of peroxisome-selective autophagic pathways.

  10. Yeasts: providing questions and answers for modern biology.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, J R

    2000-01-01

    Yeasts are to be found in virtually every conceivable niche on this planet and are amazingly varied in their shapes ('morphologies'), life cycles, metabolic capabilities, potentials for use in industrial processes, abilities to spoil food and drink or to act as dangerous human pathogens. This review describes four very different species of yeast to illustrate some of the diversity which exists and, in the case of one of them, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the familiar baker's or brewer's yeast), the extent of both our knowledge and ignorance.

  11. The Red and White Yeast Lab: An Introduction to Science as a Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an experimental system based on an engineered strain of bakers' yeast that is designed to involve students in the process by which scientific knowledge is generated. Students are asked to determine why the yeast grow to form a reproducible pattern of red and white. (WRM)

  12. Yeast Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

  13. Mitochondrial metabolism and stress response of yeast: Applications in fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria are sites of oxidative respiration. During sake brewing, sake yeasts are exposed to long periods of hypoxia; the structure, role, and metabolism of mitochondria of sake yeasts have not been studied in detail. It was first elucidated that the mitochondrial structure of sake yeast transforms from filamentous to dotted structure during sake brewing, which affects malate metabolism. Based on the information of yeast mitochondria during sake brewing, practical technologies have been developed; (i) breeding pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast by the isolation of a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport; and (ii) modifying malate and succinate production by manipulating mitochondrial activity. During the bread-making process, baker's yeast cells are exposed to a variety of baking-associated stresses, such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high sucrose concentrations. These treatments induce oxidative stress generating reactive oxygen species due to mitochondrial damage. A novel metabolism of proline and arginine catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 in the mitochondria eventually leads to synthesis of nitric oxide, which confers oxidative stress tolerance on yeast cells. The enhancement of proline and arginine metabolism could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains that are tolerant to multiple baking-associated stresses. These new and practical methods provide approaches to improve the processes in the field of industrial fermentation technologies. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Between science and industry-applied yeast research.

    PubMed

    Korhola, Matti

    2018-03-01

    I was fortunate to enter yeast research at the Alko Research Laboratories with a strong tradition in yeast biochemistry and physiology studies. At the same time in the 1980s there was a fundamental or paradigm change in molecular biology research with discoveries in DNA sequencing and other analytical and physical techniques for studying macromolecules and cells. Since that time biotechnological research has expanded the traditional fermentation industries to efficient production of industrial and other enzymes and specialty chemicals. Our efforts were directed towards improving the industrial production organisms: minerals enriched yeasts (Se, Cr, Zn) and high glutathione content yeast, baker´s, distiller´s, sour dough and wine yeasts, and the fungal Trichoderma reesei platform for enzyme production. I am grateful for the trust of my colleagues in several leadership positions at the Alko Research Laboratories, Yeast Industry Platform and at the international yeast community.

  15. Biofortification of folates in white wheat bread by selection of yeast strain and process.

    PubMed

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Jastrebova, Jelena; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-09-30

    We here demonstrate that folate content in yeast fermented food can be dramatically increased by using a proper (i) yeast strain and (ii) cultivation procedure for the selected strain prior to food fermentation. Folate levels were 3 to 5-fold higher in white wheat bread leavened with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CBS7764, cultured in defined medium and harvested in the respiro-fermentative phase of growth prior to dough preparation (135-139 microg/100 dry matter), compared to white wheat bread leavened with commercial Baker's yeast (27-43 microg/100 g). The commercial Baker's yeast strain had been industrially produced, using a fed-batch process, thereafter compressed and stored in the refrigerator until bakings were initiated. This strategy is an attractive alternative to fortification of bread with synthetically produced folic acid. By using a high folate producing strain cultured a suitable way folate levels obtained were in accordance with folic acid content in fortified cereal products.

  16. Orally Administered Baker's Yeast β-Glucan Promotes Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in the Livers of Obesity and Diabetes Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Ying; Zou, Siwei; Li, Mengxia; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2017-11-08

    Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be an anti-diabetic agent. In the work described herein, further study on the effect of orally administered BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc.), glycerolipid synthesis (Gpam and Lipin1/2), and cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcr, Fdps, etc.). Additionally, BYG decreased glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2, fat emulsification, and adipogenic genes/proteins in the intestine to decrease glucose and lipid absorption. All these findings demonstrated that BYG is beneficial for regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic mice, and thus has potential applications in anti-diabetic foods or drugs.

  17. Clarifying Baker's Law

    PubMed Central

    Cheptou, P.-O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Baker's Law states that colonization by self-compatible organisms is more likely to be successful than colonization by self-incompatible organisms because of the ability for self-compatible organisms to produce offspring without pollination agents. This simple model has proved very successful in plant ecology and has been applied to various contexts, including colonizing or ruderal species, islands colonizers, invasive species or mating system variation across distribution ranges. Moreover, it is one of the only models in population biology linking two traits of major importance in ecology, namely dispersal and mating system. Although Baker's Law has stimulated a large number of empirical studies reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability in various contexts, the data have not established a general pattern for the association of traits. Scope In this paper, a critical position is adopted to discuss and clarify Baker's Law. From the literature referring to Baker's Law, an analysis made regarding how mating success is considered in such studies and discrepancies with population genetics theory of mating systems are highlighted. The data reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability are also briefly reviewed and the potential bias in interpretation is discussed. Lastly, a recent theoretical model analysing the link between colonizing ability and self-fertilization is considered. Conclusions Evolutionary predictions are actually more complex than Baker's intuitive arguments. It appears that Baker's Law encompasses a variety of ecological scenarios, which cannot be considered a priori as equivalent. Questioning what has been considered as self-evident for more than 50 years seems a reasonable objective to analyse in-depth dispersal and mating system traits. PMID:21685434

  18. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  19. Conditions of activation of yeast plasma membrane ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sychrová, H; Kotyk, A

    1985-04-08

    The in vivo activation of the H+-ATPase of baker's yeast plasma membrane found by Serrano in 1983 was demonstrated with D-glucose aerobically and anaerobically (as well as in a respiration-deficient mutant) and, after suitable induction, with maltose, trehalose, and galactose. The activated but not the control ATPase was sensitive to oligomycin. No activation was possible in a cell-free extract with added glucose. The ATPase was not activated in yeast protoplasts which may account for the absence of glucose-stimulated secondary active transports in these wall-less cells and provide support for a microscopic coupling between ATPase activity and these transports in yeast cells.

  20. Chemical signaling and insect attraction is a conserved trait in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Becher, Paul G; Hagman, Arne; Verschut, Vasiliki; Chakraborty, Amrita; Rozpędowska, Elżbieta; Lebreton, Sébastien; Bengtsson, Marie; Flick, Gerhard; Witzgall, Peter; Piškur, Jure

    2018-03-01

    Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the insect-associated species Candida californica , Pichia kluyveri and Metschnikowia andauensis , wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis , milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis , the vertebrate pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , and oleophilic Yarrowia lipolytica were screened for fly attraction in a wind tunnel. Yeast headspace was chemically analyzed, and co-occurrence of insect attractants in yeasts and flowering plants was investigated through a database search. In yeasts with known genomes, we investigated the occurrence of genes involved in the synthesis of key aroma compounds. Flies were attracted to all nine yeasts studied. The behavioral response to baker's yeast was independent of its growth stage. In addition to Drosophila , we tested the basal hexapod Folsomia candida (Collembola) in a Y-tube assay to the most ancient yeast, Y. lipolytica, which proved that early yeast signals also function on clades older than neopteran insects. Behavioral and chemical data and a search for selected genes of volatile metabolites underline that biosynthesis of chemical signals is found throughout the yeast clade and has been conserved during the evolution of yeast lifestyles. Literature and database reviews corroborate that yeast signals mediate mutualistic interactions between insects and yeasts

  1. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  2. Teaching nutritional biochemistry: an experimental approach using yeast.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Manuel; Stella, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we present a practical approach to teaching several topics in nutrition to science students at the high school and college freshmen levels. This approach uses baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a biological system model. The diameters of yeast colonies, which vary according to the nutrients present in the medium, can be observed, compared, and used to teach metabolic requirements. The experiments described in this report show simple macroscopic evidence of submicroscopic nutritional events. This can serve as a useful base for an analogy of heterotrophic human cell nutrition.

  3. The Treasure of the Humble: Lessons from Baker's Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    The study of model organisms is a powerful and proven experimental strategy for understanding biological processes. This paper describes an attempt to utilize advances in yeast molecular biology to enhance student understanding by presenting a more comprehensive view of several interconnected molecular processes in the overall functioning of an…

  4. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  5. From the baker to the bedside: yeast models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Regina; Tenreiro, Sandra; Macedo, Diana; Santos, Cláudia N.; Outeiro, Tiago F.

    2015-01-01

    The baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively explored for our understanding of fundamental cell biology processes highly conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom. In this context, they have proven invaluable in the study of complex mechanisms such as those involved in a variety of human disorders. Here, we first provide a brief historical perspective on the emergence of yeast as an experimental model and on how the field evolved to exploit the potential of the model for tackling the intricacies of various human diseases. In particular, we focus on existing yeast models of the molecular underpinnings of Parkinson’s disease (PD), focusing primarily on the central role of protein quality control systems. Finally, we compile and discuss the major discoveries derived from these studies, highlighting their far-reaching impact on the elucidation of PD-associated mechanisms as well as in the identification of candidate therapeutic targets and compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:28357302

  6. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  7. Baker nominated to Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Warren J. Baker to the National Science Board (NSB), according to an announcement by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Baker is the president of California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. A civil engineer by training, his research specialty is soil dynamics.The 24-member NSB is the policy-making body of the NSF. Provided that the Senate confirms his appointment, Baker will serve on the board until May 1988.

  8. Continuous cultivation of bakers' yeast: change in cell composition at different dilution rates and effect of heat stress on trehalose level.

    PubMed

    Ertugay, N; Hamamci, H

    1997-01-01

    The cell composition of bakers' yeast in a continuous culture was determined for different dilution rates. Also, the cellular response to heat stress in terms of trehalose, RNA, glycogen and protein was determined at a specified dilution rate of 0.1/h. The amount of storage saccharides, trehalose and glycogen, was found to decrease whereas the amount of RNA and protein increased with increasing dilution rates. As the dilution rate was increased from 0.1 to 0.4/h at 0.05 intervals the steady-state trehalose content decreased from 33 to 8.6 mg/g biomass, and glycogen content from 150 to 93 mg/g biomass. On the other hand, the protein content increased from 420 to 530 mg/g biomass and the RNA content from 93 to 113 mg/g biomass. Heat stress was applied by increasing the medium temperature from 30 to 36, 38 or 40 degrees C at constant dilution rates. The highest amount of trehalose accumulation, 108 mg/g biomass, was achieved when heat stress at 38 degrees C was applied. The protein content, on the other hand, decreased from 350 to 325 mg/g biomass at the end of the experiment.

  9. Near-freezing effects on the proteome of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2016-03-10

    At near-freezing temperatures (0-4°C), the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stops or is severely limited, and viability decreases. Under these conditions, yeast cells trigger a biochemical response, in which trehalose and glycerol accumulate and protect them against severe cold and freeze injury. However, the mechanisms that allow yeast cells to sustain this response have been not clarified. The effects of severe cold on the proteome of S. cerevisiae have been not investigated and its importance in providing cell survival at near-freezing temperatures and upon freezing remains unknown. Here, we have compared the protein profile of two industrial baker's yeast strains at 30°C and 4°C. Overall, a total of 16 proteins involved in energy-metabolism, translation and redox homeostasis were identified as showing increased abundance at 4°C. The predominant presence of glycolytic proteins among those upregulated at 4°C, likely represents a mechanism to maintain a constant supply of ATP for the synthesis of glycerol and other protective molecules. Accumulation of these molecules is by far the most important component in enhancing viability of baker's yeast strains upon freezing. Overexpression of genes encoding certain proteins associated with translation or redox homeostasis provided specifically protection against extreme cold damage, underlying the importance of these functions in the near-freezing response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Yeast Genomics for Bread, Beer, Biology, Bucks and Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    The rapid advances and scale up of projects in DNA sequencing dur ing the past two decades have produced complete genome sequences of several eukaryotic species. The versatile genetic malleability of the yeast, and the high degree of conservation between its cellular processes and those of human cells have made it a model of choice for pioneering research in molecular and cell biology. The complete sequence of yeast genome has proven to be extremely useful as a reference towards the sequences of human and for providing systems to explore key gene functions. Yeast has been a ‘legendary model’ for new technologies and gaining new biological insights into basic biological sciences and biotechnology. This chapter describes the awesome power of yeast genetics, genomics and proteomics in understanding of biological function. The applications of yeast as a screening tool to the field of drug discovery and development are highlighted and the traditional importance of yeast for bakers and brewers is discussed.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces a Yeast Substance that Exhibits Estrogenic Activity in Mammalian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, David; Stathis, Peter A.; Hirst, Margaret A.; Price Stover, E.; Do, Yung S.; Kurz, Walter

    1984-06-01

    Partially purified lipid extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a substance that displaces tritiated estradiol from rat uterine cytosol estrogen receptors. The yeast product induces estrogenic bioresponses in mammalian systems as measured by induction of progesterone receptors in cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and by a uterotrophic response and progesterone receptor induction after administration to ovariectomized mice. The findings raise the possibility that bakers' yeast may be a source of environmental estrogens.

  12. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Effects of yeast, fermentation time, and preservation methods on tarhana.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Ozan; Gocmen, Duygu; Ozmen, Nese; Dagdelen, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of tarhana soup produced with different dough treatments, fermentation times, and preservation methods were examined. Tarhana doughs were prepared with yogurt (control) or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermented for 3 days. Samples were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hr. Samples were then preserved via one of four methods: sun dried, dried in the shade, vacumn dried, and frozen. Frozen samples produced lower organic acid levels after 72 hr of fermentation in both control (0.68 g/100 g) and yeast (0.61 g/100 g) applications than samples that were dried (0.94 g/100 g control samples; 0.81 g/100 g samples with yeast). Increasing fermentation time resulted in a significant effect on the formation of organic acid in the tarhana (p < .01). At 72 hr of fermentation, total acidity increased 11%, 17%, and 23% for tarhana samples vacumn-dried, sun-dried, and dried in the shade, respectively. Preservation methods also affected the moisture, ash, crude protein, total acidity, pH, salt, fat, reducing sugar levels, and the sensory assestment of tarhana soup (p < .01). Sensory characteristics were not significantly affected by baker's yeast in any of the preservation methods used (p > .01). However, sensory scores for tarhana prepared from the samples dried in a sheltered area showed a reduction in color desireablilty as the fermentation time increased. The soup prepared from frozen tarhana (72 hr fermentation, with yeast) had the highest scores with respect to color, mouth feel, flavor, and overall acceptability. Vacuum-dried samples' scores in these areas were also high in comparison to the two other drying methods.

  14. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

  15. Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10more » and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.« less

  16. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing β-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2 mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9 mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4 mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaginitis: transmission from yeast used in baking.

    PubMed

    Nyirjesy, P; Vazquez, J A; Ufberg, D D; Sobel, J D; Boikov, D A; Buckley, H R

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether vaginitis due to Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be caused by exposure to exogenous sources of baker's yeast. Eight women with S cerevisiae vaginitis were identified from a cohort of women referred for the evaluation of chronic vaginal symptoms. In those with high-level exposure to exogenous sources of S cerevisiae, isolates from the vagina and those sources were sent in a blinded fashion for contour-clamped homogeneous electric-field electrophoresis. Four women from a cohort of approximately 750 referred patients had high-level exposures to S cerevisiae. In one of these patients, electrophoresis analysis revealed similarities between the strains isolated from her vagina, her husband's fingers, and the yeast he used in his pizza shop. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaginitis can be the result of the inoculation of this yeast from exogenous sources.

  18. Phosphatidic acid synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, N. J.; Lynen, F.

    1965-01-01

    1. The presence of palmitoyl-CoA–l-glycerol 1-phosphate palmitoyltransferase (EC2.3.1.15) has been demonstrated in a particulate fraction of baker's yeast. 2. The enzyme has been characterized, and its activity studied as a function of pH and concentration of substrates. 3. Inhibition by thiol poisons and protection by acyl-CoA have been used to obtain information on the active site. 4. By various methods of supplying acyl radicals, the species `palmitoyl-CoA' has been shown to be the true acyl donor to the transferase. PMID:14342236

  19. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  20. Baker's Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rarely, a Baker's cyst bursts and synovial fluid leaks into the calf region, causing: Sharp pain in your knee Swelling in the calf Sometimes, redness of your calf or a feeling of water running down your calf These signs and symptoms ...

  1. Organic compounds removal and toxicity reduction of landfill leachate by commercial bakers' yeast and conventional bacteria based membrane bioreactor integrated with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Reis, Beatriz Gasparini; Silveira, Amanda Lemes; Tostes Teixeira, Luiza Procópio; Okuma, Adriana Akemi; Lange, Liséte Celina; Amaral, Miriam Cristina Santos

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of a commercial bakers' yeast (MBRy) and conventional bacteria (MBRb) based membrane bioreactor integrated with nanofiltration (NF) in the removal of landfill leachate toxicity. Performances were evaluated using physicochemical analyses, toxicity tests and identification of organic compounds. The MBR b and MBR y were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48h and solids retention time (SRT) of 60 d. The MBR y demonstrated better removal efficiencies for COD (69±7%), color (54±11%) and ammoniacal nitrogen (34±7%) compared to MBR b , which showed removal efficiencies of 27±5%, 33±4% and 27±7%, for COD, color and ammoniacal nitrogen. Although the MBR y seems to be the configuration that presented the highest efficiency; it generated toxic permeate whose toxicity cannot be explained by physicochemical results. The identification of compounds shows that there is a wide range of compounds in the landfill leachate in addition to others that are produced in the biological treatment steps. The NF plays a crucial role in the polishing of the final effluents by the either complete or partial retention of compounds, that attribute toxicity to the leachate, and inorganic contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yeast synthetic biology for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunah; Yoo, Su Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2015-02-01

    The production of recombinant therapeutic proteins is one of the fast-growing areas of molecular medicine and currently plays an important role in treatment of several diseases. Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microbial host cells that offer unique advantages in producing biopharmaceutical proteins. Yeasts are capable of robust growth on simple media, readily accommodate genetic modifications, and incorporate typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional baker's yeast that has been used as a major host for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, several nonconventional yeast species including Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica have gained increasing attention as alternative hosts for the industrial production of recombinant proteins. In this review, we address the established and emerging genetic tools and host strains suitable for recombinant protein production in various yeast expression systems, particularly focusing on current efforts toward synthetic biology approaches in developing yeast cell factories for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  3. A Low-Cost Thermistor Device for Measurements of Metabolic Heat in Yeast Cells in Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Provides illustrated directions for the construction and use of a low-cost thermistor device. Attached to a servo-type millivolt chart recorder, the device will record minute temperature changes and will simulate data obtained from an oxygen polarograph. Includes results of experiments with baker's yeast. (Author/CS)

  4. Some Practical Aspects of Sugar Fermentation by Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes simple quantitative determinations for ethanol and carbon dioxide, together with techniques for examining the effects of a number of environmental factors on their production. The experimental work centers around the growth of a cell population of yeast, and is suitable for senior high school students. (JR)

  5. The Effect of Selenium Enrichment on Baker s Yeast Proteome

    PubMed Central

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Das, Arunangshu; Russell, Stephen; Wolfe, Steven; Jordan, Rick; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; Loughran, Thomas P.; Somiari, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of regular yeast (RY) and selenium-enriched yeast (SEY) as dietary supplement is of interest because the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) trial revealed that SEY but not RY decreased the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). Using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) – tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) approach, we performed proteomic analysis of RY and SEY to identify proteins that are differentially expressed as a result of selenium enrichment. 2D-DIGE revealed 96 candidate protein spots that were differentially expressed (p≤0.05) between SEY and RY. The 96 spots were selected, sequenced by LC/MS/MS and 37 proteins were unequivocally identified. The 37 identified proteins were verified with ProteinProphet software and mapped to existing Gene Ontology categories. Furthermore, the expression profile of 5 of the proteins with validated or putative roles in the carcinogenesis process, and for which antibodies against human forms of the proteins are available commercially were verified by western analysis. This study provides evidence for the first time that SEY contains higher levels of Pyruvate Kinase, HSP70, and Elongation factor 2 and lower levels of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A-2 and Triosephosphate Isomerase than those found in RY. PMID:22067702

  6. Julie D. Baker - Associate Laboratory Director | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    her most recent role at INL, Baker has served in a variety of operations, engineering, science and role as special assistant to INL's laboratory director. During that time, Baker engaged in the full

  7. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (ρ +) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (ρ -), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ρ + cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ρ - cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Enzymes from Yeast: An Extended Undergraduate Laboratory Sequence for Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Kelly E.; Watt, Terry J.; McIntyre, Neil R.; Thompson, Marleesa

    2013-01-01

    Providing a project-based experience in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory class can be complex with large class sizes and limited resources. We have designed a 6-week curriculum during which students purify and characterize the enzymes invertase and phosphatase from bakers yeast. Purification is performed in two stages via ethanol…

  10. Influence of the extent of disruption of Bakers' yeast on protein adsorption in expanded beds.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2008-02-01

    Expanded bed adsorption chromatography is used to capture the protein product of interest from a crude biological suspension directly, thereby eliminating the need for the removal of the cell debris. While this technique may replace three or four unit operations in a typical downstream process for biological product recovery, the adsorption process is influenced by the interaction between the microbial cells or cell debris and the adsorbent as well as the presence of contaminating solutes. The influence of the extent and nature of disruption of Bakers' yeast on the adsorption of the total soluble protein and alpha-glucosidase was investigated in this study. Two different techniques were used for cell disruption: high pressure homogenisation and hydrodynamic cavitation. Two different adsorbents were chosen: anionic Streamline DEAE and cationic Streamline SP. The settled bed height and the superficial velocity were constant across all experiments. The feedstock was characterised in terms of viscosity, pH, conductivity, particle size distribution of the cell debris and the extent of protein and alpha-glucosidase released. The performance of the adsorption process was found to be influenced by the electrostatic interactions of cell debris with the anionic adsorbent Streamline DEAE and the intraparticle diffusional resistance inside the pores of the adsorbent matrix. The increase in the intensity of disruption resulted in an increase in the dynamic binding capacity (10% feed) of both the total soluble protein and the alpha-glucosidase. However, the increase in the DBC of protein and alpha-glucosidase were not proportional. The amount of protein that could be adsorbed per ml of adsorbent from the samples subjected to a lower intensity of disruption was found to exceed that obtained at a higher disruption intensity on increasing the volume of feed suggesting multilayer adsorption. In this case, selective adsorption of the model protein alpha-glucosidase was reduced

  11. Circulating antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers'/brewers' yeast) in gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Darroch, C J; Barnes, R M; Dawson, J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating antibodies to yeast organisms that could be used to characterise the yeast specific immune response in gastrointestinal disease. METHODS: A quantitative, isotype specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure circulating antibodies to an aqueous extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sacc). Comparisons of specific antibody concentrations were made between 224 healthy controls and 51 patients with Crohn's disease, 41 with ulcerative colitis, 24 with indeterminate colitis, 23 with chronic liver disease, 17 with coeliac disease, and seven with irritable bowel syndrome. Additional comparisons were made between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Within the Crohn's disease group, the dependence of antibody levels on several clinical variables was assessed. RESULTS: IgG and IgA anti-sacc antibodies were significantly raised in Crohn's disease. IgG antibodies were also raised in patients with chronic liver disease. Among patients with Crohn's disease, IgG antibody concentrations were higher in those with serum alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) above the normal range and there was a strong trend towards increased IgG anti-sacc in the presence of small bowel disease, whereas IgA anti-sacc correlated positively with disease duration. No differences were detected according to whether patients were taking steroids. Neither the Crohn's disease nor the chronic liver disease group differed from normal subjects in respect of IgG antibodies to bovine milk casein. On linear regression analysis of complete data from 39 Crohn's disease patients, AAG was found to be a significant predictor of both IgG and IgA antibodies, and male sex and disease duration to be additional predictors of IgA antibodies. There was a significant difference in IgG antibodies between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: Raised antibodies to yeast, although not completely specific for Crohn's disease, may have a future role in diagnosis

  12. Converting baker's waste into alcohol. Revised final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, R.; Wilson, P.B.

