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Sample records for balanitis xerotica obliterans

  1. Buccal mucosal urethroplasty for balanitis xerotica obliterans related urethral strictures: the outcome of 1 and 2-stage techniques.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Deepak; Sehgal, Anand; Srivastava, Aneesh; Mandhani, Anil; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant

    2005-02-01

    Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) related strictures are complex and generally managed by 2-staged urethroplasty. We present our results with 1-stage dorsal onlay and 2-stage buccal mucosal urethroplasty for such strictures. Between January 2000 and April 2004, 39 patients underwent buccal mucosal urethroplasty for BXO related anterior urethral strictures. The 25 patients with a salvageable urethral plate (group 1) were treated with 1-stage dorsal onlay urethroplasty using a cosmetic incision. The 14 patients with a severely scarred urethral plate, focally dense segments or active infection (group 2) underwent 2-stage urethroplasty. Outcomes in terms of cosmetic appearance, stricture recurrence and complications in the 2 groups were assessed. At a mean followup of 32.5 months (range 3 to 52) 3 patients (12%) in group 1 had recurrent stricture, of which 2 and 1 were treated with optical urethrotomy and urethral dilation, respectively. All patients had a normal slit-like meatus and none had chordee or erectile dysfunction. Four group 2 patients (28.6%) required stomal revision and 2 had glans cleft narrowing after stage 1 urethroplasty. Following stage 2, 3 patients had recurrent stricture, of whom 2 were treated with optical urethrotomy and 1 underwent repeat urethroplasty. In BXO related strictures with a viable urethral plate 1-stage dorsal onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty provides excellent intermediate term results. The cosmetic incision described provides a normal, wide caliber, slit-like glans. Two-stage procedures provide satisfactory outcomes but they are associated with a higher revision rate.

  2. Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and its incidence under the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, S; Antao, B; Bevington, O; Furness, P; Ninan, G K

    2012-06-01

    To analyse the incidence of BXO among paediatric circumcisions for preputial pathology, in particular in children under the age of 5 years. Retrospective review revealed 1769 paediatric circumcisions performed between 1997 and 2008 at our institution. Data were collected on patient's age, date when sample received by pathology department and histological findings for all the foreskin samples received and examined during the study period. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, UK. A total of 346 foreskin samples were received and BXO was found in 182 (52.6%). There were 31 children under the age of 5 years circumcised for preputial pathology. BXO was reported in 6 (19.3%) and chronic inflammation in 16 (51.6%) of these patients. The foreskin was reported normal in 2 (6.5%) and the remaining 7 (22.6%) patients had preputial cysts or other pathology. Epidemiological population data analysis revealed the incidence of BXO per year to be 3.01 cases/1000 boys under 15 years of age and 0.322 cases/1000 boys under 5 years. The incidence of BXO in boys noted in our study is higher than previously reported. BXO can result in significant complications and should be considered in children even under 5 years. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does application of topical steroids for lichen sclerosus (balanitis xerotica obliterans) affect the rate of circumcision? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Folaranmi, Semiu E; Corbett, Harriet J; Losty, Paul D

    2018-01-03

    To determine whether treatment of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LS), with topical steroids reduces the rate of circumcision. Two independent reviewers performed a literature search of studies reporting treatment of LS with topical steroids using EMBASE and MEDLINE database(s). boys aged 0-18 years, clinical diagnosis of LS, treatment with topical steroids. Literature reviews, studies of phimosis without LS and adult patients were excluded. Data analysed for each paper included age, duration of treatment, length of follow up and outcome, notably circumcision or no surgery. The original search identified 26 titles. Application of exclusion criteria left 6 articles for inclusion in the study. Eighty nine patients with LS were treated with topical corticosteroids. Circumcision was avoided in 31/89 (35%; range 0-100%). Median patient age was 6.5 years (1 month-15 years). Median duration of treatment was 2 months (1-23 months); median follow-up 4 months (6 weeks-5 years). Treatment of LS with topical steroids reportedly avoided circumcision in 35% of boys. Duration of medical therapy and patient follow up in analysed studies were, however, short. A prospective randomised trial would provide a definitive answer. Systematic review. III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Balanitis

    MedlinePlus

    Balanitis is most often caused by poor hygiene in uncircumcised men. Other possible causes include: Diseases, such as reactive arthritis and lichen sclerosus atrophicus Infection Harsh soaps Not rinsing soap off ...

  5. Revisiting cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Hurelbrink, Carrie B; Barnett, Yael; Buckland, Michael E; Wilkinson, Mark; Leicester, Jon; Anderson, Craig; Brennan, Jeffrey; Barnett, Michael

    2012-06-15

    We describe a 56-year-old patient with progressive cognitive decline in the context of heavy tobacco use and migraine, and imaging evidence of an occlusive terminal cerebral vasculopathy. The results of brain biopsy recapitulated the pathological features described by Lindenberg and Spatz in their classic 1939 treatise on cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans, or cerebral Buerger's disease. Although the condition is associated with heavy smoking, the identification of a hypercoagulable state in our patient suggests a multifactorial pathogenesis. The diagnosis of cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans in life is facilitated by modern neuroimaging and should prompt immediate cessation of smoking and a search for an underlying prothrombotic tendency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Steroid instillation for idiopathic urethritis in children: an 8-year experience.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Sivasankar; Ninan, George Kaithayil; Pringle, Kirsty

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic urethritis (IU) in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We aim to report our experience with steroid instillation in IU in children. Retrospective data collection of all male children diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and positive urine culture at presentation were excluded from the study. Data were collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystoscopy findings, management, and outcomes. A total of 16 male children were diagnosed with IU. The mean age was 11.6 (7-16) years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 10; frank hematuria in 7; loin pain in 5; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Serum C-reactive protein and full blood count was tested in 13 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Endoscopy findings included posterior urethritis in 12, anterior urethritis in 2, and urethral stricture with inflammation in 2 patients. Ten patients required more than one episode of steroid instillation. Mean follow-up was 19.4 (1-74) months. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 15 (93.6%) patients and improvement of symptoms and signs noted with ongoing treatment in 1 (6.4%) patient. IU in children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation. In our series, 93.6% of children had complete resolution of symptoms. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Corkscrew collaterals in atherosclerosis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuichi; Ueda, Tomohiro; Uchimura, Yuko; Teragawa, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    Marked calcifications in the femoral artery obscured imaging of the artery in computed tomography (CT) and duplex ultrasonography. The presence of corkscrew collateral arteries in patients with Atherosclerosis obliterans (ASO) indicates total artery occlusion.

  8. Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you tell me about cryptogenic organizing pneumonia? Answers from Teng Moua, M.D. Previously called bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare lung ...

  9. Oleic acid-associated bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Botts, S; Morton, D; Knickerbocker, M J; Adler, R

    2006-03-01

    Accidental intra-airway exposure of dogs with pure oleic acid produced bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchopneumonia. Pulmonary changes included multifocal to coalescing necrosis of bronchioles and adjacent alveoli, hemorrhage, inflammation, and exudation of fibrin. Hyperplasia of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and proliferation of loose fibrovascular connective tissue formed polyps or plugs of variable size and shape. Polyps in the airways primarily consisted of fibroblasts with loose or myxoid stroma and were variably covered with attenuated epithelial cells. Some polyps had prominent vasculature, mixed inflammatory cell infiltration, and/or necrosis. Polyps or plugs variably effaced bronchioles and adjacent alveoli. The changes closely resembled human bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Controlled intra-airway delivery of oleic acid in dogs may be a potential animal model of obstructive pulmonary diseases such as BOOP or bronchiolitis obliterans.

  10. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia due to titanium nanoparticles in paint.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tong-Hong; Ko, Fu-Chang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old man who experienced Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after a 3-month exposure to polyester powder paint. Mineralogical analysis by transmission electron microscopy of a pulmonary sample and the polyester powder paint he was exposed to showed the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in both. We suggest that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles should be added to the etiology of Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct impression on agar surface as a diagnostic sampling procedure for candida balanitis.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Carmen; Santos, António; Azevedo, Filomena; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of candida balanitis should be based upon both clinical and mycological data. The procedure of material collection is a critical issue to confirm or rule out the clinical diagnosis of candida balanitis. To compare direct impression of the glans on the agar surface of solid culture media with the collection of genital exudates with cotton swab for the diagnosis of candida balanitis. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out during a 36-month period. Sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees with balanitis and asymptomatic men were included. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using the direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium and by swabbing with a sterile cotton swab. Among 478 men enrolled, 189 had balanitis. The prevalence of candida balanitis was 17.8% (85/478) confirmed after culture by direct impression; the swab method detected only 54/85 (63.5%) of these men. Of the 289 asymptomatic men, 36 (12.5%) yielded Candida spp; the swab method detected only 38.9% of these men. The risk of having candida balanitis is 8.9 (IC 95% 2.48 to 32.04) whenever the number of candida colonies recovered by direct impression was greater than 10. Direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium resulted in the highest Candida spp recovery rate. More than 10 colonies yielded by impression culture were statistically associated with candida balanitis. This method shows the ideal profile for sampling the male genital area for yeasts and should be included in the management of balanitis.

  12. Preputial skin free graft as dorsal onlay urethroplasty: Our experience of 73 patients.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Shivadeo S; Padhye, Abhijit S; Yadav, Pushkaraj B; Bhave, Ashish A

    2007-10-01

    To present the outcome of dorsal onlay urethroplasty in 73 patients for stricture urethra over a period of eight years. Seventy-three patients of stricture urethra have undergone dorsal onlay urethroplasty from July 1998 to February 2006. Age distribution: 14-58 years. Trauma 20/73 (27.39%), Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans 2/73 (2.73%), Iatrogenic 26/73(35.61%), Infection 3/73 (4.10%), Idiopathic 22/73 (30.13%). Site: Penobulbar-25/73, bulbar-38/73, membranous-8/73 and long length-2/73. Suprapubic catheter was inserted preoperatively: 21/73 patients. Preputial / distal penile skin was used in all patients. Buccal mucosa was not used in any patient. Hospitalization was for four to five days. Catheter was removed after 21 days. All patients had their first endoscopic checkup after three months. Subsequently they were followed up by uroflometry. Routine imaging of urethra for follow-up was not carried out. 63/73 (86.30%) patients had satisfactory outcome not requiring any further treatment, 8/73 (10.95%) developed anastomotic stricture (3/8-optical internal urethrotomy, 5/8 dilatation alone). 2/73 (2.75%) developed external meatal stenosis. None had urinary fistula and required repeat urethroplasty. Follow-up ranged from three months to eight years. Dorsal onlay urethroplasty using preputial/distal penile skin is a satisfactory procedure. Preputial/distal penile skin is devoid of hair and fat and hence an ideal graft material. Even in circumscribed patients distal penile skin can be harvested. Long-term follow-up is required in judging results of patients with stricture urethra.

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Mohammed; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Saleemi, Sarfraz; Khan, Mohammed Qaseem; Khan, Basha; Ahmed, Shad; Ibrahim, Khalid El Tayeb; Mobeireek, Abdullah; Al Mohareb, Fahad; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2013-06-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is a significant postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant problem. Recent data in lung transplant patients suggest an association with gastroesophageal reflux disease and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. We studied posthematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its response to a proton pump inhibitor. Seven postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were studied. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring with a Bravo catheter-free radio pH capsule. Patients with positive gastroesophageal reflux disease were started on omeprazole. Pretreatment and posttreatment pulmonary function tests were done at 3-month intervals. Of 7 patients, 5 had positive results for gastroesophageal reflux disease (71%). Omeprazole had a disease-stabilizing effect on the patients' pulmonary function tests. Our study shows a significant association between bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Use of omeprazole may have a disease-stabilizing effect in short-term follow-up.

  14. [Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease): update 2015].

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, Peter; Volz, Theresa Sophie; Richter, Jutta

    2015-10-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is a vasculitis with undulating clinical course multisegmentarily affecting small and medium-sized arteries and veins. The disease is closely linked to tobacco-use. Increasing knowledge of autoimmunologic mechanisms in the complex pathophyiology of the disease let to the formulation of an autoimmunity-hypothesis now serving as a new paradigma. New treatment options comprise progenitor-cell-therapy, immunoadsorption, use of sendothelin-receptor-blocking agent Bosentan, and prescriptions of antiphosphodiesterase-V-inhibitors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes as the cause of vulvovaginitis and balanitis in children.

    PubMed

    Randjelovic, Gordana; Otasevic, Suzana; Mladenovic-Antic, Snezana; Mladenovic, Vesna; Radovanovic-Velickovic, Radmila; Randjelovic, Marina; Bogdanovic, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is the etiological agent of perineal infection in children, consisting of perianal infection, vulvovaginitis and balanitis. If it is not properly diagnosed and treated, it can persist for many months and can cause severe complications. Furthermore, treatment with penicillin can be followed by failures and recurrences. We report here the prevalence of S. pyogenes isolates in genital tract specimens from girls (n = 1692) with symptoms of vulvovaginitis and from boys (n = 52) with balanitis in the municipality of Nis, Southeast-Serbia (the Western Balkans) in a 10 year period, and the seasonal distribution, patient age and sensitivity to bacitracin and antimicrobial drugs used in the treatment of streptococcal infection. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed in 2.30% of examinees. Of those cases, 64.10% were detected from April to September, and it was most common (71.79%) in girls aged 3-7 years. Streptococcal balanitis was diagnosed in two instances: in a 4-year-old boy and in a 7-year-old boy. S. pyogenes strains resistant to bacitracin were identified in five girls. Two isolates with M phenotype and five isolates with cMLS B phenotype were identified. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed less often in the present study, but it was still far more common than streptococcal balanitis in childhood. Bacitracin resistance of S. pyogenes strains should be taken into account in routine microbiological identification, and the detection of S. pyogenes isolates resistant to erythromycin requires surveillance in the present geographical territory. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. A case of ulcerative colitis complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and air leak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Müge; Gürsel, Gül; Özyilmaz, Ezgi; Akyürek, Nalan; Memış, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases are well recognized and mainly affect the joints, skin, liver, and eyes; however, clinically significant pulmonary involvement is very rare. Early identification of pulmonary involvement is important and will be life-saving. We report herein a case of an ulcerative colitis patient, presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bilateral recurring pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, i.e., air leak syndrome. He was diagnosed with open lung biopsy as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia most probably due to viral etiology and responded well to steroid therapy, with almost complete resolution of radiographic and clinical findings. In inflammatory bowel disease patients, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia developing due to viral or fungal infectious etiology or due to the inflammatory bowel disease itself may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and may present with air leak syndrome. Early detection is important and life-saving, since bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia often responds well to steroid treatment provided an infectious etiology has been excluded or adequate antimicrobial therapy has already been initiated.

  18. Clinical study of the effectiveness of the "water of the 3 sulfates" on balanitis and balanoposthitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalvo, V; Polo, A; Serrallach, F; Gutiérrez, A; Peyri, E

    2015-03-01

    Despite scientific literature mentions the application of "water of the 3 sulfates" (copper sulphate, zinc sulphate and alum) as a treatment for acute balanitis and balanoposthitis, no clinical trials evaluating its efficacy have been found. In our study we evaluate the efficacy of this solution in acute balanitis and balanoposthitis. A double-blind randomized study was designed to compare the efficacy of "water of the 3 sulfates" (intervention) with saline solution (control) in 50 patients (30 patients and 20 patients, respectively) who suffer from acute balanitis or balanoposthitis. Exudate, erythema, oedema, burning, and itching were the clinical parameters assessed. for all clinical parameters assessed, the outcomes obtained with "water of the 3 sulfates" are higher than control, although significant differences only have been found for exudate. in our study, the "water of the 3 sulfates" is significantly more effective than saline solution for removing exudates in acute balanitis and balanoposthitis. Tolerability was excellent in both treatments. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans in pediatric liver-lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faro, Albert; Shepherd, Ross; Huddleston, Charles B; Lowell, Jeffrey; Gandhi, Sanjiv; Nadler, Michelle; Sweet, Stuart C

    2007-06-15

    Simultaneous liver-lung transplantation is an infrequent but technically feasible procedure in patients with end-stage lung disease and advanced liver disease. We characterize the outcomes of pediatric patients who underwent this procedure at our institution. We performed a retrospective, case-control study and reviewed the medical records of all patients referred to our transplant program from its inception. Seven patients were listed for simultaneous liver-lung transplant. The five patients who survived to transplant were matched to 13 controls who underwent isolated bilateral sequential lung transplant for underlying diagnosis, age at time of transplant, gender, and era of transplant. Outcome measures included patient and graft survival, occurrence of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), and episodes of rejection. Of the five study patients who underwent liver-lung transplant, one died of multiorgan failure 11 days after transplant compared with 9 of 13 controls who died. The median survival for the study patients was 89 months (range, 0-112 months) compared with the controls, who had a median survival of 34 months (range, 0-118 months). The remaining four patients had bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome scores of 0 compared with 5 of 13 control patients (P=0.02). The rate of acute rejection per 100 patient days was 0.012 for the study patients compared with 0.11 for the controls (P=0.025). Simultaneous liver-lung transplantation is a technically feasible procedure with excellent long-term outcomes. The surviving study subjects remain free from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. These results suggest that the transplanted liver may bestow immunologic privilege to the lung allograft.

  20. [A case of vasculitis syndrome associated with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)].

    PubMed

    Yago, Toru; Nishinarita, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    In 1996 36-year-old man was admitted into our hospital because of polyarthralgia, skin eruptions followed by multiple cutaneous ulcers, dry cough and elevation of C-reactive protein level. The finding of skin biopsy from left elbow was vasculitis. Chest CT showed linear interstitial shadow at bilateral dorsalis lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the bronchial walls and peripheral alveoli. In addition, eosinophils were not in branchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Moreover, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) revealed organizing fibroblastic polyp and bronchiolitis obliterans at terminal bronchiole. We diagnosed his pneumonia as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Administration of oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) was begun and he experienced diminished BOOP and other clinical manifestations. Three years later he developed dry cough, dyspnea and digital ulcers again. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed marked hypoxemia and laboratory studies showed LDH (377 IU/ml) and CRP (8.27 mg/dl) levels were elevated. Chest CT pointed out an exacerbation of BOOP. Treatment with intravenous pulses methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone (60 mg/day) resulted in marked improvement of the clinical manifestations. We describe a rare case of vasculitis associated with BOOP.

  1. Local Origin of Mesenchymal Cells in a Murine Orthotopic Lung Transplantation Model of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Takeshi; Walker, Natalie; Aoki, Yoshiro; Manning, Casey M.; Murdock, Benjamin J.; Myers, Jeffery L.; Lagstein, Amir; Osterholzer, John J.; Lama, Vibha N.

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of chronic graft failure and long-term mortality in lung transplant recipients. Here, we used a novel murine model to characterize allograft fibrogenesis within a whole-lung microenvironment. Unilateral left lung transplantation was performed in mice across varying degrees of major histocompatibility complex mismatch combinations. B6D2F1/J (a cross between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) (Haplotype H2b/d) lungs transplanted into DBA/2J (H2d) recipients were identified to show histopathology for bronchiolitis obliterans in all allogeneic grafts. Time course analysis showed an evolution from immune cell infiltration of the bronchioles and vessels at day 14, consistent with acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchitis, to subepithelial and intraluminal fibrotic lesions of bronchiolitis obliterans by day 28. Allografts at day 28 showed a significantly higher hydroxyproline content than the isografts (33.21 ± 1.89 versus 22.36 ± 2.33 μg/mL). At day 40 the hydroxyproline content had increased further (48.91 ± 7.09 μg/mL). Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the origin of mesenchymal cells in fibrotic allografts. Collagen I–positive cells (89.43% ± 6.53%) in day 28 allografts were H2Db positive, showing their donor origin. This novel murine model shows consistent and reproducible allograft fibrogenesis in the context of single-lung transplantation and represents a major step forward in investigating mechanisms of chronic graft failure. PMID:25848843

  2. Unilateral mastitis obliterans presented as a palpable breast mass in a patient with long-standing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Blay, J; Medina, R; Rausell, N; Fonfria, C; Atares, M; Requeni, L; Vilar, J

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis obliterans is an uncommon and late manifestation of ductal ectasia. We report a case of a woman with a long-term type 2 diabetes, referred to us because of a palpable right breast mass. Mammography showed an asymmetry in the palpated area. Ultrasonography was consistent with a an irregular, hypoechoic mass with indistinct margins and linear tracts to the skin. The biopsy showed a fibrotic component surrounding dilated galactophore ducts, which were collapsed by an infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes corresponding to mastitis obliterans. The differential diagnosis should be made between diabetic fibrous mastopathy, granulomatous mastitis and lobular carcinoma. In our opinion, the therapeutic approach should depend on the symptomatology and should be individualized for each patient owing to the lack of information on this pathology, adopting therefore a conservative attitude.

  3. Bilateral extensive ductitis obliterans manifested by bloody nipple discharge in a patient with long-term diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqin; Leonard, Morton H; Khamapirad, Tuenchit; Castro, Claudia Y

    2007-01-01

    Ductitis obliterans or mastitis obliterans is a rare late manifestation of mammary ductal ectasia. We describe a long-term diabetic patient who presented with bilateral bloody nipple discharge and poorly defined nodularities around the nipple of both breasts. The ductography showed multiple segments of irregular ductal narrowing and intraluminal filling defects in both breasts. The bilateral resection of the sub-areolar portion of the breast showed exuberant fibrous obliteration of the large- and medium-sized ducts by granulation tissue associated with few histiocytes. Ductal dilatation and intraductal accumulation of histiocytes was also present. This represents a late and florid form of mammary ductal ectasia. Differential diagnostic considerations including fibrocystic changes, diabetic sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis, idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis, and periductal mastitis (Zuska disease) are discussed. Accurate diagnosis can help avoid or limit radical surgeries in this group of patients.

  4. How I treat bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirsten M

    2017-01-26

    In past years, a diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) conferred nearly universal mortality secondary to lack of consensus for diagnostic criteria, poorly understood disease pathogenesis, and very few studies of therapeutic or supportive care interventions. Recently, however, progress has been made in these areas: revised consensus diagnostic guidelines are now available, supportive care has improved, there is greater understanding of potential mechanisms of disease, and prospective trials are being conducted. This article describes these advances and provides suggestions to optimize therapy for patients with BOS after HCT.

  5. Efficacy of concomitant administration of clarithromycin and acetylcysteine in bronchiolitis obliterans in seventeen sulfur mustard—exposed patients: An open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Abolmaali, Kamran; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-01-01

    Background: Victims of sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure experience different types of chronic pulmonary disease, manifested as cough, sputum production, and dyspnea. Conventional therapies (eg, immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids) have not been effective in these patients. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of concomitant administration of the macrolide clarithromycin and the mucolytic agent acetylcysteine in the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans in SM-exposed patients. Methods: This open-label clinical study was conducted at the Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran. Clarithromycin and acetylcysteine were administered concomitantly for 6 months to male SM-exposed patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis obliterans who were nonresponsive to conventional treatments. Efficacy analysis included symptom assessment and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC ratio) using spirometry, performed at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Results: Seventeen male patients (mean [SD] age, 38.3 [5.3] years [range, 31–50 years]; mean [SD] body weight, 77.9 [15.7] kg) were included in the study. Cough and sputum production were each found in 10 of 17 patients (58.8%) at baseline and were improved in all 10 patients after the administration of clarithromycin and acetylcysteine. FEV1 and FVC also were improved, by mean (SD) 10.6% (9.7%) (P < 0.001 vs baseline) and 12.9% (13.6%) (P = 0.001 vs baseline). No significant change in FEV1/FVC ratio was found. Conclusions: In this study of concomitant administration of clarithromycin and acetylcysteine for the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans in SM-exposed patients, symptoms and pulmonary function were improved. These results may have been related to the therapeutic effects of a macrolide antibiotic on chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis obliterans

  6. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: The Achilles’ Heel of Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, S. Samuel; DerHovanessian, Ariss; Wallace, W. Dean; Lynch, Joseph P.; Belperio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage pulmonary disorders. Unfortunately, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), most commonly manifest as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), continues to be highly prevalent and is the major limitation to long-term survival. The pathogenesis of BOS is complex and involves alloimmune and nonalloimmune pathways. Clinically, BOS manifests as airway obstruction and dyspnea that are classically progressive and ultimately fatal; however, the course is highly variable, and distinguishable phenotypes may exist. There are few controlled studies assessing treatment efficacy, but only a minority of patients respond to current treatment modalities. Ultimately, preventive strategies may prove more effective at prolonging survival after lung transplantation, but their remains considerable debate and little data regarding the best strategies to prevent BOS. A better understanding of the risk factors and their relationship to the pathological mechanisms of chronic lung allograft rejection should lead to better pharmacological targets to prevent or treat this syndrome. PMID:23821508

  7. Vulvovaginitis and balanitis in patients with diabetes treated with dapagliflozin.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Kristina M; Ptaszynska, Agata; Schmitz, Bridget; Sugg, Jennifer; Parikh, Shamik J; List, James F

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infections are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Glucosuria, which is an outcome of treatment with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, is among the possible causes. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor with demonstrated glycemic benefits in patients with diabetes, has been studied across a broad spectrum of patients. Analysis of multi-trial safety data may better define the relationship between glucosuria and genital infection. Safety data were pooled from 12 randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2b/3 trials to analyze the association of glucosuria with genital infection in patients with suboptimally controlled diabetes (HbA1c >6.5%-12%). Patients were randomized to receive dapagliflozin (2.5mg, 5mg, or 10mg) or placebo once daily, either as monotherapy or add-on to metformin, insulin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione for 12-24weeks. The incidence of clinical diagnoses and of events suggestive of genital infection was evaluated. The pooled safety data included 4545 patients: 3152 who received once-daily dapagliflozin (2.5mg [n=814], 5mg [n=1145], or 10mg [n=1193]) as monotherapy or add-on treatment, and 1393 placebo-treated patients. For dapagliflozin 2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg, and placebo, diagnosed infections were reported in 4.1%, 5.7%, 4.8%, and 0.9%, respectively. Most infections were mild or moderate and responded to standard antimicrobial treatment. Discontinuation due to these events was rare. No clear dose-response relationship between dapagliflozin and genital infection was demonstrated. Treatment with dapagliflozin 2.5mg, 5mg, or 10mg once daily is accompanied by an increased risk of vulvovaginitis or balanitis, related to the induction of glucosuria. Events were generally mild to moderate, clinically manageable, and rarely led to discontinuation of treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma of the penile foreskin.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Nebhnani, Deepa; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, considered to herald the onset of a blast crisis in the setting of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm/dysplasia, typically presents during the course of the disorder. Cutaneous involvement is uncommon and lesions on genital skin are seldom seen. We present a case of a well-differentiated myeloid sarcoma in the penile foreskin in an apparently healthy 29-year-old male presenting with phimosis. The unusual composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and characteristic sparing of dermal blood vessels, nerves and smooth muscle fibres led to the correct diagnosis. Absence of commonly observed changes in the circumcision skin like those of balanitis xerotica was also helpful. Detailed hematological work up revealed a previously undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The patient also had simultaneous priapism, another rare presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. One year hence, the patient is in hematological remission with no evidence of extramedullary disease. Although priapism has been described as a rare presenting symptom in chronic myeloid leukemia, the present case is unique as this is the first time a cutaneous myeloid sarcoma has been documented in the penile foreskin.