    All types of baker's waste (including waste from candy manufacturers) can be converted into alcohol to be used as a fuel. All types of waste at any stage in process can be converted, such as: basic ingredients (including floor sweepings); dry mixes (including floor sweepings); dough at any stage; partially or fully cooked products; and day old returned products. The basic steps are the same, only the initial preparation will vary slightly. The variation will be: amount of water to be added and amount and type of nutrients (if any) to be added. The basic steps are: slurrying, liquefying tomore » put starch into liquid state, saccharifying to convert starch into fermentable sugars, fermentation to convert sugars into alcohol, and distillation to separate the alcohol from the mash. Each step is discussed in detail along with problems that may arise. Directions are given and materials (enzymes, yeast, etc.) and equipment are descibed briefly.« less

  13. Yeast diversity of sourdoughs and associated metabolic properties and functionalities.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2016-12-19

    Together with acidifying lactic acid bacteria, yeasts play a key role in the production process of sourdough, where they are either naturally present or added as a starter culture. Worldwide, a diversity of yeast species is encountered, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii among the most common ones. Sourdough-adapted yeasts are able to withstand the stress conditions encountered during their growth, including nutrient starvation as well as the effects of acidic, oxidative, thermal, and osmotic stresses. From a technological point of view, their metabolism primarily contributes to the leavening and flavour of sourdough products. Besides ethanol and carbon dioxide, yeasts can produce metabolites that specifically affect flavour, such as organic acids, diacetyl, higher alcohols from branched-chain amino acids, and esters derived thereof. Additionally, several yeast strains possess functional properties that can potentially lead to nutritional and safety advantages. These properties encompass the production of vitamins, an improvement of the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, the presence of probiotic potential, and the inhibition of fungi and their mycotoxin production. Strains of diverse species are new candidate functional starter cultures, offering opportunities beyond the conventional use of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FORMATION OF AUXIN IN YEAST CULTURES.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T W; Stier, T J

    1941-07-20

    We have found far more auxin in the culture media of bakers' yeast than was obtained by Kögl and Kostermans from the cells themselves. The production of auxin by yeast cells resembles the formation observed in other organisms such as Rhizopus and Rhizobium which also form auxins in their culture media. The auxin yield was found to increase with the concentration of sucrose and to decrease with the concentration of peptone. An inverse relation with the rate of cell multiplication was observed. Enlarged and elongated cells appeared only in those media which contained considerable amounts of auxin. The total auxin yield in the various cultures was found to be directly proportional, below pH 5, to the hydrogen ion concentration. Thus, it was proposed that certain growth conditions favor the breakage of the link between auxin and its protein carrier (Skoog and Thimann) 1940) and consequently accelerate the rate of excretion of auxin into the growth medium.

  15. Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

    Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

  16. Solubilization and other studies on adenylate cyclase of baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Varimo, K; Londesborough, J

    1976-01-01

    1. Adenylate cyclase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was sedimented from mechanically disintegrated preparations of yeast over an unusually wide range of centrifugal forces. 2. The enzyme was readily solubilized by Ficoll and by Lubrol PX. Lubrol caused a 2-fold activation. 3. Both particle-bound and Lubrol-solubilized enzyme had an apparent Km for ATP of 1.6 mM in the presence of 0.4 mM-cyclic AMP and 5 mM-MnCl2 at pH 6.2 and 30 degrees C. 4. The Lubrol-solubilized enzyme behaved on gel filtration as a monodisperse protein with an apparent mol.wt. of about 450000. PMID:793584

  17. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    PubMed

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification and functional characterisation of the pyruvate (monocarboxylate) carrier from baker's yeast mitochondria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Nałecz, M J; Nałecz, K A; Azzi, A

    1991-08-09

    Isolated yeast mitochondria were subjected to solubilization by Triton X-114 and the detergent extract was subsequently chromatrographed on dry hydroxyapatite. Purification of the yeast monocarboxylate (pyruvate) carrier was achieved by affinity chromatography on immobilized 2-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, as described previously for bovine heart mitochondria (Bolli, R., Nałecz K.A. and Azzi, A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264 18024-18030). The final preparation contained two polypeptides of apparent molecular mass 26 and 50 kDa. The yeast carrier appeared to be less abundant, but more active, than the analogous protein from higher eukaryotes. The carrier was able to catalyse the pyruvate / pyruvate and pyruvate / acetoacetate exchange reactions, both reactions being sensitive to cyanocinnamate and its derivatives, to phenylpyruvate and to mersalyl and p-chloromercuribenzoate. In the pyruvate / acetoacetate exchange reaction (200 mM internal acetoacetate, enzymatic assay), the Km value for external pyruvate was found to be 0.8 mM and the Vmax 135 mumol/min per mg protein. Among other substrates of the yeast carrier, all transported with similar affinity and identical maximal velocity against acetoacetate, we identified 2-oxoisocaproate, 2-oxoisovalerate and 2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. Lactate was not translocated by this carrier with a measurable rate, neither were di- or tricarboxylates.

  20. Breeding of Freeze-tolerant Yeast and the Mechanisms of Stress-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Akihiro

    Frozen dough method have been adopted in the baking industry to reduce labor and to produce fresh breads in stores. New freeze-tolerant yeasts for frozen dough preparations were isolated from banana peel and identified. To obtain strains that have fermentative ability even after several months of frozen storage in fermented dough, we attempted to breed new freeze-tolerantstrain. The hybrid between S.cerevisiae, which is a isolated freeze-tolerant strain, and a strain isolated from bakers' yeast with sexual conjugation gave a good quality bread made from frozen dough method. Freeze-tolerant strains showed higher surviving and trehalose accumulating abilities than freeze-sensitive strains. The freeze tolerance of the yeasts was associated with the basal amount of intracellular trehalose after rapid degradation at the onset of the prefermentation period. The complicated metabolic pathway and the regulation system of trehalose in yeast cells are introduced. The trehalose synthesis may act as a metabolic buffer system which contribute to maintain the intracellular inorganic phosphate and as a feedback regulation system in the glycolysis. However, it is not known enough how the trehalose protects yeast cells from stress.

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Fizikova, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases.

  3. 'Yeast mail': a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) to encrypt messages.

    PubMed

    Rosemeyer, Helmut; Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2014-09-01

    The universal genetic code is used by all life forms to encode biological information. It can also be used to encrypt semantic messages and convey them within organisms without anyone but the sender and recipient knowing, i.e., as a means of steganography. Several theoretical, but comparatively few experimental, approaches have been dedicated to this subject, so far. Here, we describe an experimental system to stably integrate encrypted messages within the yeast genome using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based, one-step homologous recombination system. Thus, DNA sequences encoding alphabetical and/or numerical information will be inherited by yeast propagation and can be sent in the form of dried yeast. Moreover, due to the availability of triple shuttle vectors, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be used as an intermediate construction device for transfer of information to either Drosophila or mammalian cells as steganographic containers. Besides its classical use in alcoholic fermentation and its modern use for heterologous gene expression, we here show that baker's yeast can thus be employed in a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) as a simple steganographic container to hide and convey messages. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Teaching Microbial Physiology Using Glucose Repression Phenomenon in Baker's Yeast as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghevendran, Vijayendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    The yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled "S. cerevisiae" to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switching off the genes responsible for respiration…

  5. Performance evaluation of startup for a yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Gomes, Rosimeire F; Brasil, Yara L; Oliveira, Sílvia M A; Moravia, Wagner G

    2017-12-06

    The startup process of a membrane bioreactor inoculated with yeast biomass (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and used in the treatment of landfill leachate was evaluated. The yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) was inoculated with an exogenous inoculum, a granulated active dry commercial bakers' yeast. The MBRy was successfully started up with a progressive increase in the landfill leachate percentage in the MBRy feed and the use of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth. The membrane plays an important role in the startup phase because of its full biomass retention and removal of organic matter. MBRy is a suitable and promising process to treat recalcitrant landfill leachate. After the acclimation period, the COD and NH 3 removal efficiency reached values of 72 ± 3% and 39 ± 2% respectively. MBRy shows a low membrane-fouling potential. The membrane fouling was influenced by soluble microbial products, extracellular polymeric substances, sludge particle size, and colloidal dissolved organic carbon.

  6. 75 FR 30367 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS... meeting to: (1) Provide an orientation about Title II and the Federal Resource Advisory Committee; (2...

  7. Straight talk with...David Baker.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Khamsi, Roxanne

    2012-11-01

    Thirty years ago, technology companies began nestling their facilities close to academia, and the idea of the university research park was born. Soon after, the concept took off in the field of medicine, and today it's not hard to find such innovation hubs that house biomedical startups drawing on the brainpower of professors and students alike. In late September, the Tucson, Arizona-based Association of University Research Parks--which includes about 170 research parks--announced that David Baker would serve as president of the organization's board of directors for the next year and help guide its strategic goals for the next five years. Baker, who is also the executive director of the University Technology Park at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, spoke with Roxanne Khamsi about how the organization hopes to branch out and transform these workplaces.

  8. Josephine Baker: psychoanalysis and the colonial fetish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anne Anlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces an intricate path connecting racial fantasy, aesthetic judgment, and the larger cultural problem of inter-subjective recognition. In particular, the author examines the theme of fetishism, both sexual and racial, in a Western historical, colonial context, in order to unravel a set of disturbances that cohere around the racial fetish then and now. Taking the figure of an entertainment icon of the 1920s, Josephine Baker, as a case study, the author shows how the imagination of the colonizing white male was both articulated and disrupted by Baker as a ready-made representation of the cultural, racial, and sexual other.

  9. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  10. 78 FR 27215 - Baker County Oregon; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... the base of Mason dam in the vicinity of the exiting discharge via the project's tailrace. Baker... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12686-004] Baker County...: Baker County, Oregon (Baker County). e. Name of Project: Mason Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...

  11. The yeast genome may harbor hypoxia response elements (HRE).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Túlio César; Hertzberg, Libi; Gassmann, Max; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2007-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor activated when cells are submitted to hypoxia. The heterodimer is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the constitutively expressed HIF-1beta. During normoxia, HIF-1alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome, but hypoxia causes HIF-1alpha to be stabilized, enter the nucleus and bind to HIF-1beta, thus forming the active complex. The complex then binds to the regulatory sequences of various genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. The specific regulatory sequence recognized by HIF-1 is the hypoxia response element (HRE) that has the consensus sequence 5'BRCGTGVBBB3'. Although the basic transcriptional regulation machinery is conserved between yeast and mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express HIF-1 subunits. However, we hypothesized that baker's yeast has a protein analogous to HIF-1 which participates in the response to changes in oxygen levels by binding to HRE sequences. In this study we screened the yeast genome for HREs using probabilistic motif search tools. We described 24 yeast genes containing motifs with high probability of being HREs (p-value<0.1) and classified them according to biological function. Our results show that S. cerevisiae may harbor HREs and indicate that a transcription factor analogous to HIF-1 may exist in this organism.

  12. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between Drosophila and its natural yeast symbionts-Is Saccharomyces cerevisiae a good model for studying the fly-yeast relationship?

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Kopp, Artyom; Chandler, James Angus

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the biology of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to being a valuable source of nutrition, yeasts affect D. melanogaster behavior and interact with the host immune system. Most experiments investigating the role of yeasts in D. melanogaster biology use the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae is rarely found with natural populations of D. melanogaster or other Drosophila species. Moreover, the strain of S. cerevisiae used most often in D. melanogaster experiments is a commercially and industrially important strain that, to the best of our knowledge, was not isolated from flies. Since disrupting natural host-microbe interactions can have profound effects on host biology, the results from D. melanogaster-S. cerevisiae laboratory experiments may not be fully representative of host-microbe interactions in nature. In this study, we explore the D. melanogaster-yeast relationship using five different strains of yeast that were isolated from wild Drosophila populations. Ingested live yeasts have variable persistence in the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. For example, Hanseniaspora occidentalis persists relative to S. cerevisiae, while Brettanomyces naardenensis is removed. Despite these differences in persistence relative to S. cerevisiae, we find that all yeasts decrease in total abundance over time. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important component of the D. melanogaster anti-microbial response and can inhibit S. cerevisiae growth in the intestine. To determine if sensitivity to ROS explains the differences in yeast persistence, we measured yeast growth in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. We find that B. naardenesis is completely inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, while H. occidentalis is not, which is consistent with yeast sensitivity to ROS affecting persistence within the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. We also compared the feeding preference of D

  14. A defense of fundamental principles and human rights: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    1998-12-01

    This article seeks to rebut Robert Baker's contention that attempts to ground international bioethics in fundamental principles cannot withstand the challenges posed by multiculturalism and postmodernism. First, several corrections are provided of Baker's account of the conclusions reached by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Second, a rebuttal is offered to Baker's claim that an unbridgeable moral gap exists between Western individualism and non-Western communalism. In conclusion, this article argues that Baker's "nonnegotiable primary goods" cannot do the work of "classical human rights" and that the latter framework is preferable from both a practical and a theoretical standpoint.

  15. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  16. Safety and regulation of yeasts used for biocontrol or biopreservation in the food or feed chain.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Ingvar; Melin, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Yeasts have been important components of spontaneous fermentations in food and beverage processing for millennia. More recently, the potential of utilising antagonistic yeasts, e.g. Pichia anomala and Candida spp., for post-harvest biological control of spoilage fungi during storage of plant-derived produce ('biopreservation') has been clearly demonstrated. Although some yeast species are among the safest microorganisms known, several have been reported in opportunistic infections in humans, including P. anomala and bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More research is needed about the dominant pathogenicity and virulence factors in opportunistic yeasts, and whether increased utilisation of biopreservative yeasts in general could contribute to an increased prevalence of yeast infections. The regulatory situation for yeasts used in post-harvest biocontrol is complex and the few products that have reached the market are mainly registered as biological pesticides. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach to safety assessments of microorganisms intentionally added to food or feed, recently launched by the European Food Safety Authority, can lead to more efficient evaluations of new products containing microbial species with a sufficient body of knowledge or long-term experience on their safety. P. anomala is one of several yeast species that have been given QPS status, although the status is restricted to use of this yeast for enzyme and metabolite production purposes. With regard to authorisation of new biopreservative yeasts, we recommend that the possibility to regulate microorganisms for food biopreservation as food additives be considered.

  17. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has become a key cell factory for the production of various bulk and fine chemicals. Successful metabolic engineering requires fine-tuned adjustments of metabolic fluxes and coordination of multiple pathways within the cell. This has mostly been achieved by controlling gene expression at the transcriptional level, i.e., by using promoters with appropriate strengths and regulatory properties. Here we present an overview of natural and modified promoters, which have been used in metabolic pathway engineering of S. cerevisiae. Recent developments in creating promoters with tailor-made properties are also discussed.

  18. Evolution of the hemiascomycete yeasts: on life styles and the importance of inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Knop, Michael

    2006-07-01

    The term 'breeding system' is used to describe the morphological and behavioural aspects of the sexual life cycle of a species. The yeast breeding system provides three alternatives that enable hapoids to return to the diploid state that is necessary for meiosis: mating of unrelated haploids (amphimixis), mating between spores from the same tetrad (intratetrad mating, automixis) and mother daughter mating upon mating type switching (haplo-selfing). The frequency of specific mating events affects the level of heterozygosity present in individuals and the genetic diversity of populations. This review discusses the reproductive strategies of yeasts, in particular S. cerevisiae (Bakers' or budding yeast). Emphasis is put on intratetrad mating, its implication for diversity, and how the particular genome structure could have evolved to ensure the preservation of a high degree of heterozygosity in conjunction with frequent intratetrad matings. I also discuss how the ability of yeast to control the number of spores that are formed accounts for high intratetrad mating rates and for enhanced transmission of genomic variation. I extend the discussion to natural genetic variation and propose that a high level of plasticity is inherent in the yeast breeding system, which may allow variation of the breeding behaviour in accordance with the needs imposed by the environment. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. DOJ News Release: Hayward Baker Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States reached a settlement with Hayward Baker, Inc., (“Hayward Baker”) in a civil case involving the Buy American provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“ARRA”).

  20. The relationship between viability and intracellular pH in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, T; Ohno, T

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between viability (cell proliferation activity) and intracellular pH in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by using cells that had been deactivated by low-temperature storage, ethanol treatment, or heat treatment. The intracellular pH was measured with a microscopic image processor or a spectrofluorophotometer. At first, the intracellular pH measurements of individual cells were compared with slide culture results by microscopic image processing. A clear correlation existed between the proliferation activity and intracellular pH. Moreover, by spectrofluorophotometry analysis, it was found that there was a relationship between the viability and intracellular pH of brewing yeast under conditions of low external pH (n = 15, r = 0.960, P = 0.001). This relationship was also observed in baker's yeast (n = 13, r = 0.950, P = 0.001). On the other hand, when the fluorescein staining method was used in these experiments, the relationship between viability and staining percentage was not observed. From these results, intracellular pH was found to be a sensitive factor for estimating yeast physiology. The possible role of cell deterioration is also discussed. PMID:7486996

  1. Reinstatement of the genus Colopalpus Pritchard and Baker (1958) and re-description of Colopalpus matthyssei Pritchard and Baker (1958), the type species of this genus (Acari, Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pritchard and Baker (1958) erected the genus Colopalpus with Tenuipalpus matthyssei (Pritchard and Baker) a species described from Laguna, The Philippines, as the type species. Meyer (1979) treated the genus as a junior synonym of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu. In this paper, we re-describe the female, male...

  2. The genome of wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis provides a tool to explore its food-related properties

    SciTech Connect

    Piskur, Jure; Ling, Zhihao; Marcet-Houben, Marina

    2012-03-14

    The yeast Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis can cause enormous economic losses in wine industry due to production of phenolic off-flavor compounds. D. bruxellensis is a distant relative of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, these two yeasts are often found in the same habitats and share several food-related traits, such as production of high ethanol levels and ability to grow without oxygen. In some food products, like lambic beer, D. bruxellensis can importantly contribute to flavor development. We determined the 13.4 Mb genome sequence of the D. bruxellensis strain Y879 (CBS2499) and deduced the genetic background of several ?food-relevant? properties and evolutionary historymore » of this yeast. Surprisingly, we find that this yeast is phylogenetically distant to other food-related yeasts and most related to Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris, which is an aerobic poor ethanol producer. We further show that the D. bruxellensis genome does not contain an excess of lineage specific duplicated genes nor a horizontally transferred URA1 gene, two crucial events that promoted the evolution of the food relevant traits in the S. cerevisiae lineage. However, D. bruxellensis has several independently duplicated ADH and ADH-like genes, which are likely responsible for metabolism of alcohols, including ethanol, and also a range of aromatic compounds.« less

  3. Functional analysis of the global repressor Tup1 for maltose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: different roles of the functional domains.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Yu, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Pi, Li; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-11-09

    Tup1 is a general transcriptional repressor of diverse gene families coordinately controlled by glucose repression, mating type, and other mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several functional domains of Tup1 have been identified, each of which has differing effects on transcriptional repression. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of Tup1 and its domains in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast. To this end, a battery of in-frame truncations in the TUP1 gene coding region were performed in the industrial baker's yeasts with different genetic background, and the maltose metabolism, leavening ability, MAL gene expression levels, and growth characteristics were investigated. The results suggest that the TUP1 gene is essential to maltose metabolism in industrial baker's yeast. Importantly, different domains of Tup1 play different roles in glucose repression and maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast cells. The Ssn6 interaction, N-terminal repression and C-terminal repression domains might play roles in the regulation of MAL transcription by Tup1 for maltose metabolism of baker's yeast. The WD region lacking the first repeat could influence the regulation of maltose metabolism directly, rather than indirectly through glucose repression. These findings lay a foundation for the optimization of industrial baker's yeast strains for accelerated maltose metabolism and facilitate future research on glucose repression in other sugar metabolism.

  4. Yeast as a system for modeling mitochondrial disease mechanisms and discovering therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Dautant, Alain; Aiyar, Raeka S.; Kucharczyk, Roza; Glatigny, Annie; Tribouillard-Tanvier, Déborah; Rytka, Joanna; Blondel, Marc; Skoczen, Natalia; Reynier, Pascal; Pitayu, Laras; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Dujardin, Geneviève; Procaccio, Vincent; di Rago, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial diseases are severe and largely untreatable. Owing to the many essential processes carried out by mitochondria and the complex cellular systems that support these processes, these diseases are diverse, pleiotropic, and challenging to study. Much of our current understanding of mitochondrial function and dysfunction comes from studies in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because of its good fermenting capacity, S. cerevisiae can survive mutations that inactivate oxidative phosphorylation, has the ability to tolerate the complete loss of mitochondrial DNA (a property referred to as ‘petite-positivity’), and is amenable to mitochondrial and nuclear genome manipulation. These attributes make it an excellent model system for studying and resolving the molecular basis of numerous mitochondrial diseases. Here, we review the invaluable insights this model organism has yielded about diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, which ranges from primary defects in oxidative phosphorylation to metabolic disorders, as well as dysfunctions in maintaining the genome or in the dynamics of mitochondria. Owing to the high level of functional conservation between yeast and human mitochondrial genes, several yeast species have been instrumental in revealing the molecular mechanisms of pathogenic human mitochondrial gene mutations. Importantly, such insights have pointed to potential therapeutic targets, as have genetic and chemical screens using yeast. PMID:26035862

  5. Gene engineering in yeast for biodegradation: Immunological cross-reactivity among cytochrome p-450 system proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, J.C.; Chen, C.; Dey, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems may be amenable to genetic engineering for the hydroxylation and detoxication of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular genetic properties of strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an n-alkane utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis ATCC750 are examined. Standard methods were used to purify cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase proteins from cells cultured by semi-anaerobic glucose fermentation (S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis) and by growth on tetradecane (C. tropicalis). Polyvalent antisera prepared in rabbits to some of these proteins were used in tests of immunological relatedness among the purified proteins using sodiummore » dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose filter immunoblots. The results provide evidence for gene relationships which should prove useful in gene isolation and subsequent engineering of P-450 enzyme systems in yeast.« less

  6. Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yeast strains endowed with robustness towards copper and/or enriched in intracellular Cu might find application in biotechnology processes, among others in the production of functional foods. Moreover, they can contribute to the study of human diseases related to impairments of copper metabolism. In this study, we investigated the molecular and physiological factors that confer copper tolerance to strains of baker's yeasts. Results We characterized the effects elicited in natural strains of Candida humilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the exposure to copper in the culture broth. We observed that, whereas the growth of Saccharomyces cells was inhibited already at low Cu concentration, C. humilis was naturally robust and tolerated up to 1 g · L-1 CuSO4 in the medium. This resistant strain accumulated over 7 mg of Cu per gram of biomass and escaped severe oxidative stress thanks to high constitutive levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Both yeasts were then "evolved" to obtain hyper-resistant cells able to proliferate in high copper medium. While in S. cerevisiae the evolution of robustness towards Cu was paralleled by the increase of antioxidative enzymes, these same activities decreased in evolved hyper-resistant Candida cells. We also characterized in some detail changes in the profile of copper binding proteins, that appeared to be modified by evolution but, again, in a different way in the two yeasts. Conclusions Following evolution, both Candida and Saccharomyces cells were able to proliferate up to 2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4 and to accumulate high amounts of intracellular copper. The comparison of yeasts differing in their robustness, allowed highlighting physiological and molecular determinants of natural and acquired copper tolerance. We observed that different mechanisms contribute to confer metal tolerance: the control of copper uptake, changes in the levels of enzymes involved in oxidative stress response and changes in the copper

  7. Purification of alpha-glucosidae and invertase from bakers' yeast on modified polymeric supports.

    PubMed

    Lothe, R R; Purohit, S S; Shaikh, S S; Malshe, V C; Pandit, A B

    1999-01-01

    In the present work Amberlite XAD-16 and Indion NPA-1, Polystyrene Divinylbenzene macroreticular spherical resins, have been evaluated quantitatively as supports for the adsorption and isolation of the yeast proteins and the enzymes, invertase and alpha-glucosidase. Modification of these supports has been carried out by surface grafting using acrylate polymers to reduce the hydrophobicity and nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Good grafting efficiency, in excess of 90%, has been obtained using ultrasonic irradiation for the surface activation of polystyrene resins. XAD-16 has higher adsorption capacities for the total yeast proteins as well as for both the enzymes, alpha-glucosidase and invertase, than NPA-1 in its respective native and grafted form. Adsorption capacities of XAD-16 and NPA-1 in their respective native and grafted forms for alpha-glucosidase are higher than the capacities for invertase. Nonspecific adsorption of total proteins has been reduced considerably after the grafting of acrylate polymers on hydrophobic supports. At the same time selectivity for the adsorption of both the enzymes has been enhanced on grafted supports. The overall solid-liquid adsorption mass transfer coefficient values (Kla) estimated for adsorption of invertase on XAD are lower than those for alpha-glucosidase. Native and grafted resins could be regenerated and reused for adsorption of alpha-glucosidase for two regeneration cycles studied. Storage stability of invertase and alpha-glucosidase is the same on native and grafted form of XAD-16 and is more than the enzymes in the free form.