  9. Blood Gene Expression Predicts Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Danger, Richard; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Reboulleau, Damien; Durand, Eugénie; Loy, Jennifer; Tissot, Adrien; Lacoste, Philippe; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Gomez, Carine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean-François; Guillemain, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Knoop, Christiane; Botturi, Karine; Foureau, Aurore; Pison, Christophe; Koutsokera, Angela; Nicod, Laurent P.; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine; Jougon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group), and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group). An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group). We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A), and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01) and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS. PMID:29375549

  10. Bronchiolitis obliterans and consumer exposure to butter-flavored microwave popcorn: a case series.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S; Schilling, John Henry

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to diacetyl and diacetyl-containing flavorings used in butter-flavored microwave popcorn (BFMP) causes lung disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), in flavorings and popcorn manufacturing workers. However, there are no published reports of lung disease among BFMP consumers. We present a case series of three BFMP consumers with biopsy-confirmed BO. We review data relating to consumer exposures, estimate case exposures, and compare them to diacetyl-containing flavoring-exposed manufacturing workers with lung disease. These consumer cases' exposure levels are comparable to those that caused disease in workers. We were unable to identify any other exposures or diseases known or suspected to cause BO in these cases. BFMP poses a significant respiratory risk to consumers. Some manufacturers have substituted diacetyl with other alpha-diketones that are likely to pose a similar risk. Simple consumer practices such as cooling the popcorn bag would eliminate the risk of severe lung disease.

  11. How to Treat a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Bahare; Dadgar Moghadam, Maliheh; Niroumand, Shabnam

    2018-05-01

    To date, there is still no treatment protocol for patients with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) who are also afflicted with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Smoking cessation on its own cannot be considered a treatment for the purposes of salvaging a limb of a TAO patient with CLI. The aim of this review was to evaluate different studies of various treatment protocols for avoiding amputation in TAO patients. A systematic search for relevant studies dating from 1990 to the end of 2016 was performed on the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Science Direct databases. Only 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only one was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The remaining studies were quasi-experimental with various treatments and follow-up durations. Therefore, meta-analysis was not performed. Judging from the major amputation rates after the suggested treatments were performed, no treatment was particularly effective. This review demonstrated that more standard RCTs are needed to resolve this treatment issue involved in TAO. In addition, because health insurance coverage for TAO patients differs by country, regional cost-benefit and cost-efficacy studies of the suggested treatments for TAO are highly recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical speculation: is specificity back? This time thromboangiitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Hofer-Mayer, T; Adler, R H; Minder, C; Mahler, F; Radvila, A

    1995-01-01

    Do men with thrombangiitis obliterans (TO) show conspicuous personality features and behavior? Twenty-one men with TO were compared with 20 men with coronary artery disease (CAD). All diagnoses were angiographically confirmed. Mean ages were 40.1 (TO) and 43.4 years (CAD). Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted. Interview-behavior: TOs were more hostile, minimizing, evasive, and complicated than CADs (p < .001). The interviewer reacted with more anger, impatience, boredom, astonishment, and less empathy towards TOs (p < .001). Adult behavior: TOs had changed their place of work more often (p < .001), had more absentism from work (p < .001), and had more debts (p = .01) unrelated to the present illness. They smoked more before the illness (p = .01) and continued to smoke more frequently during their illness than CADs (p < .003). They were more often single or divorced (p < .05) and had more conflicts in their relationships (p < .001) than CADs. During conflicts, TOs more often shouted or withdrew and less frequently tried to resolve conflicts with humor and discussions (p < .001) than CADs. TOs were more frequently dissatisfied with their life situation than CADs (p < .001). TOs more often passively submitted to their illness than CADs, who tried to cope by giving up smoking and by exercising (p < .001). Childhood: TOs more often mentioned a bad relationship with their father than CADS (p = .01) and had more disciplinary problems at home and in school (p = .002). TOs show remarkable personality features.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Cara N; Suarthana, Eva; Fedan, Kathleen B; Lo, Yi-Chun; Turabelidze, George; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th) revision (ICD-10), we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40), simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41), unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42), emphysema (J43), and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J44). We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42). Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44), while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49). Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. Workers at the microwave popcorn company experienced

  14. Increased Respiratory Disease Mortality at a Microwave Popcorn Production Facility with Worker Risk of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N.; Suarthana, Eva; Fedan, Kathleen B.; Lo, Yi-Chun; Turabelidze, George; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000–2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000–2003. Methods We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10th revision (ICD-10), we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40–J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40), simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41), unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42), emphysema (J43), and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J44). We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. Results We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42). Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of ‘other COPD’ (J44), while 0.98 ‘other COPD’-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12–10.49). Three of the 4 ‘other COPD’-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. Conclusion

  15. [Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia--experience of a pulmonology ward].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana L; Meruje, Manuela; Barata, Fernando; Martins, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a physiopathologic syndrome associating suggestive clinical and imaging features with histopathologic studies showing buds of connective tissue in the lu- men of the distal pulmonary airspace. The aim of the study is a retrospective review of all patients with BOOP diagnosed in the Pulmonology Unit of Coimbra Hospital Centre (CHC) between 2000 and 2005. Eleven cases (6 female and 5 male) with mean age 54.8 years were diagnosed. Ten patients were non-smokers and one was an ex-smoker. The mean duration of symptoms was 62.1 days with the initial symptoms dyspnea (8), cough (7), fever (5) and weight loss (2). Nine patients had been given multiple antibiotics, crackles were heard in 6, fever was detected in 6 and dyspnea in 5. Chest X-ray showed bilateral alveolar opacities in 6, focal consolidation in 3, multiple bilateral nodular opacities in 1 and linear opacities in 1. Lung function, performed in 7 patients, showed a reduction in the diffusion capacity in 5. BAL was performed in 8, and all revealed an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes, with low CD4/CD8 in 4. Diagnosis was obtained by pulmonary biopsy performed by TBLB (7), VATS (2) and TTLB (1). Systemic corticosteroids were given in 9 patients. Evolution was favourable in 10 and one patient died. The authors emphasise the time symptoms took to develop, the failure of multiple antibiotics, agreement between symptoms and imaging with those published in the literature, the increased lymphocytes in the BAL, the usefulness of TBLB and the good response to corticosteroids.

  16. Elevated soluble CD30 correlates with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fields, Ryan C; Bharat, Ankit; Steward, Nancy; Aloush, Aviva; Meyers, Brian F; Trulock, Elbert P; Chapman, William C; Patterson, G Alexander; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2006-12-27

    The long-term function of lung transplants is limited by chronic rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, BOS). Due to lack of specific markers, BOS is diagnosed clinically. Because there is strong evidence that alloimmunity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of BOS, we investigated whether soluble CD30 (sCD30), a T-cell activation marker, would correlate with BOS. Sera collected serially from BOS+ (n = 20) and matched BOS- (n = 20) lung transplant (LT) patients were analyzed for sCD30 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pretransplant sera and sera from normal donors were also analyzed. PreLT levels were comparable to normal subjects. However, posttransplant there was a significant elevation in sCD30 levels during BOS development in all BOS+ patients, compared to BOS- (mean 139.8+/-10.7 vs. 14.8+/-2.7 U/ml, P < 0.001). sCD30 levels declined in the BOS+ patients but were still elevated compared to BOS- (48.52+/-5.04 vs. 7.19+/-2.9, P < 0.0001). We conclude that sCD30 may represent a novel marker to monitor the development of BOS.

  17. Systematic Review of Postradiotherapy Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia in Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Radiation therapy for breast cancer has been implicated in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). This inflammatory lung disorder was first noted in 1983, and there have been numerous reports of BOOP occurring in women who have had radiation therapy for breast cancer since 1995. This study was undertaken to perform a systematic review of postradiotherapy BOOP to determine the occurrence, presentation, treatment, and outcome. Materials and Methods. A systematic literature review was conducted according to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report. Results. The literature search yielded 10 Japanese epidemiological reports with 129 women, 4 case series reports with 36 women, and 24 case reports with 34 women. Common symptoms included fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Most patients received corticosteroid therapy, and duration of treatment ranged from 6 months to 1 year, although some patients received steroids for longer than 1 year because of relapse, which occurred in approximately one half of patients. No deaths have been reported. Conclusion. BOOP is a rare but significant complication from radiation therapy for breast cancer. Chest radiographic studies for women who report new respiratory symptoms during the postradiation period can be beneficial for early diagnosis and for guiding appropriate management. PMID:25361622

  18. Diacetyl Induces Amphiregulin Shedding in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and in Experimental Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jesse; Fischer, Bernard M.; Voynow, Judith A.; Kummarapurugu, Apparao B.; Zhang, Helen L.; Nugent, Julia L.; Beasley, Robert F.; Martinu, Tereza; Gwinn, William M.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (DA), a component of artificial butter flavoring, has been linked to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), a disease of airway epithelial injury and airway fibrosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), has been implicated in other types of epithelial injury and lung fibrosis. We investigated the effects of DA directly on the pulmonary epithelium, and we hypothesized that DA exposure would result in epithelial cell shedding of AREG. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that DA increases AREG by the pulmonary epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and by multiple independent primary human airway epithelial donors grown under physiologically relevant conditions at the air–liquid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AREG shedding occurs through a TNF-α–converting enzyme (TACE)-dependent mechanism via inhibition of TACE activity in epithelial cells using the small molecule inhibitor, TNF-α protease inhibitor-1, as well as TACE-specific small inhibitor RNA. Finally, we demonstrate supportive in vivo results showing increased AREG transcript and protein levels in the lungs of rodents with DA-induced BO. In summary, our novel in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that further study of AREG is warranted in the pathogenesis of DA-induced BO. PMID:24816162

  19. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, João Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. PMID:28428651

  20. Etiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans – current practices

    PubMed Central

    Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Dalio, Marcelo; Évora, Paulo RB; Piccinato, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a segmental inflammatory occlusive disorder that affects small- and medium-sized arteries, and arm and leg veins of young smokers. Several different diagnostic criteria have been offered for the diagnosis of TAO. Clinically, it manifests as migratory thrombophlebitis or signs of arterial insufficiency in the extremities. It is characterized by highly cellular and inflammatory occlusive thrombi, primarily of the distal extremities. Thromboses are often occlusive and sometimes display moderate, nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate, consisting mostly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear cells and rare multinuclear giant cells. The immune system appears to play a critical role in the etiology of TAO. However, knowledge about immunological aspects involved in the progression of vascular tissue inflammation, and consequently, the evolution of this disease, is still limited. There are several studies that suggest the involvement of genetic factors and results have shown increasing levels of antiendothelial cell antibodies in patients with active disease. Vasodilation is impaired in patients with TAO. TAO disorder may actually be an autoimmune disorder, probably initiated by an unknown antigen in the vascular endothelium, possibly a component of nicotine. There are various therapies available for treatment of TAO, but the major and indispensable measure is smoking cessation. Except for discontinuation of tobacco use, no forms of therapy are definitive. Sympathectomy, cilostazol and prostaglandin analogues (prostacyclin or prostaglandin E) have been used in specific conditions. Recently, therapeutic angiogenesis with autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been studied in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:22477511

  1. Soluble CD30 levels as a diagnostic marker for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following human lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Golocheikine, Anjali .S.; Saini, Deepti; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Trulock, Elbert P.; Patterson, Alexander; Mohanakumar, T.

    2007-01-01

    The long term survival of human lung allograft is hampered by the occurrence of chronic rejection, Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). This end-stage disease is normally diagnosed clinically by using the pulmonary function tests. This results in delay of BOS diagnosis and consequently prevents early intervention. It is generally accepted that alloimmunity plays an important role in chronic rejection of the allograft. In this study we analyzed serial serum samples from BOS+ and BOS− patients for sCD30 levels to determine the role of sCD30 to predict the onset of BOS. In contrast to BOS negative patients and normal subjects, 6 out of 9 BOS+ patients (P<0.05) studied had an increase in the sCD30 levels. Significantly, the rise was noted 7.57 ±2.63 months before the clinical diagnosis was evident. Therefore, we propose that the rise in serum sCD30 levels can be used as a marker for the detection of patients who are at risk of development of BOS. PMID:18047935

  2. Soluble CD30 levels as a diagnostic marker for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following human lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Golocheikine, Anjali S; Saini, Deepti; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Trulock, Elbert P; Patterson, Alexander; Mohanakumar, T

    2008-01-01

    The long term survival of human lung allograft is hampered by the occurrence of chronic rejection, Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). This end-stage disease is normally diagnosed clinically by using the pulmonary function tests. This results in delay of BOS diagnosis and consequently prevents early intervention. It is generally accepted that alloimmunity plays an important role in chronic rejection of the allograft. In this study we analyzed serial serum samples from BOS+ and BOS- patients for sCD30 levels to determine the role of sCD30 to predict the onset of BOS. In contrast to BOS negative patients and normal subjects, 6 out of 9 BOS+ patients (p<0.05) studied had an increase in the sCD30 levels. Significantly, the rise was noted 7.57+/-2.63 months before the clinical diagnosis was evident. Therefore, we propose that the rise in serum sCD30 levels can be used as a marker for the detection of patients who are at risk of development of BOS.

  3. Immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Andrés; Fernández, Félix G; Kuo, Elbert Y; Trulock, Elbert P; Patterson, G A; Mohanakumar, T

    2005-02-01

    Lung transplantation is recognized as the only viable treatment option in a variety of end-stage pulmonary diseases. However, the long-term survival after lung transplantation is limited by the development of obliterative bronchiolitis, and its clinical correlate bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is considered to represent chronic lung allograft rejection. Histopathologically, BOS is an inflammatory process that leads to fibrous scarring of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles and subsequent total occlusion of the airways. The specific etiology and pathogenesis of BOS are not well understood. The current premise is that BOS represents a common lesion in which different inflammatory insults such as ischemia-reperfusion, rejection, and infection can lead to a similar histological and clinical outcome. However, the low incidence of BOS in non-transplanted individuals and the observation that early development of BOS is predicted by the frequency and severity of acute rejection episodes indicate that alloimmune-dependent mechanisms play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of BOS. The evidence presented in this review indicates that BOS is the result of humoral and cellular immune responses developed against major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed by airway epithelial cells of the lung allograft. This process is aggravated by alloimmune-independent mechanisms such as ischemia-reperfusion and infection. Currently, treatment of BOS is frequently unsuccessful. Therefore, a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of BOS is of paramount importance toward improving long-term patient and graft survival after lung transplantation.

  4. Budesonide/Formoterol for bronchiolitis obliterans after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Anne; Chevret, Sylvie; Chagnon, Karine; Godet, Cendrine; Bergot, Emmanuel; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Dominique, Stéphane; de Revel, Thierry; Juvin, Karine; Maillard, Natacha; Reman, Oumedaly; Contentin, Nathalie; Robin, Marie; Buzyn, Agnès; Socié, Gérard; Tazi, Abdellatif

    2015-06-01

    Systemic steroids are the standard treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) despite their poor efficacy and disabling side effects. To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of budesonide/formoterol as an alternative treatment for BOS after HSCT. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 32 HSCT recipients with mild/severe BOS to receive budesonide/formoterol or placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was the change in the FEV1 after 1 month of treatment (M1) compared with the baseline value. Patients were unblinded at M1 if there was no improvement in the FEV1. Those who had initially received placebo were switched to budesonide/formoterol. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to assess the primary outcome. Additional analyses took scheduled treatment contamination into account. At M1, the median FEV1 increased by 260 ml in the budesonide/formoterol arm compared with 5 ml in the placebo arm (P = 0.012). The median increases in the FEV1 at M1 relative to the baseline value for the treated and placebo groups were 13 and 0%, respectively (P = 0.019). Twenty-five patients received budesonide/formoterol during the study. The median difference in the FEV1 between the baseline and after 1 month of treatment for these patients was +240 ml (P = 0.0001). The effect of budesonide/formoterol on the FEV1 was maintained in the 13 patients who completed 6 months of treatment. Budesonide/formoterol administration led to a significant improvement in the FEV1 in patients with mild/severe BOS after allogeneic HSCT. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00624754).

  5. Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

  6. FAM treatment for new onset bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kirsten M.; Cheng, Guang-Shing; Pusic, Iskra; Jagasia, Madan; Burns, Linda; Ho, Vincent T.; Pidala, Joseph; Palmer, Jeanne; Johnston, Laura; Mayer, Sebastian; Chien, Jason W.; Jacobsohn, David A.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Martin, Paul J.; Storer, Barry E.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Chai, Xiaoyu; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with high mortality. Purpose: We hypothesized that FAM (inhaled Fluticasone, Azithromycin, and Montelukast) with a brief steroid pulse could avert progression of new-onset BOS. Experimental design: We tested this in a phase II, single-arm, open label, multicenter study (NCT01307462). Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled within 6 months of BOS diagnosis. The primary endpoint was treatment failure, defined as 10% or greater FEV1% decline at 3 months. At 3 months, 6% (2/36, 95% CI 1%–19%) had treatment failure (vs. 40% in historical controls, p<0.001). FAM was well tolerated. Steroid dose was reduced by 50% or more at 3 months in 48% of patients who could be evaluated (n=27). Patient-reported outcomes at 3 months were statistically significantly improved for SF-36 social functioning score and mental component score, FACT emotional well-being, and Lee symptom scores in lung, skin, mouth, and the overall summary score compared to enrollment (n=24). At 6 months, 36% had treatment failure (95% CI 21%–54%, n=13/36, with 6 documented failures, 7 missing pulmonary function tests). Overall survival was 97% (95% CI 84%–100%) at 6 months. These data suggest that FAM was well tolerated and that treatment with FAM and steroid pulse may halt pulmonary decline in new-onset BOS in the majority of patients and permit reductions in systemic steroid exposure, which collectively may improve quality of life. However, additional treatments are needed for progressive BOS despite FAM. PMID:26475726

  7. NHANES III equations enhance early detection and mortality prediction of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic SCT

    PubMed Central

    Williams, KM; Hnatiuk, O; Mitchell, SA; Baird, K; Gadalla, SM; Steinberg, SM; Shelhamer, J; Carpenter, A; Avila, D; Taylor, T; Grkovic, L; Pulanic, D; Comis, LE; Blacklock-Schuver, B; Gress, RE; Pavletic, SZ

    2017-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a serious complication of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) following HSCT (hematopoietic SCT). The clinical diagnosis of BOS is based on pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities including: FEV1<75% predicted and obstructive FEV1/VC ratio, calculated using reference equations. We sought to determine if the frequency of clinical diagnoses and severity of BOS would be altered by using the recommended NHANES III vs older equations (Morris/Goldman/Bates, MGB) in 166 cGVHD patients, median age 48 (range: 12–67). We found that NHANES III equations significantly increased the prevalence of BOS, with an additional 11% (18/166) meeting diagnostic criteria by revealing low FEV1 (<75%) (P<0.0001), and six additional patients by obstructive ratio (vs MBG). Collectively, this led to an increase of BOS incidence from 17 (29/166) to 29% (41/166). For patients with severe BOS, (FEV1<35%), NHANES III equations correctly predicted death 71.4% vs 50% using MGB. In conclusion, the use of NHANES III equations markedly increases the proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for BOS and improves prediction of survival. PMID:24419526

  8. Clinical and radiologic distinctions between secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Tajender S; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Hirani, Amyn; Sharma, Dinesh; Weibel, Sandra B; Kane, Gregory C

    2009-08-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a distinct pattern of reaction of the lung to injury. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of injuries. The term cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is used for patients with idiopathic BOOP. In this study we describe clinical and radiologic features of patients with BOOP. The medical records of 33 patients with diagnosis of BOOP on surgical lung biopsy over a 10-year time period were reviewed retrospectively. We obtained data on clinical and radiologic manifestations, etiology, and outcome of these patients. Dyspnea was the most common symptom, followed by dry cough and fever. Crackles was the most common physical finding. Mean age at diagnosis of BOOP was 59 years, and 42% were females. The main radiologic manifestation was bilateral patchy consolidation. Most patients had favorable prognosis; however, 17% did not respond to treatment. Female sex was more common in COP than in secondary BOOP (P = .004). Patients with COP had longer symptom duration before the diagnosis than secondary BOOP (P = .01). Patients with secondary BOOP reported fever more frequently, compared to COP (P = .005). Pleural effusion was present in 60% of patients with secondary BOOP, whereas none of the patients with COP had effusion (P = .004). COP and secondary BOOP have diverse clinical and radiologic manifestations. Patients with secondary BOOP are more symptomatic. Both COP and secondary BOOP patients have good prognosis, and most respond to treatment with corticosteroids or by discontinuing the injurious drug.

  9. Parametric Response Mapping as an Indicator of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, Craig J.; Boes, Jennifer L.; Bule, Maria; Kitko, Carrie L; Couriel, Daniel R; Johnson, Timothy D.; Lama, Vihba; Telenga, Eef D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Ponkowski, Michael J.; Ross, Brian D.; Yanik, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) presents many challenges, both diagnostically and therapeutically. We have developed a computed tomography (CT) voxel-wise methodology termed Parametric Response Mapping (PRM) that quantifies normal parenchyma (PRMNormal), functional small airway disease (PRMfSAD), emphysema (PRMEmph) and parenchymal disease (PRMPD) as relative lung volumes. We now investigate the use of PRM as an imaging biomarker in the diagnosis of BOS. PRM was applied to CT data from four patient cohorts: acute infection (n=11), BOS at onset (n=34), BOS plus infection (n=9), and age-matched, non-transplant controls (n=23). Pulmonary function tests and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) were used for group classification. Mean values for PRMfSAD were significantly greater in patients with BOS (38±2%) when compared to those with infection alone (17±4%, p<0.0001) and age-matched controls (8.4±1%, p<0.0001). Patients with BOS had similar PRMfSAD profiles, whether a concurrent infection was present or not. An optimal cut-point for PRMfSAD of 28% of the total lung volume was identified, with values >28% highly indicative of BOS occurrence. PRM may provide a major advance in our ability to identify the small airway obstruction that characterizes BOS, even in the presence of concurrent infection. PMID:24954547

  10. World Trade Center dyspnea: bronchiolitis obliterans with functional improvement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jack M; Sha, Kenneth K; Kline, Gary; Breuer, Frank-Uwe; Miller, Albert

    2005-09-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans is a severe, often progressive, lung disease characterized by cough, exertional dyspnea, and airflow obstruction. It has been ascribed to specific causes such as lung or bone marrow transplant, medications for rheumatoid disease, and most recently in association with exposure to environmental agents. A 42-year-old, previously healthy New York City Highway Patrol officer who arrived at the World Trade Center (WTC), "ground zero," early on September 11, 2001 was evaluated. He has been followed for over 2 years with serial chest radiographs, CT scans, and pulmonary function studies. He eventually underwent an open lung biopsy. His dyspnea started on September 12, 2001 and progressed despite aggressive therapy with inhaled bronchodilator as well as oral and inhaled corticosteroids. At no time did he have any radiographic evidence of pulmonary disease. His forced vital capacity (FVC) decreased from 5.32 L in October 2001 to 2.86 L in January 2003. He underwent an open lung biopsy because of the persistent exertional dyspnea coupled with the loss of over 2 L of lung volume. The pathological findings were chronic bronchiolitis with focal obliterative bronchiolitis and rare non-necrotizing granuloma. Symptoms and pulmonary function improved after therapy with Azithromycin was added to his treatment. This process is believed to be secondary to his massive exposure to the cloud of dust that followed the collapse of the WTC. It is our conviction that many of those present at the WTC on September 11 who have persistent dyspnea and deterioration of pulmonary function may have a similar pathologic process despite absence of abnormalities on CT of the chest. In view of the many signs and symptoms seen in first responders we feel that these findings provide important information about the pathophysiology and treatment of progressive disease resulting from this exposure.

  11. An abrupt onset of seropositive polyarthritis with prominent distal tenosynovitis concomitant with bronochiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP): consideration of the relationship with RS3PE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Sawa, Naoki; Tagami, Tetsuo; Katori, Hideyuki; Takemoto, Fumi; Hara, Shigeko; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2004-02-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman with a two-week history of polyarthralgia and persistent cough was diagnosed as seropositive polyarthritis and fulfilled the criteria of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, inflammatory pitting edema of the distal extremities was apparent, suggestive of the remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. A number of investigations including hand MRI, bone scintigraphy and HLA typing supported a diagnosis of RS3PE syndrome rather than RA. Chest computed tomography revealed concomitant evidence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Treatment with 30 mg of prednisolone daily immediately ameliorated the polyarthritis and the BOOP. Seropositive polyarthritis with distal pitting edema may be categorized as both RA and the RS3PE syndrome.