  8. Baker's asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Alonso, E; Ausín, A; Elices, A; Moreno-Escobosa, M; Ibáñez, M; Laso, M

    2001-01-01

    baker's asthma is a well-known occupational lung disease which usually develops in adults. We report the case of a two years old boy who suffered from asthma, urticaria and atopic dermatitis for twelve months, whose symptoms were associated to visits to his grandfather's bakery. skin prick tests (SPT) were made to dust mites, moulds, flours, alfa-amylase and egg. It was also determined total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to alfa-amylase and flours. Subsequently, a challenge test was carried out with wheat flour. The SPTs were positive to flours, alfa-amylase and egg. The determination of specific IgE antibodies showed 2.64 kU/L to wheat, 0.79 kU/L to glyadin and 2.98 kU/L to alfa-amylase. The patient developed asthma and rhinitis after manipulating wheat flour for 10 min. we demonstrated a type I hypersensitivity to wheat flour and alfa-amylase in a two years old child by SPT, specific IgE antibodies and challenge test. This case in the childhood equivalent of occupational baker's asthma.

  9. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  10. Beer and bread to brains and beyond: can yeast cells teach us about neurodegenerative disease?

    PubMed

    Gitler, Aaron D

    2008-01-01

    For millennia, humans have harnessed the astonishing power of yeast, producing such culinary masterpieces as bread, beer and wine. Therefore, in this new millennium, is it very farfetched to ask if we can also use yeast to unlock some of the modern day mysteries of human disease? Remarkably, these seemingly simple cells possess most of the same basic cellular machinery as the neurons in the brain. We and others have been using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system to study the mechanisms of devastating neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While very different in their pathophysiology, they are collectively referred to as protein-misfolding disorders because of the presence of misfolded and aggregated forms of various proteins in the brains of affected individuals. Using yeast genetics and the latest high-throughput screening technologies, we have identified some of the potential causes underpinning these disorders and discovered conserved genes that have proven effective in preventing neuron loss in animal models. Thus, these genes represent new potential drug targets. In this review, I highlight recent work investigating mechanisms of cellular toxicity in a yeast Parkinson's disease model and discuss how similar approaches are being applied to additional neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. The impact of the BP Baker report.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jennifer M; Payne, Stephanie C; Bergman, Mindy E; Beus, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the impact of the British Petroleum (BP) Baker Panel Report, reviewing the March 2005 BP-Texas City explosion, on the field of process safety. Three hundred eighty-four subscribers of a process safety listserv responded to a survey two years after the BP Baker Report was published. Results revealed respondents in the field of process safety are familiar with the BP Baker Report, feel it is important to the future safety of chemical processing, and believe that the findings are generalizable to other plants beyond BP-Texas City. Respondents indicated that few organizations have administered the publicly available BP Process Safety Culture Survey. Our results also showed that perceptions of contractors varied depending on whether respondents were part of processing organizations (internal perspective) or government or consulting agencies (external perspective). This research provides some insight into the beliefs of chemical processing personnel regarding the transportability and generalizability of lessons learned from one organization to another. This study has implications for both organizational scientists and engineers in that it reveals perceptions about the primary mechanism used to share lessons learned within one industry about one major catastrophe (i.e., investigation reports). This study provides preliminary information about the perceived impact of a report such as this one. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The mettle of moral fundamentalism: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1998-12-01

    This article is a reply to Robert Baker's attempt to rebut moral fundamentalism, while grounding international bioethics in a form of contractarianism. Baker is mistaken in several of his interpretations of the alleged moral fundamentalism and findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He also misunderstands moral fundamentalism generally and wrongly categorizes it as morally bankrupt. His negotiated contract model is, in the final analysis, itself a form of the moral fundamentalism he declares bankrupt.

  13. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ....HAG11-0127] Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact... Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Baker... conditions, and changes in resource management practices since the Baker RMP of 1989. The Draft RMP/EIS was...

  14. Functional genomics of commercial baker's yeasts that have different abilities for sugar utilization and high-sucrose tolerance under different sugar conditions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Tsuno, Fumiko; Mizukami-Murata, Satomi; Murata, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Toshihide; Ando, Akira; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2007-10-01

    In the modern baking industry, high-sucrose-tolerant (HS) and maltose-utilizing (LS) yeast were developed using breeding techniques and are now used commercially. Sugar utilization and high-sucrose tolerance differ significantly between HS and LS yeasts. We analysed the gene expression profiles of HS and LS yeasts under different sucrose conditions in order to determine their basic physiology. Two-way hierarchical clustering was performed to obtain the overall patterns of gene expression. The clustering clearly showed that the gene expression patterns of LS yeast differed from those of HS yeast. Quality threshold clustering was used to identify the gene clusters containing upregulated genes (cluster 1) and downregulated genes (cluster 2) under high-sucrose conditions. Clusters 1 and 2 contained numerous genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, respectively. The expression level of the genes involved in the metabolism of glycerol and trehalose, which are known to be osmoprotectants, in LS yeast was higher than that in HS yeast under sucrose concentrations of 5-40%. No clear correlation was found between the expression level of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectants and the intracellular contents of the osmoprotectants. The present gene expression data were compared with data previously reported in a comprehensive analysis of a gene deletion strain collection. Welch's t-test for this comparison showed that the relative growth rates of the deletion strains whose deletion occurred in genes belonging to cluster 1 were significantly higher than the average growth rates of all deletion strains. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The genome of wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis provides a tool to explore its food-related properties.

    PubMed

    Piškur, Jure; Ling, Zhihao; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Ishchuk, Olena P; Aerts, Andrea; LaButti, Kurt; Copeland, Alex; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Compagno, Concetta; Bisson, Linda; Grigoriev, Igor V; Gabaldón, Toni; Phister, Trevor

    2012-07-02

    The yeast Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis can cause enormous economic losses in wine industry due to production of phenolic off-flavor compounds. D. bruxellensis is a distant relative of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, these two yeasts are often found in the same habitats and share several food-related traits, such as production of high ethanol levels and ability to grow without oxygen. In some food products, like lambic beer, D. bruxellensis can importantly contribute to flavor development. We determined the 13.4 Mb genome sequence of the D. bruxellensis strain Y879 (CBS2499) and deduced the genetic background of several "food-relevant" properties and evolutionary history of this yeast. Surprisingly, we find that this yeast is phylogenetically distant to other food-related yeasts and most related to Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris, which is an aerobic poor ethanol producer. We further show that the D. bruxellensis genome does not contain an excess of lineage specific duplicated genes nor a horizontally transferred URA1 gene, two crucial events that promoted the evolution of the food relevant traits in the S. cerevisiae lineage. However, D. bruxellensis has several independently duplicated ADH and ADH-like genes, which are likely responsible for metabolism of alcohols, including ethanol, and also a range of aromatic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Douglas M

    2014-03-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker's origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War's end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy.

  17. Engineering of baker's yeasts, E. coli and Bacillus hosts for the production of Bacillus subtilis Lipase A.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta; Prim, Núria; Rández-Gil, Francisca; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar

    2002-05-05

    Lipases are versatile biocatalists showing multiple applications in a wide range of biotechnological processes. The gene lipA coding for Lipase A from Bacillus subtilis was isolated by PCR amplification, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis strains, using pBR322, YEplac112 and pUB110-derived vectors, respectively. Lipase activity analysis of the recombinant strains showed that the gene can be properly expressed in all hosts assayed, this being the first time a lipase from bacterial origin can be expressed in baker's S. cerevisiae strains. An important increase of lipase production was obtained in heterologous hosts with respect to that of parental strains, indicating that the described systems can represent a useful tool to enhance productivity of the enzyme for biotechnological applications, including the use of the lipase in bread making, or as a technological additive. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) are associated with body fat mass and systemic inflammation, but not with dietary yeast consumption: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kvehaugen, Anne Stine; Aasbrenn, Martin; Farup, Per G

    2017-01-01

    Baker's/brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , has been used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters to improve growth performance in animals. In humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is among the most commonly detected fungi in fecal samples and likely originates from food. Recently, an association between anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and obesity in humans was suggested, but the cause of the elevated ASCA levels is not clear. Our aim was to study ASCA in morbidly obese subjects and explore potential associations with anthropometrics, diet, co-morbidities and biomarkers of inflammation and gut permeability. Subjects with morbid obesity referred to a specialized hospital unit were included. Diet and clinical data were recorded with self-administered questionnaires. Main dietary sources of baker's/brewer's yeast (e.g. bread and beer) were used as a proxy for the intake of yeast. Laboratory analyses included ASCA, serum zonulin (reflecting gut permeability), C-reactive protein and a routine haematological and biochemical screening. One-hundred-and-forty subjects; 109 (78%) female, 98 with dietary records, mean age 43 years and BMI 42 kg/m 2 were included. The number of ASCA positive subjects was 31 (22%) for IgG, 4 (2.9%) for IgA and 3 (2.1%) for IgM. Age, body fat mass and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in IgG-positive compared to IgG-negative subjects ( P  < 0.05). A borderline significant association was found between elevated zonulin and ASCA IgG-positivity ( P  = 0.06). No association was found between yeast-containing food and ASCA IgG-positivity, or between yeast-containing food and fat mass. The findings indicate that ASCA IgG-positivity may be linked to the generalized inflammation commonly seen with increased adiposity, but not to dietary yeast intake. Other potential causes for the raised ASCA IgG concentrations, such as genetic predisposition, deviations in the gut microbiota and cross-reactivity of ASCA with

  19. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  20. A Novel Hybrid Iron Regulation Network Combines Features from Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gerwien, Franziska; Safyan, Abu; Wisgott, Stephanie; Hille, Fabrice; Kaemmer, Philipp; Linde, Jörg; Brunke, Sascha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard

    2016-10-18

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for both pathogens and their hosts, which restrict iron availability during infections in an effort to prevent microbial growth. Successful human pathogens like the yeast Candida glabrata have thus developed effective iron acquisition strategies. Their regulation has been investigated well for some pathogenic fungi and in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which employs an evolutionarily derived system. Here, we show that C. glabrata uses a regulation network largely consisting of components of the S. cerevisiae regulon but also of elements of other pathogenic fungi. Specifically, similarly to baker's yeast, Aft1 is the main positive regulator under iron starvation conditions, while Cth2 degrades mRNAs encoding iron-requiring enzymes. However, unlike the case with S. cerevisiae, a Sef1 ortholog is required for full growth under iron limitation conditions, making C. glabrata an evolutionary intermediate to SEF1-dependent fungal pathogens. Therefore, C. glabrata has evolved an iron homeostasis system which seems to be unique within the pathogenic fungi. The fungus Candida glabrata represents an evolutionarily close relative of the well-studied and benign baker's yeast and model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae On the other hand, C. glabrata is an important opportunistic human pathogen causing both superficial and systemic infections. The ability to acquire trace metals, in particular, iron, and to tightly regulate this process during infection is considered an important virulence attribute of a variety of pathogens. Importantly, S. cerevisiae uses a highly derivative regulatory system distinct from those of other fungi. Until now, the regulatory mechanism of iron homeostasis in C. glabrata has been mostly unknown. Our study revealed a hybrid iron regulation network that is unique to C. glabrata and is placed at an evolutionary midpoint between those of S. cerevisiae and related fungal pathogens. We thereby

  1. [Focus: baker's asthma. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of baker's asthma].

    PubMed

    Romano, Canzio

    2014-01-01

    Baker's asthma, though having been recognized and studied since long time, still stays one of the most common causes of occupational asthma. Moreover, our understanding of the causative agents, the pathophysiological mnechanisms, the usefulness of medical surveillance, the proper treatment and prevention of the disease is still scanty. This is due to either to its complex pathogenesis or to possible confoundings, besides the still inadequate quality and standardization of the tools available as far as the allergologic diagnosis is concerned. Proper medical surveillance, validated causal therapies, efficient primary prevention are still uncertain. Change of employment or relocation is often impossible, particularly among artisan workers. Various evidences have been critically revised and summarized.

  2. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  3. New stratigraphic constraints on Holocene glacier advances at Mt. Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Ryane, C.; Tucker, D.; Davis, T.; Bowerman, N.; Osborn, G.; Clague, J.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Guilderson, T.; Riedel, J.; Steig, E.

    2007-12-01

    New data from a lake sediment core and moraine exposures at Mt. Baker, WA, indicate that a purported early Holocene glacier advance occurred earlier, likely at the end of the Pleistocene. Previous workers used 14C ages associated with small cirque moraines on the SW flank of Mt. Baker, along with the apparent absence of a distinctive scoria (set SC; 8850 14C yr BP, ~9900 cal yr BP) from other moraines on Mt. Baker, as evidence for an advance at ~8400 14C yr BP (~9450 cal yr BP). Such an advance is important to test because it would contrast with glacial records throughout most of the rest of western North America. A 1.2-m sediment core collected from Pocket Lake, which is dammed by one of the previously dated cirque moraines, contains three tephras: Baker set BA (~5800 14C yr BP; 6600 cal yr BP), Mazama ash (6800 14C yr BP; 7600 cal yr BP), and a basal set of ash beds that are tentatively identified as Baker set SC. The lowest macrofossil in the core, ~2 cm above the top of the basal ash beds, yielded an age of 7640 ± 50 14C yr BP (~8400 cal yr BP), consistent with the tephra being SC. Initial geochemical analyses of the tephra also support this identification. These findings indicate that the previous age on the cirque moraine, from organics near the surface of the till, provides a minimum rather than a direct age for the advance that formed the moraine. A 14C age of 11,400 ± 110 14C yr BP (~13,300 cal yr BP) on bulk sediments below the basal ash is likely contaminated and therefore too old. Tephra overlying other ridges at Mt. Baker that were previously identified as post-SC, early-Holocene moraines has been identified as set SC. The ridges thus are actually pre-SC rather than post-SC in age; they may not be moraines in any event. Meanwhile, abundant 14C ages on tills below Deming Glacier indicate both Younger Dryas and Neoglacial advances, but no early Holocene advances. Together, these observations indicate that glaciers in the Mt. Baker area advanced during

  4. Understanding bistability in yeast glycolysis using general properties of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Planqué, Robert; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Hulshof, Josephus

    2014-09-01

    Glycolysis is the central pathway in energy metabolism in the majority of organisms. In a recent paper, van Heerden et al. showed experimentally and computationally that glycolysis can exist in two states, a global steady state and a so-called imbalanced state. In the imbalanced state, intermediary metabolites accumulate at low levels of ATP and inorganic phosphate. It was shown that Baker's yeast uses a peculiar regulatory mechanism--via trehalose metabolism--to ensure that most yeast cells reach the steady state and not the imbalanced state. Here we explore the apparent bistable behaviour in a core model of glycolysis that is based on a well-established detailed model, and study in great detail the bifurcation behaviour of solutions, without using any numerical information on parameter values. We uncover a rich suite of solutions, including so-called imbalanced states, bistability, and oscillatory behaviour. The techniques employed are generic, directly suitable for a wide class of biochemical pathways, and could lead to better analytical treatments of more detailed models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Yeast "make-accumulate-consume" life strategy evolved as a multi-step process that predates the whole genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Arne; Säll, Torbjörn; Compagno, Concetta; Piskur, Jure

    2013-01-01

    When fruits ripen, microbial communities start a fierce competition for the freely available fruit sugars. Three yeast lineages, including baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have independently developed the metabolic activity to convert simple sugars into ethanol even under fully aerobic conditions. This fermentation capacity, named Crabtree effect, reduces the cell-biomass production but provides in nature a tool to out-compete other microorganisms. Here, we analyzed over forty Saccharomycetaceae yeasts, covering over 200 million years of the evolutionary history, for their carbon metabolism. The experiments were done under strictly controlled and uniform conditions, which has not been done before. We show that the origin of Crabtree effect in Saccharomycetaceae predates the whole genome duplication and became a settled metabolic trait after the split of the S. cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lineages, and coincided with the origin of modern fruit bearing plants. Our results suggest that ethanol fermentation evolved progressively, involving several successive molecular events that have gradually remodeled the yeast carbon metabolism. While some of the final evolutionary events, like gene duplications of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, have been deduced, the earliest molecular events initiating Crabtree effect are still to be determined.

  6. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  7. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  8. Unique phagocytic properties of hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas against yeast and yeast cell-wall derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keisuke G; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Mori, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    For a marine bivalve mollusk such as Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the elimination of foreign particles via hemocyte phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense mechanisms. The hemocytes of C. gigas have a high phagocytic ability for baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell-wall product zymosan. C. gigas hemocytes might phagocytose yeast cells after binding to polysaccharides on the cell-wall surface, but it is unknown how and what kinds of polysaccharide molecules are recognized. We conducted experiments to determine differences in the phagocytic ability of C. gigas hemocytes against heat-killed yeast (HK yeast), zymosan and zymocel, which are similarly sized and shaped but differ in the polysaccharide composition of their particle surface. We found that both the agranulocytes and granulocytes exerted strong phagocytic ability on all tested particles. The phagocytic index (PI) of granulocytes for zymosan was 9.4 ± 1.7, which significantly differed with that for HK yeast and zymocel (P < 0.05). To evaluate the PI for the three types of particles, and especially to understand the outcome of the much higher PI for zymosan, PI was gauged in increments of 5 (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and ≥16), and the phagocytic frequencies were compared according to these increments. The results show that a markedly high PI of ≥16 was exhibited by 18.1% of granulocytes for zymosan, significantly higher than 1.7% and 3.9% shown for HK yeast and zymocel, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the relatively high PI for zymosan could not be attributed to a situation wherein all phagocytic hemocytes shared a high mean PI, but rather to the ability of some hemocytes to phagocytose a larger portion of zymosan. To determine whether the phagocytosis of these respective particles depended on the recognition of specific polysaccharide receptors on the hemocyte surface, C. gigas hemocytes were pretreated with soluble α-mannan or β-laminarin and

  9. The Influence of Baker Bay and Sand Island on Circulations in the Mouth of the Columbia River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the presence of Baker Bay, a shallow sub -embayment, adds further complexity. Drifter velocities were greatest during maximum ebb flows and were...Drifters occasionally entered Baker Bay via Baker Inlet during flood flows , especially in conjunction with strong southwesterly winds. During ebb flows ...occurred in the vicinity of the pile dikes, including reversed (upriver) flow between the pile dikes during maximum ebb . Understanding unique flow

  10. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  11. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingji; Borodina, Irina

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  12. Baker-Akhiezer Spinor Kernel and Tau-functions on Moduli Spaces of Meromorphic Differentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalla, C.; Korotkin, D.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We introduce the Baker-Akhiezer tau-function which is related to both the Bergman tau-function (which was studied before in the context of Hurwitz spaces and spaces of holomorphic Abelian and quadratic differentials) and the KP tau-function on such spaces. In particular, we derive variational formulas of Rauch-Ahlfors type on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials with prescribed singularities: we use the system of homological coordinates, consisting of absolute and relative periods of the meromorphic differential, and show how to vary the fundamental objects associated to a Riemann surface (the matrix of b-periods, normalized Abelian differentials, the Bergman bidifferential, the Szegö kernel and the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel) with respect to these coordinates. The variational formulas encode dependence both on the moduli of the Riemann surface and on the choice of meromorphic differential (variation of the meromorphic differential while keeping the Riemann surface fixed corresponds to flows of KP type). Analyzing the global properties of the Bergman and Baker-Akhiezer tau-functions, we establish relationships between various divisor classes on the moduli spaces.

  13. Some contrasting biostratigraphic links between the Baker and Olds Ferry Terranes, eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestell, Merlynd K.; Blome, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    New stratigraphic and paleontologic data indicate that ophiolitic melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane of eastern Oregon contain limestone blocks and chert that are somewhat different in age than those present in the adjacent Baker terrane melange. The melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane occur as inliers in the flyschoid Early and Middle Jurassic age Weatherby Formation, which depositionally overlies the contact between the melange-rich Devonian to Upper Triassic rocks of the Baker terrane on the north, and Upper Triassic and Early Jurassic volcanic arc rocks of the Huntington Formation on the south. The Baker terrane and Huntington Formation represent fragments of a subduction complex and related volcanic island arc, whereas the Weatherby Formation consists of forearc basin sedimentary deposits. The tectonic blocks in the melange windows of the Weatherby Formation (in the Olds Ferry terrane) are dated by scarce biostratigraphic evidence as Upper Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian and Upper Triassic. In contrast, tectonic blocks of limestone in theBaker terrane yield mostly fusulinids and small foraminifers of Middle Pennsylvanian Moscovian age at one locality.Middle Permian (Guadalupian) Tethyan fusulinids and smaller foraminifers (neoschwagerinids and other Middle Permian genera) are present at a few other localities. Late Triassic conodonts and bryozoans are also present in a few of the Baker terrane tectonic blocks. These limestone blocks are generally embedded in Permian and Triassic radiolarian bearing chert or argillite. Based on conodont, radiolarian and fusulinid data, the age limits of the meange blocks in the Weatherby Formation range from Pennsylvanian to Late Triassic.

  14. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES/LEH, during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker smiles from under his launch and entry helmet (LEH) and from behind the communications carrier assembly (CCA) microphones as he adjusts his parachute harness. Baker, fully outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES), prepares for emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  15. A Double Perturbation Method for Reducing Dynamical Degradation of the Digital Baker Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia; Liu, Bocheng

    2017-06-01

    The digital Baker map is widely used in different kinds of cryptosystems, especially for image encryption. However, any chaotic map which is realized on the finite precision device (e.g. computer) will suffer from dynamical degradation, which refers to short cycle lengths, low complexity and strong correlations. In this paper, a novel double perturbation method is proposed for reducing the dynamical degradation of the digital Baker map. Both state variables and system parameters are perturbed by the digital logistic map. Numerical experiments show that the perturbed Baker map can achieve good statistical and cryptographic properties. Furthermore, a new image encryption algorithm is provided as a simple application. With a rather simple algorithm, the encrypted image can achieve high security, which is competitive to the recently proposed image encryption algorithms.

  16. Ella Baker: A Leader Behind the Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallard, Shyrlee

    This book examines the life of Ella Baker, the civil rights worker who was a key figure in the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and other civil rights organizations. The biography, which is aimed at young readers aged 10 and older, recounts the history of the…

  17. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, seated at the forward flight deck pilots station controls, eats a freefloating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, flight deck are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel O9.

  18. Reconstructing streamflow variation of the Baker River from tree-rings in Northern Patagonia since 1765

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Antonio; Bahamondez, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Alvaro; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Cuq, Emilio; Ruiz-Gómez, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of the long-term variation of large rivers streamflow with a high economic and social relevance is necessary in order to improve the planning and management of water resources in different regions of the world. The Baker River has the highest mean discharge of those draining both slopes of the Andes South of 20°S and it is among the six rivers with the highest mean streamflow in the Pacific domain of South America (1100 m3 s-1 at its outlet). It drains an international basin of 29,000 km2 shared by Chile and Argentina and has a high ecologic and economic value including conservation, tourism, recreational fishing, and projected hydropower. This study reconstructs the austral summer - early fall (January-April) streamflow for the Baker River from Nothofagus pumilio tree-rings for the period 1765-2004. Summer streamflow represents 45.2% of the annual discharge. The regression model for the period (1961-2004) explains 54% of the variance of the Baker River streamflow (R2adj = 0.54). The most significant temporal pattern in the record is the sustained decline since the 1980s (τ = -0.633, p = 1.0144 ∗ 10-5 for the 1985-2004 period), which is unprecedented since 1765. The Correlation of the Baker streamflow with the November-April observed Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is significant (1961-2004, r = -0.55, p < 0.001). The Baker record is also correlated with the available SAM tree-ring reconstruction based on other species when both series are filtered with a 25-year spline and detrended (1765-2004, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), emphasizing SAM as the main climatic forcing of the Baker streamflow. Three of the five summers with the highest streamflow in the entire reconstructed record occurred after the 1950s (1977, 1958 and 1959). The causes of this high streamflow events are not yet clear and cannot be associated with the reported recent increase in the frequency of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The decreasing trend in the observed and reconstructed

  19. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  20. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS043-02-020 (2-11 Aug. 1991) --- Astronaut Michael A. Baker, STS-43 pilot, seated at the forward flight deck pilot station controls of the Space Shuttle Atlantis, eats a free-floating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel.