  12. Time to explore preventive and novel therapies for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka M; Srivastava, Shivani; Jagasia, Madan; Savani, Bipin N

    2012-10-01

    Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) is performed to treat otherwise incurable and fatal diseases, transplantation itself can lead to life-threatening complications due to organ damage. Pulmonary complications remain a significant barrier to the success of allo-HSCT. Lung injury, a frequent complication after allo-HSCT, and noninfectious pulmonary deaths account for a significant proportion of non-relapse mortality. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a common and potentially devastating complication. BOS is now considered a diagnostic criterion of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), and National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus has been published to establish guidelines for diagnosis and monitoring of BOS. It usually occurs within the first 2 years but may develop as late as 5 years after transplantation. Recent prevalence estimates suggest that BOS is likely underdiagnosed, and when severe BOS does occur, current treatments have been largely ineffective. Prevention and effective novel approaches remain the primary tools in the clinician's arsenal in managing BOS. This article provides an overview of the currently available and novel strategies for BOS, and we also discuss specific preventive interventions to reduce severe BOS after allo-HSCT. Therapeutic trials continue to be needed for this orphan disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The role of TGF-β in the association between primary graft dysfunction and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

    PubMed Central

    DerHovanessian, Ariss; Weigt, S. Samuel; Palchevskiy, Vyacheslav; Shino, Michael Y.; Sayah, David M.; Gregson, Aric L.; Noble, Paul W.; Palmer, Scott M.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Kubak, Bernard M.; Ardehali, Abbas; Ross, David J.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Belperio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a possible risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) following lung transplantation; however, the mechanism for any such association is poorly understood. Based on TGF-β's association with acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, we hypothesized that it may play a role in the continuum between PGD and BOS. Thus, the association between PGD and BOS was assessed in a single-center cohort of lung transplant recipients. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of TGF-β and procollagen collected within 24 hours of transplantation were compared across the spectrum of PGD, and incorporated into Cox models of BOS. Immunohistochemistry localized expression of TGF-β and its receptor in early lung biopsies post-transplant. We found an association between PGD and BOS in both bilateral and single lung recipients with a hazard ratio of 3.07 (95% CI 1.76-5.38) for the most severe form of PGD. TGF-β and procollagen concentrations were elevated during PGD (p<0.01), and associated with increased rates of BOS. Expression of TGF-β and its receptor localized to allograft infiltrating mononuclear and stromal cells, and the airway epithelium. These findings validate the association between PGD and the subsequent development of BOS, and suggest that this association may be mediated by receptor/TGF-β biology. PMID:26461171

  14. Reestablishment of recipient-associated microbiota in the lung allograft is linked to reduced risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willner, Dana L; Hugenholtz, Philip; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Tan, Maxine E; Daly, Joshua N; Lachner, Nancy; Hopkins, Peter M; Chambers, Daniel C

    2013-03-15

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the primary limiting factor for long-term survival after lung transplantation, and has previously been associated with microbial infections. To cross-sectionally and longitudinally characterize microbial communities in allografts from transplant recipients with and without BOS using a culture-independent method based on high-throughput sequencing. Allografts were sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage, and microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Community profiles were compared using the weighted Unifrac metric and the relationship between microbial populations, BOS, and other covariates was explored using PERMANOVA and logistic regression. Microbial communities in transplant patients fell into two main groups: those dominated by Pseudomonas or those dominated by Streptococcus and Veillonella, which seem to be mutually exclusive lung microbiomes. Aspergillus culture was also negatively correlated with the Pseudomonas-dominated group. The reestablishment of dominant populations present in patients pretransplant, notably Pseudomonas in individuals with cystic fibrosis, was negatively correlated with BOS. Recolonization of the allograft by Pseudomonas in individuals with cystic fibrosis is not associated with BOS. In general, reestablishment of pretransplant lung populations in the allograft seems to have a protective effect against BOS, whereas de novo acquisition of microbial populations often belonging to the same genera may increase the risk of BOS.

  15. The value of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans--a case series.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Gerald; Milosavljevic, Robert; Belaj, Klara; Gary, Thomas; Rief, Peter; Hafner, Franz; Lipp, Rainer W; Brodmann, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting dominantly the vessels of the extremities and is etiologically strongly associated with tobacco consumption. Different imaging techniques are generally used to exclude potential differential diagnoses. We investigated the value of (18) F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18) F]FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of TAO. All consecutive patients with diagnosed TAO between Nov 2001 and Nov 2003 at our institution who underwent [(18) F]FDG-PET in the diagnostic workup were analyzed retrospectively. Whole-body scans were conducted after a fasting period of at least 6 h and blood glucose levels lower than 180 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was defined as significantly increased vascular FDG uptake. Tracer uptake was visually determined and, in accordance with strength, divided into grades 0 to 3. In total, ten patients were statistically evaluated. The median patient age at the date of the first [(18) F]FDG-PET was 41.5 years. Repetitive FDG-PET imaging was performed in seven out of ten patients (70 %). The endpoint was objectified in one of the initial examinations (10 %) and in another one out of seven follow-up scans (14.3 %). One positive [(18) F]FDG-PET was observed in the pelvic vessels and the other in the infrapopliteal arteries. Therefore, increased tracer uptake could be observed in two examinations on two different patients (both with grade 3 tracer uptake) out of 17 conducted [(18) F]FDG-PETs in total. The [(18) F]FDG-PET was not a suitable investigative procedure for the diagnosis of TAO in the present patient cohort.

  16. Colonization with Small Conidia Aspergillus Species is associated with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: A Two-Center Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, S. Sam; Copeland, C. Ashley Finlen; Derhovanessian, Ariss; Shino, Michael Y.; Davis, W. Austin; Snyder, Laurie D.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Ross, David J.; Ardehali, Abbas; Elashoff, Robert M.; Palmer, Scott M.; Belperio, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus colonization after lung transplantation may increase the risk for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease of small airways. We hypothesized that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species would be associated with a greater risk of BOS, based upon an increased likelihood of deposition in small airways. We studied adult primary lung recipients from two large centers; 298 recipients at University of California, Los Angeles and 482 recipients at Duke University Medical Center. We grouped Aspergillus species by conidia diameter ≤3.5μm. We assessed the relationship of colonization with outcomes in Cox models. Pre-BOS colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species, but not large, was a risk factor for BOS (P = 0.002, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14–1.82), along with acute rejection, single lung, and Pseudomonas. Colonization with small conidia species also associated with risk of death (P = 0.03, HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03–1.64). Although other virulence traits besides conidia size may be important, we have demonstrated in two large independent cohorts that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species increases the risk of BOS and death. Prospective evaluation of strategies to prevent Aspergillus colonization of small airways is warranted, with the goal of preserving lung allograft function as long as possible. PMID:23398785

  17. Double lung, unlike single lung transplantation might provide a protective effect on mortality and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Mohammed; Broberg, Ellen; Algotsson, Lars; Hansson, Lennart; Koul, Bansi; Gustafsson, Ronny; Wierup, Per; Ingemansson, Richard; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2017-11-25

    Survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is often limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Survey of 278 recipients who underwent LTx. The endpoint used was BOS (BOS grade ≥ 2), death or Re-lung transplantation (Re-LTx) assessed by competing risk regression analyses. The incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 among double LTx (DLTx) recipients was 16 ± 3% at 5 years, 30 ± 4% at 10 years, and 37 ± 5% at 20 years, compared to single LTx (SLTx) recipients whose corresponding incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 was 11 ± 3%, 20 ± 4%, and 24 ± 5% at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively (p > 0. 05). The incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 by major indications ranked in descending order: other, PF, CF, COPD, PH and AAT1 (p < 0. 05). The mortality rate by major indication ranked in descending order: COPD, PH, AAT1, PF, Other and CF (p < 0. 05). No differences were seen in the incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 regarding type of transplant, however, DLTx recipients showed a better chance of survival despite developing BOS compared to SLTx recipients. The highest incidence of BOS was seen among CF, PF, COPD, PH, and AAT1 recipients in descending order, however, CF and PF recipients showed a better chance of survival despite developing BOS compared to COPD, PH, and AAT1 recipients.

  18. Lung injury pathways: Adenosine receptor 2B signaling limits development of ischemic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Densmore, John C; Schaid, Terry R; Jeziorczak, Paul M; Medhora, Meetha; Audi, Said; Nayak, Shraddha; Auchampach, John; Dwinell, Melinda R; Geurts, Aron M; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/Aim of the Study: Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strains containing a mutation in the A 2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC. A 2A (A 2A AR) and A 2B adenosine receptor (A 2B AR) mRNA and protein were quantified. Twenty-four hours after unilateral PA ligation, BAL adenosine concentrations from ischemic lungs were increased relative to contralateral lungs in SD rats. A 2B AR mRNA and protein concentrations were increased after PA ligation while miR27a, a negatively regulating microRNA, was decreased in ischemic lungs. A 2A AR mRNA and protein concentrations remained unchanged following ischemia. A 2B AR protein was increased in PA ligated lungs of SS rats after 7 days, and 4 h after complete hilar ligation in SD rats. SS-Adora2b mutants showed a greater extent of BOOP relative to SS rats, and greater inflammatory changes. Increased A 2B AR and adenosine following unilateral lung ischemia as well as more BOOP in A 2B AR mutant rats implicate a protective role for A 2B AR signaling in countering ischemic lung injury.

  19. Lung Injury Pathways: Adenosine Receptor 2B Signaling Limits Development of Ischemic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Densmore, John C.; Schaid, Terry R.; Jeziorczak, Paul M.; Medhora, Meetha; Audi, Said; Nayak, Shraddha; Auchampach, John; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Geurts, Aron M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. Materials and Methods Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strain containing a mutation in the A2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC. A2A (A2AAR) and A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) mRNA and protein were quantified. Results 24h after unilateral PA ligation, BAL adenosine concentrations from ischemic lungs were increased relative to contralateral lungs in SD rats. A2BAR mRNA and protein concentrations were increased after PA ligation while miR27a, a negatively regulating microRNA, was decreased in ischemic lungs. A2AAR mRNA and protein concentrations remained unchanged following ischemia. A2BAR protein was increased in PA ligated lungs of SS rats after 7d, and 4h after complete hilar ligation in SD rats. SS-Adora2b mutants showed a greater extent of BOOP relative to SS rats, and greater inflammatory changes. Conclusions Increased A2BAR and adenosine following unilateral lung ischemia as well as more BOOP in A2BAR mutant rats implicate a protective role for A2BAR signaling in countering ischemic lung injury. PMID:28266889

  20. Therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and N-acetylcysteine for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei Won; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee Je; Lee, Jong Wook

    2016-05-26

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently treated with systemic corticosteroids despite poor efficacy and side effects. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine, which are suggested as treatment options for BOS after HSCT. After diagnosis of BOS, 61 patients were treated with budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine for 3 months. Pulmonary function test and COPD assessment test (CAT) were performed before and after the combination therapy. Therapeutic response was evaluated by changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) or CAT score. After 3 months of combination treatment, mean FEV1 increased by 220 mL (p < 0.001) and residual volume decreased by 200 mL (p =0 .005). Median CAT score also significantly decreased from 15.5 to 11.0 (p = 0.001). The overall response rate to combination therapy was 82 %. Comparing the no-response group and the response group, the forced vital capacity (% predicted) decline between pre-HSCT and BOS diagnosis was significantly greater in the response group (p = 0.036). Combination treatment with budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine significantly improved lung function and respiratory symptoms in patients with BOS after allogeneic HSCT without serious side effects.

  1. Analysis of Factors Associated With Radiation-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia Syndrome After Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Norihisa; Sato, Shuhei; Katsui, Kuniaki

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) syndrome after breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 702 women with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery at seven institutions between July 1995 and December 2006 were analyzed. In all patients, the whole breast was irradiated with two tangential photon beams. The criteria used for the diagnosis of radiation-induced BOOP syndrome were as follows: (1) radiotherapy to the breast within 12 months, (2) general and/or respiratory symptoms lasting for {>=}2 weeks, (3) radiographs showing lung infiltration outside the radiation port, and (4) no evidencemore » of a specific cause. Results: Radiation-induced BOOP syndrome was seen in 16 patients (2.3%). Eleven patients (68.8%) were administered steroids. The duration of steroid administration ranged from 1 week to 3.7 years (median, 1.1 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ({>=}50 years; odds ratio [OR] 8.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-67.76; p = 0.04) and concurrent endocrine therapy (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.09-8.54; p = 0.03) were significantly associated with BOOP syndrome. Of the 161 patients whose age was {>=}50 years and who received concurrent endocrine therapy, 10 (6.2%) developed BOOP syndrome. Conclusions: Age ({>=}50 years) and concurrent endocrine therapy can promote the development of radiation-induced BOOP syndrome after breast-conserving therapy. Physicians should carefully follow patients who received breast-conserving therapy, especially those who are older than 50 years and received concurrent endocrine therapy during radiotherapy.« less

  2. Increased T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells are required for cGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan; Du, Jing; Veenstra, Rachelle G.; Reichenbach, Dawn K.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taylor, Patricia A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Murphy, William J.; Munn, David H.; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Luznik, Leo; Maillard, Ivan; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome; Dubovsky, Jason A.; Byrd, John C.; MacDonald, Kelli P.; Hill, Geoff R.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Having shown that germinal center (GC) formation and immunoglobulin deposition are required for multiorgan system cGVHD and associated bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in a murine model, we hypothesized that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are necessary for cGVHD by supporting GC formation and maintenance. We show that increased frequency of Tfh cells correlated with increased GC B cells, cGVHD, and BOS. Although administering a highly depletionary anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mice with established cGVHD resulted in peripheral B-cell depletion, B cells remained in the lung, and BOS was not reversed. BOS could be treated by eliminating production of interleukin-21 (IL-21) by donor T cells or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling of donor B cells. Development of BOS was dependent upon T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to facilitate T-cell trafficking to secondary lymphoid organ follicles. Blocking mAbs for IL-21/IL-21R, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS ligand, and CD40L/CD40 hindered GC formation and cGVHD. These data provide novel insights into cGVHD pathogenesis, indicate a role for Tfh cells in these processes, and suggest a new line of therapy using mAbs targeting Tfh cells to reverse cGVHD. PMID:24820310

  3. The Lymphatic Phenotype of Lung Allografts in Patients With Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Restrictive Allograft Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Denise; Schweiger, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan; Schuster, Magdalena Maria; Jaksch, Peter; Lang, Gyoergy; Birner, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Hoetzenecker, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), presenting as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) or restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) is the major limiting factor of long-term survival in lung transplantation. Its pathogenesis is still obscure. In BOS, persistent alloimmune injury and chronic airway inflammation are suggested. One of the main tasks of the lymphatic vessel (LV) system is the promotion of immune cell trafficking. The formation of new LVs has been shown to trigger chronic allograft rejection in kidney transplants. We therefore sought to address the role of lymphangiogenesis in CLAD. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 22 patients receiving a lung retransplantation due to BOS or RAS were collected. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was determined by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin. Lung tissue obtained from 13 non-CLAD patients served as control. The impact of LVD on graft survival was assessed. Lymphatic vessel density in CLAD patients did not differ from those in control subjects (median number of LVs per bronchiole: 4.75 (BOS), 6.47 (RAS), 4.25 (control), P = 0.97). Moreover, the number of LVs was not associated with regions of cellular infiltrates (median number of LVs per bronchiole: with infiltrates, 5.00 (BOS), 9.00 (RAS), 4.00 (control), P = 0.62; without infiltrates, 4.5 (BOS), 0.00 (RAS), 4.56 (control), P = 0.74). Lymphatic vessel density did not impact the time to development of BOS or RAS in lung transplantation (low vs high LVD: 38.5 vs 86.0 months, P = 0.15 [BOS]; 60.5 vs 69.5 months, P = 0.80 [RAS]). Unlike chronic organ failure in kidney transplantation, lymphangiogenesis is not altered in CLAD patients. Our findings highlight unique immunological processes leading to BOS and RAS.

  4. Loss of basal cells precedes bronchiolitis obliterans-like pathological changes in a murine model of chlorine gas inhalation.

    PubMed

    O'Koren, Emily G; Hogan, Brigid L M; Gunn, Michael Dee

    2013-11-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a major cause of chronic airway dysfunction after toxic chemical inhalation. The pathophysiology of BO is not well understood, but epithelial cell injury has been closely associated with the development of fibrotic lesions in human studies and in animal models of both toxin-induced and transplant-induced BO. However, whereas almost all cases and models of BO include epithelial injury, not all instances of epithelial injury result in BO, suggesting that epithelial damage per se is not the critical event leading to the development of BO. Here, we describe a model of chlorine-induced BO in which mice develop tracheal and large airway obliterative lesions within 10 days of exposure to high (350 parts per million [ppm]), but not low (200 ppm), concentrations of chlorine gas. Importantly, these lesions arise only under conditions and in areas in which basal cells, the resident progenitor cells for large airway epithelium, are eliminated by chlorine exposure. In areas of basal cell loss, epithelial regeneration does not occur, resulting in persistent regions of epithelial denudation. Obliterative airway lesions arise specifically from regions of epithelial denudation in a process that includes inflammatory cell infiltration by Day 2 after exposure, fibroblast infiltration and collagen deposition by Day 5, and the ingrowth of blood vessels by Day 7, ultimately leading to lethal airway obstruction by Days 9-12. We conclude that the loss of epithelial progenitor cells constitutes a critical factor leading to the development of obliterative airway lesions after chemical inhalation.

  5. Differences of airway dimensions between patients with and without bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation-Computer-assisted quantification of computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Felix; Weinheimer, Oliver; Zwiener, Isabella; Mayer, Eckhard; Buhl, Roland; Fahlenkamp, Ute Lina; Dueber, Christoph; Achenbach, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to determine whether a dedicated software for assessment of airway morphology can detect differences in airway dimensions between patients with and without bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), regarded as the clinical correlate of chronic lung allograft rejection. 12 patients with and 14 patients without diagnosis of BOS were enrolled in the study. Evaluation of bronchial wall area percentage (WA%) and bronchial wall thickness (WT) in all follow-up CT scans was performed using a semiautomatic airway assessment tool. We assessed temporal changes (ΔWA%, ΔWT) and compared these morphological parameters with forced expiratory volume in one second (ΔFEV1). In patients with and without BOS, the temporal changes over the entire follow-up were 26.6% versus 16.2% for ΔFEV1 (p=0.034), 14.2% versus 5.4% for ΔWA% (p=0.003) and 0.212mm versus 0.064mm for ΔWT (p=0.011). We detected significant differences of the temporal changes of airway dimensions (ΔWA%, ΔWT) between lung transplant recipients with and without BOS. We conclude that computer-assisted bronchial wall measurements in CT scans might complement the information from pulmonary function tests and establish as a non-invasive method to confirm BOS in lung transplant recipients in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Machine Learning Algorithms Utilizing Quantitative CT Features May Predict Eventual Onset of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo J Mortani; Lanclus, Maarten; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; De Backer, William; De Backer, Jan; Lee, James

    2018-02-19

    Long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as a sustained decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) not explained by other causes. We assessed whether machine learning (ML) utilizing quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics can predict eventual development of BOS. Paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans of 71 patients who underwent LTx were analyzed retrospectively (BOS [n = 41] versus non-BOS [n = 30]), using at least two different time points. The BOS cohort experienced a reduction in FEV 1 of >10% compared to baseline FEV 1 post LTx. Multifactor analysis correlated declining FEV 1 with qCT features linked to acute inflammation or BOS onset. Student t test and ML were applied on baseline qCT features to identify lung transplant patients at baseline that eventually developed BOS. The FEV 1 decline in the BOS cohort correlated with an increase in the lung volume (P = .027) and in the central airway volume at functional residual capacity (P = .018), not observed in non-BOS patients, whereas the non-BOS cohort experienced a decrease in the central airway volume at total lung capacity with declining FEV 1 (P = .039). Twenty-three baseline qCT parameters could significantly distinguish between non-BOS patients and eventual BOS developers (P < .05), whereas no pulmonary function testing parameters could. Using ML methods (support vector machine), we could identify BOS developers at baseline with an accuracy of 85%, using only three qCT parameters. ML utilizing qCT could discern distinct mechanisms driving FEV 1 decline in BOS and non-BOS LTx patients and predict eventual onset of BOS. This approach may become useful to optimize management of LTx patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor enhances the inflammation-alleviating effect of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in a bronchiolitis obliterans model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Pei; Han, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Li; Guo, Zi-Kuan; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Heng-Xiang; Wang, Hua

    2016-03-01

    Specific and effective therapy for prevention or reversal of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene modified mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on BO. A mouse model of experimental BO was established by subcutaneously transplanting the tracheas from C57BL/6 mice into Balb/C recipients, which were then administered saline, Ad-HGF-modified human umbilical cord-MSCs (MSCs-HGF) or Ad-Null-modified MSCs (MSCs-Null). The therapeutic effects of MSCs-Null and MSCs-HGF were evaluated by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for lymphocyte immunophenotype of spleen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for cytokine expression, and histopathological analysis for the transplanted trachea. The histopathologic recovery of allograft tracheas was improved significantly after MSCs-Null and MSCs-HGF treatment and the beneficial effects were particularly observed in MSCs-HGF-treated mice. Furthermore, the allo-transplantation-induced immunophenotype disorders of the spleen, including regulatory T (Treg), T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17, were attenuated in both cell-treated groups. MSCs-HGF treatment reduced expression and secretion of inflammation cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. It also decreased the expression level of the profibrosis factor transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Treatment of BO with HGF gene modified MSCs results in reduction of local inflammation and promotion in recovery of allograft trachea histopathology. These findings might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for BO. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells and patients at risk for NIH-defined chronic graft-versus-host disease with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Zoya; Krenn, Katharina; Petkov, Ventzislav; Körmöczi, Ulrike; Weigl, Roman; Rottal, Arno; Kalhs, Peter; Mitterbauer, Margit; Ponhold, Lothar; Dekan, Gerhard; Greinix, Hildegard T; Pickl, Winfried F

    2013-03-07

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), pathognomonic for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) of the lung, is a progressive and often fatal complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of BOS are urgently needed to improve patients' prognosis. We prospectively evaluated B-cell subpopulations and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in 136 patients (46 BOS, 41 no cGVHD, 49 cutaneous cGVHD) to define novel biomarkers for early diagnosis of National Institutes of Health-defined BOS diagnosed a median of 11 mo after HCT. Patients with newly diagnosed BOS had significantly higher percentages of CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (25.5 versus 6.6%, P < .0001), BAFF (7.3 versus 3.5 ng/mL, P = .02), and BAFF/CD19(+) ratio (0.18 versus 0.02 ng/10(3) CD19(+) B cells, P 5 .007) compared with patients without cGVHD. The area under the receiver operating curve for CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.99) and a cutoff point >9% was optimal for diagnosing BOS in patients with first drop of pulmonary function tests with a sensitivity of 96% and a negative predictive value of 94%. Thus, elevated levels of CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells are a potential novel biomarker for HCT patients at risk for developing BOS at an early stage and could allow improvement of patient outcome.

  9. Increased plasma olfactomedin 2 after interventional therapy is a predictor for restenosis in lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Gui, Hua; Yuan, Guohong; Zheng, Xiaomei; Gao, Changkuan; Yuan, Hai

    2018-03-19

    Animal studies have indicated that olfactomedin 2 (OLFM2) is involved in the process of vascular remolding. The aim of the present study was to investigate circulating OLFM2 levels in lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans (LEASO) patients and the association of OLFM2 with postoperative restenosis in patients. A total of 203 LEASO patients were enrolled in the present study. Plasma OLFM2 was measured before and 6 h after interventional therapy. After 6 months, patients were divided into a restenosis group and a non-restenosis group. Inter-group and intra-group differences in plasma OLFM2 were compared. The correlation between plasma OLFM2 and the severity of restenosis was analyzed by Spearman's correlation analysis. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive efficacy of plasma OLFM2 on restenosis. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for restenosis. Postoperative OLFM2 in the restenosis group was significantly higher compared with the non-restenosis group (34.07 ± 5.76 ng/mL vs. 19.53 ± 2.99 ng/mL). No significant difference in preoperative plasma OLFM2 levels was identified between the two groups (10.92 ± 2.49 ng/mL vs. 11.54 ± 3.18 ng/mL). Postoperative OLFM2 levels were positively correlated with the severity of restenosis (r = 0.728, p < .001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.902 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.874-0.965), with a cutoff value of 26.91 ng/mL (95% CI: 26.16-28.32). Plasma OLFM2 was an independent risk factor for restenosis. Our results suggest that plasma OLFM2 is a potential biomarker for restenosis and may be a novel target for the treatment of restenosis.

  10. Apport maternel chez la balane tropicale : Plasticite de l'allocation de la ressource trophique pour la production larvaire en conditions de limitation nutritionnelle et de stress environnemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freuchet, Florian

    Dans le milieu marin, l'abondance du recrutement depend des processus qui vont affecter les adultes et le stock de larves. Sous l'influence de signaux fiables de la qualite de l'habitat, la mere peut augmenter (effet maternel anticipatoire, 'anticipatory mother effects', AME) ou reduire (effet maternel egoiste, 'selfish maternai effects', SME) la condition physiologique de la progeniture. Dans les zones tropicales, generalement plus oligotrophes, la ressource nutritive et la temperature sont deux composantes importantes pouvant limiter le recrutement. Les effets de l'apport nutritionnel et du stress thermique sur la production de larves et sur la stategie maternelle adoptee ont ete testes dans cette etude. Nous avons cible la balane Chthamalus bisinuatus (Pilsbry) comme modele biologique car el1e domine les zones intertidales superieures le long des cotes rocheuses du Sud-Est du Bresil (region tropicale). Les hypotheses de depart stipulaient que l'apport nutritionnel permet aux adultes de produire des larves de qualite elevee et que le stress thermique genere une ponte precoce, produisant des larves de faible qualite. Afin de tester ces hypotheses, des populations de C. bisinuatus ont ete elevees selon quatre groupes experimentaux differents, en combinant des niveaux d'apport nutritionnel (eleve et faible) et de stress thermique (stresse et non stresse). Des mesures de survie et de conditions physiologiques des adultes et des larves ont permis d'identifier les reponses parentales pouvant etre avantageuses dans un environnement tropical hostile. L'analyse des profils en acides gras a ete la methode utilisee pour evaluer la qualite physiologique des adultes et de larves. Les resultats du traitement alimentaire (fort ou faible apport nutritif), ne montrent aucune difference dans l'accumulation de lipides neutres, la taille des nauplii, l'effort de reproduction ou le temps de survie des nauplii en condition de jeune. Il semble que la faible ressource nutritive est

  11. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after single-lung transplantation: impact of time to onset on functional pattern and survival.

    PubMed

    Brugière, Olivier; Pessione, Fabienne; Thabut, Gabriel; Mal, Hervé; Jebrak, Gilles; Lesèche, Guy; Fournier, Michel

    2002-06-01

    Among risk factors for the progression of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LT), the influence of time to BOS onset is not known. The aim of the study was to assess if BOS occurring earlier after LT is associated with worse functional prognosis and worse graft survival. We retrospectively compared functional outcome and survival of all single-LT (SLT) recipients who had BOS develop during follow-up in our center according to time to onset of BOS (< 3 years or > or = 3 years after transplantation). Among the 29 SLT recipients with BOS identified during the study period, 20 patients had early-onset BOS and 9 patients had late-onset BOS. The mean decline of FEV(1) over time during the first 9 months in patients with early-onset BOS was significantly greater than in patients with of late-onset BOS (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, patients with early-onset BOS had a lower mean FEV(1) value (25% vs 39% of predicted, p = 0.004), a lower mean PaO(2) value (54 mm Hg vs 73 mm Hg, p = 0.0005), a lower 6-min walk test distance (241 m vs 414 m, p = 0.001), a higher Medical Research Council index value (3.6 vs 1.6, p = 0.0001), and a higher percentage of oxygen dependency (90% vs 11%, p = 0.001) compared with patients with late-onset BOS. In addition, graft survival of patients with early-onset BOS was significantly lower than that of patients with late-onset BOS (log-rank test, p = 0.04). There were 18 of 20 graft failures (90%) in the early-onset BOS group, directly attributable to BOS in all cases (deaths [n = 10] or retransplantation [n = 8]). In the late-onset BOS group, graft failure occurred in four of nine patients due to death from extrapulmonary causes in three of four cases. The median duration of follow-up after occurrence of BOS was not statistically different between patients with early-onset BOS and patients with late-onset BOS (31 +/- 28 months and 37 +/- 26 months, respectively; p = not significant). The subgroup of patients who

  12. Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... mix it into foods, such as butter-flavored popcorn. In addition to diacetyl, here are other common ... to add flavorings to electronic cigarettes, some microwave popcorns and other foods and liquids. Inhaling diacetyl, especially ...

  13. Thromboangiitis obliterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... or feet: Ultrasound of the extremity, called plethysmography Doppler ultrasound of the extremity Blood tests for other ... chap 79. Stone JH. The systemic vasculitudes. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ...

  14. Um Breve Balanço dos Estudos em Astronomia e Educação no Brasil no Período de 2010 a 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Erica de Oliveira; Kern, C.

    2014-10-01

    No Brasil, as pesquisas em ensino de astronomia para a Educação Básica vem ganhando destaque. Posto como importante área do conhecimento para estudantes e professores, os estudos em astronomia conquistam espaços nos documentos oficiais da educação e nos currículos escolares. Diante desse cenário, fez-se, neste trabalho, um mapeamento no banco de dados da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações , com base nas palavras-chave "astronomia" e "educação" no período de 2010 a 2013. Para compor o que aqui denominamos de balanço da área de estudo, foram selecionados trabalhos e analisados os títulos, os resumos, as considerações finais e as referências, bem como identificamos as fontes epistemológicas correntes nas pesquisas de pós-graduação no período supracitado. Identificou-se, na maior parte dos trabalhos pesquisados, referenciais teóricos relacionados & agrave; área de física, ciências e astronomia que envolvem discussões sobre currículo e práticas pedagógicas vinculados ao ensino de astronomia no ensino fundamental e médio da Educação Bãsica e nos cursos de formação de professores.

  15. High circulating CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ T-cell sub-population early after lung transplantation is associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Durand, Maxim; Lacoste, Philippe; Danger, Richard; Jacquemont, Lola; Brosseau, Carole; Durand, Eugénie; Tilly, Gaelle; Loy, Jennifer; Foureau, Aurore; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Tissot, Adrien; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean François; Guillemain, Romain; Claustre, Johanna; Degauque, Nicolas; Magnan, Antoine; Brouard, Sophie

    2018-06-01

    Chronic bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains a major limitation for long-term survival after lung transplantation. The immune mechanisms involved and predictive biomarkers have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peripheral blood T-lymphocyte profile could predict BOS in lung transplant recipients. An in-depth profiling of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was prospectively performed on blood cells from stable (STA) and BOS patients with a longitudinal follow-up. Samples were analyzed at 1 and 6 months after transplantation, at the time of BOS diagnosis, and at an intermediate time-point at 6 to 12 months before BOS diagnosis. Although no significant difference was found for T-cell compartments at BOS diagnosis or several months beforehand, we identified an increase in the CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell sub-population in BOS patients at 1 and 6 months after transplantation (3.39 ± 0.40% vs 1.67 ± 0.22% in STA, p < 0.001). A CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T-cell threshold of 2.4% discriminated BOS and stable patients at 1 month post-transplantation. This was validated on a second set of patients at 6 months post-transplantation. Patients with a proportion of CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells up to 2.4% in the 6 months after transplantation had a 2-fold higher risk of developing BOS. This study is the first to report an increased proportion of circulating CD4 + CD25 hi FoxP3 + T cells early post-transplantation in lung recipients who proceed to develop BOS within 3 years, which supports its use as a BOS predictive biomarker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans

    PubMed

    2018-06-01

    La bronquiolitis obliterante es una enfermedad pulmonar crónica infrecuente y grave producto de una lesión del tracto respiratorio inferior. En nuestro país, es más frecuente observarla secundaria a una lesión viral grave, en especial, por adenovirus. La bronquiolitis obliterante se caracteriza por la oclusión parcial o total del lumen de los bronquiolos respiratorios y terminales por tejido inflamatorio y fibrosis, que produce la obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Este consenso discute el estado actual del conocimiento en las diferentes áreas de la bronquiolitis obliterante secundaria a una lesión infecciosa.

  17. Development of ELISA-detected anti-HLA antibodies precedes the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and correlates with progressive decline in pulmonary function after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, A; Smith, M A; Phelan, D; Sundaresan, S; Trulock, E P; Lynch, J P; Cooper, J D; Patterson, G A; Mohanakumar, T

    1999-04-27

    Development of anti-HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LT) is thought to play an important role in the etiology of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). However, a cause-effect relationship between anti-HLA antibodies and BOS has not been established. This study was conducted to determine the temporal relationship between the development of anti-HLA antibodies and BOS after LT, and to determine the antigenic specificity of the antibodies developed in BOS patients. Sera from 15 BOS+ LT patients and 12 BOS- LT patients were obtained before LT and collected again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after LT. Anti-HLA antibodies were detected by the PRA-STAT ELISA system and by complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays. Anti-HLA reactivity was further characterized by flow cytometry and absorption/elution with human platelets. When analyzed by ELISA, 10 of 15 BOS+ patients developed anti-HLA antibodies, whereas 0 of 12 BOS- patients developed anti-HLA antibodies (P<0.001). When analyzed by complement-dependent cytotoxicity, only 2 of 15 BOS+ patients developed anti-HLA antibodies and 1 of 12 BOS- patients developed anti-HLA antibodies (P = 0.99). There was a significant difference of 20.1 months between the time of anti-HLA antibody detection and the time of BOS diagnosis (P = 0.005). A progressive decrease in pulmonary function correlated with a progressive increase in the anti-HLA reactivity 36 months after LT. The anti-HLA reactivity was directed to one of the donor HLA class I antigens and to other unrelated HLA class I antigens. No anti-HLA reactivity was found against HLA class II molecules. Our study indicates that anti-HLA class I antibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of BOS and that monitoring of anti-HLA class I antibody development by a highly sensitive assay such as the PRA-STAT ELISA after LT can provide an early identification of an important subset of LT patients with an increased risk of developing BOS.

  18. Penile Inflammatory Skin Disorders and the Preventive Role of Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Krieger, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Penile inflammatory skin conditions such as balanitis and posthitis are common, especially in uncircumcised males, and feature prominently in medical consultations. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cohrane databases using keywords “balanitis,” “posthitis,” “balanoposthitis,” “lichen sclerosus,” “penile inflammation,” and “inflammation penis,” along with “circumcision,” “circumcised,” and “uncircumcised.” Balanitis is the most common inflammatory disease of the penis. The accumulation of yeasts and other microorganisms under the foreskin contributes to inflammation of the surrounding penile tissue. The clinical presentation of inflammatory penile conditions includes itching, tenderness, and pain. Penile inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore important. While topical antifungal creams can be used, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision. Data from meta-analyses showed that circumcised males have a 68% lower prevalence of balanitis than uncircumcised males and that balanitis is accompanied by a 3.8-fold increase in risk of penile cancer. Because of the high prevalence and morbidity of penile inflammation, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients, circumcision should be more widely adopted globally and is best performed early in infancy. PMID:28567234

  19. Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-González, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model. PMID:22629176

  20. Short- and long-term outcomes of 1000 adult lung transplant recipients at a single center.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S; Puri, Varun; Guthrie, Tracey J; Trulock, Elbert P; Meyers, Bryan F; Patterson, G Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become accepted therapy for end-stage pulmonary disease. The objective of this study was to review a single-institution experience of adult lung transplants. We reviewed 1000 adult lung transplants that were performed at Washington University between July 1988 and January 2009. Transplants were performed for emphysema (52%), cystic fibrosis (18.2%), pulmonary fibrosis (16.1%), and pulmonary vascular disease (7.2%). Overall recipient age was 48 ± 13 years with an increase from 43 ± 12 years (July 1988-November 1993) to 50 ± 14 years (June 2005-January 2009). Overall incidence of primary graft dysfunction was 22.1%. Hospital mortality was higher for patients who had primary graft dysfunction (primary graft dysfunction, 13.6%; no primary graft dysfunction, 4%; P < .001). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was 84% at 1 year, 38.2% at 5 years, and 12.2% at 10 years. Survival at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years was 84%, 56.4%, 32.2%, and 17.8%, respectively. Five-year survival improved from 49.6% (July 1988-November 1993) to 62.1% (October 2001-June 2005). Primary graft dysfunction was associated with lower survival at 1, 5, and 10 years (primary graft dysfunction: 72.8%, 43.9%, and 18.7%, respectively; no primary graft dysfunction: 87.1%, 59.8%, and 35.7%, respectively, P < .001) and lower rates of freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (primary graft dysfunction: 78%, 27.5%, and 8.5%, respectively; no primary graft dysfunction: 85.4%, 40.7%, and 13.1%, respectively, P = .007). Five-year survival has improved over the study period, but long-term outcomes are limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Primary graft dysfunction is associated with higher rates of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and impaired short- and long-term survival. A better understanding of primary graft dysfunction and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is critical to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  1. Lesion with morphologic feature of organizing pneumonia (OP) in CT-guided lung biopsy samples for diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP): a retrospective study of 134 cases in a single center.

    PubMed

    Miao, Liyun; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Ding, Jingjing; Chen, Lulu; Dai, Jinghong; Cai, Hourong; Xiao, Yonglong; Cao, Min; Huang, Mei; Qiu, Yuying; Meng, Fanqing; Fan, Xiangshan; Zhang, Deping; Song, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Small biopsy samples are generally considered inconclusive for bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) diagnosis despite their potential to reveal organizing pneumonia (OP) pathologically, necessitating risky invasive tissue biopsy during surgery for reliable confirmation. OP by CT-guided lung biopsy was to evaluate the role in the diagnosis of BOOP. A retrospective review of 134 cases with the OP feature in the CT-guided lung biopsy samples between 2004 and 2011 at a single center was conducted. Diagnostic accuracy of OP by CT-guided lung biopsy and clinical-radiographic data alone were compared. After exclusion of 11 cases due to pathology with others besides OP and 15 cases for loss to follow-up, 108 were included. Of these, 95 cases and 13 cases were classified as BOOP and non-BOOP group, respectively. Among BOOP group, only 30 were initially diagnosed as BOOP according to the typical clinical and radiographic features. The other 65 cases with atypical features were diagnosed as BOOP mainly based on OP by CT-guided lung biopsy. Among non-BOOP group, one was misdiagnosed as BOOP, and others were not BOOP according to clinical and radiographic findings. Thus, OP by CT-guided lung biopsy produced a diagnostic accuracy of 87.96% (95/108), much higher than 31.25% (30/96) observed using clinical and radiographic data alone. Combined, these techniques produced diagnostic accuracy of 98.96% (95/96). OP by CT-guided lung biopsy can be effectively used as the pathological evidence for BOOP diagnosis and reducing unnecessary surgery.

  2. Lesion with morphologic feature of organizing pneumonia (OP) in CT-guided lung biopsy samples for diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP): a retrospective study of 134 cases in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Ding, Jingjing; Chen, Lulu; Dai, Jinghong; Cai, Hourong; Xiao, Yonglong; Cao, Min; Huang, Mei; Qiu, Yuying; Meng, Fanqing; Fan, Xiangshan; Zhang, Deping

    2014-01-01

    Background Small biopsy samples are generally considered inconclusive for bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) diagnosis despite their potential to reveal organizing pneumonia (OP) pathologically, necessitating risky invasive tissue biopsy during surgery for reliable confirmation. Objective OP by CT-guided lung biopsy was to evaluate the role in the diagnosis of BOOP. Methods A retrospective review of 134 cases with the OP feature in the CT-guided lung biopsy samples between 2004 and 2011 at a single center was conducted. Diagnostic accuracy of OP by CT-guided lung biopsy and clinical-radiographic data alone were compared. Results After exclusion of 11 cases due to pathology with others besides OP and 15 cases for loss to follow-up, 108 were included. Of these, 95 cases and 13 cases were classified as BOOP and non-BOOP group, respectively. Among BOOP group, only 30 were initially diagnosed as BOOP according to the typical clinical and radiographic features. The other 65 cases with atypical features were diagnosed as BOOP mainly based on OP by CT-guided lung biopsy. Among non-BOOP group, one was misdiagnosed as BOOP, and others were not BOOP according to clinical and radiographic findings. Thus, OP by CT-guided lung biopsy produced a diagnostic accuracy of 87.96% (95/108), much higher than 31.25% (30/96) observed using clinical and radiographic data alone. Combined, these techniques produced diagnostic accuracy of 98.96% (95/96). Conclusions OP by CT-guided lung biopsy can be effectively used as the pathological evidence for BOOP diagnosis and reducing unnecessary surgery. PMID:25276367

  3. Therapeutics effect of N-acetyl cysteine on mustard gas exposed patients: evaluating clinical aspect in patients with impaired pulmonary function test.

    PubMed

    Shohrati, Majid; Aslani, Jafar; Eshraghi, Mehdi; Alaedini, Farshid; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2008-03-01

    Long-term prescription of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) may be effective in diseases caused by active radicals of oxygen species. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2- and 4-month administration of NAC (1800 mg daily) on mustard induced bronchiolitis obliterans. In a double blind clinical trial, 144 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans due to sulfur mustard in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) classes 1 and 2, randomly entered Group 1 (n=72, NAC) and Group 2 (n=72, placebo). Dyspnea, wake-up dyspnea, cough, and sputum were measured after 4 months. Spirometric findings were measured at the beginning of the trial, 2 months after and after 4 months of prescription of 1800 mg/day in three doses of NAC or placebo. Dyspnea, cough, sputum, and wake-up dyspnea improved after 4 months of NAC compared to the control group. After 4 months, spirometric components were significantly improved in NAC group compared to placebo group. Fourth months administration of NAC (1800 mg daily) can improve clinical conditions and spirometric findings in mustard exposed in BOS class 1 or 2.

  4. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Airway Epithelial Injury Drives Fibroblast Activation: A Mechanism in Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, L A; Suwara, M I; Carnell, S C; Green, N J; Mahida, R; Dixon, D; Gillespie, C S; Cartwright, T N; Horabin, J; Walker, A; Olin, E; Rangar, M; Gardner, A; Mann, J; Corris, P A; Mann, D A; Fisher, A J

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial infections after lung transplantation cause airway epithelial injury and are associated with an increased risk of developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The damaged epithelium is a source of alarmins that activate the innate immune system, yet their ability to activate fibroblasts in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has not been evaluated. Two epithelial alarmins were measured longitudinally in bronchoalveolar lavages from lung transplant recipients who developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and were compared to stable controls. In addition, conditioned media from human airway epithelial cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was applied to lung fibroblasts and inflammatory responses were determined. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage of lung transplant recipients growing P. aeruginosa (11.5 [5.4-21.8] vs. 2.8 [0.9-9.4] pg/mL, p < 0.01) and was significantly elevated within 3 months of developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (8.3 [1.4-25.1] vs. 3.6 [0.6-17.1] pg/mL, p < 0.01), whereas high mobility group protein B1 remained unchanged. IL-1α positively correlated with elevated bronchoalveolar lavage IL-8 levels (r(2)  = 0.6095, p < 0.0001) and neutrophil percentage (r(2)  = 0.25, p = 0.01). Conditioned media from P. aeruginosa infected epithelial cells induced a potent pro-inflammatory phenotype in fibroblasts via an IL-1α/IL-1R-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, we propose that IL-1α may be a novel therapeutic target to limit Pseudomonas associated allograft injury after lung transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Upper lobe fibrosis: a novel manifestation of chronic allograft dysfunction in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita Sakha; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Howell, David N; Palmer, Scott M; Gutierrez, Carlos; Waddell, Thomas K; Chaparro, Cecilia; Davis, R Duane; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hutcheon, Michael A; Singer, Lianne G

    2005-09-01

    Lung transplantation is an established treatment modality for a number of chronic lung diseases. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is limited by chronic allograft dysfunction, usually manifested by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. We describe a case series with upper lobe fibrosis, a novel presentation of chronic allograft dysfunction. We reviewed lung transplants at the Toronto General Hospital and Duke University Hospital from 1990 to 2002 and identified patients with upper lobe fibrosis. Thirteen of 686 patients (6 women) developed upper lobe fibrosis (Toronto, 9; Duke, 4); 12 of 13 had bilateral transplants. The median age at diagnosis was 42 years (range, 19-70). Primary diagnoses were cystic fibrosis, 6; emphysema, 4; sarcoidosis, 1; and pulmonary fibrosis, 2 patients. Radiographic diagnosis was made at a median of 700 days post-transplant (range, 150-2,920). Pulmonary function tests demonstrated predominantly a progressively worsening restrictive pattern. Open lung biopsy specimens revealed dense interstitial fibrosis, with occasional features of obliterative bronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans obstructive pneumonia, and aspiration. Nine patients died at a median follow-up of 2,310 days (range, 266-3,740), 8 due to respiratory failure. Upper lobe fibrosis is a novel presentation of chronic allograft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients and is differentiated from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome on the basis of physiologic and radiologic findings.

  7. Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Rita; Vidal, Paula Cristina; Sarria, Edgar Enrique; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25-75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications. A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma entidade clínica que tem sido classificada como obstrução fixa e constritiva do lúmen por tecido fibrótico. Entretanto, estudos recentes utilizando oscilometria de impulso relataram resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes com BOPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta broncodilatadora em pacientes pediátricos com

  8. Nailfold capillaroscopy in Buerger's disease: A useful tool?

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Bardelli, Marco; Fioravanti, Antonella; Selvi, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, or Buerger's disease) is a rare inflammatory vasculitis that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries of the extremities of tobacco smokers between the ages of 25 and 50 years. Although the diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and angiographic findings, we studied the microvascular involvement by nailfold capillaroscopy. We evaluated by nailfold capillaroscopy 2 patients with Buerger's disease, at baseline and after 6 months of tobacco discontinuation and therapy with prostanoids. Both patients presented similar capillaroscopic abnormalities, resembling a scleroderma-like pattern. The microvascular rearrangement was significantly reduced after 6 months of evaluation. The capillaroscopic abnormalities shown in the two patients could be related to thromboangiitis obliterans, and nailfold capillaroscopy could be a useful tool to evaluate disease progression and the response to treatment.

  9. Nailfold capillaroscopy in Buerger’s disease: A useful tool?

    PubMed Central

    Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Bardelli, Marco; Fioravanti, Antonella; Selvi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, or Buerger’s disease) is a rare inflammatory vasculitis that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries of the extremities of tobacco smokers between the ages of 25 and 50 years. Although the diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and angiographic findings, we studied the microvascular involvement by nailfold capillaroscopy. We evaluated by nailfold capillaroscopy 2 patients with Buerger’s disease, at baseline and after 6 months of tobacco discontinuation and therapy with prostanoids. Both patients presented similar capillaroscopic abnormalities, resembling a scleroderma-like pattern. The microvascular rearrangement was significantly reduced after 6 months of evaluation. The capillaroscopic abnormalities shown in the two patients could be related to thromboangiitis obliterans, and nailfold capillaroscopy could be a useful tool to evaluate disease progression and the response to treatment. PMID:27708881

  10. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Arteriosclerosis obliterans 7114 Arteriosclerotic heart disease 7005 Arteriovenous fistula 7113 Arthritis... Pneumococcic 5005 Rheumatoid (atrophic) 5002 Streptococcic 5008 Syphilitic 5007 Typhoid 5006 Asbestosis 6833...: Degenerative arthritis 5242 Flail joint 5254 Histoplasmosis 6834 HIV-Related Illness 6351 Hodgkin's disease...

  11. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Arteriosclerosis obliterans 7114 Arteriosclerotic heart disease 7005 Arteriovenous fistula 7113 Arthritis... Pneumococcic 5005 Rheumatoid (atrophic) 5002 Streptococcic 5008 Syphilitic 5007 Typhoid 5006 Asbestosis 6833...: Degenerative arthritis 5242 Flail joint 5254 Histoplasmosis 6834 HIV-Related Illness 6351 Hodgkin's disease...

  12. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Arteriosclerosis obliterans 7114 Arteriosclerotic heart disease 7005 Arteriovenous fistula 7113 Arthritis... Pneumococcic 5005 Rheumatoid (atrophic) 5002 Streptococcic 5008 Syphilitic 5007 Typhoid 5006 Asbestosis 6833...: Degenerative arthritis 5242 Flail joint 5254 Histoplasmosis 6834 HIV-Related Illness 6351 Hodgkin's disease...

  13. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Arteriosclerosis obliterans 7114 Arteriosclerotic heart disease 7005 Arteriovenous fistula 7113 Arthritis... Pneumococcic 5005 Rheumatoid (atrophic) 5002 Streptococcic 5008 Syphilitic 5007 Typhoid 5006 Asbestosis 6833...: Degenerative arthritis 5242 Flail joint 5254 Histoplasmosis 6834 HIV-Related Illness 6351 Hodgkin's disease...

  14. Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction: A Systematic Review of Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Olivera-Botello, Gustavo; Koutsokera, Angela; Aubert, John-David; Bernasconi, Eric; Tissot, Adrien; Pison, Christophe; Nicod, Laurent; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Magnan, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the major limitation of long-term survival after lung transplantation. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction manifests as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or the recently described restrictive allograft syndrome. Although numerous risk factors have been identified so far, the physiopathological mechanisms of CLAD remain poorly understood. We investigate here the immune mechanisms involved in the development of CLAD after lung transplantation. We explore the innate or adaptive immune reactions induced by the allograft itself or by the environment and how they lead to allograft dysfunction. Because current literature suggests bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and restrictive allograft syndrome as 2 distinct entities, we focus on the specific factors behind one or the other syndromes. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction is a multifactorial disease that remains irreversible and unpredictable so far. We thus finally discuss the potential of systems-biology approach to predict its occurrence and to better understand its underlying mechanisms.

  15. [Small airway diseases and immune deficiency].

    PubMed

    Burgel, P-R; Bergeron, A; Knoop, C; Dusser, D

    2016-02-01

    Innate or acquired immune deficiency may show respiratory manifestations, often characterized by small airway involvement. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of small airway disease across the major causes of immune deficiency. In patients with common variable immune deficiency, recurrent lower airway infections may lead to bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. Follicular and/or granulomatous bronchiolitis of unknown origin may also occur. Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of death after the first year in patients with lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans also occurs in patients with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in the context of systemic graft-versus-host disease. Small airway diseases have different clinical expression and pathophysiology across various causes of immune deficiency. A better understanding of small airways disease pathogenesis in these settings may lead to the development of novel targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Measures to be taken in adults with bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    De Crémoux, Hubert

    2003-02-22

    The majority of bronchial and interstitial diseases of the adult are accompanied by bronchiolar inflammation, but over time the use of the term "bronchiolitis" has been limited to a few specific affections. Bronchiolitis with predominantly alveolar involvement Some "bronchiolites" emphasize the problem of an interstitial pneumopathy, since the disease predominantly involves the alveolar spaces. Only a few bronchiolites are severely damaging: bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and interstitial pneumopathy with respiratory bronchiolitis. These predominantly alveolar affections reveal the clinical (crepitant rales), radiographic (multiple or even diffuse opacities), and functional aspects (restrictive ventilation problems). Brochiolitis with obstructive airway problems In this case the disease predominantly involves the bronchioles and spares the alveolar tissue. The term "bronchiolitis" is in this case perfectly justified. The clinical picture is evocative with obstructed airway and a clear pulmonary parenchyma on the thoracic x-ray. These affections belong to the obstructive broncho-pneumopathy group. The prototype is brochiolitis obliterans, the anatomic correlation of which is generally constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans. Occasionally primitive, it frequently complicates the progression of many morbid states (transplants, collagenosis, inhaled or ingested toxic substances.). Diffuse panbronchiolitis Other "bronchiolites" deviate from this framework and are accompanied by marked lesions of other respiratory tracts (membrane bronchioles, cartilage bronchi, mucosa, ear nose and throat). The prototype is panbronchiolitis, described in the Far East. It is exceptional in Europe, where similar but nosologically different clinical aspects are observed during various diseases: cystic fibrosis, Young's syndrome, hypogammaglobulinemia, bone marrow transplant, context of HIV or haemorrhagic recto-colitis.

  17. Effects of sinus surgery in patients with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, David; Speich, Rudolf; Kaufmann, Thomas; Laube, Irene; Russi, Erich W; Simmen, Daniel; Weder, Walter; Boehler, Annette

    2004-01-15

    Chronic infectious rhinosinusitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in cystic fibrosis and may result in allograft infection after lung transplantation. Sinus surgery followed by nasal care may reduce these adverse effects. Sinus surgery was performed in 37 patients with cystic fibrosis after transplantation. Bacteriology of sinus aspirates (n=771) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (n=256) was correlated with clinical data. Sinus surgery was successful in 54% and partially successful in 27% of patients. A significant correlation between negative sinus aspirates and negative BAL and between positive sinus aspirates and positive BAL (P<0.0001) was found. Successful sinus management led to a lower incidence of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia (P=0.009) and a trend toward a lower incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (P=0.23). Sinus surgery followed by daily nasal douching may control posttransplant lower airway colonization and infection. In the long term, this concept may lead to less bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome by decreasing bronchiolar inflammation.

  18. [Lung transplantation.].

    PubMed

    Guðmundsson, G

    2000-09-01

    Lung transplantation is an option in the treatment of end stage lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, that lead to short life expectancy and poor quality of life. Now they are mostly limited by shortage of donor organs and longterm complications. They are used for various lung diseases such as pulmonary vascular diseases, fibrosing diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and diseases that cause chronic infections. Depending on the indication it is possible to perform heart and lung transplantation, single lung or double lung transplantation.Indications, contraindications, surgical methods, immunosuppression, complications and outcomes will be discussed. Survival is not as good as for other solid organ transplantation. Measurement of pulmonary function and quality of life improve with lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans is the most common complication and is the most limiting factor. A few Icelanders have undergone lung transplantation, most of them in Gothenburg, Sweden. The future of lung transplantation depends on limiting the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans and finding more organ donors.

  19. Living donor lobar lung transplantation: a longstanding concept being revisited with the same old NEMESIS.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Baker, Peter B

    2014-06-01

    Living donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has been successfully used in select patient populations. A 29-year-old male, who underwent bilateral LDLLT 12 years earlier with allografts donated by father and paternal uncle, developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at distinctly different rates. LDLLT can be done successfully with unique management issues.