  1. Structural, thermal, functional, antioxidant & antimicrobial properties of β-d-glucan extracted from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cereviseae)-Effect of γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma Ashraf; Gani, Adil; Masoodi, F A; Amin, Furheen; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2016-04-20

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of γ-irradiation (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 & 50kGy) on the structural, functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of yeast β-d-glucan. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the thermal properties were studied using DSC. There was a decrease in the average molecular weight of β-d-glucan as the irradiation dose increased. The functional properties of irradiated yeast β-d-glucan were largely influenced by the action of gamma radiation like swelling power and viscosity decreases with increase in the irradiation dose while as fat binding capacity, emulsifying properties, foaming properties and bile acid binding capacity shows an increasing trend. All the antioxidant properties carried out using six different assays increased significantly (p≤0.05) in a dose dependent manner. The antibacterial activity of yeast β-d-glucan also showed an increasing trend with increase in the irradiation dose from 5 to 50kDa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Ryane, Chanone; Riedel, Jon; Clague, John J.; Koch, Johannes; Clark, Douglas; Scott, Kevin; Davis, P. Thompson

    2012-08-01

    Glaciers on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest of North America offer opportunities for dating late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances because tephra and fossil wood are common in lateral moraines and in glacier forefields. We capitalize on this opportunity by examining the Holocene glacial record at Mount Baker, an active stratovolcano in northwest Washington. Earlier workers concluded that glaciers on Mount Baker during the early Holocene were more extensive than during the Little Ice Age and hypothesized that the explanation lay in unusual climatic or hypsometric effects peculiar to large volcanoes. We show that the main argument for an early Holocene glacier advance on Mount Baker, namely the absence of ca 10,000-year-old tephra on part of the south flank of the mountain, is incorrect. Moreover, a lake-sediment core indicates that a small cirque moraine previously thought be of early Holocene age is also likely older than the tephra and consequently of late Pleistocene age. Lateral and end moraines and wood mats ca 2 km downvalley of the present snout of Deming Glacier indicate that an advance during the Younger Dryas interval was little more extensive than the climactic Little Ice Age advance. Tephra and wood between tills in the left lateral moraine of Easton Glacier suggest that ice on Mount Baker was restricted in the early Holocene and that Neoglaciation began ca 6 ka. A series of progressively more extensive Neoglacial advances, dated to about 2.2, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.4 ka, are recorded by stacked tills in the right lateral moraine of Deming Glacier. Intervening retreats were long enough to allow establishment of forests on the moraine. Wood mats in moraines of Coleman and Easton glaciers indicate that Little Ice Age expansion began before 0.7 ka and was followed by retreat and a readvance ca 0.5 ka. Tree-ring and lichen data indicate glaciers on the south side of the mountain reached their maximum extents in the mid-1800s. The similarity between

  3. Alpha-ketoglutarate enhances freeze-thaw tolerance and prevents carbohydrate-induced cell death of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Hrynkiv, Olha V; Knyhynytska, Roksolana V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2018-01-01

    Stress resistance and fermentative capability are important quality characteristics of baker's yeast. In the present study, we examined protective effects of exogenous alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism, against freeze-thaw and carbohydrate-induced stresses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth on AKG-supplemented medium prevented a loss of viability and improved fermentative capacity of yeast cells after freeze-thaw treatment. The cells grown in the presence of AKG had higher levels of amino acids (e.g., proline), higher metabolic activity and total antioxidant capacity, and higher activities of catalase, NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase compared to control ones. Both synthesis of amino acids and enhancement of antioxidant system capacity could be involved in AKG-improved freeze-thaw tolerance in S. cerevisiae. Cell viability dramatically decreased under incubation of stationary-phase yeast cells in 2% glucose or fructose solutions (in the absence of the other nutrients) as compared with incubation in distilled water or in 10 mM AKG solution. The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by acidification of the medium, and decrease in cellular respiration, aconitase activity, and levels of total protein and free amino acids. The supplementation with 10 mM AKG effectively prevented carbohydrate-induced yeast death. Protective mechanisms of AKG could be associated with the intensification of respiration and prevention of decreasing protein level as well as with direct antioxidant AKG action.

  4. Popliteal cyst before William Baker: first report in the Galenic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; Manios, Andreas; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    A popliteal cyst, also known as Baker cyst, is a benign fluctuant swelling of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa in the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee. The cyst is named after William Morrant Baker, who is considered to have first described this fluid collection with new sac formation outside of the knee-joint in 1877. We herein present a short description contained in the Galenic Corpus that appears to match to what we now call the Baker cyst. Α thorough survey of Kühn's Galenic Corpus was performed. The 14th book of Kühn's edition contains a brief review of all the anatomical structures and pathologies. In the 17th chapter of this treatise, devoted to skin lesions, the author states that steatomas appear in the popliteal fossa. However, it is no more believed to reflect the Galenic teaching and is ascribed to Pseudo-Galen. With regard to the descriptions survived and the anatomy knowledge in the post-Galenic era time, the brief report of the ancient text of unknown origin, appears to match what we now describe as popliteal cyst.

  5. A family of chaotic pure analog coding schemes based on baker's map function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Lu, Xuanxuan; Yuen, Chau; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a family of pure analog coding schemes constructed from dynamic systems which are governed by chaotic functions—baker's map function and its variants. Various decoding methods, including maximum likelihood (ML), minimum mean square error (MMSE), and mixed ML-MMSE decoding algorithms, have been developed for these novel encoding schemes. The proposed mirrored baker's and single-input baker's analog codes perform a balanced protection against the fold error (large distortion) and weak distortion and outperform the classical chaotic analog coding and analog joint source-channel coding schemes in literature. Compared to the conventional digital communication system, where quantization and digital error correction codes are used, the proposed analog coding system has graceful performance evolution, low decoding latency, and no quantization noise. Numerical results show that under the same bandwidth expansion, the proposed analog system outperforms the digital ones over a wide signal-to-noise (SNR) range.

  6. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  7. Opto-digital spectrum encryption by using Baker mapping and gyrator transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hang; Zhao, Jiguang; Liu, Zhengjun; Du, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    A concept of spectrum information hidden technology is proposed in this paper. We present an optical encryption algorithm for hiding both the spatial and spectrum information by using the Baker mapping in gyrator transform domains. The Baker mapping is introduced for scrambling the every single band of the hyperspectral image before adding the random phase functions. Subsequently, three thin cylinder lenses are controlled by PC for implementing the gyrator transform. The amplitude and phase information in the output plane can be regarded as the encrypted information and main key. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and capability of the proposed encryption algorithm.

  8. Towards the design of an optimal strategy for the production of ergosterol from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Náhlík, Jan; Hrnčiřík, Pavel; Mareš, Jan; Rychtera, Mojmír; Kent, Christopher A

    2017-05-01

    The total yield of ergosterol produced by the fermentation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the final amount of yeast biomass and the ergosterol content in the cells. At the same time ergosterol purity-defined as percentage of ergosterol in the total sterols in the yeast-is equally important for efficient downstream processing. This study investigated the development of both the ergosterol content and ergosterol purity in different physiological (metabolic) states of the microorganism S. cerevisiae with the aim of reaching maximal ergosterol productivity. To expose the yeast culture to different physiological states during fermentation an on-line inference of the current physiological state of the culture was used. The results achieved made it possible to design a new production strategy, which consists of two preferable metabolic states, oxidative-fermentative growth on glucose followed by oxidative growth on glucose and ethanol simultaneously. Experimental application of this strategy achieved a value of the total efficiency of ergosterol production (defined as product of ergosterol yield coefficient and volumetric productivity), 103.84 × 10 -6 g L -1 h -1 , more than three times higher than with standard baker's yeast fed-batch cultivations, which attained in average 32.14 × 10 -6 g L -1 h -1 . At the same time the final content of ergosterol in dry biomass was 2.43%, with a purity 86%. These results make the product obtained by the proposed control strategy suitable for effective down-stream processing. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:838-848, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fermentation procedures—(i) Yeast procedure. Food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is added to the liquid egg whites and controlled fermentation is maintained. The quantity of yeast used and the...

  10. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation procedures—(i) Yeast procedure. Food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is added to the liquid egg whites and controlled fermentation is maintained. The quantity of yeast used and the...

  11. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fermentation procedures—(i) Yeast procedure. Food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is added to the liquid egg whites and controlled fermentation is maintained. The quantity of yeast used and the...

  12. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermentation procedures—(i) Yeast procedure. Food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is added to the liquid egg whites and controlled fermentation is maintained. The quantity of yeast used and the...

  13. Effects of yeasts and bacteria on the levels of folates in rye sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Aittamaa, Marja; Korhola, Matti; Salovaara, Hannu; Vahteristo, Liisa; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-02-01

    Fermentation of rye dough is often accompanied with an increase in folate content. In this study, three sourdough yeasts, Candida milleri CBS 8195, Saccharomyces cerevisiae TS 146, and Torulaspora delbrueckii TS 207; a control, baker's yeast S. cerevisiae ALKO 743; and four Lactobacillus spp., L. acidophilus TSB 262, L. brevis TSB 307, L. plantarum TSB 304, and L. sanfranciscensis TSB 299 originally isolated from rye sourdough were examined for their abilities to produce or consume folates. The microorganisms were grown in yeast extract-peptone-d-glucose medium as well as in small-scale fermentations that modelled the sourdough fermentation step used in rye baking. Total folate contents were determined using Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism. The microorganisms studied did not excrete folates into the media in significant amounts. Yeasts increased the folate contents of sterilised rye flour-water mixtures from 6.5 microg/100 g to between 15 and 23 microg/100 g after 19-h fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria decreased it to between 2.9 and 4.2 microg/100 g. Strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. curvatus, L. fermentum, L. helveticus, Pediococcus spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus that were also tested gave folate contents after fermentation that varied between 2 and 10.4 microg/100 g. Although the four Lactobacillus spp. from sourdough consumed folates their effect on folate contents in co-cultivations was minimal. It was concluded that the increase of folate content during fermentation was mainly due to folate synthesis by yeasts. Fermentation of non-sterilised flour-water mixtures as such resulted in three-fold increases in the folate contents. Two folate producing bacteria were isolated from the non-sterilised flour and identified as Enterobacter cowanii and Pantoea agglomerans.

  14. Prediction of challenge test results by flour-specific IgE and skin prick test in symptomatic bakers.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, V; Rabstein, S; Sander, I; Merget, R; Brüning, T; Broding, H C; Keller, C; Müsken, H; Overlack, A; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Walusiak, J; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2008-07-01

    Wheat and rye flours are among the most important allergens causing occupational asthma. Usually, the diagnosis of baker's asthma is based on inhalation challenge tests with flours. To evaluate the relevance of flour-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and skin prick test (SPT) in the diagnosis of baker's asthma and to define flour-specific IgE concentrations and wheal sizes that allow a prediction of the outcome of challenge testing. Bronchial and nasal challenge tests with wheat (rye) flour were performed in 71 (95) symptomatic bakers. Determinations of flour-specific IgE as well as SPTs were performed in all subjects. Analyses included the calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) at different IgE concentrations and different wheal sizes, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) plots with the challenge result as gold standard. Thirty-seven bakers were positive in the challenge with wheat flour, while 63 were positive with rye flour. Depending on the flour-specific IgE concentrations (wheal size), PPV was 74-100% (74-100%) for wheat and 82-100% (91-100%) for rye flour, respectively. The minimal cut-off values with a PPV of 100% were 2.32 kU/l (5.0 mm) for wheat flour and 9.64 kU/l (4.5 mm) for rye flour. The shapes of the ROC plots were similar for wheat and rye flour. High concentrations of flour-specific IgE and clear SPT results in symptomatic bakers are good predictors for a positive challenge test. Challenge tests with flours may be avoided in strongly sensitized bakers.

  15. Storage lipids of yeasts: a survey of nonpolar lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Daum, Günther

    2014-09-01

    Biosynthesis and storage of nonpolar lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TG) and steryl esters (SE), have gained much interest during the last decades because defects in these processes are related to severe human diseases. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a valuable tool to study eukaryotic lipid metabolism because this single-cell microorganism harbors many enzymes and pathways with counterparts in mammalian cells. In this article, we will review aspects of TG and SE metabolism and turnover in the yeast that have been known for a long time and combine them with new perceptions of nonpolar lipid research. We will provide a detailed insight into the mechanisms of nonpolar lipid synthesis, storage, mobilization, and degradation in the yeast S. cerevisiae. The central role of lipid droplets (LD) in these processes will be addressed with emphasis on the prevailing view that this compartment is more than only a depot for TG and SE. Dynamic and interactive aspects of LD with other organelles will be discussed. Results obtained with S. cerevisiae will be complemented by recent investigations of nonpolar lipid research with Yarrowia lipolytica and Pichia pastoris. Altogether, this review article provides a comprehensive view of nonpolar lipid research in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On the Growth of Scientific Knowledge: Yeast Biology as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Xionglei; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-01-01

    The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration. PMID:19300476

  17. On the growth of scientific knowledge: yeast biology as a case study.

    PubMed

    He, Xionglei; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-03-01

    The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration.

  18. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Genomic reconstruction to improve bioethanol and ergosterol production of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Kehui; Di, Yanan; Wang, Pinmei; Zhang, Chunfang; Wu, Xuechang; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the common yeast used in the fields of bread making, brewing, and bioethanol production. Growth rate, stress tolerance, ethanol titer, and byproducts yields are some of the most important agronomic traits of S. cerevisiae for industrial applications. Here, we developed a novel method of constructing S. cerevisiae strains for co-producing bioethanol and ergosterol. The genome of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, was first reconstructed through treatment with an antimitotic drug followed by sporulation and hybridization. A total of 140 mutants were selected for ethanol fermentation testing, and a significant positive correlation between ergosterol content and ethanol production was observed. The highest performing mutant, ZG27, produced 7.9 % more ethanol and 43.2 % more ergosterol than ZTW1 at the end of fermentation. Chromosomal karyotyping and proteome analysis of ZG27 and ZTW1 suggested that this breeding strategy caused large-scale genome structural variations and global gene expression diversities in the mutants. Genetic manipulation further demonstrated that the altered expression activity of some genes (such as ERG1, ERG9, and ERG11) involved in ergosterol synthesis partly explained the trait improvement in ZG27.

  20. Effects of alkylresorcinols on volume and structure of yeast-leavened bread.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Annica Am; Landberg, Rikard; Söderman, Thomas; Hedkvist, Sofie; Katina, Kati; Juvonen, Riikka; Holopainen, Ulla; Lehtinen, Pekka; Aman, Per

    2011-01-30

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are amphiphilic phenolic compounds found in high amounts in wheat, durum wheat and rye, with different homologue composition for each cereal. The effect of different amounts of added AR from these cereals on bread volume, height, porosity and microstructure was studied. Breads with added rye bran (with high levels of AR) or acetone-extracted rye bran (with low levels of AR) were also baked, as well as breads with finely milled forms of each of these brans. Breads with high amounts of added AR, irrespective of AR homologue composition, had a lower volume, a more compact structure and an adverse microstructure compared with breads with no or low levels of added AR. AR were also shown to inhibit the activity of baker's yeast. There was no difference in bread volume and porosity between bread baked with rye bran and acetone-extracted rye bran or with brans of different particle size. Irrespective of homologue composition, AR had a negative effect on wheat bread properties when added in high amounts as purified extracts from wheat, durum wheat and rye. Natural levels of AR in rye bran, however, did not affect the volume and porosity of yeast-leavened wheat breads. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites produced during fermentation on bread quality parameters: A review.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke

    2018-05-03

    Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking. However, due to the fact that the majority of consumers in Europe highly reject the use of genetically modified microorganisms in the production of food, other strategies to improve bread quality must be investigated. Such a strategy would be a reconsideration of the selection of yeast strains used for the baking process. Next to the common criteria, the requirement for adequate gas production, more attention should be paid on how yeast impacts flavor, shelf life, color, and the nutritional value of baked products, in a similar way to which yeast strains are selected in the wine and brewing industries.

  2. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  3. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Compliance Form AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... of an approval regarding a form used to verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. No comments were received in response to that notice...

  4. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  5. Short communication: Conversion of lactose and whey into lactic acid by engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Eunbee; Hwang, ChangHoon; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Liu, Jing-Jing; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Lactose is often considered an unwanted and wasted byproduct, particularly lactose trapped in acid whey from yogurt production. But using specialized microbial fermentation, the surplus wasted acid whey could be converted into value-added chemicals. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used for industrial fermentation, cannot natively ferment lactose. The present study describes how an engineered S. cerevisiae yeast was constructed to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, or dairy milk. Lactic acid is an excellent proof-of-concept chemical to produce from lactose, because lactic acid has many food, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses, and over 250,000 t are produced for industrial use annually. To ferment the milk sugar lactose, a cellodextrin transporter (CDT-1, which also transports lactose) and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1, which also acts as a β-galactosidase) from Neurospora crassa were expressed in a S. cerevisiae strain. A heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by ldhA) from the fungus Rhizopus oryzae was integrated into the CDT-1/GH1-1-expressing strain of S. cerevisiae. As a result, the engineered strain was able to produce lactic acid from purified lactose, whey, and store-bought milk. A lactic acid yield of 0.358g/g of lactose was achieved from whey fermentation, providing an initial proof of concept for the production of value-added chemicals from excess industrial whey using engineered yeast. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Sigawi, Sasi; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21), a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR) was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA) beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde. PMID:24672387

  7. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  8. 61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO MILLING. LAUNDER PIERCES THE SOUTH FOUNDATION WALL BETWEEN MILL SOLUTION TANKS No. 1 AND No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an overview of methods to study autophagy progression.

    PubMed

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Guimaraes, Rodrigo Soares; Reggiori, Fulvio; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a highly evolutionarily conserved process essential for sustaining cellular integrity, homeostasis, and survival. Most eukaryotic cells constitutively undergo autophagy at a low basal level. However, various stimuli, including starvation, organelle deterioration, stress, and pathogen infection, potently upregulate autophagy. The hallmark morphological feature of autophagy is the formation of the double-membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. In yeast, flux through the pathway culminates in autophagosome-vacuole fusion, and the subsequent degradation of the resulting autophagic bodies and cargo by vacuolar hydrolases, followed by efflux of the breakdown products. Importantly, aberrant autophagy is associated with diverse human pathologies. Thus, there is a need for ongoing work in this area to further understand the cellular factors regulating this process. The field of autophagy research has grown exponentially in recent years, and although numerous model organisms are being used to investigate autophagy, the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains highly relevant, as there are significant and unique benefits to working with this organism. In this review, we will focus on the current methods available to evaluate and monitor autophagy in S. cerevisiae, which in several cases have also been subsequently exploited in higher eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 1. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. OVERALL VIEW OF ROUNDHOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. OVERALL VIEW OF ROUNDHOUSE. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  11. 10. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. INTERIOR VIEW OF BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. INTERIOR VIEW OF BACK SHOP. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  12. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  13. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  14. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  15. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  16. Data-Based Personnel Decisions: Baker Middle's Intensive Support List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Chopin, Scarlet Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Focused on the use of teacher evaluation data, this case was designed for use in two principal licensure courses, one on data literacy and the other on supervision and personnel. The principal of Baker Middle School has been instructed by the superintendent to use data from the state's new teacher evaluation system to determine which teachers…

  17. 3. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF BACK SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF BACK SHOP FROM SOUTHEAST. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  18. 7. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF OFFICES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF OFFICES IN BACK SHOP. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-27

    bio-engineering company, among other things, cultivates starter cultures for the production of cheese and yogurt . The customers are dairy farmers in...produces the alcohol with the help of traditional fermentation methods. This means they use ordinary baker’s yeast which fer- ments part of the sugar in...the waste liquid into ethanol. The baker’s yeast is unable to ferment the remaining sugars in the liquid, such as xylose, for example, into alcohol

  20. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  1. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if... maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the...

  2. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if... maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the...

  3. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if... maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the...

  4. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if... maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the...

  5. 5. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF ICE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF ICE HOUSE AND SURROUNDING BUILDINGS. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  6. An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2015-05-01

    A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the BakerCampbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [ X, Y] = uX + vY + cI, [ Y, Z] = wY + zZ + dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [ X, Z] = mX + nY + pZ + eI, then

  7. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production.

  8. Framework for Sustaining Innovation at Baker Library, Harvard Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Meghan; Hemment, Michael; Oliver, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Baker Library at Harvard Business School is increasingly asked by the school's faculty to create custom digital information products to enhance course assignments and to find novel ways of electronically disseminating faculty research. In order to prioritize these requests, as well as facilitate, manage, and track the resulting projects, the…

  9. Exact Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the contact Heisenberg algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravetti, Alessandro; Garcia-Chung, Angel; Tapias, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In this work we introduce the contact Heisenberg algebra which is the restriction of the Jacobi algebra on contact manifolds to the linear and constant functions. We give the exact expression of its corresponding Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We argue that this result is relevant to the quantization of contact systems.

  10. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. OVERALL VIEW OF BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. OVERALL VIEW OF BACK SHOP FROM ROOF OF ROUNDHOUSE. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  11. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase and Yap1p Act as a Signaling Module Contributing to Ethanol Tolerance of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zyrina, Anna N; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Markova, Olga V; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-02-01

    There are two superoxide dismutases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae-cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses, while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in ethanol tolerance of yeast. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p, one of the key stress resistance proteins. In agreement with this, the levels of Trx2p and Gsh1p, proteins encoded by Yap1 target genes, were decreased in the absence of Sod2p. Analysis of the ethanol sensitivities of the cells lacking Sod2p, Yap1p, or both indicated that the two proteins act in the same pathway. Moreover, preconditioning with hydrogen peroxide restored the ethanol resistance of yeast cells with repressed SOD2 Interestingly, we found that mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling by Rtg proteins antagonizes Yap1p activation. Together, our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide produced by Sod2p activates Yap1p and thus plays a signaling role in ethanol tolerance. Baker's yeast harbors multiple systems that ensure tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol. Still, the role of mitochondria under severe ethanol stress in yeast is not completely clear. Our study revealed a signaling function of mitochondria which contributes significantly to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. We found that mitochondrial superoxide dismutase Sod2p and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide sensor Yap1p act together as a module of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling pathway. We also report cross talk between this pathway and the conventional retrograde signaling cascade activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase and Yap1p Act as a Signaling Module Contributing to Ethanol Tolerance of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zyrina, Anna N.; Smirnova, Ekaterina A.; Markova, Olga V.; Severin, Fedor F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are two superoxide dismutases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae—cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses, while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in ethanol tolerance of yeast. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p, one of the key stress resistance proteins. In agreement with this, the levels of Trx2p and Gsh1p, proteins encoded by Yap1 target genes, were decreased in the absence of Sod2p. Analysis of the ethanol sensitivities of the cells lacking Sod2p, Yap1p, or both indicated that the two proteins act in the same pathway. Moreover, preconditioning with hydrogen peroxide restored the ethanol resistance of yeast cells with repressed SOD2. Interestingly, we found that mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling by Rtg proteins antagonizes Yap1p activation. Together, our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide produced by Sod2p activates Yap1p and thus plays a signaling role in ethanol tolerance. IMPORTANCE Baker's yeast harbors multiple systems that ensure tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol. Still, the role of mitochondria under severe ethanol stress in yeast is not completely clear. Our study revealed a signaling function of mitochondria which contributes significantly to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. We found that mitochondrial superoxide dismutase Sod2p and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide sensor Yap1p act together as a module of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling pathway. We also report cross talk between this pathway and the conventional retrograde signaling cascade activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. PMID:27864171

  13. Lung cancer risk among bakers, pastry cooks and confectionary makers: the SYNERGY study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Treppmann, Tabea; Olsson, Ann; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Gustavsson, Per; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Hans-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Tardón, Adonina; Field, John; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Benhamou, Simone; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Consonni, Dario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Plato, Nils; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Some studies have suggested increased lung cancer risks among bakers, however the results overall were inconsistent. The authors studied lung cancer risks among bakers and baking-related occupations in the SYNERGY pooled case-control database from 16 countries. Occupation in a baking-related job was identified from the subjects' job histories. ORs adjusted for log(age), study centre, smoking behaviour and ever employment in a job with known exposure to occupational lung carcinogens were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. Findings were stratified by sex, histological subtype of lung cancer and smoking status. 19 366 cases (15 606 men) and 23 670 control subjects (18 528 men) were included. 473 cases (415 men, 58 women) and 501 controls (437 men, 64 women) had ever worked in baking or a related job. We did not observe an increased risk for men in baking (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.18). No linear trends were observed for duration of employment. Some results suggested increased lung cancer risks for women, for example, for working as a baker for >30 years and in never-smokers, but after exclusion of one study these increased risks disappeared. The findings from this study do not suggest increased lung cancer risks in baking-related professions.