  20. Primary graft dysfunction and other selected complications of lung transplantation: A single-center experience of 983 patients.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Bryan F; de la Morena, Maite; Sweet, Stuart C; Trulock, Elbert P; Guthrie, Tracey J; Mendeloff, Eric N; Huddleston, Charles; Cooper, Joel D; Patterson, G Alexander

    2005-06-01

    We sought to review the incidence and outcome of lung transplantation complications observed over 15 years at a single center. We performed a retrospective review from our databases, tracking outcomes after adult and pediatric lung transplantation. The 983 operations between July 1988 and September 2003 included 277 pediatric and 706 adult recipients. Bilateral (74%), unilateral (19%), and living lobar transplants (4%) comprised the bulk of this experience. Retransplantations accounted for 44 (4.5%) of the operations. The groups differed by indication for transplantation. The adults included 57% with emphysema and 17% with cystic fibrosis, and the children included no patients with emphysema and 50% with cystic fibrosis. Hospital mortality was 96 (9.8%) of 983, including 46 (17%) of 277 of the children and 50 (7%) of 706 of the adults. The overall survival curves did not differ between adults and children ( P = .56). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at 5 and 10 years was 45% and 18% for adults and 48% and 30% for children, respectively ( P = .53). The causes of death for adults included bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (40%), respiratory failure (17%), and infection (14%), whereas the causes of death in children included bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (35%), infection (28%), and respiratory failure (21%) ( P < .01). Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease occurred in 12% of pediatric recipients and 6% of adults ( P < .01). The frequency of treated airway complications did not differ between adults and children (9% vs 11%, P = .48). The frequency of primary graft dysfunction did not differ between children (22%) and adults (23%), despite disparity in the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. These results highlight major complications after lung transplantation. Despite differences in underlying diagnoses and operative techniques, the 2 cohorts of patients experienced remarkably similar outcomes.

  1. Cannabis arteritis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent; Lambert, Marc; Arveiller, Catherine; Benyamina, Amine; Boissonas, Alain; Goudemand, Michel; Reynaud, Michel

    2010-12-01

    Consumption of cannabis in young adults has continued to increase in recent years. Cannabis arteritis was first described in the 1960s, but the number of cases has continued to increase. We reviewed current knowledge of the different types of cannabis arteritis in young adults and found 70 cases of cannabis arteritis in the literature. We discuss physiopathological arguments in favor of cannabis vascular toxicity per se, although we did not find sufficient evidence to identify cannabis arteritis as a specific diagnostic entity. Many factors suggest a link between cannabis consumption and arteritis in young adults, but it is difficult to say whether this type of arteritis is similar to thromboangiitis obliterans. We were unable to demonstrate a formal association between cannabis smoking and the development of thromboangiitis obliterans, because most case reports showed associated tobacco smoking (97%) and the number of years cannabis had been smoked by the participants was mostly unknown. Cannabis consumption would however seems to be an aggravating factor, together with tobacco, in arteritis, which occurs in young adults.

  2. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  3. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.

    1985-05-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis.

  4. A review of the lung transplantation programme in Ireland 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Waldemar; Egan, Jim J; Soo, Alan; Remund, Kaspar F; Nölke, Lars; McCarthy, James F; Wood, Alfred E

    2009-05-01

    Lung transplantation is a recognised surgical option for patients with end stage respiratory disease. We present data relating to the initiation of the Irish lung transplant programme in 2005. Seventeen patients: 7 male and 10 female have undergone lung transplantation. The indications for lung transplantation included COPD (n=8), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=5), bronchiolitis obliterans (n=2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n=1), and cystic fibrosis (n=1). Eleven single lungs transplants were completed, while six patients underwent double sequential lung transplantation. The immunosuppression regimen included basiliximab as induction therapy, with steroids, mycophenolate mofetil nd cyclosporine or tacrolimus. The operative mortality was zero. One patient died at 10 months post double lung transplantation secondary to bronchiolitis obliterans. Primary graft dysfunction was observed in two patients who required ventilatory support for 3 and 5 days respectively. Acute cellular rejection was observed in four patients (grade A2 n=3, grade A3 n=2). The cumulative 1-year survival was 94.1%, which compares favourably to an international standard of 78%. The initiation of a lung transplant programme in Ireland has been successfully undertaken and initially provided results comparable to established lung transplant programs.

  5. Black stone - a natural remedy for premature ejaculation and performance enhancement, or maybe not?

    PubMed

    Bush, Carly; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    We describe the use of a non-prescribed aid (Black stone) for premature ejaculation that resulted in a chemical burn on the penis with an appearance similar to severe balanitis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. MNE7 Access to the Global Commons Outcome 3 Cyber Domain. Objective 3.5 Cyber Situational Awareness. Concept of Employment for Cyber Situational Awareness Within the Global Commons Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-25

    such as authentication , protocols, and ‘signature’ management exist but the imposition of such techniques must be balan 15p the legal requirements...gulation, mation face onflicting pressures to keep this data secure and yet allow access by authorised users. in the sharing network should be

  7. Update on flavoring-induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Holden, Van K; Hines, Stella E

    2016-03-01

    Since the initial report of bronchiolitis obliterans in microwave popcorn workers, exposures to flavoring substances have been identified in a variety of food and flavor manufacturing facilities and in the consumer market. Attempts to decrease the risk of lung disease have included the use of flavoring substitutes; however, these chemicals may cause similar injury. This article reviews recent flavoring exposures and data on the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and surveillance of flavoring-induced lung disease. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures have occurred in food production facilities that make cookies, cereal, chocolate, and coffee. Airborne levels often exceed proposed occupational exposure limits. Cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans in heavy popcorn consumers have also been reported. New data demonstrate the presence of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in flavored nicotine liquids used in electronic nicotine delivery systems. Diacetyl substitutes cause similar peri-bronchiolar fibrotic lesions in animal studies. Their use may continue to place workers at risk for flavoring-induced lung disease, which may present in forms beyond that of fixed airflow obstruction, contributing to delays in identifying and treating patients with flavoring-induced lung disease. Engineering controls, medical surveillance and personal protective equipment can limit flavorings exposure and risk for lung disease.

  8. Massive Hematochezia: A Complication of Methamphetamine-Induced Vasculitis Treated by Transcatheter Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Link, Daniel P.; Chi, Yung-Wei

    2011-01-01

    A long-term, heavy methamphetamine user with life-threatening rectal hemorrhage was treated with transcatheter occlusion of the bleeding arteries. The bleeding blood vessels were vulnerable submucosal arteries, part of the collateral supply to the distal colon. Visceral arteriography demonstrates severe arterial stenotic lesions of the celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. Collateral vessels were seen with corkscrew morphology similar to that seen with thromboangiitis obliterans. PMID:22606562

  9. The Effect of Health Education Program for Caregivers on Circumcision Outcome in Neonates and Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafer, Youser abd Elsalam; Nafee, Houda Mohammed; Pal, Kamlish

    2015-01-01

    Circumcision is a surgical excision of the foreskin to the level of the coronal sulcus which may perform in the neonatal period or in later life. Circumcision has many medical benefits such as minimizing urinary tract infection, reduces the incidence of balanitis and enhances of penile hygiene, prevents of penile cancer. However, Circumcision may…

  10. Advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease: a case with severe restrictive lung defect.

    PubMed

    Ödek, Çağlar; Kendirli, Tanil; İleri, Talia; Yaman, Ayhan; Fatih Çakmakli, Hasan; Ince, Elif; İnce, Erdal; Ertem, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Herein, we describe a patient with severe restrictive lung defect secondary to cGvHD. A 21-year-old male patient was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with pneumonia and respiratory distress. He had a history of aHSCT for chronic myelogeneous leukemia at the age of 17 years. Six months after undergoing aHSCT, he had developed cGvHD involving skin, mouth, eye, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. At the time of PICU admission he had respiratory distress and required ventilation support. Thorax high-resolution computed tomography was consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Although bronchiolitis obliterans is an obstructive lung defect, a restrictive pattern became prominent in the clinical course because of the sclerotic chest wall skin. The activity of cGvHD kept increasing despite the therapy and we lost the patient because of severe respiratory distress and massive hemoptysis secondary to bronchiectasis. In conclusion, pulmonary cGvHD can present with restrictive changes related with the advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin. Performing a fasciotomy or a scar revision for the rigid chest wall in selected patients may improve the patients ventilation.

  11. [Late onset, non-infectious pulmonary complications after haematological stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bergeron, A; Feuillet, S; Meignin, V; Socie, G; Tazi, A

    2008-02-01

    Non infectious pulmonary complications which frequently occur in the late follow-up of haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients account for an increase in mortality and morbidity. Different histological entities have been described among which bronchiolitis obliterans is the most common. Because of the absence of prospective epidemiological studies and the difficulties in obtaining surgical lung biopsies from these frail patients little is known about these conditions. Although their pathogenesis is poorly understood they probably result from a chronic pulmonary graft versus host disease (GVHD). The introduction of or increase in systemic immunosuppressive treatment, usually indicated for controlling extra-thoracic manifestations of GVHD, may lead to the resolution of an organising pneumonia but is usually ineffective in the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans. Current prospective cohort studies together with randomised prospective studies evaluating more targeted treatments should help determine the frequency, the risk factors and the precise characteristics of the different entities of late non-infectious pulmonary diseases following HSCT and should also improve their management. Furthermore, the recent demonstration of lung abnormalities in animal models of chronic GVHD, similar to those observed in humans, should allow a better understanding of the pathogenesis. The prevalence of these diseases is increasing throughout the world. More precise analysis, the identification of risk factors and study of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved should allow better understanding and management than at present.

  12. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and Gǎvruta etc.

  13. Changes in Nutrient Intakes of Conditioned Men during a 5-Day Period of Increased Physical Activity and Other Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nutrition minerals energy balanQe vitamins 19...Introduction and urinary constituents of 16 Navy servicemen were obtained before and during a period of 113 It is an axiom that proper nutrition will...deprivation. Psychological stresses included verbal confrontations, perform- Key words: Nutrition >- Energy balance -- Vita- ance anxiety, and activities with

  14. Laser Biostimulation Of Wound Healing In Arteriopatic Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallarida, G.; Baldoni, F.; Raimondi, G.; Massaro, M.; Peruzzi, G.; Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Scudieri, F.

    1981-05-01

    Low-power laser irradiation has been employed in the attempt to accelerate the wound-healing of ischemic cutaneous ulcerations with threatening or manifest gangrene due to arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower limbs. Irradiation was performed by using a low-power He-Ne gas laser of 6328 Å wavelength and was concentrated at the peripheral zone of the lesions. The preliminary results of the study indicate that laser stimulation might be new approach in the conservative menagement of the ischemic ulcers in patients with severe peripheral obstructive arteriopaties not suited for arterial reconstruction.

  15. Bronchial blood supply after lung transplantation without bronchial artery revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nicolls, Mark R; Zamora, Martin R

    2010-10-01

    This review discusses how the bronchial artery circulation is interrupted following lung transplantation and what may be the long-term complications of compromising systemic blood flow to allograft airways. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the loss of airway microcirculations is highly associated with the development of airway hypoxia and an increased susceptibility to chronic rejection. The bronchial artery circulation has been highly conserved through evolution. Current evidence suggests that the failure to routinely perform bronchial artery revascularization at the time of lung transplantation may predispose patients to develop the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

  16. Niacin metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Maltos, André Luiz; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Moraes, Giselle Vanessa; Monteiro, Marina Casteli Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Flaky paint dermatosis, characterized by extensive, often bilateral areas of flaking and pigmentation, mostly in sun unexposed areas is considered a feature of kwashiorkor in both children and adults, and must be differentiated from other dermatosis, including chapped and xerotica skin, and pellagra. In this case series we provide evidence that malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis and infection/inflammation shown laboratory data suggestive of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, besides decreased urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1 MN), a marker of pellagra. We study nine adult patients showing flaky paint dermatosis and clinical features of infection or inflammation, and increased serum C-reactive protein, characteristic of the presence of acute phase response syndrome. As a group, they had low or deficient urinary N1 MN excretion (0.52 ± 0.39 mg/g creatinine) compatible with pellagra. They also showed low serum tryptophan levels (<29 μmol/L) and a serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio higher than 0.04, suggesting increased IDO expression and increase in the tryptophan oxidation. Findings suggest that some patients with flaky paint dermatosis showed laboratory data suggestive of IDO activation, besides decreased N1 MN urinary excretion. Taken together, the data support the idea that flaky paint dermatosis could be a skin manifestation of niacin deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Strong Protective Effect of Circumcision against Cancer of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Gray, Ronald H.; Castellsague, Xavier; Bosch, F. Xavier; Halperin, Daniel T.; Waskett, Jake H.; Hankins, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Male circumcision protects against cancer of the penis, the invasive form of which is a devastating disease confined almost exclusively to uncircumcised men. Major etiological factors are phimosis, balanitis, and high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), which are more prevalent in the glans penis and coronal sulcus covered by the foreskin, as well as on the penile shaft, of uncircumcised men. Circumcised men clear HPV infections more quickly. Phimosis (a constricted foreskin opening impeding the passage of urine) is confined to uncircumcised men, in whom balanitis (affecting 10%) is more common than in circumcised men. Each is strongly associated with risk of penile cancer. These findings have led to calls for promotion of male circumcision, especially in infancy, to help reduce the global burden of penile cancer. Even more relevant globally is protection from cervical cancer, which is 10-times more common, being much higher in women with uncircumcised male partners. Male circumcision also provides indirect protection against various other infections in women, along with direct protection for men from a number of genital tract infections, including HIV. Given that adverse consequences of medical male circumcision, especially when performed in infancy, are rare, this simple prophylactic procedure should be promoted. PMID:21687572

  18. [A case of loxoprofen sodium-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazue; Sakamoto, Osamu; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Suga, Moritaka

    2003-12-01

    A 78-year-old man was referred to our department because of an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph and liver dysfunction after lung resection for lung cancer. Following the operation, loxoprofen sodium was administered to control his chest pain. A chest radiograph on admission showed airspace consolidation in the right lower lung field. In addition, leukocytosis and elevation of CRP were observed. Although piperacillin sodium was given to him, airspace consolidation on a chest radiograph was increased. A bronchoalveolar lavage fluid study showed that total cell counts and proportion of lymphocytes were increased, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.77. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed organizing pneumonia with Masson bodies. Furthermore, a lymphocyte stimulation test for loxoprofen sodium was positive. From the clinical course, laboratory data and pathologic findings, we considered this case to be loxoprofen sodium-induced BOOP. Withdrawal of loxoprofen sodium and treatment with corticosteroid resulted in marked improvement of the clinical findings. Although a rare occurrence, it is important to recognize that BOOP can be caused by loxoprofen sodium.

  19. Role of airway epithelial injury in murine orthotopic tracheal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Elbert; Bharat, Ankit; Shih, Jennifer; Street, Tyler; Norris, Jenyi; Liu, Wei; Parks, William; Walter, Michael; Patterson, G Alexander; Mohanakumar, T

    2006-10-01

    Murine tracheal transplantation is a model used to study bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, a major cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Unlike murine heterotopic tracheal transplants, orthotopic transplantation does not cause luminal obliteration despite major histocompatibility antigen mismatch. Repopulation of the tracheal allografts with recipient-derived epithelium confers protection against luminal obliteration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (1) orthotopic tracheal transplantation showed signs of allograft rejection, and (2) airway epithelial cell injury promoted orthotopic tracheal allograft rejection. Forty isogeneic (C57BL/6 to C57BL/6) and 40 allogeneic (BALB/c to C57BL/6) orthotopic tracheal transplants were performed. Damage to airway epithelial cells was induced by Sendai viral (SdV) infection and tracheal transplantation into non-reepithelializing matrix metalloproteinase-7 knockout (MMP7-KO) recipient mice. Percent fibrosis and lamina propria to cartilage ratio were calculated with computer assistance on harvested allografts. Allografts showed significantly more intramural fibrosis compared with isografts at 30, 60, and 180 days after transplant without luminal occlusion. Tracheal allografts infected with SdV showed an increase in fibrosis and lamina propria to cartilage ratio compared with noninfected controls. Allografts retrieved from MMP7-KO recipients also showed a significant increase in fibrosis and lamina propria to cartilage ratio. Although orthotopic tracheal transplantation does not cause luminal obliteration, it results in increased fibrosis in allografts. Damage to the respiratory epithelium by viral infection or defective reepithelialization after transplant as seen in MMP7-KO recipient mice leads to changes consistent with chronic allograft rejection, suggesting a role for epithelial injury in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome development.

  20. Politics, culture, and the legitimacy of disease: the case of Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Stephen J; Bresler, Scott C; Granter, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a rare form of vasculitis with distinctive clinical and pathological features that carries significant morbidity, often leading to amputation, and is strongly associated with tobacco smoking. Despite its distinctive clinicopathological characteristics, the existence of TAO as an entity sui generis was challenged for many years as it languished in relative obscurity. Then, as societal attitudes towards smoking changed, TAO not only became accepted as a disease entity, it quite literally became a poster child to illustrate the ills of smoking. Herein, we examine the history of TAO to illustrate the power of societal attitudes and politics in shaping medicine.

  1. Hybrid Revascularization for Critical Limb Ischemia Triggered by Multiple Organ Dysfunction Due to Acute Pneumonia; Urgent Catheter Intervention Followed by Low-Density-Lipoprotein Apheresis and Elective Peripheral Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was referred for treatment of critical limb ischemia arising with multiple organ dysfunction due to acute pneumonia. Angiographic examinations demonstrated total obstruction of the bilateral external iliac arteries and the bilateral superficial femoral arteries with collateral circulation to the distal vessels. Urgent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty dissolved the obstruction of the left external iliac artery, and subsequent low-density-lipoprotein apheresis ameliorated his progressive ischemia in the lower extremities. Femoro-femoral and bilateral femoro-popliteal bypasses were performed 31 days after the endovascular intervention, which achieved successful limb salvage with the relief of ischemic symptoms related to arteriosclerotic obliterans. PMID:24995063

  2. A Cryptogenic Case of Fulminant Fibrosing Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takehiko; Kitaichi, Masanori; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Kishimoto, Yutaro; Inoue, Yasushi; Kagawa, Tomoko; Maekura, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Chikatoshi; Arai, Toru; Akira, Masanori; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) generally responds well to corticosteroids with a favorable outcome. Rare cases of organizing pneumonia are rapidly progressive. Yousem et al. studied pathologic predictors of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia/COP with an unfavorable prognosis. Beardsley and Rassl proposed the name fibrosing organizing pneumonia (FOP). A 74-year-old female non-smoker presented with a 2-week history of dry cough followed by dyspnea and a fever. The clinical course was fulminant, but we successfully performed bronchoscopy. After the diagnosis of FOP, we treated the patient with mechanical ventilation and high-doses of steroids/immunosuppressants, which improved the disease. PMID:28502934

  3. Simultaneous Occurrence of Balanoposthitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Zoon, Phimosis and in Situ Carcinoma of the Penis: Case Report with An Unusual Ulcerated Polypoid Variant of Zoon's Disease and a Carcinoma in Situ of Reserve Cell Type.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Schönlebe, Jacqueline; Goldman, Alberto; Tchernev, Georgi; Lotti, Torello

    2018-01-25

    Zoon's balanitis is a benign disease characterized by an asymptomatic, chronic, solitary, shiny, red-orange plaque of the glans and/ or prepuce. In rare cases of Zoon's disease, penile squamous cell carcinoma developed in the chronic inflammatory lesions. We report on a 68-year-old male patient presenting with phimosis and coexistent Zoon's disease and penile carcinoma in situ treated successfully by circumcision. Coexistence of both lesions in contrast to the development of cancerous lesions within pre-existent Zoon's disease is a very rare observation.

  4. Airway disease: anatomopathologic patterns and functional correlations.

    PubMed

    Mormile, F; Ciappi, G

    1997-01-01

    Airways represent a serial and parallel branched system, through which the alveoli are connected with the external air. They participate in the mechanical and immune defense against noxious agents, regional flow regulation to optimize the perfusion/ventilation ratio and provide lung mechanical support. Functional exploration of central airways is based on resistance measurement, flow-volume curve or spirometry, while peripheral airways influence parameters as the upstream resistance, the slope of phase III nitrogen washout and the residual volume. Bronchodynamic tests supply important information on airway reversibility and nonspecific reactivity. Anatomopathologic alterations of obstructive chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and bronchial asthma account for their specific functional and bronchodynamic alterations. There is a growing interest for bronchiolitis in the clinical, radiologic and functional field. This type of lesion, always present in COPD, asthma and interstitial disease, becomes relevant when isolated or predominant. The most useful anatomofunctional classification separates the "constrictive" forms, the cause of obstruction and hyperinflation, from "proliferative" forms where an intraluminal proliferation more or less extended to alveolar air spaces as in BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia) results in restrictive dysfunction. Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans represents a severe and frequent complication of lung and bone marrow transplantation. Idiopathic BOOP may occur with cough or flue-like symptoms. In other cases, constrictive and proliferative forms may have a toxic (gases or drugs), postinfective or immune etiology (rheumatoid arthritis, LES, etc). Respiratory bronchiolitis or smokers' bronchiolitis, an often asymptomatic lesion, rarely associated to an interstitial lung disease, should be considered separately. The relationships between respiratory bronchiolitis, COPD and initial centriacinar emphysema is still to

  5. [Infection in lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gavaldà, Joan; Román, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Lung transplantation is now considered an established therapeutic option for patients with severe respiratory failure. Nevertheless, complications are frequent and can lead to intermediate- or long-term graft dysfunction and decreased survival. According to the registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, survival rates in these patients at one, two, and five years are 74%, 65%, and 47%, respectively. The main obstacle to long-term success of lung transplantation, however, is chronic rejection, which is characterized histologically as bronchiolitis obliterans and occurs in up to two-thirds of patients. One of the most important risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans, in addition to the number of previous acute rejection episodes and the incidence of persistent rejection, is cytomegalovirus infection and disease. Moreover, recent evidence has indicated a role for respiratory viruses as risk factors for the development of chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients. Infectious complications are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients and are the cause of death in nearly half of them. Bacterial infection is the most frequent infectious complication in lung transplant patients. Among the total of infections, 35%-66% are bacterial and 50%-85% of patients present at least one episode. CMV is the second most frequent cause of infectious complications following lung transplantation. Despite the use of various preventive strategies, the risk of developing CMV disease in lung transplant recipients is over 5% during the first year. This is the only type of solid organ transplant in which the etiology of fungal infection is characteristically Aspergillus spp., in contrast to others in which infection by Candida spp. is most common. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis is about 4%.

  6. Clinical outcomes in a specialist male genital skin clinic: prospective follow-up of 600 patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, M

    2017-10-01

    It is important to assess outcomes for medical interventions in order to focus scarce resources on outcomes with a known positive benefit. An open, observational study was performed to assess the clinical outcomes of 600 male patients with a genital skin problem attending a specialist secondary care dermatology facility. Patients were mainly referred by general practitioners and genitourinary medicine physicians. Outcome was measured at 3 and 6 months, and was determined by clinical examination and assessment of patient symptoms. The mean age of the group was 45.3 years. The commonest diagnoses were lichen sclerosus (30.5%), balanitis (17.3%), eczema (12.8%), lichen planus (7.3%), psoriasis (7.2%) and benign lesions (5.5%). The commonest presenting symptoms were genital rash (43%), genital soreness, pain or burning (17.5%), and penile lesions (15.7%). Lichen sclerosus and all forms of balanitis were more common in uncircumcised patients, whereas lichen planus was more common in circumcised males. Short-term outcome was excellent, with 11.5% of patients being reassured and discharged on their first visit, and after 6 months 58% of all patients were clear and 12% had improved. Only 4.5% reported no improvement in symptoms. Diagnostic biopsy demonstrated malignant or premalignant lesions in nearly a fifth of those having a procedure. Close working with urological and genitourinary medicine colleagues is important to manage the various aspects of male health. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 4. Ammunition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Bushmaster 5860108 - Volunteer AN - Intermolecular - Ethylenediamine 5.7 dinitrate/ amonium nitrate (M) 5860122 - X-Facility: I1W - Mine MM139 Volcano...1 40 13 0001 AdJullan te prior yew truat fund or d e -3,41 17.0001 Mece feeia of prior y Otlgtte -l -56,606 Unoba Igeted balane evatIlell. MY 21...transfarred 10.000 10,000 IobiIgst d balance allloe. MO 𔃾.40M2 For completles of prior year budgt plane *1 In 39.0001 Itdgot authrlIty 4-6 Fe’ tory

  8. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, BALAN E.C., 02/08/1993

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... CII CDIIct 517~ • tOO. • • • • Ali 3 ..... 0." lIP DollCllllliPor __ foodI~VUgs • or daI'.1Q.. ... pi' r ,', L • ~"'-cIioiIy"'-- _ . ..., WtIorIn e 6 • ' .. Maid boom .... _ .. ...

  9. Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

    PubMed

    Fedan, J S; Dowdy, J A; Fedan, K B; Hubbs, A F

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  10. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S.; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G.,more » 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function

  11. Lung Transplant Outcomes in Systemic Sclerosis with Significant Esophageal Dysfunction. A Comprehensive Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Kristin; Saggar, Rajeev; Duffy, Erin; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Weigt, Sam; Charan, Deepshikha; Abtin, Fereidoun; Johannes, Jimmy; Derhovanessian, Ariss; Conklin, Jeffrey; Ghassemi, Kevin; Khanna, Dinesh; Siddiqui, Osama; Ardehali, Abbas; Hunter, Curtis; Kwon, Murray; Biniwale, Reshma; Lo, Michelle; Volkmann, Elizabeth; Torres Barba, David; Belperio, John A.; Mahrer, Thomas; Furst, Daniel E.; Kafaja, Suzanne; Clements, Philip; Shino, Michael; Gregson, Aric; Kubak, Bernard; Lynch, Joseph P.; Ross, David

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Consideration of lung transplantation in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains guarded, often due to the concern for esophageal dysfunction and the associated potential for allograft injury and suboptimal post–lung transplantation outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to systematically report our single-center experience regarding lung transplantation in the setting of SSc, with a particular focus on esophageal dysfunction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all lung transplants at our center from January 1, 2000 through August 31, 2012 (n = 562), comparing the SSc group (n = 35) to the following lung transplant diagnostic subsets: all non-SSc (n = 527), non-SSc diffuse fibrotic lung disease (n = 264), and a non-SSc matched group (n = 109). We evaluated post–lung transplant outcomes, including survival, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and microbiology of respiratory isolates. In addition, we defined severe esophageal dysfunction using esophageal manometry and esophageal morphometry criteria on the basis of chest computed tomography images. For patients with SSc referred for lung transplant but subsequently denied (n = 36), we queried the reason(s) for denial with respect to the concern for esophageal dysfunction. Measurements and Main Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year post–lung transplant survival for SSc was 94, 77, and 70%, respectively, and similar to the other groups. The remaining post–lung transplant outcomes evaluated were also similar between SSc and the other groups. Approximately 60% of the SSc group had severe esophageal dysfunction. Pre–lung transplant chest computed tomography imaging demonstrated significantly abnormal esophageal morphometry for SSc when compared with the matched group. Importantly, esophageal dysfunction was the sole reason for lung transplant denial in a single case. Conclusions: Relative to other lung transplant

  12. Oral ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infection after lung transplantation: Efficacy and cost-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Fay S; Carlos, Lilibeth M; Benzimra, Mark; Marriott, Deborah J E; Havryk, Adrian P; Plit, Marshall L; Malouf, Monique A; Glanville, Allan R

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory tract infections in lung transplant (LTx) recipients, is associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and has no proven effective therapy. We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of oral ribavirin for the treatment of RSV infection after LTx. Between December 2011 and May 2014, 52 LTx recipients developed 56 episodes of symptomatic RSV infection, which was diagnosed by positive RSV polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swabs. An intravenous (IV) loading dose of ribavirin (33 mg/kg) was given in 52 of 56 episodes; an equivalent oral loading dose was given in 2 episodes. Oral ribavirin (20 mg/kg/day) was given by day 2 in 53 of 56 episodes. Median duration of therapy was 8 days (range 6-31 days). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec decreased from 2.38 ± 0.78 liters to 2.07 ± 0.85 liters (p < 0.001) at presentation, recovered to 2.26 ± 0.82 liters at cessation of ribavirin, and was maintained at 2.31 ± 0.81 liters within 3 months. New-onset bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 1 of 38 patients (2.6%) at 3 months. Anemia worsened in 23 episodes, and de novo anemia developed in 5 episodes. Mean hemoglobin decreased from 118 ± 16 g/liter to 113 ± 21 g/liter (p = 0.015). There were 4 late deaths. Compared with IV therapy, mean drug cost saving was US $6,035 per episode, and mean inpatient bed days was reduced by 6.7 days (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, we report the largest series of LTx recipients treated with oral ribavirin for RSV. Oral ribavirin appears to be an effective, well-tolerated alternative to IV or inhaled ribavirin; provides considerable cost savings and reduces length of hospital stay. Potential long-term benefits in preventing development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction are yet to be determined. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins

    2012-01-01

    To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  14. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children: CT features that predict responsiveness to pulse methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Yoon, H M; Lee, J S; Hwang, J-Y; Cho, Y A; Yoon, H-K; Yu, J; Hong, S-J; Yoon, C H

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy (IPMT) is an important treatment option for post-infectious obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), although it must be used carefully and only in selected patients because of its drawbacks. This study evaluated whether CT and clinical features of children with post-infectious OB can predict their responsiveness to IPMT. We searched the medical records for patients (less than 18 years of age) who were diagnosed with post-infectious OB between January 2000 and December 2011. 17 children who received IPMT were included in this study. All underwent chest CT before and after IPMT. The radiological features seen on pre-treatment CT were recorded. The air-trapping area percentages on pre- and post-treatment CT images were determined. The nine patients who exhibited decreased air trapping on post-treatment CT scans relative to pre-treatment scans were classed as responders. The patient ages and time from initial pneumonia to IPMT were recorded. All responders and only four non-responders had thickened bronchial walls before treatment (p = 0.029). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis or the extent of air trapping, although the responders had a significantly shorter median interval between initial pneumonia and IPMT (4 vs 50 months; p = 0.005) and were significantly younger (median, 2.0 vs 7.5 years; p = 0.048). Immediate IPMT may improve the degree of air trapping in children with post-infectious OB if they show a thickened bronchial wall on CT. Children with post-infectious OB may respond favourably to IPMT when pre-treatment CT indicates bronchial-wall thickening.

  16. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Blood, K Shawn; Panciera, Roger J; Payton, Mark E; Ridpath, Julia F; Confer, Anthony W; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Burge, Lurinda T; Welsh, Ronald D; Johnson, Bill J; Reck, Amy

    2009-07-01

    This study charted 237 fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) observed from May 2002 to May 2003 in a single Oklahoma feed yard. Postmortem lung samples were used for agent identification and histopathology. Late in the study, 94 skin samples (ear notches) were tested for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Bovine respiratory disease morbidity was 14.7%, and the mortality rate of all causes was 1.3%, with more than half (53.8%) attributed to BRD (0.7% total of all causes). The agents isolated were the following: Mannheimia haemolytica (25.0%), Pasteurella multocida (24.5%), Histophilus somni (10.0%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (35.0%), Salmonella spp. (0.5%), and Mycoplasma spp. (71.4%). Viruses recovered by cell culture were BVDV-1a noncytopathic (NCP; 2.7%), BVDV-1a cytopathic (CP) vaccine strain (1.8%), BVDV-1b NCP (2.7%), BVDV-2a NCP (3.2%), BVDV-2b CP (0.5%), and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (2.3%). Gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were 4.6% positive for Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and 10.8% positive for Bovine coronavirus. Bovine viral diarrhea virus IHC testing was positive in 5.3% of the animals. The mean values were determined for the treatment data: fatal disease onset (32.65 days), treatment interval (29.15 days), number of antibiotic treatments (2.65), number of different antibiotics (1.89), and day of death (61.81 days). Lesions included the following: 1) duration: acute (21%), subacute (15%), chronic (40.2%), healing (2.8%), normal (18.1%), and autolyzed (2.8%); 2) type of pneumonia: lobar bronchopneumonia (LBP; 27.1%), LBP with pleuritis (49.1%), interstitial pneumonia (5.1%), bronchointerstitial pneumonia (1.4%), septic (0.9%), embolic foci (0.5%), other (2.8%), normal (10.3%), and autolyzed (2.8%); and 3) bronchiolar lesions: bronchiolitis obliterans (39.7%), bronchiolar necrosis (26.6%), bronchiolitis obliterans/bronchiolar necrosis (1.4%), other bronchiolar lesions (6.5%), and bronchiolar lesion

  17. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, Da

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbitsmore » were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure–volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • A novel rabbit model of chlorine-induced lung disease was

  18. Popcorn-worker lung caused by corporate and regulatory negligence: an avoidable tragedy.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David; Mailloux, Caroline; Valentin, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Diacetyl-containing butter flavor was identified as the cause of an outbreak of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and other lung diseases in popcorn-plant workers. Litigation documents show that the outbreak was both predictable and preventable. The industry trade organization was aware of BO cases in workers at butter-flavoring and popcorn-manufacturing plants but often failed to implement industrial hygiene improvements and actively hid pertinent warning information. Due to weaknesses in the organization and mandates of regulatory bodies, organizations such as NIOSH, OSHA, the FDA, particularly the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) system, and the EPA failed to detect and prevent the outbreak, which highlights the need for systemic changes in food-product regulation, including the need for corporations to act responsibly, for stronger regulations with active enforcement, for a restructuring of the GRAS system, and for criminal penalties against corporations and professionals who knowingly hide information relevant to worker protection.

  19. [Isolated lung transplantation--evaluation of patients and initial results].

    PubMed

    Speich, R; Böhler, A; Zollinger, A; Stocker, R; Vogt, P; Carrel, T; Lang, T; Schmid, R; Stöhr, S; Vogt, P R

    1995-04-22

    Between November 1992 and May 1994 we performed 10 single and 5 double lung transplants in patients with end-stage lung diseases due to lymphangioleiomyomatosis (4), cystic fibrosis (3), pulmonary hypertension (3), pulmonary fibrosis (3) and chronic obstructive lung disease (2). In the 13 patients (87%) surviving for median 245 (19-567) days, FEV1 improved from median 640 ml to 1410 ml and the 12-minute walk distance from median 315 to 1100 meters. 10 patients (77%) enjoy a good or even excellent quality of life. 2 patients died 11 and 62 days postoperatively, due to multi-organ failure and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis respectively. The main postoperative problems are fungal and cytomegalovirus infections and chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans. In Switzerland as elsewhere, lung transplantation has become an established modality for the management of end-stage diseases of the lung and pulmonary circulation.

  20. A 47-Year-Old Man With Fever, Dry Cough, and a Lung Mass After Redo Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Udit; Patil, Pradnya D; Omar, Ashraf; Walia, Rajat; Panchabhai, Tanmay S

    2018-06-01

    A 47-year-old man who was a redo double lung transplant recipient (cytomegalovirus [CMV] status: donor positive/recipient positive; Epstein-Barr virus status: donor positive/recipient positive) presented to the hospital with 1 week of generalized malaise, low-grade fevers, and dry cough. His redo lung transplantation was necessitated by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and his previous lung transplantation 5 years earlier was for silicosis-related progressive massive fibrosis. He denied any difficulty breathing or chest pain. There was no history of GI or urinary symptoms, and the patient had no anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, sick contacts, or history of travel. He had a history of 1 earlier episode of CMV viremia that was treated with valganciclovir. His immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone, and his infection prophylaxis included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, itraconazole, and valganciclovir. Results of a chest radiograph 8 weeks earlier were normal. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission of diacetyl (2,3 butanedione) from natural butter, microwave popcorn butter flavor powder, paste, and liquid products.

    PubMed

    Rigler, Mark W; Longo, William E

    2010-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3 butanedione), a butter-flavored diketone, has been linked to a severe lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans. We tested a total of three natural butters and artificial microwave popcorn butter flavorings (three powders, two pastes, and one liquid) for bulk diacetyl concentration and diacetyl emissions when heated. Pastes and liquid butter flavors contained the highest amount (6% to 10.6%) while natural butter possessed up to 7500 times less diacetyl. All artificial butter flavors studied emitted diacetyl. Dry powders emitted up to 1.62 ppm diacetyl; wetted powders up to 54.7 ppm diacetyl; and pastes emitted up to 34.9 ppm diacetyl. The liquid butter flavor emitted up to 17.2 ppm diacetyl. Microwave popcorn flavoring mixtures emitted up to 11.4 ppm diacetyl. At least 93% of the dry powder particles were inhalable. These studies show that microwave butter flavoring products generate concentrations of diacetyl in the air great enough to endanger those exposed.

  2. The Lung Microbiome After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Julia B.; Poroyko, Valeriy

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lung transplantation survival remains significantly impacted by infections and the development of chronic rejection manifesting as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Traditional microbiologic data has provided insight into the role of infections in BOS. Now, new non-culture-based techniques have been developed to characterize the entire population of microbes resident on the surfaces of the body, also known as the human microbiome. Early studies have identified that lung transplant patients have a different lung microbiome and have demonstrated the important finding that the transplant lung microbiome changes over time. Furthermore, both unique bacterial populations and longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome have now been suggested to play a role in the development of BOS. In the future, this technology will need to be combined with functional assays and assessment of the immune responses in the lung to help further explain the microbiome’s role in the failing lung allograft. PMID:24601662

  3. [Gastro-esophageal reflux and chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Dirou, S; Germaud, P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Magnan, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occurs in association with chronic respiratory diseases although the casual link is not always clear. Several pathophysiological and experimental factors are considered to support a role for GERD in respiratory disease. Conversely, respiratory diseases and bronchodilator treatment can themselves exacerbate GERD. When cough or severe asthma is being investigated, GERD does not need to be systematically looked for and a therapeutic test with proton pump inhibitors is not always recommended. pH impedance monitoring is now the reference diagnostic tool to detect non acid reflux, a form of reflux for which proton pump inhibitor treatment is ineffective. Recent data have shown a potential role of GERD in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation, leading to discussions about the place of surgery in this context. However, studies using pH impedance monitoring are still needed to better understand and manage the association between GERD and chronic respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing epidemiology of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Bahçeci, Semiha; Karaman, Sait; Nacaroğlu, Hikmet Tekin; Yazıcı, Selçuk; Girit, Saniye; Ünsal-Karkıner, Şule; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis again becomes a major health problem due to inappropriate antibiotic use and increasing frequency of protracted bacterial bronchitis. The aim was to determine the changes in etiology of bronchiectasis. Patients who admitted to Behçet Uz Children Hospital between 2005 and 2015 (n=110) were retrospectively examined. The etiology of bronchiectasis was detected as; primary ciliary dyskinesia 26.4%, protracted bacterial bronchitis 22.8%, primary immune deficiency 11.8%, bronchiolitis obliterans 8.2%, lung disease secondary to gastro-esophageal reflux 3.7%, foreign body aspiration 2.7%, tuberculosis %2.7, congenital malformation 1.8% and asthma 1.8%, respectively. In 15.4% of cases, etiology was not identified clearly. 91% of the patients were medically treated. In ten years, the frequency of asthma and tuberculosis in etiology had decreased but primary ciliary dyskinesia and primary immune deficiency had increased. Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis can be followed up for a long time with medical treatment.

  5. LUMBAR SYMPATHECTOMY BY ELECTROCOAGULATION—Its Use in the Management of Certain Vascular and Visceral Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raney, R. B.; Raney, Aidan A.; Silver, Harrison E.

    1954-01-01

    Although normally the sympathetic nerves aid vascular dilatation during effort, in certain diseases of the vascular system they have a reverse effect. Abolition of sympathetic vasoconstrictive impulses by sympathectomy is the most effective treatment in some chronic peripheral vascular conditions. The authors have used electrocoagulation for a number of years and found it quick, effective and more likely to prevent regeneration of the affected nerves. Improvement was obtained by sympathectomy in arteriosclerotic vascular insufficiency, thromboangiitis obliterans, Raynaud's disease, reflex sympathetic dystrophy following thrombophlebitis or trauma, scleroderma, spinal sympathetic dystrophy and acquired megacolon. A case of causalgia was aggravated by the operation. Abstention from the use of tobacco appears to be sufficient for control of symptoms in many cases. Since vasospasm is manifested in many conditions long before a thrombotic catastrophe occurs, not only relief of symptoms but prevention of irreversible changes may be achieved by early operation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:13116029

  6. A new spiral dental implant: a tool for oral rehabilitation of difficult cases.

    PubMed

    Balan, I; Calcaterra, R; Lauritano, D; Grecchi, E; Carinci, F

    2017-01-01

    Spiral dental implant (SDI) is an implant with a conical internal helix that confers the characteristic of self-drilling, self-tapping, and self-bone condensing. These proprieties offer better control during insertion of SDI giving a high primary stabilization, even in poor quality bone. A shorter diameter of SDI results in reduced drilling during insertion and consequently less trauma and minimal bone loss. To address the research purpose, the investigators designed a retrospective cohort study. The study population was composed of 25 patients, 11 males and 14 females that have been treated by Dr. Balan with 187 SDI positioned in mandible and into maxilla bone. The implants were placed during the years 2013 to 2014 in Dr. Balan clinic. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol. Several variables are investigated: demographic (age and gender), anatomic (upper/lower jaws and tooth site), implant (length and diameter and type) variables, edentulism (partial or total), and comorbid status of health (i.e.: hypothyroidism, parodontitis, hypertension, diabetes, presence of cancer, heart disease, hepatitis and rheumatologic disease). Pearson Chi-Square test was used to investigate variables and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistically it has been shown that females have a higher possibility of unsuccessful respect of male, with a "p value" of 0.014. Another important impact factor for success of implant insertion has been represented by concomitants pathologies: cancer represents the most negative high factor risk with a percentage of unsuccessful of 50%, followed by heart disease (15%), and diabetes (3.7%). SDIs are reliable tools for difficult cases of oral rehabilitation. They have a higher success and survival rate, which means stable results over time. No differences were detected among SDI lengths, implant/crown ratio. In addition, the insertion of SDIs in banked bone can be performed without adverse effects. Finally, flapless and

  7. [Significance of skin changes in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, K D; Bär, M

    1990-11-15

    500 patients of a dispensaire of diabetes were inspected dermatologically. 335 patients had a duration of the glucose metabolism intoleration less than 10 years and 165 patients more than 10 years. 215 patients stated a striking family case history according diabetes. 54 per cent (273) of the cases showed an adiposity, 418 patients (83.6 percent) had pathological changes of the skin and mucosal changes. It is clear that dermatomycoses, eczema and pyodermias occur more often with acute metabolic disorder and adiposity. Neurovascular changes of the skin occur with long persistent glucose metabolism intoleration. Bad healing tendencles of wounds, pruritus, intensive dermatomycoses, balanitis, vulvitis, furunculosis and pyodermias are important references to a glucose metabolism intoleration. They should give rise to look for a diabetes irrespective of the age of the patient.

  8. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  9. Constrictive (obliterative) bronchiolitis: diagnosis, etiology, and a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, C; Meyer, C A; Veeraraghavan, S; Koss, M N

    1998-10-01

    Constrictive bronchiolitis (CB) (or obliterative bronchiolitis) designates inflammation and fibrosis occurring predominantly in the walls and contiguous tissues of membranous and respiratory bronchioles, with resultant narrowing of their lumens. It differs from bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia in its histopathology and clinical course. Most cases of CB occur in the setting of organ transplants, particularly lung and heart-lung transplants, but also in bone marrow transplants. Other bona fide cases are rare: infection, particularly viral infection, appears to be a well-documented precursor to CB in children, but not in immunocompetent adults. Constrictive bronchiolitis also has been reported in the course of rheumatoid arthritis, in certain other autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, after inhalation of toxic gases such as nitrogen oxide, after ingestion of certain drugs or medicinal agents such as Sauropus androgynous, and as a cryptogenic illness. Recent reports suggest that CB, as defined by clinical criteria (that is, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome), is very common in lung allograft recipients who survive more than 5 years and, although it is associated with significant mortality, it also can be clinically stable. Furthermore, with the current practice of close monitoring of these patients, it appears that CB may now be diagnosed at an earlier stage, at which resolution, or at least stabilization of progression, is possible. A histopathologic diagnosis of CB in lung transplant and other patients may be difficult to make due to the patchy distribution of lesions, the technical difficulty in obtaining tissue in late lesions with extensive fibrosis, and the failure to recognize lesions. With regard to the last of these, in early stages of disease, CB may be subtle and easily missed in routine hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens, while in advanced stages the disease may be equally difficult to diagnose if the patchy scarring in the lung is

  10. Bone imaging of the heel in Reiter's syndrome. [/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Khalkhali, I.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Wiesner, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Classic Reiter's syndrome, which affects young adult males, is characterized by arthritis, conjunctivitis, and nongonococcal urethritis. Other features of probably equal significance include circinate balanitis, shallow ulcerations of the buccal mucosa, and a dermatitis. Reiter's arthritis is usually asymmetrical and tends to involve lower extremity joints. Talalgia, or heel pain, is an often underrated characteristic feature of the arthritis. With an incidence of 50% talalgia can be localized to either the posterior aspect of the heel or to the plantar surface of the heel. Radiographic alterations in these regions are common in patients with recurrent or chronic disease, but aremore » infrequent or minimal in patients with acute Reiter's syndrome. Recent observation of a young male with Reiter's syndrome suggests that bone imaging may help substantiate this clinical feature before radiography reveals calcaneal spurs.« less

  11. [Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis. The results of the Clínica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) and the Hospital La Fe (Valencia)].

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Carrasco, M T; Morales, P; Ferreiro, M J; Borro, J M; Varela, A; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Estada, J A

    1999-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of cystic fibrosis patients who underwent pulmonary transplantation at Clínica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, and at Hospital La Fe, Valencia. Since the beginning of the programme and until March 1998, a total of 63 patients with cystic fibrosis were studied. Among transplanted patients, 18 were males and 16 females, with a mean age of 18.9 years. All patients underwent sequential bilateral pulmonary transplantation. After transplantation, the most common complication was bacterial pneumonia which affected all patients. Six patients had dehiscence or stenosis of the bronchial suture. Other specific complications of this condition by frequency were intestinal obstruction and diabetes mellitus. Six patients developed obliterans bronchiolitis and one of them underwent a repeat transplantation. Three out of the 34 patients died, and the likelihood of survival after one and three years was 94%. Respiratory function tests and PaO2 peaked at sixth post-transplantation month. Pulmonary transplantation is a therapeutic option to be considered for the patient with cystic fibrosis and severe involvement of his/her pulmonary disease.

  12. [Application of selection criteria in sequential double lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Borro, J M; Tarazona, V; Vicente, R; Cafarena, J M; Ramos, F; Sales, G; Galán, G; Lozano, C; Morant, P; Calvo, V; Morcillo, A; París, F

    1999-03-01

    Since the first sequential double lung transplant was performed in 1986, such procedures have been increasing in number and the criteria used as indications for this type of surgery have broadened. Our aim was to reflect on the application of selection criteria and to describe the anesthetic and surgical techniques and postoperative follow-up of 72 patients who underwent this type of transplant surgery between March 1993 and December 1998. Actuarial survival five years after surgery was 74.4%. Among patients requiring transplantation after septic disease, actuarial survival was 90.8% for cystic fibrosis and 88.2% for bronchiectasis. Of the preoperative risk factors analyzed (prior surgery, pachypleuritis, multiresistant germs, poor nutrition, mechanical ventilation and corticoid therapy), only prior treatment with high doses of corticoids proved significant. Eleven patients have been diagnosed of bronchiolitis obliterans, four have died and only two continue to experience difficulties in daily living. The high survival rate and the restriction-free life after recovery lead us to consider sequential double lung transplantation to be the treatment of choice for all pulmonary diseases.

  13. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from an unrecognized puncture of the lumbar right segmental artery during lumbar chemical sympathectomy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Jin; Choi, Yun-Mi; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sun-Jae; Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Lumbar chemical sympathectomy has been performed using fluoroscopic guidance for needle positioning. An 84 year old woman with atherosclerosis obliterans was referred to the pain clinic for intractable cold allodynia of her right foot. A thermogram showed decreased temperature of both feet compared with temperatures above both ankles. The patient agreed to undergo lumbar chemical sympathectomy using fluoroscopy after being informed of the associated risks of nerve injury, hemorrhage, infection, transient back pain, and transient hypotension. During the procedure and three hours afterward, no abnormal signs or symptoms were found except an increase in right leg temperature. The patient was ambulatory after the procedure. However, one day after undergoing lumbar chemical sympathectomy, she visited our emergency department for abdominal discomfort and postural dizziness. Her blood pressure was 80/50 mmHg, and flank tenderness was noted. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from the second right lumbar segmental artery was shown on computed tomography and angiography. Vital signs were stabilized immediately after embolization into the right lumbar segmental artery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Esophageal Dysmotility, Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease, and Lung Transplantation: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Lung transplantation is an effective and life-prolonging therapy for patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). However, long-term patient survival following lung transplantation is primarily limited by development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process involving the lung allograft known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although the precise cause of BOS remains uncertain and is likely multifactorial, chronic aspiration of gastro-duodenal contents is one possible contributing factor. Multiple small, cross-sectional studies performed over the past two decades have reported a high prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility in the ALD population and several investigations suggest the prevalence may increase following lung transplantation. More recent studies evaluating the direct effect of gastro-duodenal contents on airways have demonstrated a possible biologic link between GERD and BOS. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of BOS, further investigations are needed to establish GERD as a causative factor in its development. This review will discuss the existing literature that has identified an association of GERD with ALD and post-transplant populations, with a focus on recent advances in the field.

  15. Special considerations in pediatric lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Audrey; Faro, Albert

    2006-10-01

    More than 1300 lung or heart-lung transplants have been performed in children to date, resulting in many years of improved quality of life. Increasing experience has demonstrated that this therapy is unique and differs from adult lung transplantation in terms of indications, complications, pharmacokinetics, and monitoring. Unlike adult lung transplant recipients, cystic fibrosis and pulmonary vascular disease are very common indications. Complications such as graft dysfunction and bronchiolitis obliterans occur similarly in children as in adults, but others such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, growth retardation, respiratory tract infections, and medical nonadherence appear to be more common in pediatric lung transplant recipients. In addition, infants and adolescents are two very distinct populations that require special attention. Although the new lung allocation system grants some preference to children, donor shortage remains a limiting factor. Living donor lobar transplantation is an alternative for select candidates. Survival rates are similar between adult and pediatric transplant recipients. Support for collaborative studies is critical if we are to improve long-term outcomes for our young patients.

  16. A new spiral dental implant: a tool for oral rehabilitation of difficult cases

    PubMed Central

    BALAN, I.; CALCATERRA, R.; LAURITANO, D.; GRECCHI, E.; CARINCI, F.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Spiral dental implant (SDI) is an implant with a conical internal helix that confers the characteristic of self-drilling, self-tapping, and self-bone condensing. These proprieties offer better control during insertion of SDI giving a high primary stabilization, even in poor quality bone. A shorter diameter of SDI results in reduced drilling during insertion and consequently less trauma and minimal bone loss. To address the research purpose, the investigators designed a retrospective cohort study. The study population was composed of 25 patients, 11 males and 14 females that have been treated by Dr. Balan with 187 SDI positioned in mandible and into maxilla bone. The implants were placed during the years 2013 to 2014 in Dr. Balan clinic. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol. Several variables are investigated: demographic (age and gender), anatomic (upper/lower jaws and tooth site), implant (length and diameter and type) variables, edentulism (partial or total), and comorbid status of health (i.e.: hypothyroidism, parodontitis, hypertension, diabetes, presence of cancer, heart disease, hepatitis and rheumatologic disease). Pearson Chi-Square test was used to investigate variables and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistically it has been shown that females have a higher possibility of unsuccessful respect of male, with a “p value” of 0.014. Another important impact factor for success of implant insertion has been represented by concomitants pathologies: cancer represents the most negative high factor risk with a percentage of unsuccessful of 50%, followed by heart disease (15%), and diabetes (3.7%). SDIs are reliable tools for difficult cases of oral rehabilitation. They have a higher success and survival rate, which means stable results over time. No differences were detected among SDI lengths, implant/crown ratio. In addition, the insertion of SDIs in banked bone can be performed without adverse effects. Finally

  17. Assessing Postural Control and Postural Control Strategy in Diabetes Patients Using Innovative and Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Bijan; Horn, Deena; Marclay, Samuel; Crews, Ryan T.; Wu, Stephanie; Wrobel, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Currently, diagnosis of patients with postural instability relies on a rudimentary clinical examination. This article suggests an innovative, portable, and cost-effective prototype to evaluate balance control objectively. Methods The proposed system uses low-cost, microelectromechanical sensor, body-worn sensors (BalanSens™) to measure the motion of ankle and hip joints in three dimensions. We also integrated resulting data into a two-link biomechanical model of the human body for estimating the two-dimensional sway of the center of mass (COM) in anterior–posterior (AP) and medial–lateral (ML) directions. A new reciprocal compensatory index (RCI) was defined to quantify postural compensatory strategy (PCS) performance. To validate the accuracy of our algorithms in assessing balance, we investigated the two-dimensional sway of COM and RCI in 21 healthy subjects and 17 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic (DPN) complications using the system just explained. Two different conditions were examined: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) for duration of at least 30 seconds. Results were compared with center of pressure sway (COP) as measured by a pressure platform (Emed-x system, Novel Inc., Germany). To further investigate the contribution of the somatosensory (SOM) feedback to balance control, healthy subjects performed EO and EC trials while standing on both a rigid and a foam surface. Results A relatively high correlation was observed between COM measured using BalanSens and COP measured using the pressure platform (r = 0.92). Results demonstrated that DPN patients exhibit significantly greater COM sway than healthy subjects for both EO and EC conditions (p < 0.005). The difference becomes highly pronounced while eyes are closed (197 ± 44 cm2 vs 68 ± 56 cm2). Furthermore, results showed that PCS assessed using RCI is significantly better in healthy subjects compared to DPN subjects for both EO and EC conditions, as well as in both ML and

  18. THE PROS AND CONS OF ROUTINE CIRCUMCISION

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Deron

    1951-01-01

    The origin of the practice of circumcision is an ancient one having a ritual significance in most cases, but the operation is done primarily for hygienic purposes amongst English-speaking people. Critical evaluation of the indication for circumcision suggests that the hygienic principles are probably overrated. If it were understood that the anatomy of the prepuce and glans has a morphological development which in most cases removes the possibility of phimosis after the third year, less emphasis would be placed on the necessity for the operation. On the other hand, the feeling exists that boys who will require circumcision because of phimosis, balanitis, etc., should not be subjected to the operation at the age when psychological trauma can result. Convention and conformity demand the continuation of the procedure in many areas. The decision to circumcise remains a matter of individual preference as prescribed in the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:14886736

  19. A Case Report of Penile Infection Caused by Fluconazole- and Terbinafine-Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxuan; Hu, Yanqing; Lu, Yan; Huang, Shiyun; Liu, Kangxing; Han, Xue; Mao, Zuhao; Wu, Zhong; Zhou, Xianyi

    2017-04-01

    Candida albicans is the most common pathogen that causes balanoposthitis. It often causes recurrence of symptoms probably due to its antifungal resistance. A significant number of balanitis Candida albicans isolates are resistant to azole and terbinafine antifungal agents in vitro. However, balanoposthitis caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans has rarely been reported. Here, we describe a case of a recurrent penile infection caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans, as well as the treatments administered to this patient. The isolate from the patient was tested for drug susceptibility in vitro. It was sensitive to itraconazole, voriconazole, clotrimazole and amphotericin B, but not to terbinafine and fluconazole. Thus, oral itraconazole was administrated to this patient with resistant Candida albicans penile infection. The symptoms were improved, and mycological examination result was negative. Follow-up treatment of this patient for 3 months showed no recurrence.