  14. Beyond bread and beer: whole cell protein extracts from baker's yeast as a bulk source for 3D cell culture matrices.

    PubMed

    Bodenberger, Nicholas; Kubiczek, Dennis; Paul, Patrick; Preising, Nico; Weber, Lukas; Bosch, Ramona; Hausmann, Rudolf; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Rosenau, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present a novel approach to form hydrogels from yeast whole cell protein. Countless hydrogels are available for sophisticated research, but their fabrication is often difficult to reproduce, with the gels being complicated to handle or simply too expensive. The yeast hydrogels presented here are polymerized using a four-armed, amine reactive crosslinker and show a high chemical and thermal resistance. The free water content was determined by measuring swelling ratios for different protein concentrations, and in a freeze-drying approach, pore sizes of up to 100 μm in the gel could be created without destabilizing the 3D network. Elasticity was proofed to be adjustable with the help of atomic force microscopy by merely changing the amount of used protein. Furthermore, the material was tested for possible cell culture applications; diffusion rates in the network are high enough for sufficient supply of human breast cancer cells and adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells with nutrition, and cells showed high viabilities when tested for compatibility with the material. Furthermore, hydrogels could be functionalized with RGD peptide and the optimal concentration for sufficient cell adhesion was determined to be 150 μM. Given that yeast protein is one of the cheapest and easiest available protein sources and that hydrogels are extremely easy to handle, the developed material has highly promising potential for both sophisticated cell culture techniques as well as for larger scale industrial applications.

  15. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  16. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mathias; Islam, Zia-Ul; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Carrillo, Martina; Swinnen, Steve; Workman, Mhairi; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-12-01

    Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae . This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus , Komagataella pastoris , Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S. cerevisiae wild-type strain (CBS 6412-13A). The maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.13 up to 0.18 h -1 and a biomass yield coefficient of 0.56 g DW /g glycerol was observed. These results pave the way for exploiting the assets of glycerol in the production of fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals based on baker's yeast.

  17. New biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somaia B.

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is an extensive technology applied for the removal of heavy metal ions and other pollutants from aqueous solutions. In the present study, the biosorption of cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury ions from polluted surface seawater in El-Max Bay was determined using hybrid active carbon sorbents. These sorbents were treated chemically by acid, base and redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast biomass for increasing their biosorption capacity and the highest metal uptake values. The surface function and morphology of the hybrid immobilized sorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Metal removal values proved that the vital role of baker's yeast as a significant high removable due to functional groups at baker's yeast cell wall surface that have the ability to forming various coordination complexes with metal ions. A noticeable increase in the removal of all studied metals was observed and reached to 100 %.

  18. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  19. 2. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. SECTION SHOWING BACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. SECTION SHOWING BACK OF ROUNDHOUSE AND END OF BACK SHOP WHERE CRANE WAS LOCATED. - Southern Railway Company, Spencer Shops, Salisbury Avenue between Third and Eight Streets, Spencer, Rowan County, NC

  20. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  1. Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K; Ballet, N; Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metabolites and their associated DNA adducts were determined. Additionally in vitro cell culture studies (HK2 cells) were applied to assess further the effects for yeast cell product enriched with glutathione (GSH) or selenium. Results of the in vitro binding assay in a buffer system indicated the ability of the yeast-based products, as sequester of OTA, albeit at a different level. In the in vitro experiments in chickens, decreased serum and tissue concentrations of treated animals confirmed that yeast-based products are able to prevent the absorption of OTA. A comparison of the binding affinity in a standard in vitro binding assay with the results obtained in an in vivo chicken experiment, however, showed a poor correlation and resulted in a different ranking of the products. More importantly, we could show that yeast-based products actively modulate the biotransformation of OTA in vivo as well as in vitro in a cell culture model. This effect seems to be attributable to residual enzymatic activities in the yeast-based products. An enrichment of yeast cell wall products with GSH or selenium further modulated the profile of the generated OTA metabolites and the associated pattern of OTA-induced DNA adducts by increasing the conversion of OTA into less toxic metabolites such as OTA, OTB and 4-OH-OTA. A reduced absorption and DNA adduct formation was particularly observed with GSH-enriched yeast, whereas selenium-enriched yeasts could counteract the OTA-induced decrease

  2. Mount Baker - Snoqualmie National Forest alternative transportation feasibility study : phase I final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-31

    Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (MBSNF) is located in close proximity to the Puget Sound metropolitan area in western Washington State. The Forest is facing a number of transportation issues, such as increasing congestion and decreasing availa...

  3. The Baker-Akhiezer Function and Factorization of the Chebotarev-Khrapkov Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, Yuri A.

    2014-10-01

    A new technique is proposed for the solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem with the Chebotarev-Khrapkov matrix coefficient {G(t) = α1(t)I + α2(t)Q(t)} , {α1(t), α2(t) in H(L)} , I = diag{1, 1}, Q(t) is a {2×2} zero-trace polynomial matrix. This problem has numerous applications in elasticity and diffraction theory. The main feature of the method is the removal of essential singularities of the solution to the associated homogeneous scalar Riemann-Hilbert problem on the hyperelliptic surface of an algebraic function by means of the Baker-Akhiezer function. The consequent application of this function for the derivation of the general solution to the vector Riemann-Hilbert problem requires the finding of the {ρ} zeros of the Baker-Akhiezer function ({ρ} is the genus of the surface). These zeros are recovered through the solution to the associated Jacobi problem of inversion of abelian integrals or, equivalently, the determination of the zeros of the associated degree-{ρ} polynomial and solution of a certain linear algebraic system of {ρ} equations.

  4. Meltwater palaeohydrology of the Baker River basin (Chile/Argentina) during Late Pleistocene deglaciation of the Northern Patagonia Icefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl; Bendle, Jacob; Benito, Gerardo; Sancho, Carlos; Palmer, Adrian; Rodríguez, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The Late Pleistocene deglaciation of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) was characterised by rapid ice sheet thinning and retreat, and the development of large proglacial lake systems characterised by continental scale drainage reversals. In this region, research has focused primarily on the identification of former ice-limits (e.g. moraine ridges) for geochronological analyses, with little attention given to the meltwater palaeohydrology of major river valleys. The Baker River catchment drains the majority of the eastern ice shed of the NPI, with a basin area of 29,000 km2 that includes the large transboundary lakes of General Carrera/Buenos Aires and Cochrane/Puerreydón. The Baker River valley is aligned north to south, crossing the east-west valleys of the main NPI outflow glaciers, and thus represents an important aspect of regional Late Pleistocene palaeogeography. The Baker River valley therefore has the potential to refine regional models of deglaciation through better understanding of relationships between glacier dynamics, ice dammed lakes and meltwater pathways. Here we present geomorphological mapping from the Atlantic-Pacific drainage divide (over 150 km east of the Cordillera) to the lower Baker valley, in order to reconstruct Late Pleistocene palaeohydrology. We provide new mapping of palaeolake shoreline elevations and evidence for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) pathways that require a re-evaluation of the currently accepted palaeogeographic models. For example, the palaeohydrological evidence does not support existing models of a unified Buenos Aires/Puerreydón mega-lake at ca. 400m elevation. We propose a relative chronology of palaeohydrological events that help refine the published moraine chronology derived from cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Controls on Late Pleistocene meltwater palaeohydrology of the Baker catchment are discussed, including the interplay of glacial processes and regional tectonics, in particular, dynamic

  5. Accumulation of linear mitochondrial DNA fragments in the nucleus shortens the chronological life span of yeast.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Ivessa, Andreas S

    2012-10-01

    Translocation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments to the nucleus and insertion of those fragments into nuclear DNA has been observed in several organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals. Disruption of specific nuclear genes by de novo insertions of mtDNA fragments has even been linked to the initiation of several human diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that baker's yeast strains with high rates of mtDNA fragments migrating to the nucleus (yme1-1 mutant) exhibit short chronological life spans (CLS). The yeast CLS is determined by the survival of non-dividing cell populations. Here, we show that lack of the non-homologous-end-joining enzyme DNA ligase IV (DNL4) can rescue the short CLS of the yme1-1 mutant. In fission yeast, DNA ligase IV has been shown to be required for the capture of mtDNA fragments during the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in nuclear DNA. In further analyses using pulse field gel and 2D gel electrophoresis we demonstrate that linear mtDNA fragments with likely nuclear localization accumulate in the yme1-1 mutant. The accumulation of the linear mtDNA fragments in the yme1-1 mutant is suppressed when Dnl4 is absent. We propose that the linear nuclear mtDNA fragments accelerate the aging process in the yme1-1 mutant cells by possibly affecting nuclear processes including DNA replication, recombination, and repair as well as transcription of nuclear genes. We speculate further that Dnl4 protein has besides its function as a ligase also a role in DNA protection. Dnl4 protein may stabilize the linear mtDNA fragments in the nucleus by binding to their physical ends. In the absence of Dnl4 protein the linear fragments are therefore unprotected and possibly degraded by nuclear nucleases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Alteration and Water on MT. Baker, WA with Geophysics: Implications for Volcanic Landslide Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bedrosian, P.; Minsley, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data, along with rock property measurements, local ground-based gravity, time domain electromagnetic (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data help identify alteration and water-saturated zones on Mount Baker, Washington. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water-saturated, can weaken volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. At Mount Baker volcano, collapses of hydrothermally altered rocks from the edifice have generated numerous debris flows that constitute their greatest volcanic hazards. Critical to quantifying this hazard is knowledge of the three-dimensional distribution of pervasively altered rock, shallow groundwater and ice that plays an important role in transforming debris avalanches to far traveled lahars. The helicopter geophysical data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of localized zones of less than 100 m thickness of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields at Mt. Baker. New stochastic inversions of the HEM data indicate variations in resistivity in inferred perched aquifers—distinguishing between fresh and saline waters, possibly indicating the influence of nearby alteration and/or hydrothermal systems on water quality. The new stochastic results better resolve ice thickness than previous inversions, and also provide important estimates of uncertainty on ice thickness and other parameters. New gravity data will help constrain the thickness of the ice and alteration. Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that the hydrothermal clays contain 50% water with no evidence for water beneath the ice. The HEM data identify water-saturated fresh volcanic rocks from the surface to the detection limit ( 100 m) over the entire summit of Mt. Baker. Localized time domain EM soundings indicate that

  7. New mutations affecting induced mutagenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; Krauss, B R; Christensen, R B

    1985-01-01

    Previously isolated mutations in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that impair induced mutagenesis were all identified with the aid of tests that either exclusively or predominantly detect base-pair substitutions. To avoid this bias, we have screened 11 366 potentially mutant clones for UV-induced reversion of the frameshift allele, his4-38, and have identified 10 mutants that give much reduced yields of revertants. Complementation and recombination tests show that 6 of these carry mutations at the previously known REV1, REV1 and REV3 loci, while the remaining 4 define 3 new genes, REV4 (2 mutations), REV5 and REV6. The rev4 mutations are readily suppressed in many genetic backgrounds and, like the rev5 mutation, impart only a limited deficiency for induced mutagenesis: it is likely, therefore that the REV4+ and REV5+ gene functions are only remotely concerned with this process. The rev6 mutants have a more general deficiency, however, as well as marked sensitivity to UV and an increased spontaneous mutation rate, properties that suggest the REV6 gene is directly involved in mutation induction. The REV5 gene is located about 1 cM proximal to CYC1 on chromosome X.

  8. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  9. Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Timothy G.; Allen, Patricia L.; Gunter, Margaret A.; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Birdsall, Holly H.

    2018-05-01

    Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or `giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.

  10. Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Timothy G.; Allen, Patricia L.; Gunter, Margaret A.; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Birdsall, Holly H.

    2017-12-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or `giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.

  11. Mount Baker - Snoqualmie National Forest alternative transportation feasibility study : phase II final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    The Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest is located near the Puget Sound metro area and is facing a number of transportation issues, such as increasing congestion and lack of access, which were identified in the Volpe Centers Phase I report. Thi...

  12. Mount Baker - Snoqualmie National Forest Denny Creek area parking impact assessment : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    The Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest is located near the Puget Sound metro area and is facing a number of transportation issues, such as increasing congestion and lack of access, which were identified in the Volpe Centers Phase I report. The...

  13. Integrative network alignment reveals large regions of global network similarity in yeast and human.

    PubMed

    Kuchaiev, Oleksii; Przulj, Natasa

    2011-05-15

    High-throughput methods for detecting molecular interactions have produced large sets of biological network data with much more yet to come. Analogous to sequence alignment, efficient and reliable network alignment methods are expected to improve our understanding of biological systems. Unlike sequence alignment, network alignment is computationally intractable. Hence, devising efficient network alignment heuristics is currently a foremost challenge in computational biology. We introduce a novel network alignment algorithm, called Matching-based Integrative GRAph ALigner (MI-GRAAL), which can integrate any number and type of similarity measures between network nodes (e.g. proteins), including, but not limited to, any topological network similarity measure, sequence similarity, functional similarity and structural similarity. Hence, we resolve the ties in similarity measures and find a combination of similarity measures yielding the largest contiguous (i.e. connected) and biologically sound alignments. MI-GRAAL exposes the largest functional, connected regions of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network similarity to date: surprisingly, it reveals that 77.7% of proteins in the baker's yeast high-confidence PPI network participate in such a subnetwork that is fully contained in the human high-confidence PPI network. This is the first demonstration that species as diverse as yeast and human contain so large, continuous regions of global network similarity. We apply MI-GRAAL's alignments to predict functions of un-annotated proteins in yeast, human and bacteria validating our predictions in the literature. Furthermore, using network alignment scores for PPI networks of different herpes viruses, we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationship. This is the first time that phylogeny is exactly reconstructed from purely topological alignments of PPI networks. Supplementary files and MI-GRAAL executables: http://bio-nets.doc.ic.ac.uk/MI-GRAAL/.

  14. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-12-20

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome.

  15. The mechanism of untargeted mutagenesis in UV-irradiated yeast.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; Christensen, R B

    1982-01-01

    The SOS error-prone repair hypothesis proposes that untargeted and targeted mutations in E. coli both result from the inhibition of polymerase functions that normally maintain fidelity, and that this is a necessary precondition for translesion synthesis. Using mating experiments with excision deficient strains of Bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we find that up to 40% of cycl-91 revertants induced by UV are untargeted, showing that a reduction in fidelity is also found in irradiated cells of this organism. We are, however, unable to detect the induction or activation of any diffusible factor capable of inhibiting fidelity, and therefore suggest that untargeted and targeted mutations are the consequence of largely different processes. We propose that these observations are best explained in terms of a limited fidelity model. Untargeted mutations are thought to result from the limited capacity of processes which normally maintain fidelity, which are active during replication on both irradiated and unirradiated templates. Even moderate UV fluences saturate this capacity, leading to competition for the limited resource. Targeted mutations are believed to result from the limited, though far from negligible, capacity of lesions like pyrimidine dimers to form Watson-Crick base pairs.

  16. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  17. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt...

  18. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  19. Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Fierstein, J.; Lanphere, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mount Baker, a steaming, ice-mantled, andesitic stratovolcano, is the most conspicuous component of a multivent Quaternary volcanic field active almost continuously since 1.3 Ma. More than 70 packages of lava flows and ~110 dikes have been mapped, ???500 samples chemically analyzed, and ~80 K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages determined. Principal components are (1) the ignimbrite-filled Kulshan caldera (1.15 Ma) and its precaldera and postcaldera rhyodacite lavas and dikes (1.29-0.99 Ma); (2)~60 intracaldera, hydrothermally altered, andesite-dacite dikes and pods-remnants of a substantial early-postcaldera volcanic center (1.1-0.6 Ma); (3) unaltered intracaldera andesite lavas and dikes, including those capping Ptarmigan and Lasiocarpa Ridges and Table Mountain (0.5-0.2 Ma); (4) the long-lived Chowder Ridge focus (1.29-0.1 Ma)-an andesite to rhyodacite eruptive complex now glacially reduced to ~50 dikes and remnants of ~10 lava flows; (5) Black Buttes stratocone, basaltic to dacitic, and several contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.5-0.2 Ma); and (6) Mount Baker stratocone and contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.1 Ma to Holocene). Glacial ice has influenced eruptions and amplified erosion throughout the lifetime of the volcanic field. Although more than half the material erupted has been eroded, liberal and conservative volume estimates for 77 increments of known age yield cumulative curves of volume erupted vs. time that indicate eruption rates in the range 0.17-0.43 km3/k.y. for major episodes and longterm background rates of 0.02-0.07 km3/k.y. Andesite and rhyodacite each make up nearly half of the 161 ?? 56 km3 of products erupted, whereas basalt and dacite represent only a few cubic kilometers, each representing 1%-3% the total. During the past 4 m.y., the principal magmatic focus has migrated stepwise 25 km southwestward, from the edge of the Chilliwack batholith to present-day Mount Baker.

  20. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... vitamin D 2 bakers yeast as a source of vitamin D 2 and as a leavening agent in yeast-leavened baked... baked products at levels not to exceed 400 IU of vitamin D 2 per 100 g in the finished food. The specific foods identified by the petition in which the additive will be used are yeast-leavened baked goods...

  1. Inaccurate DNA Synthesis in Cell Extracts of Yeast Producing Active Human DNA Polymerase Iota

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Alena V.; Grabow, Corinn; Gening, Leonid V.; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z.; Tahirov, Tahir H.; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn2+ ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates “G” opposite template “T” more frequently than incorporates the correct “A.” We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of “G” versus “A” method of Gening, abbreviated as “misGvA”). We provide unambiguous proof of the “misGvA” approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The “misGvA” activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts. PMID:21304950

  2. Inaccurate DNA synthesis in cell extracts of yeast producing active human DNA polymerase iota.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Alena V; Grabow, Corinn; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Tahirov, Tahir H; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Pavlov, Youri I

    2011-01-31

    Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn(2+) ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates "G" opposite template "T" more frequently than incorporates the correct "A." We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of "G" versus "A" method of Gening, abbreviated as "misGvA"). We provide unambiguous proof of the "misGvA" approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The "misGvA" activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts.

  3. Ecological and agriculture impacts of bakery yeast wastewater use on weed communities and crops in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed H; Diab, Mahmoud; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of using yeast wastewater (YW) on weed communities. The study showed that all ecological parameters including species richness, dispersion, density, frequency, and % of vegetation cover were significantly increased in the site irrigated with YW compared to a natural rain fed site and another site irrigated with fresh water. The vegetation cover (%) was significantly increased by 2-folds in the site irrigated with YW (52%) than the one irrigated with fresh water (27%). Species richness increases to 23 in the site irrigated with yeast wastewater compared to 12 species in natural rain fed site and 7 species in areas irrigated with fresh water. The 10 studied weed species germinated better at 10 and 20% dilutions of baker's YW. However, only five species achieved few germination (3-25%) at 50% of YW and the two species Sisymbrim irio and Cardariia droba achieved (6-13%) germination using 100% YW. No germination occurred for the crop seeds (tomato, squash, lentil, and barley) at 50 and 100% YW. For tomato, 10 and 20% of YW achieved better germination (82 and 63%, respectively) than the seeds of other species, followed by barley with 80 and 53% of germination. Squash showed the lowest germination percentage with 59 and 42% at 10 and 20% of YW, respectively. Yeast wastewater seems to be crop specific and can affect weed species composition and relative abundances and care should be taken before using the effluent for irrigation of tree plantations and crops.

  4. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  5. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection (vaginal) Overview A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itchiness ... symptoms Causes The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast, including ...

  6. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  9. Chicks in Charge: Andrea Baker & Amy Daniels--Airport High School Media Center, Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly discusses two librarians exploration of Linux. Andrea Baker and Amy Daniels were tired of telling their students that new technology items were not in the budget. They explored Linux, which is a program that recycles older computers, installs free operating systems and free software.

  10. Baker's Helper. DOT No. 313.684-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide is one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria. Each self-paced unit is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the baker's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a…

  11. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker’s origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War’s end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy. PMID:24587499

  12. Validation of a predictive model for the growth of chalk yeasts on bread.

    PubMed

    Burgain, Anaïs; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2015-07-02

    The present study focused on the effects of temperature, T, and water activity, aw, on the growth of Hyphopichia burtonii, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera on Sabouraud Agar Medium. Cardinal values were estimated by means of cardinal models with inflection. All the yeasts were xerophilic, and they exhibited growth at 0.85 aw. The combined effects of T, aw, and pH on the growth of these species were described by the gamma-concept and validated on bread in the range of 15-25 °C, 0.91-0.97 aw, and pH 4.6-6.8. The optimum growth rates on bread were 2.88, 0.259, and 1.06 mm/day for H. burtonii, P. anomala, and S. fibuligera, respectively. The optimal growth rate of S. fibuligera on bread was about 2 fold that obtained on Sabouraud. Due to reproduction by budding, P. anomala exhibited low growth on Sabouraud and bread. However, this species is of major concern in the baker's industry because of the production of ethyl acetate in bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Omics Data Complementarity Underlines Functional Cross-Communication in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2017-06-10

    Mapping the complete functional layout of a cell and understanding the cross-talk between different processes are fundamental challenges. They elude us because of the incompleteness and noisiness of molecular data and because of the computational intractability of finding the exact answer. We perform a simple integration of three types of baker's yeast omics data to elucidate the functional organization and lines of cross-functional communication. We examine protein-protein interaction (PPI), co-expression (COEX) and genetic interaction (GI) data, and explore their relationship with the gold standard of functional organization, the Gene Ontology (GO). We utilize a simple framework that identifies functional cross-communication lines in each of the three data types, in GO, and collectively in the integrated model of the three omics data types; we present each of them in our new Functional Organization Map (FOM) model. We compare the FOMs of the three omics datasets with the FOM of GO and find that GI is in best agreement with GO, followed COEX and PPI. We integrate the three FOMs into a unified FOM and find that it is in better agreement with the FOM of GO than those of any omics dataset alone, demonstrating functional complementarity of different omics data.

  14. A baker's dozen of new particle flows for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2015-05-01

    We describe a baker's dozen of new particle flows to compute Bayes' rule for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and learning as well as transport. Several of these new flows were inspired by transport theory, but others were inspired by physics or statistics or Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.

  15. Sourdough Bread Made from Wheat and Nontoxic Flours and Started with Selected Lactobacilli Is Tolerated in Celiac Sprue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-01-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oat, millet, and buckwheat flours was started with lactobacilli. After 24 h of fermentation, wheat gliadins and low-molecular-mass, alcohol-soluble polypeptides were hydrolyzed almost totally. Proteins were extracted from sourdough and used to produce a peptic-tryptic digest for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562(S) subclone cells of human origin. The minimal agglutinating activity was ca. 250 times higher than that of doughs chemically acidified or started with baker's yeast. Two types of bread, containing ca. 2 g of gluten, were produced with baker's yeast or lactobacilli and CE and used for an in vivo double-blind acute challenge of CS patients. Thirteen of the 17 patients showed a marked alteration of intestinal permeability after ingestion of baker's yeast bread. When fed the sourdough bread, the same 13 patients had values for excreted rhamnose and lactulose that did not differ significantly from the baseline values. The other 4 of the 17 CS patients did not respond to gluten after ingesting the baker's yeast or sourdough bread. These results showed that a bread biotechnology that uses selected lactobacilli, nontoxic flours, and a long fermentation time is a novel tool for decreasing the level of gluten intolerance in humans. PMID:14766592

  16. Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

  17. Species-specific activation of Cu/Zn SOD by its CCS copper chaperone in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Julie E; Li, Cissy X; Odeh, Hana M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2014-06-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast of important public health relevance. Virulence of C. albicans requires a copper and zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the biology of C. albicans SOD1 is poorly understood. To this end, C. albicans SOD1 activation was examined in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a eukaryotic expression system that has proven fruitful for the study of SOD1 enzymes from invertebrates, plants, and mammals. In spite of the 80% similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans SOD1 molecules, C. albicans SOD1 is not active in S. cerevisiae. The SOD1 appears incapable of productive interactions with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS1) of S. cerevisiae. C. albicans SOD1 contains a proline at position 144 predicted to dictate dependence on CCS1. By mutation of this proline, C. albicans SOD1 gained activity in S. cerevisiae, and this activity was independent of CCS1. We identified a putative CCS1 gene in C. albicans and created heterozygous and homozygous gene deletions at this locus. Loss of CCS1 resulted in loss of SOD1 activity, consistent with its role as a copper chaperone. C. albicans CCS1 also restored activity to C. albicans SOD1 expressed in S. cerevisiae. C. albicans CCS1 is well adapted for activating its partner SOD1 from C. albicans, but not SOD1 from S. cerevisiae. In spite of the high degree of homology between the SOD1 and CCS1 molecules in these two fungal species, there exists a species-specific barrier in CCS-SOD interactions which may reflect the vastly different lifestyles of the pathogenic versus the noninfectious yeast.

  18. What do we know about the yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry?

    PubMed

    Della-Bianca, Bianca Eli; Basso, Thiago Olitta; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2013-02-01

    The production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane-based raw materials in Brazil is a successful example of a large-scale bioprocess that delivers an advanced biofuel at competitive prices and low environmental impact. Two to three fed-batch fermentations per day, with acid treatment of the yeast cream between consecutive cycles, during 6-8 months of uninterrupted production in a nonaseptic environment are some of the features that make the Brazilian process quite peculiar. Along the past decades, some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated, identified, characterized, and eventually, reintroduced into the process, enabling us to build up knowledge on these organisms. This information, combined with physiological studies in the laboratory and, more recently, genome sequencing data, has allowed us to start clarifying why and how these strains behave differently from the better known laboratory, wine, beer, and baker's strains. All these issues are covered in this minireview, which also presents a brief discussion on future directions in the field and on the perspectives of introducing genetically modified strains in this industrial process.

  19. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional... botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter. ...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in order...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in order...

  2. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium... this chapter, or texturizer as defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter Do. (e) The label and labeling...

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium... this chapter, or texturizer as defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter Do. (e) The label and labeling...

  4. The flexible feedstock concept in Industrial Biotechnology: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast strains for access to alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F; Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Gil Lopez, Marina; Hennig, Guido; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Sgobba, Elvira; Veldmann, Kareen H

    2016-09-20

    Most biotechnological processes are based on glucose that is either present in molasses or generated from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the very high, million-ton scale production volumes, for instance for fermentative production of the biofuel ethanol or of commodity chemicals such as organic acids and amino acids, competing uses of carbon sources e.g. in human and animal nutrition have to be taken into account. Thus, the biotechnological production hosts E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, bacilli and Baker's yeast used in these large scale processes have been engineered for efficient utilization of alternative carbon sources. This flexible feedstock concept is central to the use of non-glucose second and third generation feedstocks in the emerging bioeconomy. The metabolic engineering efforts to broaden the substrate scope of E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, B. subtilis and yeasts to include non-native carbon sources will be reviewed. Strategies to enable simultaneous consumption of mixtures of native and non-native carbon sources present in biomass hydrolysates will be summarized and a perspective on how to further increase feedstock flexibility for the realization of biorefinery processes will be given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prions in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-β aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

  6. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES, dons parachute during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker is assisted with a training version of his Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suit (LES). A technician adjusts his parachute harness prior to the emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  7. Yeast for virus research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  8. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  9. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  10. [Occupational asthma--the case of bakers' asthma].

    PubMed

    Bishara, Hasham; Carel, Rafael S

    2013-08-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the most common of all occupational lung diseases in industrialized countries and its prevalence has been rising steadily. It is estimated that occupational factors account for one out of six cases of adult asthmatic patients causing significant morbidity, disability and costs. Due to its high prevalence and substantial health and socio-economic impacts OA represents a significant public health concern. OA can be divided into allergic and non allergic asthma. Allergic OA is further divided into IgE mediated and non IgE mediated. Baker's asthma (BA), is the leading cause of IgE mediated OA caused by high molecular weight antgens in industrialized countries. Innovations in the baking industry during the last few decades have led to the introduction of new allergens inducing OA. OA is potentially preventable, through early diagnosis and exposure cessation interventions. Thus, clinicians should consider the occupational history in every adult patient presenting with newly diagnosed asthma.

  11. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  12. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Treesearch

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  13. Multi-Baker Map as a Model of Digital PD Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernák, Gábor; Gyebrószki, Gergely; Stépán, Gábor

    Digital stabilization of unstable equilibria of linear systems may lead to small amplitude stochastic-like oscillations. We show that these vibrations can be related to a deterministic chaotic dynamics induced by sampling and quantization. A detailed analytical proof of chaos is presented for the case of a PD controlled oscillator: it is shown that there exists a finite attracting domain in the phase-space, the largest Lyapunov exponent is positive and the existence of a Smale horseshoe is also pointed out. The corresponding two-dimensional micro-chaos map is a multi-baker map, i.e. it consists of a finite series of baker’s maps.

  14. [Respiratory allergies among symptomatic bakers and pastry cooks: initial results of a prevalence study].

    PubMed

    Bataille, A; Anton, M; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick response to common allergens, storage mite and occupational allergens. Among 178 symptomatics bakers and pastry workers from small businesses in western France, only 65 people underwent skin prick and specific-IgE. 12 (18%) workers were skin positive to at least one common or occupational allergens. The more often skin positive were D. Ptero. mite 36 (57%); Alpha amylase 23 (35%); wheat flour 17 (26%); saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 (25%); Ephestia 15 (24%). The sensitivity of skin test was better than specific IgE for D. Ptero. Mite 36 (57%); and Alpha amylase 23 (35%). The sensitivity of specific IgE was better than skin test for wheat flour 26 (45%) and rye flour 23 (40%). Occurrence of skin positive to occupational allergen among symptomatics with rhinitis and asthma is much more frequent in workers with skin positive to common allergens (40/36) than in workers with skin negative (8/20). Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. We conclude in the necessity of a standardised allergologic exploration to be done in symptomatics bakers.

  15. Effect of wine yeast monoculture practice on the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ganga, M A; Martínez, C

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae monocultures over the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine-producing areas in Chile. Microvinifications were carried out with grape musts of two areas. In one of them, the fermentation is carried out mainly in a spontaneous manner, whereas in the other the musts are inoculated with commercial yeasts. The isolated yeasts were identified by the internal transcribed (ITS)/restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. In the industrial production area less variability of yeast genera was observed as compared with the traditional area, an observation that is greatest at the end of the fermentation. Furthermore, a study of the production of extracellular enzymes was done. The majority of the yeasts showed at least one of the activities assayed with the exception of beta-glycosidase. The results suggest that in the industrialized area the diversity of yeasts is less in the traditional area. Likewise, the potentiality of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts as enzyme producers with industrial interest has been confirmed. This study shows the negative effect of the use of monocultures over the biodiversity of yeasts in wine-producing regions.

  16. Yeast cell differentiation: Lessons from pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-09-01

    Yeasts, historically considered to be single-cell organisms, are able to activate different differentiation processes. Individual yeast cells can change their life-styles by processes of phenotypic switching such as the switch from yeast-shaped cells to filamentous cells (pseudohyphae or true hyphae) and the transition among opaque, white and gray cell-types. Yeasts can also create organized multicellular structures such as colonies and biofilms, and the latter are often observed as contaminants on surfaces in industry and medical care and are formed during infections of the human body. Multicellular structures are formed mostly of stationary-phase or slow-growing cells that diversify into specific cell subpopulations that have unique metabolic properties and can fulfill specific tasks. In addition to the development of multiple protective mechanisms, processes of metabolic reprogramming that reflect a changed environment help differentiated individual cells and/or community cell constituents to survive harmful environmental attacks and/or to escape the host immune system. This review aims to provide an overview of differentiation processes so far identified in individual yeast cells as well as in multicellular communities of yeast pathogens of the Candida and Cryptococcus spp. and the Candida albicans close relative, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular mechanisms and extracellular signals potentially involved in differentiation processes are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  18. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  19. Genome dynamics and evolution in yeasts: A long-term yeast-bacteria competition experiment

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael; Knecht, Wolfgang; Compagno, Concetta; Piškur, Jure

    2018-01-01

    There is an enormous genetic diversity evident in modern yeasts, but our understanding of the ecological basis of such diversifications in nature remains at best fragmented so far. Here we report a long-term experiment mimicking a primordial competitive environment, in which yeast and bacteria co-exist and compete against each other. Eighteen yeasts covering a wide phylogenetic background spanning approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history were used to establish independent evolution lines for at most 130 passages. Our collection of hundreds of modified strains generated through such a rare two-species cross-kingdom competition experiment re-created the appearance of large-scale genomic rearrangements and altered phenotypes important in the diversification history of yeasts. At the same time, the methodology employed in this evolutionary study would also be a non-gene-technological method of reprogramming yeast genomes and then selecting yeast strains with desired traits. Cross-kingdom competition may therefore be a method of significant value to generate industrially useful yeast strains with new metabolic traits. PMID:29624585

  20. Ground-water data in the Baker County-northern Malheur County area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water data for the Baker County-northern Malheur area, Oregon, are tabulated for the Bureau of Land Management. The data include well and spring records, a well-location map, drillers ' logs of wells, observation-well hydrographs, and chemical analyses of ground-water samples. The reported yields of wells and springs in the area ranged from less than 1 to 2 ,500 gallons per minute. Dissolved solids in ground-water samples ranged from 50 to 1,587 milligrams per liter, and arsenic ranged from 0.001 to 0.317 milligrams per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Ghislaine Maria; de Souza, Thaysi Ventura; Voltolini, Caroline Heinig; Reis, Ademir

    2013-01-01

    Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant's rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment. PMID:23864825

  2. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    PubMed

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  3. New yeasts-new brews: modern approaches to brewing yeast design and development.

    PubMed

    Gibson, B; Geertman, J-M A; Hittinger, C T; Krogerus, K; Libkind, D; Louis, E J; Magalhães, F; Sampaio, J P

    2017-06-01

    The brewing industry is experiencing a period of change and experimentation largely driven by customer demand for product diversity. This has coincided with a greater appreciation of the role of yeast in determining the character of beer and the widespread availability of powerful tools for yeast research. Genome analysis in particular has helped clarify the processes leading to domestication of brewing yeast and has identified domestication signatures that may be exploited for further yeast development. The functional properties of non-conventional yeast (both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces) are being assessed with a view to creating beers with new flavours as well as producing flavoursome non-alcoholic beers. The discovery of the psychrotolerant S. eubayanus has stimulated research on de novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids for low-temperature lager brewing and has led to renewed interest in the functional importance of hybrid organisms and the mechanisms that determine hybrid genome function and stability. The greater diversity of yeast that can be applied in brewing, along with an improved understanding of yeasts' evolutionary history and biology, is expected to have a significant and direct impact on the brewing industry, with potential for improved brewing efficiency, product diversity and, above all, customer satisfaction. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  5. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, David J.

    2005-12-01

    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  7. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  8. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.

    PubMed

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-09-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. © 2014 The Authors FEMS Yeast Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  10. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 1. The Baker's Asthma Case.

    PubMed

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat protein CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated with baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on a UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification. Combined data analysis of variance revealed an important effect of genotype, crop year, and their interaction. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to significantly vary among studied genotypes, as confirmed by genetic variability, coefficient of variance, heritability, and genetic advance.

  11. Replica Resummation of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajna, Szabolcs; Klobas, Katja; Prosen, Tomaž; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2018-05-01

    We developed a novel perturbative expansion based on the replica trick for the Floquet Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of periodically kicked systems where the kick strength is the small parameter. The expansion is formally equivalent to an infinite resummation of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series in the undriven (nonperturbed) Hamiltonian, while considering terms up to a finite order in the kick strength. As an application of the replica expansion, we analyze an Ising spin 1 /2 chain periodically kicked with a magnetic field with a strength h , which has both longitudinal and transverse components. We demonstrate that even away from the regime of high frequency driving, if there is heating, its rate is nonperturbative in the kick strength, bounded from above by a stretched exponential: e-const h-1 /2 . This guarantees the existence of a very long prethermal regime, where the dynamics is governed by the Floquet Hamiltonian obtained from the replica expansion.

  12. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  13. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  14. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  15. Ancient Evolutionary Trade-Offs between Yeast Ploidy States

    PubMed Central

    Zörgö, Enikö; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Gjuvsland, Arne B.; Garré, Elena; Sunnerhagen, Per; Liti, Gianni; Blomberg, Anders; Omholt, Stig W.; Warringer, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The number of chromosome sets contained within the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is a fundamental yet evolutionarily poorly characterized genetic variable of life. Here, we mapped the impact of ploidy on the mitotic fitness of baker's yeast and its never domesticated relative Saccharomyces paradoxus across wide swaths of their natural genotypic and phenotypic space. Surprisingly, environment-specific influences of ploidy on reproduction were found to be the rule rather than the exception. These ploidy–environment interactions were well conserved across the 2 billion generations separating the two species, suggesting that they are the products of strong selection. Previous hypotheses of generalizable advantages of haploidy or diploidy in ecological contexts imposing nutrient restriction, toxin exposure, and elevated mutational loads were rejected in favor of more fine-grained models of the interplay between ecology and ploidy. On a molecular level, cell size and mating type locus composition had equal, but limited, explanatory power, each explaining 12.5%–17% of ploidy–environment interactions. The mechanism of the cell size–based superior reproductive efficiency of haploids during Li+ exposure was traced to the Li+ exporter ENA. Removal of the Ena transporters, forcing dependence on the Nha1 extrusion system, completely altered the effects of ploidy on Li+ tolerance and evoked a strong diploid superiority, demonstrating how genetic variation at a single locus can completely reverse the relative merits of haploidy and diploidy. Taken together, our findings unmasked a dynamic interplay between ploidy and ecology that was of unpredicted evolutionary importance and had multiple molecular roots. PMID:23555297

  16. Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David

    1983-01-01

    Clay minerals are locally abundant in two hydrothermal areas at Mount Baker-Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Field. The silt- and clay-size fractions of volcanic debris that is undergoing alteration at and near the ground surface around areas of current fumarolic activity in Sherman Crater are largely dominated by alunite and a silica phase, either opal or cristobalite, but contain some kaolinite and smectite. Correspondingly, the chemistry of solutions at the surface of the crater, as represented by the crater lake, favors the formation of alunite over kaolinite. In contrast, vent-filling debris that was ejected to the surface from fumaroles in 1975 contains more than 20 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite and smectite are dominant. The youngest eruptive deposit (probably 19th century) on the crater rim was also altered prior to ejection and contains as much as 27 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite, smectite, pyrophyllite, and mixed-layer illitesmectite are abundant. The hydrothermal products, kaolinite and alunite, are present in significant amounts in five large Holocene mudflows that originated at the upper cone of Mount Baker. The distribution of kaolinite in crater and valley deposits indicates that, with the passage of time, increasingly greater amounts of this clay mineral have been incorporated into large mass movements from the upper cone. Either erosion has cut into more kaolinitic parts of the core of Sherman Crater, or the amount of kaolinite has increased through time in Sherman Crater.

  17. Identifying Water on Mt. Baker and Mt. St. Helens, WA with Geophysics: Implications for Volcanic Landslide Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater position, abundance, and flow rates within a volcano affect the transmission of fluid pressure, transport of mass and heat and formation of mechanically weak hydrothermal alteration influencing the stability of volcanoes. In addition, eruptions can shatter volcanic rocks, weakening the edifice. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data collected over Mt. Baker and Mt. St. Helens volcanoes reveal the distribution of water, shattered volcanic rocks and hydrothermal alteration essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of localized <100 m thick zones of water-saturated hydrothermally altered rock beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields at Mt. Baker. Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that the hydrothermal clays contain ~50% bound water with no evidence for free water ponded beneath the ice. The HEM data suggest water-saturated fresh volcanic rocks from the surface to the detection limit (~100 m) over the entire summit of Mt. Baker (below the ice). A 50-100 m thick high resistivity layer (>1500 ohm-m) corresponding to domes, debris avalanche, volcanic rocks and glaciers mantles the crater at Mt. St. Helens. Shallow low resistivity layers corresponding to fresh, cold water and hot brines are observed below the high resistivity surface in EM data. Shallow ground water mainly concentrates in shattered dome material in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. Aeromagnetic data indicate the location of basalts sandwiched between debris avalanche deposits and shattered dome material. The combination of the EM and magnetic data help map the location of the shattered dome material that is considered to be the failure surface for the 1980 debris avalanche. The EM data image the regional groundwater table near the base of the volcano. The geophysical identification of groundwater and weak layers constrain landslide hazards assessments.

  18. Wine yeasts for the future.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2008-11-01

    International competition within the wine market, consumer demands for newer styles of wines and increasing concerns about the environmental sustainability of wine production are providing new challenges for innovation in wine fermentation. Within the total production chain, the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice by yeasts is a key process where winemakers can creatively engineer wine character and value through better yeast management and, thereby, strategically tailor wines to a changing market. This review considers the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining wine quality, and then discusses new directions for exploiting yeasts in wine fermentation. It covers criteria for selecting and developing new commercial strains, the possibilities of using yeasts other than those in the genus of Saccharomyces, the prospects for mixed culture fermentations and explores the possibilities for high cell density, continuous fermentations.

  19. Modification of the cell wall structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during cultivation on waste potato juice water and glycerol towards biosynthesis of functional polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Błażejak, Stanisław; Kieliszek, Marek; Pobiega, Katarzyna; Falana, Katarzyna; Janowicz, Monika

    2018-06-06

    Changes in cell wall structure of four strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae species (brewer's, baker's and probiotic yeast) after culturing on deproteinated potato juice water (DPJW) with diverse addition of glycerol and different pH were investigated. It allowed to select conditions intensifying biosynthesis of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucan and mannoproteins of cell walls of tested strains. Yeast cell wall structural polysaccharides show biological activity and technological usability in food industry but also decide about therapeutic properties of yeast biomass. The highest increase in the thickness of walls (by about 100%) and β-glucan layer (by about 120%) was stated after cultivation of S. cerevisiae R9 brewer's yeast in DPJW supplemented with 5 and 10% (w/v) of glycerol and pH 7.0 while S. cerevisiae var. boulardi PAN yeast synthesized by ab. 70% thicker β-glucan layer when the pH of growth medium was equal to 5.0. The cells of brewer's yeast (S. cerevisiae R9), probiotic (S. cerevisiae CNCM 1-745) and baker's (S. cerevisiae 102) intensified the ratio of mannoproteins in the structure of cell walls cultivated in mediums supplemented with above 15% of glycerol what point out the protective action of glycoprotein's under osmotic stress conditions. The study confirms at the first time the possibility of using agro-industrial waste in biosynthesis of functional polysaccharides of S. cerevisiae cell wall. It could be an new advantage in production of yeast biomass with therapeutic properties or β-glucan preparation as a novel food ingredient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  1. Comment on ‘Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    Recently Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) succeeded in explicitly evaluating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion series for the noncommuting operators X and Y, provided that the two operators satisfy the commutation relation: [X,Y]={uX}+{vY}+{cI}, and the operator I commutes with both of them. In this comment we show that the closed-form BCH formula of this special case can be straightforwardly derived by the means of the Wei-Norman theorem and no summation of the infinite series is needed.

  2. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  3. Simplifying the Reinsch algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-02-01

    The Goldberg version of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity Z ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y ) = ∑ w g ( w ) w ( X , Y ) , where X and Y are not necessarily commuting in terms of "words" constructed from the {X, Y} "alphabet." The so-called Goldberg coefficients g(w) are the central topic of this article. This Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of very wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate the Goldberg coefficients up to some fixed word length |w| by using nilpotent (|w| + 1) × (|w| + 1) matrices. We shall show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making its implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward using "off the shelf" symbolic manipulation software. Specific computations provide examples which help to provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance, we shall establish some strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of nonzero Goldberg coefficients often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the word length |w|. Furthermore, the simplified Reinsch algorithm readily generalizes to many closely related but still quite distinct problems—we shall also present closely related results for the symmetric product S ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X / 2 e Y e X / 2 ) = ∑ w g S ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . Variations on such themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the "loop" product L ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y e - X e - Y ) = ∑ w g L ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . This "loop" type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering either differential geometric parallel transport around a closed curve, non-Abelian versions of Stokes' theorem, or even Wigner rotation/Thomas precession in special

  4. The yeast actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Huang, Junqi; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2014-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a complex network of dynamic polymers, which plays an important role in various fundamental cellular processes, including maintenance of cell shape, polarity, cell division, cell migration, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and mechanosensation. Precise spatiotemporal assembly and disassembly of actin structures is regulated by the coordinated activity of about 100 highly conserved accessory proteins, which nucleate, elongate, cross-link, and sever actin filaments. Both in vivo studies in a wide range of organisms from yeast to metazoans and in vitro studies of purified proteins have helped shape the current understanding of actin dynamics and function. Molecular genetics, genome-wide functional analysis, sophisticated real-time imaging, and ultrastructural studies in concert with biochemical analysis have made yeast an attractive model to understand the actin cytoskeleton, its molecular dynamics, and physiological function. Studies of the yeast actin cytoskeleton have contributed substantially in defining the universal mechanism regulating actin assembly and disassembly in eukaryotes. Here, we review some of the important insights generated by the study of actin cytoskeleton in two important yeast models the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Thermoresistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kaliuzhin, V A

    2011-01-01

    Under natural conditions, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduce, as a rule, on the surface of solid or liquid medium. Thus, life cycle of yeast populations is substantially influenced by diurnal changes in ambient temperature. The pattern in the response of unrestricted yeast S. cerevisiae culture to changes in the temperature of cultivation is revealed experimentally. Yeast population, in the absence of environmental constraints on the functioning of cell chemosmotic bioenergetic system, demonstrates the ability of thermoresistance when the temperature of cultivation switches from the range of 12-36 degrees C to 37.5-40 degrees C. During the transient period that is associated with the temperature switching and lasts from 1 to 4 turnover cycles, yeast reproduction rate remains 1.5-2 times higher than under stationary conditions. This is due to evolutionary acquired adaptive activity of cell chemosmotic system. After the adaptive resources exhausting, yeast thermoresistance fully recovers at the temperature range of 12-36 degrees C within one generation time under conditions of both restricted and unrestricted nourishment. Adaptive significance of such thermoresistance seems obvious enough--it allows maintaining high reproduction rate in yeast when ambient temperature is reaching a brief maximum shortly after noon.

  6. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis...

  8. Computing the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series and the Zassenhaus product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyrauch, Michael; Scholz, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) series and the Zassenhaus product are of fundamental importance for the theory of Lie groups and their applications in physics and physical chemistry. Standard methods for the explicit construction of the BCH and Zassenhaus terms yield polynomial representations, which must be translated into the usually required commutator representation. We prove that a new translation proposed recently yields a correct representation of the BCH and Zassenhaus terms. This representation entails fewer terms than the well-known Dynkin-Specht-Wever representation, which is of relevance for practical applications. Furthermore, various methods for the computation of the BCH and Zassenhaus terms are compared, and a new efficient approach for the calculation of the Zassenhaus terms is proposed. Mathematica implementations for the most efficient algorithms are provided together with comparisons of efficiency.

  9. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  10. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  14. Influence of cultivation procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used as pitching agent in industrial spent sulphite liquor fermentations.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emma; Brandberg, Tomas; Larsson, Christer

    2011-11-01

    The cell viability and fermentation performance often deteriorate in fermentations of spent sulphite liquor (SSL). This investigation therefore addresses the question of how different cultivation conditions for yeast cells influence their ability to survive and boost the ethanol production capacity in an SSL-based fermentation process. The strains used as pitching agents were an industrially harvested Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial dry baker's yeast. This study therefore suggests that exposure to SSL in combination with nutrients, prior to the fermentation step, is crucial for the performance of the yeast. Supplying 0.5 g/l fresh yeast cultivated under appropriate cultivation conditions may increase ethanol concentration more than 200%.

  15. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  16. Evidence for structural plasticity in humans: comment on Thomas and Baker (2012).