  20. Classification of corkscrew collaterals in thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease): relationship between corkscrew type and prevalence of ischemic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuichi; Soga, Junko; Nakamura, Shuji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Hata, Takaki; Idei, Naomi; Fujimura, Noritaka; Nishioka, Kenji; Chayama, Kazuaki; Kihara, Yasuki; Higashi, Yukihito

    2010-08-01

    A corkscrew collateral appearance on angiography is one of the diagnostic criteria for Buerger's disease. The purpose of the present study was to classify the angiographic findings of corkscrew collaterals and to evaluate the relationship between corkscrew collateral type and the severity of Buerger's disease. Corkscrew collaterals were assessed on digital subtraction angiography in lower extremities of 28 patients with Buerger's disease (55 limbs). The corkscrew sign was classified into 4 types by size and pattern as follows: type I, artery diameter >2 mm, large helical sign; type II, diameter >1.5 mm and or=1 mm and

  1. Tools to support maintenance strategies under soft soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; van Meerten, J. J.; Woning, M. P.; Eijbersen, M. J.; Huber, M.

    2015-11-01

    Costs for maintenance of infrastructure in municipalities with soft soil underground conditions, are estimated to be almost 40 % higher than in others. As a result, these municipalities meet financial problems that cause overdue maintenance. In some cases municipalities are even afraid to be unable to offer a minimum service level in future. In common, traditional practice, roads and sewerage systems have been constructed in trenches that consist of sandy material that replaces the upper meters of the soft soil. Under influence of its weight, this causes accelerated settlements of the construction. A number of alternative constructions have been developed, e.g. using light-weight materials to limit settlement velocity. In order to limit future maintenance costs, improvement of maintenance strategies is desired. Tools have been and will be developed to support municipalities in improving their maintenance strategies and save money by doing that. A model (BALANS) that weighs the attractiveness of alternative solutions under different soil, environmental and economic circumstances, will be presented.

  2. A Salvage Operation for Total Penis Amputation Due to Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Gundeslioglu, Ayse Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:23730602

  3. Evaluation of plasma, erythrocytes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid antioxidant defense system in sulfur mustard-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahvash; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2010-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong alkylating agent that causes acute and chronic effects on different organs following exposure. Main late respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, asthma, and bronchiolitis obliterans. It seems that oxidative stress plays a major role in pathogenesis of diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term effect of SM on plasma, erythrocytes, and brochoalveolar lavage fluid antioxidant defense system in SM-injured patients. Brochoalveolar lavage fluid, plasma, and erythrocyte samples were taken from 54 patients in the case group exposed to SM and 25 controls with chronic respiratory disease without a history of exposure to SM. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in lavage fluid, plasma, and erythrocytes were significantly higher in case group. The increased glutathione S-transferase activity in lavage fluid was associated with a depletion of glutathione and an increase of malondialdehyde levels. There was no significant change observed in glutathione reductase activity. The data suggest that oxidative damage might have an important role for patients exposed to SM. SM may induce an oxidative stress response by depleting the antioxidant defense systems and increasing lipid peroxidation in lung cells.

  4. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ezequiel J; Short, Scott; Monteiro, Glen; Gaughan, John P; Macha, Mahender

    2009-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation (LTX). We attempted to identify outcomes in LTX recipients with clinical evidence of GERD. Retrospective review of 162 LTX recipients at our institution between January 1994 and June 2006 was performed. GERD was confirmed in symptomatic patients by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and/or esophagography. Occurrence of biopsy-proven obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival and Cox proportional hazard analysis of risk factors were performed. GERD was diagnosed in 21 (13%) of patients, usually following LTX (71%). There was no difference in mean survival (1603 +/- 300 vs. 1422 +/- 131 days; log rank P > 0.05), or development of OB (5% vs. 6%, respectively; P > 0.05) in patients with GERD compared with patients without GERD. However, there was correlation between GERD and BOS (P = 0.01). Symptomatic GERD is increased following LTX. Patients with symptomatic GERD demonstrated an increased incidence of BOS, but survival was not affected in this study. More sensitive and specific diagnostic tools should be implemented in all LTX recipients to investigate the impact of symptomatic and silent GERD and thus improve outcomes after LTX.

  5. HIV-related chronic lung disease in adolescents: are we prepared for the future?

    PubMed

    Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert P

    2017-12-01

    Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review CLD in ALHIV. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases focusing on CLD that were common prior to the introduction of ART (1996-2004), the present situation where ART is widely available (2005 to 2016), and articles which aided us speculating on the impact of HIV-related CLD in adolescents transitioning to adult HIV-clinics. Amongst the approximately 2.1 million adolescents living with HIV, CLD commonly occurs. Awareness of the CLD amongst ALHIV needs to be raised to ensure that disease appropriate treatment is available to these vulnerable adolescents. Expert commentary: As adolescents' transition from pediatric HIV-clinics to adult HIV-clinics the evidence shows that adolescents might not receive optimal care if adult pulmonologists are not aware of the CLD that commonly occur in ALHIV.

  6. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) mimicking recurrent bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Syed, Uzma; Mikail, Nardeen

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogen, host factors, and immune status, CAPs resolve on chest x-rays at different rates. CAPs that resolve more slowly than expected, or not at all, are termed "slowly or non-resolving CAPs." In contrast, recurrent CAPs may be due to host defense defects (eg, multiple myelomas) or post-obstructive bronchogenic carcinomas. There are a variety of noninfectious disorders that may mimic CAPs on chest x-ray: alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary drug reactions, radiation pneumonitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, bronchogenic carcinomas, and lymphomas. Noninfectious mimics of recurrent CAPs include congestive heart failure, pulmonary emboli, infarctions, sarcoidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus pneumonitis. We present the case of a middle-aged man who presented with recurrent right middle lobe and right lower lobe CAPs. Diagnostic bronchoscopy showed no bronchial obstruction, but open lung biopsy showed bronchoalveolar carcinoma (well-differentiated adenocarcinoma). Bronchoalveolar carcinomas presenting as post-obstructive or recurrent CAPs are rare because the spread is along tissue planes and not endobronchially. The case described demonstrates a rare cause of bronchogenic carcinoma mimicking recurrent CAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary Impairment and Risk Assessment in a Diacetyl-Exposed Population: Microwave Popcorn Workers.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Gilbert, Stephen J

    2018-06-01

    The butter flavoring additive, diacetyl (DA), can cause bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) by inhalation. A risk assessment was performed using data from a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant. Current employees' medical history and pulmonary function tests together with air sampling over a 2.7-year period were used to analyze forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC). The exposure responses for declining pulmonary function and for possible early onset of BO were estimated using multiple regression methods. Several exposure metrics were investigated; benchmark dose and excess lifetime risk of impairment were calculated. Forty-six percent of the population had less than 6 months exposure to DA. Percent-of-predicted FEV1 declined with cumulative exposure (0.40 per ppm-yr, P < 10) as did percent FEV1/FVC (0.13 per ppm-yr, P = 0.0004). Lifetime respiratory impairment prevalence of one per thousand resulted from 0.005 ppm DA and one per thousand lifetime incidence of impairment was predicted for 0.002 ppm DA. DA exposures, often exceeding 1 ppm in the past, place workers at high risk of pulmonary impairment.

  8. IL-17–dependent cellular immunity to collagen type V predisposes to obliterative bronchiolitis in human lung transplants

    PubMed Central

    Burlingham, William J.; Love, Robert B.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Haynes, Lynn D.; Xu, Qingyong; Bobadilla, Joseph L.; Meyer, Keith C.; Hayney, Mary S.; Braun, Ruedi K.; Greenspan, Daniel S.; Gopalakrishnan, Bagavathi; Cai, Junchao; Brand, David D.; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Cummings, Oscar W.; Wilkes, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a process of fibro-obliterative occlusion of the small airways in the transplanted lung, is the most common cause of lung transplant failure. We tested the role of cell-mediated immunity to collagen type V [col(V)] in this process. PBMC responses to col(II) and col(V) were monitored prospectively over a 7-year period. PBMCs from lung transplant recipients, but not from healthy controls or col(IV)-reactive Goodpasture’s syndrome patients after renal transplant, were frequently col(V) reactive. Col(V)-specific responses were dependent on both CD4+ T cells and monocytes and required both IL-17 and the monokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Strong col(V)-specific responses were associated with substantially increased incidence and severity of BOS. Incidences of acute rejection, HLA-DR mismatched transplants, and induction of HLA-specific antibodies in the transplant recipient were not as strongly associated with a risk of BOS. These data suggest that while alloimmunity initiates lung transplant rejection, de novo autoimmunity mediated by col(V)-specific Th17 cells and monocyte/macrophage accessory cells ultimately causes progressive airway obliteration. PMID:17965778

  9. Cannabis-associated arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Limited mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis: reasons, ramifications, and remedies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2017-07-01

    Limited mouth opening (LMO) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been attributed to both the submucosal and muscle fibrosis (MF). While reflectory trismus was proposed before as an auxiliary mechanism by another group, the stretch-mediated muscle damage (MSD), histopathological changes in blood vessels (such as endothelial dysfunction, endothelial hypertrophy, and endarteritis obliterans), and upregulated anaerobic isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been proposed by us as complementary events leading to MF. Additionally, the amount of hypoxia-mediated upregulation of anaerobic isoforms of LDH determines the extent of MF. Radiotherapy (RT)-mediated release of reactive oxygen species causes vascular damage thereby worsening hypoxia. While the alteration in LDH levels secondary to hypoxia enhances fibrosis, RT worsens it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the background of OSF is an absolute contraindication for RT as it augurs unfavorable prognosis. An algorithm to demonstrate this with evidence is clearly depicted. The role of HIF-1α in the progression of OSF and its malignant transformation, and the consideration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a therapeutic remedy in OSF are underscored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Leveque-El mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A.; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D.; Lineburg, Katie E.; Teal, Bianca E.; Alexander, Kylie A.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Hill, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. PMID:27338097

  12. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus: A Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Multiorgan Syndrome or Autoimmune Multiorganopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL. PMID:23316398

  13. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Is the algorithm used to process heart rate variability data clinically relevant? Analysis in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soares, Antonio Henrique Germano; Farah, Breno Quintella; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo José Albanez; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    cardiovascular adolescentes do gênero masculino. Estudo transversal, que incluiu 1.152 adolescentes do gênero masculino (14 a 19 anos). Componentes de baixa e alta frequência (absolutos e unidades normalizadas), razão componente de baixa frequência/componente de alta frequência e poder total da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foram obtidos em repouso, na posição supina, usando os métodos transformada rápida de Fourier e autorregressivo. Todos os parâmetros da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca para ambos os métodos foram diferentes (p<0,05). Entretanto, um pequeno tamanho do efeito (<0,1) foi observado para todos os parâmetros. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse entre os métodos variaram de 0,96 a 0,99, enquanto os coeficientes de variação foram de 7,4 a 14,8%. A circunferência abdominal foi negativamente associada com o componente de alta frequência, e positivamente associada com o componente de baixa frequência e o balanço simpatovagal (p<0,001 para a transformada rápida de Fourier e o autorregressivo em todas as associações). A pressão arterial sistólica foi negativamente associada com o poder total e o componente de alta frequência, enquanto foi positivamente associada com o componente de baixa frequência e o balanço simpatovagal (p<0,001 para a transformada rápida de Fourier e o autorregressivo em todas as associações). O índice de massa corporal foi negativamente associado com o componente de alta frequência, enquanto foi positivamente associado com o componente de baixa frequência e o balanço simpatovagal (valores de p variando de <0,001 a 0,007). Houve diferenças significantes nos parâmetros da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca obtidos com os métodos transformada rápida de Fourier e autorregressivo em adolescentes masculinos, mas essas diferenças não foram clinicamente significativas.

  15. Airway obstruction related to diacetyl exposure at microwave popcorn production facilities.

    PubMed

    Lockey, J E; Hilbert, T J; Levin, L P; Ryan, P H; White, K L; Borton, E K; Rice, C H; McKay, R T; LeMasters, G K

    2009-07-01

    Obstructive lung diseases including bronchiolitis obliterans have been reported among microwave popcorn production employees. Butter flavourings including diacetyl have been associated with these findings. The present study was initiated at four microwave popcorn production plants to determine if exposure to diacetyl was associated with decrements in pulmonary function. Comprehensive diacetyl exposure assessment was undertaken for all job tasks. Spirometry was conducted for 765 full-time employees between 2005 and 2006. Outcomes included decrement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) % predicted, airway obstruction and persistent decline in FEV(1). Inclusion in the high-exposure group (mixers) prior to respirator use was associated with a significantly decreased FEV(1) % pred in non-Asian and Asian males at -6.1 and -11.8% pred, respectively, and an eight-fold increased risk for airway obstruction. Cumulative diacetyl exposure >or=0.8 ppm-yr caused similar results. No significant impact was seen in nonmixers or between current diacetyl exposure and persistent decline in FEV(1). Unprotected exposure as a mixer to butter flavouring including diacetyl resulted in decrements in FEV(1) (% pred) and increased airway obstruction. Control of employee exposure to butter flavouring additives is warranted in regard to both short-term peak and 8-h workday exposure.

  16. Angioscopic assessment of various percutaneous treatments for arteriosclerosis obliterance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaba, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shiraishi, Shohzo; Sato, Takashi; Koga, Nobuhiko

    1993-06-01

    We have evaluated the angioscopic findings before and after various percutaneous techniques to treat 39 lesions in 32 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). We applied a laser (CL50: SLT, Japan), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and atherectomy -- either singly or in combination, with angioscopic luminal observation (angioscope: PF14L & PF18L Olympus, Japan) recorded before and after the treatments. In the case of a complete obstruction, we employed PTA as the first choice. We used a laser prior to PTA when the PTA guide-wire failed to penetrate the lumen. For eccentric and calcified lesions atherectomy was applied. A sufficient enlargement was obtained initially in 37 of the 39 lesions. The angioscopic observations after treatment revealed carbonization (3/5) and attachment of small thrombi (3/5) after using the laser, intimal rupture (3/8), dissection (2/8), flap formation (2/8), and attachment of small thrombi (4/8) after PTA, and attachment of small thrombi (9/19), flap formation (6/19), and dissection (2/19) after atherectomy. We established the efficacy of angioscopic assessment demonstrating beneficial clinical results. The angioscopic findings suggest that attachment of small thrombi may be responsible for a poor prognosis. Additional angioscopic observations with angiography are recommended for improved understanding of the luminal changes.

  17. Pathophysiology and classification of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Morvern Isabel; Pither, Thomas Leonard

    2017-01-01

    The term primary graft dysfunction (PGD) incorporates a continuum of disease severity from moderate to severe acute lung injury (ALI) within 72 h of lung transplantation. It represents the most significant obstacle to achieving good early post-transplant outcomes, but is also associated with increased incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) subsequently. PGD is characterised histologically by diffuse alveolar damage, but is graded on clinical grounds with a combination of PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) and the presence of radiographic infiltrates, with 0 being absence of disease and 3 being severe PGD. The aetiology is multifactorial but commonly results from severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), with tissue-resident macrophages largely responsible for stimulating a secondary ‘wave’ of neutrophils and lymphocytes that produce severe and widespread tissue damage. Donor history, recipient health and operative factors may all potentially contribute to the likelihood of PGD development. Work that aims to minimise the incidence of PGD in ongoing, with techniques such as ex vivo perfusion of donor lungs showing promise both in research and in clinical studies. This review will summarise the current clinical status of PGD before going on to discuss its pathophysiology, current therapies available and future directions for clinical management of PGD. PMID:29268419

  18. SciTech Connect

    Poulou, Loukia S., E-mail: ploukia@hotmail.com; Tsangaridou, Iris; Filippoussis, Petros

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a nonneoplastic, noninfectious lung disease with a diverse spectrum of imaging abnormalities and nonspecific symptoms diagnosed by open lung biopsy, transbroncial biopsy, and/or video-assisted thoracoscopy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the role of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy in early diagnosis of the disorder. Fourteen BOOP cases diagnosed by CT-guided biopsy were analyzed in terms of imaging abnormalities and complication rate. All had previously undergone a nondiagnostic procedure (bronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage) to exclude infection or lung cancer. The most common imaging abnormalities in descending order were bilateral consolidationsmore » (5/14), unilateral tumor-like lesions (5/14), unilateral consolidations (3/14), and diffuse reticular pattern (1/14). Coexistent abnormalities (pleural effusions, nodules, ground-glass opacities) were observed in five patients. The complication rate was 4 of 14 (28.6%), including 2 cases of subclinical pneumothorax and 1 case of minor hemoptysis and local lung injury. None required intervention. We conclude that transthoracic CT-guided biopsy may be used in the diagnosis of BOOP in selected patients with mild complications. For the focal consolidation nodule/mass imaging pattern, CT-guided biopsy may prove to be a reasonable alternative to more invasive procedures.« less

  19. Lung transplantation in infants and toddlers from 1990 to 2004 at St. Louis Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Elizur, A; Faro, A; Huddleston, C B; Gandhi, S K; White, D; Kuklinski, C A; Sweet, S C

    2009-04-01

    In a retrospective, single-center cohort study, outcomes of infants and toddlers undergoing lung transplant at St. Louis Children's Hospital between 1990 and 2004 were compared to older children. Patients with cystic fibrosis (exclusively older children) and those who underwent heart-lung, liver-lung, single lung or a second transplantation were excluded from comparisons. One hundred nine lung transplants were compared. Thirty-six were in infants <1 year old, 26 in toddlers 1-3 years old and 47 in children >3 years old. Graft survival was similar for infants and toddlers (p = 0.35 and p = 0.3, respectively) compared to children over 3 years old at 1 and 3 years after transplant. Significantly more infants (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003) and toddlers (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03) were free from acute rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans compared to older patients. While most infants and toddlers had only minimal lung function impairment, and achieved normal to mildly delayed developmental scores, somatic growth remained depressed 5 years after transplant. Lung transplantation in infants and young children carries similar survival rates to older children and adults. Further insights into the unique immunologic aspects of this group of patients may elucidate strategies to prevent acute and chronic rejection in all age groups.

  20. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: lung.

    PubMed

    Valapour, M; Skeans, M A; Heubner, B M; Smith, J M; Hertz, M I; Edwards, L B; Cherikh, W S; Callahan, E R; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    Lungs are allocated to adult and adolescent transplant candidates (aged ⩾ 12 years) on the basis of age, geography, blood type compatibility, and the lung allocation score (LAS), which reflects risk of waitlist mortality and probability of posttransplant survival. In 2013, the most adult candidates, 2394, of any year were added to the list. Overall median waiting time for candidates listed in 2013 was 4.0 months. The preferred procedure remained bilateral lung transplant, representing approximately 70% of lung transplants in 2013. Measures of short-term and longterm survival have plateaued since the implementation of the LAS in 2005. The number of new child candidates (aged 0-11 years) added to the lung transplant waiting list increased to 39 in 2013. A total of 28 lung transplants were performed in child recipients, 3 for ages younger than 1 year, 9 for ages 1 to 5 years, and 16 for ages 6 to 11 years. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was associated with higher survival rates than cystic fibrosis or other diagnosis (pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchopulmonary dysplasia). For child candidates, infection was the leading cause of death in year 1 posttransplant and graft failure in years 2 to 5. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Long-term outcomes and management of lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joseph; Benvenuto, Luke J; Sonett, Joshua R

    2017-06-01

    Lung transplantation is an established treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. Improvements in immunosuppression and therapeutic management of infections have resulted in improved long-term survival and a decline in allograft rejection. Allograft rejection continues to be a serious complication following lung transplantation, thereby leading to acute graft failure and, subsequently, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the most common phenotype of CLAD, is the leading cause of late mortality and morbidity in lung recipients, with 50% having developed BOS within 5 years of lung transplantation. Infections in lung transplant recipients are also a significant complication and represent the most common cause of death within the first year. The success of lung transplantation depends on careful management of immunosuppressive regimens to reduce the rate of rejection, while monitoring recipients for infections and complications to help identify problems early. The long-term outcomes and management of lung transplant recipients are critically based on modulating natural immune response of the recipient to prevent acute and chronic rejection. Understanding the immune mechanisms and temporal correlation of acute and chronic rejection is thus critical in the long-term management of lung recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Host-microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clémence; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Lepage, Patricia; Andréjak, Claire; de Blic, Jacques; Bourdin, Arnaud; Brouard, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Deslée, Gaetan; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; Touqui, Lhousseine; Dusser, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans). These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host-microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses) interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  3. CXCR3 chemokine ligands during respiratory viral infections predict lung allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Weigt, S S; Derhovanessian, A; Liao, E; Hu, S; Gregson, A L; Kubak, B M; Saggar, R; Saggar, R; Plachevskiy, V; Fishbein, M C; Lynch, J P; Ardehali, A; Ross, D J; Wang, H-J; Elashoff, R M; Belperio, J A

    2012-02-01

    Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARV) can accelerate the development of lung allograft dysfunction, but the immunologic mechanisms are poorly understood. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its chemokine ligands, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have roles in the immune response to viruses and in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, the predominant manifestation of chronic lung allograft rejection. We explored the impact of CARV infection on CXCR3/ligand biology and explored the use of CXCR3 chemokines as biomarkers for subsequent lung allograft dysfunction. Seventeen lung transplant recipients with CARV infection had bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) available for analysis. For comparison, we included 34 BALF specimens (2 for each CARV case) that were negative for infection and collected at a duration posttransplant similar to a CARV case. The concentration of each CXCR3 chemokine was increased during CARV infection. Among CARV infected patients, a high BALF concentration of either CXCL10 or CXCL11 was predictive of a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 6 months later. CXCR3 chemokine concentrations provide prognostic information and this may have important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies to modify outcomes after CARV infection. © 2011 American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. 028. Migratory pneumonia—cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)

    PubMed Central

    Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Ioannidou, Despoina; Papadaki, Elena; Organtzis, Ioannis; Kostanta, Soultana; Papaioannou, Antonis; Moumtzi, Despoina; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Fouka, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    In this study were presented the clinical and laboratory findings of eight patients with migratory pneumonia, who were hospitalised in our clinic. It is about eight women with average age of 58±13 years with fever, weakness, dry cough, shortness of breath and who already had received antibiotics. Crackles were the most frequent evidence by the auscultation. All patients showed consolidation in chest radiography which resolved completely from the initial area and migrated in different areas. The chest HRCT showed opacity with air bronchogram and ground glass in places. Regarding to the respiratory function, patients showed mild restriction disorder (average values ± SD: FEV1% 83±24, FVC% 86±21, TLC% 82±16, DLco% 74±15). The average price of pO2 was 68+7 mmHg. The findings of BAL were: macrophages 51%±20%, lymphocytes 33.5%±14%, neutrophils 7.5%±3%, eosinophils 7%±8%. From diagnosis, we excluded eosinophilic pneumonia, infectious causes, collagen diseases and vasculitis. The findings of physical examination, chest radiography and the results of the BAL of all of the patients argued for Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), the cause of which was not found (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia-COP). All patients responded directly to corticosteroids.

  5. Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Jhang, Won-Kyoung; Park, Seong-Jong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Kim, Sun-A; Jang, Se Jin

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23772158

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Paramyxovirus Infections in Lung Transplant Recipients Treated With Oral Ribavirin: A Two-Center Case Series.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bryan; Sharma, Nirmal; Johnson, Kevin; Salgado, Juan; Wille, Keith

    2017-10-31

    Paramyxoviruses contribute to morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Oral ribavirin has been used off-label for treatment of paramyxoviruses in immunosuppressed patients; however, data supporting its use for this purpose are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review to evaluate clinical outcomes of lung transplant recipients infected with paramyxoviruses and received treatment with oral ribavirin at 2 tertiary referral centers. Patients who were diagnosed with paramyxovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction testing between January 2011 and December 2014 and who received oral ribavirin were included. Clinical outcomes included pulmonary function testing, infection severity, and adverse events related to treatment. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with a paramyxovirus and received oral ribavirin. The changes in mean forced expiratory volume 1 second from preinfection to infection onset and from infection onset to postinfection were significant (1.79 ± 0.13 to 1.61 ± 0.12 L and 1.61 ± 0.12L to 1.74 ± 0.12 L; P = .0001). Similar results were seen in subgroup analysis when respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza infections were evaluated independently. Use of oral ribavirin for treatment of paramyxovirus infections in lung transplant recipients was safe and associated with recovery of lung function.