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I

    2013-06-01

    Thomas and Baker (2012) have provided a balanced and critical review of the scientific evidence claiming that training interventions have the capacity to alter the structural morphology of the brain. Here I provide some additional considerations when reading and interpreting both the review and the original empirical articles. Research proposing to examine the capacity for structural brain plasticity needs to contemplate methodological issues and factors that could moderate or mask potentially interesting effects. Overall, although this area of research is in need of circumspection, it also could have transformative implications if structural brain plasticity in humans is possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Brewing characteristics of piezosensitive sake yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuki; Hoshino, Hirofumi; Igoshi, Kazuaki; Onozuka, Haruka; Tanaka, Erika; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Harutake; Takaku, Hiroaki; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2018-04-01

    Application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to food processing is expected as a non-thermal fermentation regulation technology that supresses over fermentation. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for Japanese rice wine (sake) brewing shows high tolerance to HHP. Therefore, we aimed to generate pressure-sensitive (piezosensitive) sake yeast strains by mating sake with piezosensitive yeast strains to establish an HHP fermentation regulation technology and extend the shelf life of fermented foods. The results of phenotypic analyses showed that the generated yeast strains were piezosensitive and exhibited similar fermentation ability compared with the original sake yeast strain. In addition, primary properties of sake brewed using these strains, such as ethanol concentration, sake meter value and sake flavor compounds, were almost equivalent to those obtained using the sake yeast strain. These results suggest that the piezosensitive strains exhibit brewing characteristics essentially equivalent to those of the sake yeast strain.

  19. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  20. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  1. Not your ordinary yeast: non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Neil P; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2014-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2 , temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Andy; Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris; Oliver, Stephen G

    2017-07-25

    cells recover. Despite the importance of this process, the broader impact of bacterial nucleotides on the functioning of eukaryotic cells remains poorly defined. To address this, we genetically modified cells of the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to produce three of these molecules (cdiAMP, cdiGMP, and ppGpp) and used the engineered strains as model systems to characterize the effects of the molecules on the cells. In addition to demonstrating that the nucleotides are each capable of adversely affecting yeast cell function and growth, we also identified the cellular functions important for mitigating the damage caused, suggesting possible modes of action. This study expands our understanding of the molecular interactions that can take place between bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2017 Hesketh et al.

  3. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  4. PHAGE FORMATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS MUSCAE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1949-01-01

    1. A non-dialyzable fraction from fresh bakers' yeast stimulates the formation of S. muscae virus in cells in synthetic medium in the log phase of multiplication. 2. A similar fraction was not found in calf thymus, pancreas, or liver. 3. The active substance in this fraction has been partially purified. 4. This substance is taken up by the cells. In the absence of virus the added substance is metabolized to a form no longer available for virus formation. 5. A purified yeast fraction, which stimulates adaptive enzyme formation in yeast, has been found to stimulate virus formation in the S. muscae system. 6. The similarities between the yeast fraction that stimulates adaptive enzyme formation and the yeast fraction that stimulates virus formation are discussed. PMID:18123312

  5. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  6. Yeasts as distinct life forms of fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review describes all presently recognized genera of the Ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina, budding yeasts, and the Taphrinomycotina, fission yeasts and related) as well as all currently recognized genera of the Basidiomycete yeasts. This update will be the lead chapter for a book entitled “Ye...

  7. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  8. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with amore » large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.« less

  9. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes.

  10. Redescription of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and description of a new species collected on rubber tree from Amazonia, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 was described based only from female specimens collected on rubber trees from Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil. However, the original description does not provide essential information, and thus, it may be difficult to correctly identify the species. In this paper, we r...

  11. Microorganism Nutrition Processes as a General Route for the Preparation of Bionic Nanocomposites Based on Intractable Polymers.

    PubMed

    Valentini, L; Bon, S Bittolo; Pugno, N M

    2016-08-31

    In this paper the fermentation process activated by living microorganisms of the baker's yeast is proposed as a facile assembly method of hybrid nanoparticles at liquid interface. Water dispersion of commercial baker's yeast extract used for bread production, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to oil/water interface; when the yeast is activated by adding sugar, the byproduct carbon dioxide bubbles migrate from the water phase to the oil/water interface generating a floating nanostructured film at liquid interface where it is trapped. Starting from this simple method, we propose a general approach for the stabilization of intractable poly(etheretherketone) polymeric particles with GNPs and CNTs at immiscible liquid interface. This process allowed the formation of sintered porous composites with improved mechanical properties. The porous structure of the composites gave rise to a low thermal conductivity making them good candidates for thermal insulating applications. Liquid absorption by these porous composites has been also reported. We believe that this new approach may have applications in the large scale fabrication of nanomaterials and is particularly suited for the preparation of nanocomposites starting from polymers that are intractable by solvent casting.

  12. A Scheme for Obtaining Secure S-Boxes Based on Chaotic Baker's Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Abdul Raheem; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a method for obtaining cryptographically strong 8 × 8 substitution boxes (S-boxes) is presented. The method is based on chaotic baker's map and a "mini version" of a new block cipher with block size 8 bits and can be easily and efficiently performed on a computer. The cryptographic strength of some 8 × 8 S-boxes randomly produced by the method is analyzed. The results show (1) all of them are bijective; (2) the nonlinearity of each output bit of them is usually about 100; (3) all of them approximately satisfy the strict avalanche criterion and output bits independence criterion; (4) they all have an almost equiprobable input/output XOR distribution.

  13. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  14. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  15. Adults of the Waterfern Weevil, Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on a Non-Host Plant Salvinia minima Baker, in Louisiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waterfern weevil, Stenopelmus refinasus Gyllenhal, has previously been reported as host-specific, only feeding on plants in the genus Azolla. We report the first observations of S. rufinasus feeding on a non-host plant, Salvinia minima Baker, within the United States....

  16. Nutrient supplements boost yeast transformation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Chun; Dawson, Alexander; Henderson, Alyssa C.; Lockyer, Eloise J.; Read, Emily; Sritharan, Gayathri; Ryan, Marjah; Sgroi, Mara; Ngou, Pok M.; Woodruff, Rosie; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ren Teen Chia, Travis; Liu, Yu; Xiang, Yiyu; Spanu, Pietro D.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency of yeast transformation is determined by the rate of yeast endocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of introducing amino acids and other nutrients (inositol, adenine, or p-aminobenzoic acid) in the transformation medium to develop a highly efficient yeast transformation protocol. The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) kinase signalling complex influences the rate of yeast endocytosis. TORC signaling is induced by amino acids in the media. Here, we found that increasing the concentration of amino acids and other nutrients in the growth media lead to an increase yeast transformation efficiency up to 107 CFU per μg plasmid DNA and per 108 cells with a 13.8 kb plasmid DNA. This is over 130 times that of current published methods. This improvement may facilitate more efficient experimentation in which transformation efficiency is critical, such as yeast two-hybrid screening. PMID:27760994

  17. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  19. History of genome editing in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Marcin G; Naseeb, Samina; Delneri, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    For thousands of years humans have used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of bread and alcohol; however, in the last 30-40 years our understanding of the yeast biology has dramatically increased, enabling us to modify its genome. Although S. cerevisiae has been the main focus of many research groups, other non-conventional yeasts have also been studied and exploited for biotechnological purposes. Our experiments and knowledge have evolved from recombination to high-throughput PCR-based transformations to highly accurate CRISPR methods in order to alter yeast traits for either research or industrial purposes. Since the release of the genome sequence of S. cerevisiae in 1996, the precise and targeted genome editing has increased significantly. In this 'Budding topic' we discuss the significant developments of genome editing in yeast, mainly focusing on Cre-loxP mediated recombination, delitto perfetto and CRISPR/Cas. © 2018 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  1. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an in vitro diagnostic device that consists of the reagents used to measure, by immunochemical techniques, antibodies to S. cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  3. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  4. Solar-Energy Driven Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Starch to Bioethanol for Fuel-Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Tabah, Betina; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-26

    A solar reactor was designed to perform the conversion of starch to ethanol in a single step. An aqueous starch solution (5 wt %) was fed into the reactor bed charged with Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and amylase, resulting in approximately 2.5 wt % ethanol collected daily (ca. 25 mL day(-1) ). A significant amount of ethanol (38 g) was collected over 63 days, corresponding to 84 % of the theoretical yield. The production of ethanol without additional energy input highlights the significance of this new process. The ethanol produced was also demonstrated as a potential fuel for direct ethanol fuel cells. Additionally, the secondary metabolite glycerol was fully reduced to a value-added product 1,3-propanediol, which is the first example of a fungal strain (Baker's yeast) converting glycerol in situ to 1,3-propanediol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  6. Food and probiotic strains from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species as a possible origin of human systemic infections.

    PubMed

    de Llanos, Rosa; Querol, Amparo; Pemán, Javier; Gobernado, Miguel; Fernández-Espinar, María Teresa

    2006-08-01

    We report four cases of blood cultures testing positive for yeast strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using molecular techniques, RFLP of mtDNA and delta-PCR amplification, we show the association of two of the isolates with non-clinical strains. Specifically, with two commercial bread-making strains and the therapeutic S. boulardii strain. The association of S. boulardii with cases of fungemia has been reported previously. Nevertheless, this is the first time that a baker's yeast has been isolated from blood.

  7. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  8. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  9. Yeasts of the soil – obscure but precious

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pioneering studies performed in the nineteenth century demonstrated that yeasts are present in below‐ground sources. Soils were regarded more as a reservoir for yeasts that reside in habitats above it. Later studies showed that yeast communities in soils are taxonomically diverse and different from those above‐ground. Soil yeasts possess extraordinary adaptations that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. A few species are promising sources of yeast oils and have been used in agriculture as potential antagonists of soil‐borne plant pathogens or as plant growth promoters. Yeasts have been studied mainly in managed soils such as vineyards, orchards and agricultural fields, and to a lesser extent under forests and grasslands. Our knowledge of soil yeasts is further biased towards temperate and boreal forests, whereas data from Africa, the Americas and Asia are scarce. Although soil yeast communities are often species‐poor in a single sample, they are more diverse on the biotope level. Soil yeasts display pronounced endemism along with a surprisingly high proportion of currently unidentified species. However, like other soil inhabitants, yeasts are threatened by habitat alterations owing to anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, deforestation and urbanization. In view of the rapid decline of many natural habitats, the study of soil yeasts in undisturbed or low‐managed biotopes is extremely valuable. The purpose of this review is to encourage researchers, both biologists and soil scientists, to include soil yeasts in future studies. PMID:29365211

  10. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R.

    2013-09-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions.

  11. Electron transport chain in a thermotolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Martínez-Mora, José A; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ ions (Ca 2+ cyt) increased in the SLP1 yeast when exposed to high temperature, compared with the mesophilic yeast OFF1. ATPase activity in the mesophilic yeast diminished 80% when exposed to 40° while the thermotolerant SLP1 showed no change, despite an increase in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The SLP1 thermotolerant yeast exposed to high temperature showed a diminution of 33% of the oxygen consumption in state 4. The uncoupled state 3 of oxygen consumption did not change in the mesophilic yeast when it had an increase of temperature, whereas in the thermotolerant SLP1 yeast resulted in an increase of 2.5 times when yeast were grown at 30 o , while a decrease of 51% was observed when it was exposed to high temperature. The activities of the ETC complexes were diminished in the SLP1 when exposed to high temperature, but also it was distinguished an alternative oxidase activity. Our results suggest that the mitochondria state, particularly ETC state, is an important characteristic of the thermotolerance of the SLP1 yeast strain.

  12. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm−3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm−3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm−3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm−3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence

  13. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  14. Mechanisms of sterol uptake and transport in yeast.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Nicolas; Schneiter, Roger

    2012-03-01

    Sterols are essential lipid components of eukaryotic membranes. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding how sterols are transported between different membranes. Baker's yeast is a particularly attractive organism to dissect this lipid transport pathway, because cells can synthesize their own major sterol, ergosterol, in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum from where it is then transported to the plasma membrane. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also a facultative anaerobic organism, which becomes sterol auxotroph in the absence of oxygen. Under these conditions, cells take up sterol from the environment and transport the lipid back into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, where the free sterol becomes esterified and is then stored in lipid droplets. Steryl ester formation is thus a reliable readout to assess the back-transport of exogenously provided sterols from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. Structure/function analysis has revealed that the bulk membrane function of the fungal ergosterol can be provided by structurally related sterols, including the mammalian cholesterol. Foreign sterols, however, are subject to a lipid quality control cycle in which the sterol is reversibly acetylated. Because acetylated sterols are efficiently excreted from cells, the substrate specificity of the deacetylating enzymes determines which sterols are retained. Membrane-bound acetylated sterols are excreted by the secretory pathway, more soluble acetylated sterol derivatives such as the steroid precursor pregnenolone, on the other hand, are excreted by a pathway that is independent of vesicle formation and fusion. Further analysis of this lipid quality control cycle is likely to reveal novel insight into the mechanisms that ensure sterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Article from a special issue on Steroids and Microorganisms. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Interactions between Drosophila and its natural yeast symbionts—Is Saccharomyces cerevisiae a good model for studying the fly-yeast relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Don; Kopp, Artyom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the biology of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to being a valuable source of nutrition, yeasts affect D. melanogaster behavior and interact with the host immune system. Most experiments investigating the role of yeasts in D. melanogaster biology use the baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae is rarely found with natural populations of D. melanogaster or other Drosophila species. Moreover, the strain of S. cerevisiae used most often in D. melanogaster experiments is a commercially and industrially important strain that, to the best of our knowledge, was not isolated from flies. Since disrupting natural host–microbe interactions can have profound effects on host biology, the results from D. melanogaster–S. cerevisiae laboratory experiments may not be fully representative of host–microbe interactions in nature. In this study, we explore the D. melanogaster-yeast relationship using five different strains of yeast that were isolated from wild Drosophila populations. Ingested live yeasts have variable persistence in the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. For example, Hanseniaspora occidentalis persists relative to S. cerevisiae, while Brettanomyces naardenensis is removed. Despite these differences in persistence relative to S. cerevisiae, we find that all yeasts decrease in total abundance over time. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important component of the D. melanogaster anti-microbial response and can inhibit S. cerevisiae growth in the intestine. To determine if sensitivity to ROS explains the differences in yeast persistence, we measured yeast growth in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. We find that B. naardenesis is completely inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, while H. occidentalis is not, which is consistent with yeast sensitivity to ROS affecting persistence within the D. melanogaster gastrointestinal tract. We also compared the feeding preference of D

  16. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  17. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Morais, J. P. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Silva, L. P.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Báo, S. N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall.

  18. The temperature-dependence of adenylate cyclase from baker's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Londesborough, J; Varimo, K

    1979-01-01

    The Michaelis constant of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase increased from 1.1 to 1.8 mM between 7 and 38 degrees C (delta H = 13 kJ/mol). Over this temperature range, the maximum velocity increased 10-fold, and the Arrhenius plot was nearly linear, with an average delta H* of 51 kJ/mol. The temperature-dependence of the reaction rate at 2 mM-ATP was examined in more detail: for Lubrol-dispersed enzyme, Arrhenius plots were nearly linear with average delta H* values of 45 and 68 kJ/mol, respectively, for untreated and gel-filtered enzymes; for membrane-bound enzyme, delta H changed from 40 kJ/mol above about 21 degrees C to 62 kJ/mol below 21 degrees C, but this behaviour does not necessarily indicate an abrupt, lipid-induced, transition in the reaction mechanism. PMID:391221

  19. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rokas, Antonis; Bai, Feng-Yan; Boekhout, Teun; Gonçalves, Paula; Jeffries, Thomas W; Kominek, Jacek; Lachance, Marc-André; Libkind, Diego; Rosa, Carlos A; Sampaio, José Paulo; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-12-01

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the common human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans; and over 1000 other known species (with more continuing to be discovered). Yeasts are found in every biome and continent and are more genetically diverse than angiosperms or chordates. Ease of culture, simple life cycles, and small genomes (∼10-20Mbp) have made yeasts exceptional models for molecular genetics, biotechnology, and evolutionary genomics. Here we discuss recent developments in understanding the genomic underpinnings of the making of yeast biodiversity, comparing and contrasting natural and human-associated evolutionary processes. Only a tiny fraction of yeast biodiversity and metabolic capabilities has been tapped by industry and science. Expanding the taxonomic breadth of deep genomic investigations will further illuminate how genome function evolves to encode their diverse metabolisms and ecologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  1. [Groups and sources of yeasts in house dust].

    PubMed

    Glushakova, A M; Zheltikova, T M; Chernov, I Iu

    2004-01-01

    House dust contains bacteria, mycelial fungi, microarthropods, and yeasts. The house dust samples collected in 25 apartments in Moscow and the Moscow region were found to contain yeasts belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Trichosporon. The most frequently encountered microorganisms were typical epiphytic yeasts, such as Cryptococcus diffluens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which are capable of long-term preservation in an inactive state. The direct source of epiphytic yeasts occurring in the house dust might be the indoor plants, which were contaminated with these yeasts, albeit to a lesser degree than outdoor plants. Along with the typical epiphytic yeasts, the house dust contained the opportunistic yeast pathogens Candida catenulata, C. guillermondii, C. haemulonii, C. rugosa, and C. tropicalis, which are known as the causal agents of candidiasis. We failed to reveal any correlation between the abundance of particular yeast species in the house dust, residential characteristics, and the atopic dermatitis of the inhabitants.

  2. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  3. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  4. Assessing the complex architecture of polygenic traits in diverged yeast populations.

    PubMed

    Cubillos, Francisco A; Billi, Eleonora; Zörgö, Enikö; Parts, Leopold; Fargier, Patrick; Omholt, Stig; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas; Louis, Edward J; Liti, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Phenotypic variation arising from populations adapting to different niches has a complex underlying genetic architecture. A major challenge in modern biology is to identify the causative variants driving phenotypic variation. Recently, the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as a powerful model for dissecting complex traits. However, past studies using a laboratory strain were unable to reveal the complete architecture of polygenic traits. Here, we present a linkage study using 576 recombinant strains obtained from crosses of isolates representative of the major lineages. The meiotic recombinational landscape appears largely conserved between populations; however, strain-specific hotspots were also detected. Quantitative measurements of growth in 23 distinct ecologically relevant environments show that our recombinant population recapitulates most of the standing phenotypic variation described in the species. Linkage analysis detected an average of 6.3 distinct QTLs for each condition tested in all crosses, explaining on average 39% of the phenotypic variation. The QTLs detected are not constrained to a small number of loci, and the majority are specific to a single cross-combination and to a specific environment. Moreover, crosses between strains of similar phenotypes generate greater variation in the offspring, suggesting the presence of many antagonistic alleles and epistatic interactions. We found that subtelomeric regions play a key role in defining individual quantitative variation, emphasizing the importance of the adaptive nature of these regions in natural populations. This set of recombinant strains is a powerful tool for investigating the complex architecture of polygenic traits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

    Treesearch

    Peter Z. Fule; Thomas W. Swetnam; Peter M. Brown; Donald A. Falk; David L. Peterson; Craig D. Allen; Gregory H. Aplet; Mike A. Battaglia; Dan Binkley; Calvin Farris; Robert E. Keane; Ellis Q. Margolis; Henri Grissino-Mayer; Carol Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Carl Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Alan Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042-1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large,...

  6. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces...

  7. Sol-Gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst: A Simple Experiment for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a laboratory course, undergraduate students were asked to use baker's yeast cells as biotemplate in preparing TiO[subscript 2] powders and to test the photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials. This laboratory experience, selected because of the important environmental implications of soft chemistry and photocatalysis, provides…

  8. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  10. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  11. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  12. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  13. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  14. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  15. Experimental and simulation studies of multivariable adaptive optimization of continuous bioreactors using bilevel forgetting factors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y K; Lim, H C

    1989-08-20

    A multivariable on-line adaptive optimization algorithm using a bilevel forgetting factor method was developed and applied to a continuous baker's yeast culture in simulation and experimental studies to maximize the cellular productivity by manipulating the dilution rate and the temperature. The algorithm showed a good optimization speed and a good adaptability and reoptimization capability. The algorithm was able to stably maintain the process around the optimum point for an extended period of time. Two cases were investigated: an unconstrained and a constrained optimization. In the constrained optimization the ethanol concentration was used as an index for the baking quality of yeast cells. An equality constraint with a quadratic penalty was imposed on the ethanol concentration to keep its level close to a hypothetical "optimum" value. The developed algorithm was experimentally applied to a baker's yeast culture to demonstrate its validity. Only unconstrained optimization was carried out experimentally. A set of tuning parameter values was suggested after evaluating the results from several experimental runs. With those tuning parameter values the optimization took 50-90 h. At the attained steady state the dilution rate was 0.310 h(-1) the temperature 32.8 degrees C, and the cellular productivity 1.50 g/L/h.

  16. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    PubMed

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  17. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  18. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  19. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  20. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containersmore » with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.« less

  1. Freeze-drying of yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A method is described that allows yeast species to be stored using a variation on the standard freeze-drying method, which employs evaporative cooling in a two-stage process. Yeast cultures are placed in glass ampoules after having been mixed with a lyoprotectant. Primary drying is carried out using a centrifuge head connected to a standard freeze-dryer. Once the centrifuge head is running, air is removed and evaporated liquid is captured in the freeze-dryer. Centrifugation continues for 15 min and primary drying for a further 3 h. The ampoules are constricted using a glass blowing torch. They are then placed on the freeze-dryer manifold for secondary drying under vacuum overnight, using phosphorus pentoxide as a desiccant. The ampoules are sealed and removed from the manifold by melting the constricted section. Although the process causes an initial large drop in viability, further losses after storage are minimal. Yeast strains have remained viable for more than 30 yr when stored using this method and sufficient cells are recovered to produce new working stocks. Although survival rates are strain specific, nearly all National Collection of Yeast Cultures strains covering most yeast genera, have been successfully stored with little or no detectable change in strain characteristics.

  2. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts--the ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeast species are among the most important groups of biotechnological organisms. S. cerevisiae and closely related ascomycetous yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding other groups of industrial microorganisms in productivity and economic revenues. Traditional industrial attributes of the S. cerevisiae group include their primary roles in food fermentations such as beers, cider, wines, sake, distilled spirits, bakery products, cheese, sausages, and other fermented foods. Other long-standing industrial processes involving S. cerevisae yeasts are production of fuel ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), feeds and fodder, industrial enzymes, and small molecular weight metabolites. More recently, non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) have been utilized as industrial organisms for a variety of biotechnological roles. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are increasingly being used as hosts for expression of proteins, biocatalysts and multi-enzyme pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals and small molecular weight compounds of medicinal and nutritional importance. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts also have important roles in agriculture as agents of biocontrol, bioremediation, and as indicators of environmental quality. Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.

  3. Changing the Behaviour of Traditional Bakers in a Chinese Multi-Family Owned Food Company through Workplace Action Learning in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Tse, Rex Chi-Hang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for designing and implementing an action learning and research process to significantly transform the work behaviour of tradition-bound bakers to embrace leading ideas of a new workplace culture in order to diversify the product range of the moon cake and generally improve the…

  4. Yeast proteome map (last update).

    PubMed

    Perrot, Michel; Moes, Suzette; Massoni, Aurélie; Jenoe, Paul; Boucherie, Hélian

    2009-10-01

    The identification of proteins separated on 2-D gels is essential to exploit the full potential of 2-D gel electrophoresis for proteomic investigations. For this purpose we have undertaken the systematic identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins separated on 2-D gels. We report here the identification by mass spectrometry of 100 novel yeast protein spots that have so far not been tackled due to their scarcity on our standard 2-D gels. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast 2-D proteome map to 716. They correspond to 485 unique proteins. Among these, 154 were resolved into several isoforms. The present data set can now be expanded to report for the first time a map of 363 protein isoforms that significantly deepens our knowledge of the yeast proteome. The reference map and a list of all identified proteins can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM).

  5. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  6. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  7. Yeasts for Global Happiness: report of the 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) held in Awaji Island.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) was held at Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Center (Awaji, Hyogo) in Japan from 11 to 15 September 2016. The main slogan of ICY14 was 'Yeasts for Global Happiness', which enabled us to acknowledge the high-potential usefulness of yeasts contributing to the global happiness in terms of food/beverage, health/medicine and energy/environment industries, as well as to basic biosciences. In addition, two more concepts were introduced: 'from Japan to the world' and 'from senior to junior'. As it was the first ICY meeting held in Japan or other Asian countries, ICY14 provided a good opportunity to widely spread the great achievements by Japanese and Asian yeast researchers, such as those by the 2016 Nobel Laureate Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi, and also, to convey the fun and importance of yeasts to the next generation of researchers from Asia and all over the world. As a result, a total of 426 yeast lovers from 42 countries (225 overseas and 201 domestic participants) with different generations attended ICY14 to share the latest knowledge of a wide range of yeast research fields and to join active and constructive scientific discussions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The secretory pathway: exploring yeast diversity.

    PubMed

    Delic, Marizela; Valli, Minoska; Graf, Alexandra B; Pfeffer, Martin; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Protein secretion is an essential process for living organisms. In eukaryotes, this encompasses numerous steps mediated by several hundred cellular proteins. The core functions of translocation through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, primary glycosylation, folding and quality control, and vesicle-mediated secretion are similar from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. However, recent research has revealed significant functional differences between yeasts and mammalian cells, and even among diverse yeast species. This review provides a current overview of the canonical protein secretion pathway in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, highlighting differences to mammalian cells as well as currently unresolved questions, and provides a genomic comparison of the S. cerevisiae pathway to seven other yeast species where secretion has been investigated due to their attraction as protein production platforms, or for their relevance as pathogens. The analysis of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveals that many - but not all - secretion steps are more redundant in S. cerevisiae due to duplicated genes, while some processes are even absent in this model yeast. Recent research obviates that even where homologous genes are present, small differences in protein sequence and/or differences in the regulation of gene expression may lead to quite different protein secretion phenotypes. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-10-21

    (ATP) costs for product formation from sugar must be minimized. Here, we focus on an important ATP-requiring process in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): synthesis of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A, a key precursor for many industrially important products, ranging from biofuels to fragrances. We demonstrate that pyruvate dehydrogenase from the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, a huge enzyme complex with a size similar to that of a ribosome, can be functionally expressed and assembled in the cytosol of baker's yeast. Moreover, we show that this ATP-independent mechanism for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis can entirely replace the ATP-costly native yeast pathway. This work provides metabolic engineers with a new option to optimize the performance of baker's yeast as a "cell factory" for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Kozak et al.

  11. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  12. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-02

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins.

  13. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and amore » tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.« less

  14. Specialist nectar-yeasts decline with urbanization in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Jeannine; Mittelbach, Moritz; Rillig, Matthias C.; Verbruggen, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Nectar yeasts are common inhabitants of insect-pollinated flowers but factors determining their distribution are not well understood. We studied the influence of host identity, environmental factors related to pollution/urbanization, and the distance to a target beehive on local distribution of nectar yeasts within Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Tilia tomentosa Moench in Berlin, Germany. Nectar samples of six individuals per species were collected at seven sites in a 2 km radius from each target beehive and plated on YM-Agar to visualise the different morphotypes, which were then identified by sequencing a section of the 26S rDNA gene. Multivariate linear models were used to analyze the effects of all investigated factors on yeast occurrence per tree. Yeast distribution was mainly driven by host identity. The influence of the environmental factors (NO2, height of construction, soil sealing) strongly depended on the radius around the tree, similar to the distance of the sampled beehive. Incidence of specialist nectar-borne yeast species decreased with increasing pollution/urbanization index. Given that specialist yeast species gave way to generalist yeasts that have a reduced dependency on pollinators for between-flower dispersal, our results indicate that increased urbanization may restrict the movement of nectar-specialized yeasts, via limitations of pollinator foraging behavior.

  15. Accumulation and metabolism of selenium by yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet.

  16. Probiotic preparation has the capacity to hydrolyze proteins responsible for wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Scala, Enrico; De Simone, Claudio; Farris, Giovanni A; Turrini, Francesco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at showing the capacity of probiotic VSL#3 to hydrolyze wheat flour allergens. Hydrolysis was investigated either by the use of baker's yeast bread treated with digestive enzymes and VSL#3, an experimental design that mimicked the activity of probiotics during gut colonization, or by the use of VSL#3 as a starter for dough fermentation, an experimental design that mimicked the predigestion of wheat flour proteins during food processing. Albumins, globulins, and gliadins extracted from wheat flour and chemically acidified and started dough and total proteins extracted from breads were analyzed by immunoblotting with pooled sera from patients with an allergy to wheat. Hydrolysis of wheat flour proteins was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight was used to identify some immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding proteins. As shown by immunoblotting with sera from allergic patients, several IgE-binding proteins persisted after treatment of baker's yeast bread by pepsin and pancreatin. The signal of all these IgE-binding proteins disappeared after further treatment by VSL#3. As shown by SDS-PAGE and related immunoblotting and 2DE analyses, when VSL#3 was used as a starter for bread making, it caused a marked degradation of wheat proteins, including some IgE-binding proteins such as the putative transcription factor APFI and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitors. Indeed, the IgE-binding profile of the bread manufactured by VSL#3 was largely different from that of baker's yeast bread. The IgE-binding proteins that persisted in the bread made with VSL#3 were completely degraded by pepsin and pancreatin.

  17. Quiescent hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide degassing from Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volcanic H2S emission rate data are scant despite their importance in understanding magma degassing. We present results from direct airborne plume measurements of H2S and CO2 on a 21-orbit survey at eleven different altitudes around Mount Baker volcano in September 2000 utilizing instrumentation mounted in a light aircraft. Measured emission rates of H2S and CO2 were 5.5 td-1 and 187 td-1 respectively. Maximum concentrations of H2S and CO2 encountered within the 4-km-wide plume were 75 ppb and 2 ppm respectively. Utilizing the H2S signal as a marker for the plume allows the corresponding CO2 signal to be more easily and accurately distinguished from ambient CO2 background. This technique is sensitive enough for monitoring weakly degassing volcanoes in a pre-eruptive condition when scrubbing by hydrothermal fluid or aquifers might mask the presence of more acid magmatic gases such as SO2.

  18. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  19. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  20. Laboratory Measures of Filtration by Freshwater Mussels: An Activity to Introduce Biology Students to an Increasingly Threatened Group of Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Shaffer, Julie J.; Koupal, Keith D.; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms survive by filter feeding from the surrounding water and capturing food particles. We developed a laboratory exercise that allows students to measure the effects of filtering by fresh water mussels on water turbidity. Mussels were acquired from Wards Scientific and exposed to a solution of baker's yeast. Over a period of one…

  1. Yeast as a model for Ras signalling.

    PubMed

    Tisi, Renata; Belotti, Fiorella; Martegani, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    For centuries yeast species have been popular hosts for classical biotechnology processes, such as baking, brewing, and wine making, and more recently for recombinant proteins production, thanks to the advantages of unicellular organisms (i.e., ease of genetic manipulation and rapid growth) together with the ability to perform eukaryotic posttranslational modifications. Moreover, yeast cells have been used for few decades as a tool for identifying the genes and pathways involved in basic cellular processes such as the cell cycle, aging, and stress response. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway is directly involved in the regulation of metabolism, cell growth, stress resistance, and proliferation in response to the availability of nutrients and in the adaptation to glucose, controlling cytosolic cAMP levels and consequently the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Moreover, Ras signalling has been identified in several pathogenic yeasts as a key controller for virulence, due to its involvement in yeast morphogenesis. Nowadays, yeasts are still useful for Ras-like proteins investigation, both as model organisms and as a test tube to study variants of heterologous Ras-like proteins.

  2. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  3. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  4. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-05-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper 300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest ( 0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  5. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-01-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper ~300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest (~0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  6. Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

  7. Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available.

  8. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  9. Antimicrobial activity of yeasts against some pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Gamal; Awad, Amal; Dawod, Rehab E.; Yousef, Nehal E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to isolate and identify yeast species from milk and meat products, and to test their antimicrobial activity against some bacterial species. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 milk and meat products samples were collected from random sellers and super markets in New Damietta city, Damietta, Egypt. Samples were subjected to yeast isolation procedures and tested for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. In addition, all yeast species isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of khs (kievitone hydratase) and pelA (pectate degrading enzyme)genes. Results: The recovery rate of yeasts from sausage was 20% (2/10) followed by kareish cheese, processed cheese, and butter 10% (1/10) each as well as raw milk 9% (9/100), and fruit yoghurt 30% (6/20). Different yeast species were recovered, namely, Candida kefyr (5 isolates), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4 isolates), Candida intermedia (3 isolates), Candida tropicalis (2 isolates), Candida lusitaniae (2 isolates), and Candida krusei (1 isolate). khs gene was detected in all S. cerevisiae isolates, however, pelA gene was not detected in all identified yeast species. Antimicrobial activity of recovered yeasts against the selected bacterial species showed high activity with C. intermedia against S. aureus and E. coli, C. kefyr against E. coli, and C. lusitaniae against S. aureus. Moderate activities were obtained with C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and S. cerevisiae against E. coli; meanwhile, all the tested yeasts revealed a very low antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that some kinds of yeasts have the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that could inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and these antimicrobial activity of yeasts enables them to be one of the novel agents in controlling spoilage of food. PMID:28919693

  10. Dissociative identity disorder: a feminist approach to inpatient treatment using Jean Baker Miller's Relational Model.

    PubMed

    Riggs, S R; Bright, M A

    1997-08-01

    Women diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) may experience episodic crises characterized by intense states of disconnection from self and others. Crises which result in potential harm to self/others may require inpatient treatment. With economic emphasis on shorter lengths of stay, a treatment program or model which focuses on the DID patient's sense of connectedness to self and others can enhance treatment efforts during brief inpatient hospitalizations. The Relational Model of Jean Baker Miller uses mutuality and empowerment within the therapeutic relationship and inpatient mileu to move the patient beyond therapeutic impasse/crisis toward a state of greater connectedness to self and others.

  11. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  12. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species—Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  13. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  14. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  15. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P < 0.001). The specific IgE against quaternary ammonium ions recognized also two compounds widely used by hairdressers, benzalkonium chloride and polyquaternium-10, in competitive inhibition of IgE RIA. When considering the whole study population, hairdresser professional exposure and total IgE > 100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in

  16. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Making Sense of the Yeast Sphingolipid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Megyeri, Márton; Riezman, Howard; Schuldiner, Maya; Futerman, Anthony H

    2016-12-04

    Sphingolipids (SL) and their metabolites play key roles both as structural components of membranes and as signaling molecules. Many of the key enzymes and regulators of SL metabolism were discovered using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the high degree of conservation, a number of mammalian homologs were identified. Although yeast continues to be an important tool for SL research, the complexity of SL structure and nomenclature often hampers the ability of new researchers to grasp the subtleties of yeast SL biology and discover new modulators of this intricate pathway. Moreover, the emergence of lipidomics by mass spectrometry has enabled the rapid identification of SL species in yeast and rendered the analysis of SL composition under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions readily amenable. However, the complex nomenclature of the identified species renders much of the data inaccessible to non-specialists. In this review, we focus on parsing both the classical SL nomenclature and the nomenclature normally used during mass spectrometry analysis, which should facilitate the understanding of yeast SL data and might shed light on biological processes in which SLs are involved. Finally, we discuss a number of putative roles of various yeast SL species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  19. Development of a yeast heterologous expression cassette based on the promoter and terminator elements of the Eremothecium cymbalariae translational elongation factor 1α (EcTEF1) gene.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    A new expression cassette ( EC0 ) consisting of the fused 5' and 3' intergenic regions (IGRs) of the Eremothecium cymbalariae translational elongation factor 1α ( EcTEF1 ) gene was evaluated through expression of the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase ( hph ) resistance gene in the common baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Progressively shorter versions of the hph -containing EC cassette ( hphEC1 though hphEC6 ) with trimmed 5' and 3' EcTEF1 IGRs were tested for their ability to confer resistance to hygromycin B in S. cerevisiae . Hygromycin B resistance was retained in all six generated hphEC variants up to a concentration of 400 mg/L. The hphEC6 cassette was the shortest cassette to be assayed in this study with 366 and 155 bp of the EcTEF1 5' and 3' IGRs, respectively. When tested for deletion of the S. cerevisiae proline oxidase gene PUT1 , the hphEC6 cassette was shown to successfully act as a selection marker on hygromycin B-containing medium. The hphEC6 cassette could be placed immediately adjacent to a kanMX4 G418 disulfate resistance marker without any discernable effect on the ability of the yeast to grow in the presence of both hygromycin B and G418 disulfate. Co-cultivation experiments under non-selective conditions demonstrated that a PUT1 deletion strain carrying the hphEC6 cassette displayed equivalent fitness to an otherwise isogenic PUT1 deletion strain carrying the kanMX4 cassette.

  20. Seismic Velocities and Thicknesses of Alluvial Deposits along Baker Creek in the Great Basin National Park, East-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allander, Kip K.; Berger, David L.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how proposed large-scale water withdrawals in Snake Valley may affect the water resources and hydrologic processes in the Great Basin National Park, the National Park Service needs to have a better understanding of the relations between streamflow and groundwater flow through alluvium and karst topography of the Pole Canyon Limestone. Information that is critical to understanding these relations is the thickness of alluvial deposits that overlay the Pole Canyon Limestone. In mid-April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service used seismic refraction along three profiles adjacent to Baker Creek to further refine understanding of the local geology. Two refractors and three distinct velocity layers were detected along two of the profiles and a single refractor and two distinct velocity layers were detected along a third profile. In the unsaturated alluvium, average velocity was 2,000 feet per second, thickness ranged from about 7 to 20 feet along two profiles downstream of the Narrows, and thickness was at least 100 feet along a single profile upstream of the Narrows. Saturated alluvium was only present downstream of the Narrows - average velocity was 4,400 feet per second, and thickness ranged from about 40 to 110 feet. The third layer probably represented Pole Canyon Limestone or Tertiary granitic rock units with an average velocity of 12,500 feet per second. Along the upstream and middle profiles (profiles 3 and 1, respectively), the depth to top of the third layer ranged from at least 60 to 110 feet below land surface and is most likely the Pole Canyon Limestone. The third layer at the farthest downstream profile (profile 2) may be a Tertiary granitic rock unit. Baker Creek is disconnected from the groundwater system along the upstream profile (profile 3) and streamflow losses infiltrate vertically downward to the Pole Canyon Limestone. Along the downstream and middle profiles (profiles 2 and 1, respectively), the presence of

  1. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  2. MALDI-TOF MS as a tool to identify foodborne yeasts and yeast-like fungi.

    PubMed

    Quintilla, Raquel; Kolecka, Anna; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide M; Houbraken, Jos; Kostrzewa, Markus; Boekhout, Teun; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2018-02-02

    Since food spoilage by yeasts causes high economic losses, fast and accurate identifications of yeasts associated with food and food-related products are important for the food industry. In this study the efficiency of the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify food related yeasts was evaluated. A CBS in-house MALDI-TOF MS database was created and later challenged with a blinded test set of 146 yeast strains obtained from food and food related products. Ninety eight percent of the strains were correctly identified with log score values>1.7. One strain, Mrakia frigida, gained a correct identification with a score value<1.7. Two strains could not be identified at first as they represented a mix of two different species. These mixes were Rhodotorula babjevae with Meyerozyma caribbica and Clavispora lusitaniae with Debaryomyces hansenii. After separation, all four species could be correctly identified with scores>1.7. Ambiguous identifications were observed due to two incorrect reference mass spectra's found in the commercial database BDAL v.4.0, namely Candida sake DSM 70763 which was re-identified as Candida oleophila, and Candida inconspicua DSM 70631 which was re-identified as Pichia membranifaciens. MALDI-TOF MS can distinguish between most of the species, but for some species complexes, such as the Kazachstania telluris and Mrakia frigida complexes, MALDI-TOF MS showed limited resolution and identification of sibling species was sometimes problematic. Despite this, we showed that the MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for routine identification and validation of foodborne yeasts, but a further update of the commercial reference databases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in the vast majority of the world’s bioprocesses, and its economic significance is unchallenged. It, however, represents only a small slice of yeast physiological diversity. Many other yeasts, are used in lesser known, but commercially important processes that take ...

  4. The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19879270

  5. Evolution and variation of the yeast (Saccharomyces) genome.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, R K

    2000-04-01

    In this review we describe the role of the yeast Saccharomyces in the development of human societies including the use of this organism in the making of wine, bread, beer, and distilled beverages. We also discuss the tremendous diversity of yeast found in natural (i.e., noninoculated) wine fermentations and the scientific uses of yeast over the past 60 years. In conclusion, we present ideas on the model of "genome renewal" and the use of this model to explain the mode by which yeast has evolved and how diversity can be generated.

  6. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-07-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  7. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥ 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤ 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  8. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  9. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common mycosis, however, the available information about antifungal susceptibilities of these yeasts is limited. To compare the gold standard fungal culture with a new molecular identification method and report the incidence of yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa. The authors studied 370 yeasts isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and identified them by phenotypic and molecular methods. The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species. At present there are no recommendations for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of pathogenic fungal species occurring in vulvovaginal candidiasis and the natural antifungal resistance of the different species is known only. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight identification can be used to differentiate the fluconazole resistant Candida dubliniensis and the sensitive Candida albicans strains.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ≈46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ≈30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ≈50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (≈1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nectar yeasts: a natural microcosm for ecology.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Callie R; Fukami, Tadashi

    2018-06-01

    The species of yeasts that colonize floral nectar can modify the mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators by changing the chemical properties of nectar. Recent evidence supporting this possibility has led to increased interest among ecologists in studying these fungi as well as the bacteria that interact with them in nectar. Although not fully explored, nectar yeasts also constitute a promising natural microcosm that can be used to facilitate development of general ecological theory. We discuss the methodological and conceptual advantages of using nectar yeasts from this perspective, including simplicity of communities, tractability of dispersal, replicability of community assembly, and the ease with which the mechanisms of species interactions can be studied in complementary experiments conducted in the field and the laboratory. To illustrate the power of nectar yeasts as a study system, we discuss several topics in community ecology, including environmental filtering, priority effects, and metacommunity dynamics. An exciting new direction is to integrate metagenomics and comparative genomics into nectar yeast research to address these fundamental ecological topics. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Kinetics of growth and sugar consumption in yeasts.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J P; Weusthuis, R A; Pronk, J T

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the steady- and transient state kinetics of growth and formation of metabolic byproducts in yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly inclined to perform alcoholic fermentation. Even under fully aerobic conditions, ethanol is produced by this yeast when sugars are present in excess. This so-called 'Crabtree effect' probably results from a multiplicity of factors, including the mode of sugar transport and the regulation of enzyme activities involved in respiration and alcoholic fermentation. The Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae is not caused by an intrinsic inability to adjust its respiratory activity to high glycolytic fluxes. Under certain cultivation conditions, for example during growth in the presence of weak organic acids, very high respiration rates can be achieved by this yeast. S. cerevisiae is an exceptional yeast since, in contrast to most other species that are able to perform alcoholic fermentation, it can grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. 'Non-Saccharomyces' yeasts require a growth-limiting supply of oxygen (i.e. oxygen-limited growth conditions) to trigger alcoholic fermentation. However, complete absence of oxygen results in cessation of growth and therefore, ultimately, of alcoholic fermentation. Since it is very difficult to reproducibly achieve the right oxygen dosage in large-scale fermentations, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are therefore not suitable for large-scale alcoholic fermentation of sugar-containing waste streams. In these yeasts, alcoholic fermentation is also dependent on the type of sugar. For example, the facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis does not ferment maltose, not even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, although this disaccharide supports rapid oxidative growth.

  13. The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit. Here we address the open question of whether D. melanogaster preferentially associates with distinct yeasts in different, closely-related environments. We characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of Drosophila-associated fungi in Northern California wineries that use organic grapes and natural fermentation using high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing. We found that there is nonrandom structure in the fungal communities that are vectored by flies both between and within vineyards. Within wineries, the fungal communities associated with flies in cellars, fermentation tanks, and pomace piles are distinguished by varying abundances of a small number of yeast species. To investigate the origins of this structure, we assayed Drosophila attraction to, oviposition on, larval development in, and longevity when consuming the yeasts that distinguish vineyard microhabitats from each other. We found that wild fly lines did not respond differentially to the yeast species that distinguish winery habitats in habitat specific manner. Instead, this subset of yeast shares traits that make them attractive to and ensure their close association with Drosophila. PMID:29768432

  14. The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries.

    PubMed

    Quan, Allison S; Eisen, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit. Here we address the open question of whether D. melanogaster preferentially associates with distinct yeasts in different, closely-related environments. We characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of Drosophila-associated fungi in Northern California wineries that use organic grapes and natural fermentation using high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing. We found that there is nonrandom structure in the fungal communities that are vectored by flies both between and within vineyards. Within wineries, the fungal communities associated with flies in cellars, fermentation tanks, and pomace piles are distinguished by varying abundances of a small number of yeast species. To investigate the origins of this structure, we assayed Drosophila attraction to, oviposition on, larval development in, and longevity when consuming the yeasts that distinguish vineyard microhabitats from each other. We found that wild fly lines did not respond differentially to the yeast species that distinguish winery habitats in habitat specific manner. Instead, this subset of yeast shares traits that make them attractive to and ensure their close association with Drosophila.

  15. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Picca Nicolino, Martina; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-09-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as 'global transcription machinery engineering' (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  16. Some Aspects of Catalase Induction in Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    Described are experiments for demonstrating essential features of substrate-induced enzyme synthesis based on the Jacob-Monod model, and for showing that the activity of certain genes can be modified by environmental temperature. (RH)

  17. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-15

    The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their "petite" strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic of

  18. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their “petite” strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic

  19. Mammalian amyloidogenic proteins promote prion nucleation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chandramowlishwaran, Pavithra; Sun, Meng; Casey, Kristin L; Romanyuk, Andrey V; Grizel, Anastasiya V; Sopova, Julia V; Rubel, Aleksandr A; Nussbaum-Krammer, Carmen; Vorberg, Ina M; Chernoff, Yury O

    2018-03-02

    Fibrous cross-β aggregates (amyloids) and their transmissible forms (prions) cause diseases in mammals (including humans) and control heritable traits in yeast. Initial nucleation of a yeast prion by transiently overproduced prion-forming protein or its (typically, QN-rich) prion domain is efficient only in the presence of another aggregated (in most cases, QN-rich) protein. Here, we demonstrate that a fusion of the prion domain of yeast protein Sup35 to some non-QN-rich mammalian proteins, associated with amyloid diseases, promotes nucleation of Sup35 prions in the absence of pre-existing aggregates. In contrast, both a fusion of the Sup35 prion domain to a multimeric non-amyloidogenic protein and the expression of a mammalian amyloidogenic protein that is not fused to the Sup35 prion domain failed to promote prion nucleation, further indicating that physical linkage of a mammalian amyloidogenic protein to the prion domain of a yeast protein is required for the nucleation of a yeast prion. Biochemical and cytological approaches confirmed the nucleation of protein aggregates in the yeast cell. Sequence alterations antagonizing or enhancing amyloidogenicity of human amyloid-β (associated with Alzheimer's disease) and mouse prion protein (associated with prion diseases), respectively, antagonized or enhanced nucleation of a yeast prion by these proteins. The yeast-based prion nucleation assay, developed in our work, can be employed for mutational dissection of amyloidogenic proteins. We anticipate that it will aid in the identification of chemicals that influence initial amyloid nucleation and in searching for new amyloidogenic proteins in a variety of proteomes. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Bauer, Maria Anna; Zimmermann, Andreas; Aguilera, Andrés; Austriaco, Nicanor; Ayscough, Kathryn; Balzan, Rena; Bar-Nun, Shoshana; Barrientos, Antonio; Belenky, Peter; Blondel, Marc; Braun, Ralf J; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C; Büttner, Sabrina; Cavalieri, Duccio; Chang, Michael; Cooper, Katrina F; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor; Cullin, Christophe; Dawes, Ian; Dengjel, Jörn; Dickman, Martin B; Eisenberg, Tobias; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fasel, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Gargouri, Ali; Giannattasio, Sergio; Goffrini, Paola; Gourlay, Campbell W; Grant, Chris M; Greenwood, Michael T; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Heger, Thomas; Heinisch, Jürgen; Herker, Eva; Herrmann, Johannes M; Hofer, Sebastian; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kainz, Katharina; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ludovico, Paula; Manon, Stéphen; Martegani, Enzo; Mazzoni, Cristina; Megeney, Lynn A; Meisinger, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Nyström, Thomas; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Outeiro, Tiago F; Park, Hay-Oak; Pendl, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Picot, Stephane; Polčic, Peter; Powers, Ted; Ramsdale, Mark; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Schaffrath, Raffael; Segovia, Maria; Severin, Fedor F; Sharon, Amir; Sigrist, Stephan J; Sommer-Ruck, Cornelia; Sousa, Maria João; Thevelein, Johan M; Thevissen, Karin; Titorenko, Vladimir; Toledano, Michel B; Tuite, Mick; Vögtle, F-Nora; Westermann, Benedikt; Winderickx, Joris; Wissing, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Zhang, Zhaojie J; Zhao, Richard Y; Zhou, Bing; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cel-lular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the defi-nition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differ-ential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death rou-tines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the au-thors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the pro-gress of this vibrant field of research.