  7. The role of soluble and insoluble gastric fluid components in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis in rat lung allografts.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jason H; Chang, Jui-Chih; Bell, Sadé M; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Thomas, Samantha M; Everett, Mary Lou; Parker, William; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

    2016-02-01

    Repetitive gastric fluid aspirations have been shown to lead to obliterans bronchiolitis (OB), but the component or components of gastric fluid that are responsible are unknown. This study investigates the role of particulates and, separately, soluble material in gastric fluid during the development of OB. Whole gastric fluid (WGF) was collected from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats and separated by centrifugation into particle reduced gastric fluid (PRGF) and particulate components resuspended in normal saline (PNS). Orthotopic left lung transplants from male Wistar-Kyoto rats into F344 rats were performed using a modification of the nonsuture external cuff technique with prolonged cold ischemia. Rats were subjected to weekly aspiration of 0.5 ml/kg of WGF (n = 9), PRGF (n = 10), PNS (n = 9), or normal saline (control, NS; n = 9) for 8 weeks following transplantation. Lung allografts treated with WGF, PRGF, or PNS developed a significantly greater percentage of OB-like lesions compared with the control. No statistical difference was observed when comparing the fibrosis grades or the percentage of OB lesions of WGF, PRGF, and PNS groups, suggesting that both soluble and insoluble components of gastric fluid can promote the development of aspiration-induced OB and fibrosis in lung allografts. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients.

    PubMed

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Goosheh, Hassan; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Saber, Hamid; Salehi, Maryam; Jafari, Mahvash; Imani, Saber; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed cases compared to healthy controls. In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23) compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003). Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5). Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  9. Pepsin and Bile Acid Concentrations in Sputum of Mustard Gas Exposed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Goosheh, Hassan; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Saber, Hamid; Salehi, Maryam; Jafari, Mahvash; Imani, Saber; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23) compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003). Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls (P = 0.5). Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients. PMID:23680709

  10. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Hashemi-Bajgani, Seyed-Mehdi; Karbasi, Asharaf; Jafari, Mahvash; Aslani, Jafar; Salehi, Maryam; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Conclusion: Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment. PMID:23798946

  11. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder.

    PubMed

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Hashemi-Bajgani, Seyed-Mehdi; Karbasi, Asharaf; Jafari, Mahvash; Aslani, Jafar; Salehi, Maryam; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-08-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment.

  12. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Seed, W A

    1980-01-01

    We described three cases of eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically and by lung biopsy. The illnesses lasted between six and 20 weeks and consisted of cough, dyspnoea, malaise, and in two cases prolonged pyrexia. All had blood eosinophilia and chest radiographs showing widespread bilateral shadowing; in two cases this had a characteristic peripheral distribution. One patient recovered spontaneously and the other two responded to steroids, with disappearance of pyrexia within 12 hours and radiological clearing within 14 days. Lung function tests during the acute illness showed volume restriction or gas transfer defects or both in two cases. After remission all three showed abnormalities if small airways function. Lung biopsies performed during the acute illness were examined histologically and by transmission electron microscopy, and in two cases by immunofluorescence. There was both intra-alveolar and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia with bronchiolitis obliterans, microgranulomata, and a vasculitis. Electron microscopy showed numerous eosinophils, many degranulated, and macrophages with phagocytosed eosinophilic granules and intracytoplasmic inclusions. In one case IgM, IgG, and IgA were demonstrated in the bronchial walls and interstitium. No IgE or complement was present. We believe that eosinophil granules are responsible for the tissue damage and fever and suggest mechanisms for this and for the response to steroid therapy. Images PMID:7003796

  13. A novel bFGF-GH injection therapy for two patients with severe ischemic limb pain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Naomi; Saito, Shigeru; Yamada, Makiko Hardy; Koizuka, Shiro; Obata, Hideaki; Nishikawa, Koichi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Severe ischemic pain is difficult to treat with a single therapy. Although modern angiogenic therapies have been used in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases, a regimen combining novel angiogenic therapy and classic nerve blocks, including sympathectomy, has not been discussed to date. In this case report, we present two patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease who were first treated with medication and lumbar sympathectomy, and then with a novel gelatin hydrogel drug-delivery system loaded with basic fibroblast growth factor. The gelatin hydrogel combined with recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor was injected intramuscularly into the ischemic limbs. In the first patient, with arteriosclerosis obliterans, a foot ulcer was healed, and the original score for resting pain (visual analogue scale, 5/10) was decreased to 0/10. In the second patient, with Buerger's disease, a large toe ulcer was healed, and his resting pain (visual analogue scale, 8/10) was decreased to 1/10. Some other parameters, such as skin surface temperature, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure, and pain-free walking distance, were also improved in both patients after the combined therapy. A multimodal approach is necessary to treat severe ischemic pain. Novel angiogenic therapy combined with nerve blocks seems to be a promising option in patients with severe pain.

  14. Inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with chemical warfare agents exposure.

    PubMed

    Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Sedighi, Nahid; Moradi, Zahra

    2008-03-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) including sulfur mustard (SM) were commonly used in Iran-Iraq war. Respiratory problems are the greatest cause of long-term disability among people who had combat exposure to SM. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been accepted as the imaging modality of choice in these patients. We used expiratory HRCT findings in comparison to inspiratory HRCT for demonstration of pulmonary damage in these patients. HRCT in deep inspiration as well as full expiration was performed in 473 patients with a history of chemical gas exposure during the war and the results were compared. The study was prospective during 1 yr. Of 473 patients, 366 (77.38%) showed normal HRCT in deep inspiration; however, on corresponding expiratory cuts, 263 (71.86%) had abnormalities. The most frequent abnormal finding in expiration was patchy air trapping (77.77%). We conclude that exposure to SM causes pulmonary complications resulting in disability in the affected patients; however, HRCT in inspiration is normal in most of the affected patients. Expiratory HRCT showed patchy air trapping as the most common finding, which is suggestive of small air way diseases such as bronchiolitis obliterans; therefore it is recommended to do HRCT both in deep inspiration and full expiration in patients with a history of CWA exposure.

  15. Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results.

    PubMed

    Jacomelli, Márcia; Silva, Priscila Regina Alves Araújo; Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Seicento, Márcia; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

  16. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J.R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3 = 17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25–50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. PMID:24007741

  17. Cytomegalovirus Hyper Immunoglobulin for CMV Prophylaxis in Thoracic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Federico; Potena, Luciano; Yonan, Nizar; Wagner, Florian; Calabrese, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection negatively influences both short- and long-term outcomes after cardiothoracic transplantation. In heart transplantation, registry analyses have shown that CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) with or without virostatic prophylaxis is associated with a significant reduction in mortality and graft loss versus no prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk donor (D)+/recipient (R)− transplants. Randomized comparative trials are lacking but retrospective data suggest that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis may reduce rates of CMV-related events after heart transplantation, including the incidence of acute rejection or chronic allograft vasculopathy. However, available data consistently indicate that when CMVIG is used, it should be administered with concomitant antiviral therapy, and that evidence concerning preemptive management with CMVIG is limited, but promising. In lung transplantation, CMVIG should again only be used with concomitant antiviral therapy. Retrospective studies have shown convincing evidence that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis lowers CMV endpoints and mortality. The current balance of evidence suggests that CMVIG prophylaxis reduces the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but a controlled trial is awaited. Overall, the relatively limited current data set suggests that prophylaxis with CMVIG in combination with antiviral therapy appears effective in D+/R− heart transplant patients, whereas in lung transplantation, addition of CMVIG in recipients of a CMV-positive graft may offer an advantage in terms of CMV infection and disease. PMID:26900991

  18. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  19. OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report: lung.

    PubMed

    Valapour, M; Paulson, K; Smith, J M; Hertz, M I; Skeans, M A; Heubner, B M; Edwards, L B; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2013-01-01

    Lungs are allocated in part based on the Lung Allocation Score (LAS), which considers risk of death without transplant and posttransplant. Wait-list additions have been increasing steadily after an initial decline following LAS implementation. In 2011, the largest number of adult candidates were added to the waiting list in a single year since 1998; donation and transplant rates have been unable to keep pace with wait-list additions. Candidates aged 65 years or older have been added faster than candidates in other age groups. After an initial decline following LAS implementation, wait-list mortality increased to 15.7 per 100 wait-list years in 2011. Short- and long-term graft survival improved in 2011; 10-year graft failure fell to an all-time low. Since 1998, the number of new pediatric (aged 0-11 years) candidates added yearly to the waiting list has declined. In 2011, 19 pediatric lung transplants were performed, a transplant rate of 34.7 per 100 wait-list years. The percentage of patients hospitalized before transplant has not changed. Both graft and patient survival have continued to improve over the past decade. Posttransplant complications for pediatric lung transplant recipients, similar to complications for adult recipients, include hypertension, renal dysfunction, diabetes, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and malignancy. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Relative impact of human leukocyte antigen mismatching and graft ischemic time after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brugière, Olivier; Thabut, Gabriel; Suberbielle, Caroline; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Thomas, Pascal; Pison, Christophe; Saint Raymond, Christel; Mornex, Jean-François; Bertocchi, Michèle; Dromer, Claire; Velly, Jean-François; Stern, Marc; Philippe, Bruno; Dauriat, Gaëlle; Biondi, Giuseppina; Castier, Yves; Fournier, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Recent data strongly suggest that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching has a negative impact on development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Because HLA matching is sometimes achieved by extending ischemic time in other solid-organ transplantation models and ischemic time is a risk factor per se for death after LTx, we sought to compare the theoretical benefit of HLA matching with the negative impact of lengthened ischemic time. In this collaborative study we compared the relative impact of HLA mismatching and ischemic time on BOS and survival in 182 LTx recipients. Using multivariate analyses, we observed a lower incidence of BOS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 2.7, p = 0.03) and enhanced survival (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.92, p = 0.01) in patients with zero or one HLA-A mismatch compared with those having two HLA-A mismatches. This beneficial effect on survival was equivalent to a reduction of ischemic time of 168 minutes. We observed a reduced incidence of BOS and a better survival rate in patients well-matched at the HLA-A locus, associated with an opposite effect of an enhanced ischemic time. This suggests that graft ischemic time should be taken into account in future studies of prospective HLA matching in LTx.

  1. Banff study of pathologic changes in lung allograft biopsy specimens with donor-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wallace, William Dean; Li, Ning; Andersen, Claus B; Arrossi, A Valeria; Askar, Medhat; Berry, Gerry J; DeNicola, Matthew M; Neil, Desley A; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Reed, Elaine F; Remmelink, Myriam; Weigt, S Sam; Weynand, Birgit; Zhang, Jennifer Q; Budev, Marie M; Farver, Carol F

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the lung transplant is still an area under investigation. We performed a blinded multicenter study to determine if any statistically significant histologic findings in transbronchial biopsy specimens from lung transplant patients correlate with the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). We asked 9 pathologists with experience in lung transplantation to evaluate 161 lung transplant biopsy specimens for various histologic parameters. The findings were correlated with antibody status positive for DSAs, positive for non-DSAs, and no antibodies (NABs) present. The significance of each histologic variable was reviewed. We found no statistically significant association with acute cellular rejection, airway inflammation, or bronchiolitis obliterans and the presence or absence of antibodies. However, biopsy specimens with DSAs had a statistically significant difference vs NABs in the setting of acute lung injury, with or without diffuse alveolar damage (p = 0.0008), in the presence of capillary neutrophilic inflammation (p = 0.0014), and in samples with endotheliitis (p = 0.0155). In samples with complement 4d staining, there was a trend but no statistically significant difference between specimens associated with DSAs and specimens with NABs. Capillary inflammation, acute lung injury, and endotheliitis significantly correlated with DSAs. The infrequently observed diffuse staining for complement 4d limits the usefulness of this stain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of long term antibiotics in chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Suresh Babu, K; Kastelik, J; Morjaria, J B

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve quality of life (QoL). Oral antibiotics, such as macrolides, have acquired wide use not only as anti-microbial agents but also due to their anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic properties. In CF, macrolides such as azithromycin have been shown to improve the lung function and reduce frequency of infective exacerbations. Similarly macrolides have been shown to have some benefits in COPD including reduction in a number of exacerbations. In asthma, macrolides have been reported to improve some subjective parameters, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation; however have no benefits on lung function or overall asthma control. Macrolides have also been used with beneficial effects in less common disorders such as diffuse panbronchiolitis or post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In this review we describe our current knowledge the use of long-term antibiotics in conditions such as CF, non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD together with up-to-date clinical and scientific evidence to support our understanding of the use of antibiotics in those conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance comparison of classifiers for differentiation among obstructive lung diseases based on features of texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Kang, Bokyoung; Kim, Dongil; Lee, June Goo; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Namkug; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    The performance of classification algorithms for differentiating among obstructive lung diseases based on features from texture analysis using HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images was compared. HRCT can provide accurate information for the detection of various obstructive lung diseases, including centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans. Features on HRCT images can be subtle, however, particularly in the early stages of disease, and image-based diagnosis is subject to inter-observer variation. To automate the diagnosis and improve the accuracy, we compared three types of automated classification systems, naÃve Bayesian classifier, ANN (Artificial Neural Net) and SVM (Support Vector Machine), based on their ability to differentiate among normal lung and three types of obstructive lung diseases. To assess the performance and cross-validation of these three classifiers, 5 folding methods with 5 randomly chosen groups were used. For a more robust result, each validation was repeated 100 times. SVM showed the best performance, with 86.5% overall sensitivity, significantly different from the other classifiers (one way ANOVA, p<0.01). We address the characteristics of each classifier affecting performance and the issue of which classifier is the most suitable for clinical applications, and propose an appropriate method to choose the best classifier and determine its optimal parameters for optimal disease discrimination. These results can be applied to classifiers for differentiation of other diseases.

  4. Short communication: Reactivity of diacetyl with cleaning and sanitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Delgadillo, M I; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Rankin, S A

    2013-01-01

    Diacetyl is used to impart a buttery flavor to numerous food products such as sour cream, cottage cheese, vegetable oil-based spreads, baked goods, and beverages. Recent studies have linked exposure to high concentrations of diacetyl and the onset of bronchiolitis obliterans. Due to the reported risks that diacetyl may pose, many food companies have altered practices to reduce worker exposure to diacetyl, including the use of personal respirators, improved air handling systems, and adequate cleaning practices. Commonly used cleaning and sanitizing agents may be reactive with diacetyl; however, the efficacy of these chemicals has not been studied in detail and remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the reaction chemistry of diacetyl with common industrial cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. The reactions were assessed at equimolar concentrations and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peroxyacetic acid was most reactive with diacetyl (95% reduction in diacetyl), followed by sodium hypochlorite (76% reduction), and hydrogen peroxide (26% reduction). Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) did not react with diacetyl. Acetic acid was detected as the main product of reactions of diacetyl with peroxyacetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide. 1,1-Dichloro-2-propanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone were also identified as volatile reaction products in the sodium hypochlorite reactions. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Tissue-associated self-antigens containing exosomes: Role in allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monal; Ravichandran, Ranjithkumar; Bansal, Sandhya; Bremner, Ross M; Smith, Michael A; Mohanakumar, T

    2018-06-15

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that express self-antigens (SAgs) and donor human leukocyte antigens. Tissue-specific exosomes can be detected in the circulation following lung, heart, kidney and islet cell transplantations. We collected serum samples from patients who had undergone lung (n = 30), heart (n = 8), or kidney (n = 15) transplantations to isolate circulating exosomes. Exosome purity was analyzed by Western blot, using CD9 exosome-specific markers. Tissue-associated lung SAgs, collagen V (Col-V) and K-alpha 1 tubulin (Kα1T), heart SAgs, myosin and vimentin, and kidney SAgs, fibronectin and collagen IV (Col-IV), were identified using western blot. Lung transplant recipients diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome had exosomes with higher expression of Col-V (4.2-fold) and Kα1T (37.1-fold) than stable. Exosomes isolated from heart transplant recipients diagnosed with coronary artery vasculopathy had a 3.9-fold increase in myosin and a 4.7-fold increase in vimentin compared with stable. Further, Kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with transplant glomerulopathy had circulating exosomes with a 2-fold increased expression of fibronectin and 2.5-fold increase in Col-IV compared with stable. We conclude that circulating exosomes with tissue associated SAgs have the potential to be a noninvasive biomarker for allograft rejection. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan; Vulic, Ante; Robinson, Tara M.; Lineburg, Katie E.; Alexander, Kylie A.; Meng, Jingjing; Roy, Sabita; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Loschi, Michael; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Maillard, Ivan; Miklos, David; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S.; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome; MacDonald, Kelli P.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Luznik, Leo

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is hampered by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), resulting in multiorgan fibrosis and diminished function. Fibrosis in lung and skin leads to progressive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and scleroderma, respectively, for which new treatments are needed. We evaluated pirfenidone, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for its therapeutic effect in cGVHD mouse models with distinct pathophysiology. In a full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched, multiorgan system model with BO, donor T-cell responses that support pathogenic antibody production are required for cGVHD development. Pirfenidone treatment beginning one month post-transplant restored pulmonary function and reversed lung fibrosis, which was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and transforming growth factor-β production. Pirfenidone dampened splenic germinal center B-cell and T-follicular helper cell frequencies that collaborate to produce antibody. In both a minor histocompatibility antigen–mismatched as well as a MHC-haploidentical model of sclerodermatous cGVHD, pirfenidone significantly reduced macrophages in the skin, although clinical improvement of scleroderma was only seen in one model. In vitro chemotaxis assays demonstrated that pirfenidone impaired macrophage migration to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as IL-17A, which has been linked to cGVHD generation. Taken together, our data suggest that pirfenidone is a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate fibrosis in cGVHD. PMID:28254742

  8. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial - Improvement of Peripheral Arterial Disease by Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Mobilized Autologous Peripheral-Blood-Mononuclear Cell Transplantation (IMPACT).

    PubMed

    Horie, Takashi; Yamazaki, Seiji; Hanada, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Shuzo; Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Haruna, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Ken; Obara, Hideaki; Morishita, Kiyofumi; Saigo, Kenichi; Shintani, Yoshiaki; Kubo, Kohmei; Hoshino, Junichi; Oda, Teiji; Kaneko, Eiji; Nishikido, Masaharu; Ioji, Tetsuya; Kaneda, Hideaki; Fukushima, Masanori

    2018-06-07

    The clinical usefulness of peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cell (MNC) transplantation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in those with mild-to-moderate severity, has not been fully clarified.Methods and Results:A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBMNC transplantation in patients with PAD (Fontaine stage II-IV and Rutherford category 1-5) caused by arteriosclerosis obliterans or Buerger's disease. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). In total, 107 subjects were enrolled. At baseline, Fontaine stage was II/III in 82 patients and IV in 21, and 54 patients were on hemodialysis. A total of 50 patients had intramuscular transplantation of PBMNC combined with standard of care (SOC) (cell therapy group), and 53 received SOC only (control group). PFS tended to be improved in the cell therapy group than in the control group (P=0.07). PFS in Fontaine stage II/III subgroup was significantly better in the cell therapy group than in the control group. Cell therapy-related adverse events were transient and not serious. In this first randomized, large-scale clinical trial of G-CSF-mobilized PBMNC transplantation, the cell therapy was tolerated by a variety of PAD patients. The PBMNC therapy was significantly effective for inhibiting disease progression in mild-to-moderate PAD.

  9. Interstitial pneumonitis and the risk of chronic allograft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mihalek, Andrew D; Rosas, Ivan O; Padera, Robert F; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Hunninghake, Gary M; DeMeo, Dawn L; Camp, Phillip C; Goldberg, Hilary J

    2013-05-01

    The presence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) on surveillance lung biopsy specimens in lung transplant recipients is poorly described, and its impact on posttransplant outcomes is not established. The following study assessed the association of posttransplant IP with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). We examined all recipients of primary cadaveric lung transplants at our institution between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007 (N = 145). Patients had bronchoscopies with BAL, and transbronchial biopsies performed for surveillance during posttransplant months 1, 3, 6, and 12 as well as when clinically indicated. Patients were given a diagnosis of IP if, in the absence of active infection and organizing pneumonia, they showed evidence of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis on two or more biopsy specimens. IP was a significant predictor of BOS (OR, 7.84; 95% CI, 2.84-21.67; P < .0001) and was significantly associated with time to development of BOS (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.93-7.39; P = .0001) within the first 6 years posttransplant. The presence of IP did not correlate with a significantly higher risk of mortality or time to death. There was no association between the presence of IP and the development of or time to acute rejection. The presence of IP on lung transplant biopsy specimens suggests an increased risk for BOS, which is independent of the presence of acute cellular rejection.

  10. Lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Benden, Christian; Rea, Federico; Behr, Jürgen; Corris, Paul A; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Stern, Marc; Speich, Rudolf; Boehler, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Lung transplantation has been accepted widely as therapy for end-stage pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); however, single-center and national experience is limited due to the rarity of LAM. We report the recent European experience of lung transplantation for LAM. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 30 European lung transplant centers to evaluate patients who underwent primary lung transplantation for LAM (1997 to 2007). Seventy percent of centers responded to the questionnaire. A total of 61 lung transplants were undertaken in women only, with mean age at transplant 41.3 years (SD 5.1). Centers performed a median of 2 (0 to 9) transplant operations. Severe pleural adhesions were the most common intra-operative complication. Early deaths (N = 6) were due to primary graft or multiple-organ failure or sepsis. Twelve recipients were diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at a median of 20 months (range 10 to 86 months) post-transplant. LAM-related complications included renal angiomyolipoma and pneumothorax in the native lung. Recurrence of LAM occurred in 4 recipients. As of December 2007, actuarial Kaplan-Meier survival was 79% at 1 year and 73% at 3 years post-transplant. Post-transplant outcome for pulmonary LAM in the recent era appears to have improved compared with the previous era. LAM-related complications remain common, but recurrence of LAM in the allograft is rare.

  11. Microbiome in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and lung transplant-related disease.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Beck, James M

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances in culture-independent methods have expanded our knowledge about the diversity of the lung microbial environment. Complex microorganisms and microbial communities can now be identified in the distal airways in a variety of respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and the posttransplantation lung. Although there are significant methodologic concerns about sampling the lung microbiome, several studies have now shown that the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract is distinct from the upper airway. CF is a disease characterized by chronic airway infections that lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional culture-dependent methods have identified a select group of pathogens that cause exacerbations in CF, but studies using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays have shown that the CF microbiome is an intricate and dynamic bacterial ecosystem, which influences both host immune health and disease pathogenesis. These microbial communities can shift with external influences, including antibiotic exposure. In addition, there have been a number of studies suggesting a link between the gut microbiome and respiratory health in CF. Compared with CF, there is significantly less knowledge about the microbiome of the transplanted lung. Risk factors for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, one of the leading causes of death, include microbial infections. Lung transplant patients have a unique lung microbiome that is different than the pretransplanted microbiome and changes with time. Understanding the host-pathogen interactions in these diseases may suggest targeted therapies and improve long-term survival in these patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  13. The Presence of Pretransplant HLA Antibodies Does Not Impact the Development of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction or CLAD-Related Death.

    PubMed

    Zazueta, Oscar E; Preston, Sara E; Moniodis, Anna; Fried, Sabrina; Kim, Miae; Townsend, Keri; Wood, Isabelle; Boukedes, Steve; Guleria, Indira; Camp, Phillip; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O; Chandraker, Anil; Milford, Edgar; Goldberg, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is associated with antibody mediated rejection, acute cellular rejection, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; however, the significance of circulating antibodies before transplant remains unclear. We performed a retrospective cohort study including recipients of primary lung transplants between 2008 and 2012. We assessed the impact of circulating HLA and noncytotoxic DSA detected before transplant on development of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD) or CLAD-related death. 30% of subjects had circulating class I antibodies alone, 4% Class II, and 14.4% class I and class II at mean fluorescent intensity greater than 1000. Nine percent of the subjects had DSA class I, 9% class II, and 2.4% both DSA classes 1 and 2. Neither the presence of circulating antibodies (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-1.54) nor the presence of DSA (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-3.18) before transplant at mean fluorescent intensity greater than 1000 was associated with the development of CLAD or CLAD-related death. Although in previous studies we have shown an increased incidence of antibody-mediated rejection in patients with pretransplant DSA, neither the presence of HLA antibodies nor DSA translated to an increased risk of allograft dysfunction or death if prospective crossmatch testing was negative. Prospective studies are needed to define the impact of pretransplant sensitization on lung transplant recipients.

  14. The Eurotransplant Study on Twin Lung Transplants (ESOTWIN): 90 paired single-lung transplants from the same donor.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M A; Melman, Sonja; Mertens, Bart J A; Laufer, Gunther; Persijn, Guido G; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2003-12-15

    Despite its reduced benefit for a single recipient, the transplantation of two single-lung allografts as opposed to one bilateral lung transplant has the indisputable advantage of maximizing the number of patients that benefit from a single donor. In the period 1997 to 1999, 90 paired single-lung transplants (SLTx) from 45 donors were performed in 16 lung centers in Eurotransplant, with a complete follow-up of 1 year. No significant differences between left- and right-lung allograft recipients were observed regarding age, sex, primary disease, number of human leukocyte antigen mismatches, cold ischemic time, and donor-to-recipient cytomegalovirus match. Early posttransplant outcome, as assessed by oxygenation index at 12, 24, and 48 hr, also did not differ significantly, and there were no differences in time to extubation and time spent in the intensive care unit. In the first month, six left- and three right-lung allograft recipients died. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 5 of 39 left-lung and 10 of 42 right-lung allograft recipients. If the retrieval team was different from the transplanting team, a significantly worse 1-year posttransplant survival rate was seen in patients who underwent left SLTx compared with those who underwent right SLTx (62% vs. 92%, respectively; P=0.04). More fatal posttransplant complications occur in patients undergoing left SLTx compared with right SLTx. A less optimistic assessment of the left lung by the not-implanting retrieval team is warranted.

  15. The Presence of HLA-E-Restricted, CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients Correlates with Chronic Allograft Rejection.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucy C; Westall, Glen P; Widjaja, Jacqueline M L; Mifsud, Nicole A; Nguyen, Thi H O; Meehan, Aislin C; Kotsimbos, Tom C; Brooks, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune evasion protein, UL40, shares an identical peptide sequence with that found in the leader sequence of many human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles and when complexed with HLA-E, can modulate NK cell functions via interactions with the CD94-NKG2 receptors. However the UL40-derived sequence can also be immunogenic, eliciting robust CD8+ T cell responses. In the setting of solid organ transplantation these T cells may not only be involved in antiviral immunity but also can potentially contribute to allograft rejection when the UL40 epitope is also present in allograft-encoded HLA. Here we assessed 15 bilateral lung transplant recipients for the presence of HLA-E-restricted UL40 specific T cells by tetramer staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). UL40-specific T cells were observed in 7 patients post-transplant however the magnitude of the response varied significantly between patients. Moreover, unlike healthy CMV seropositive individuals, longitudinal analyses revealed that proportions of such T cells fluctuated markedly. Nine patients experienced low-grade acute cellular rejection, of which 6 also demonstrated UL40-specific T cells. Furthermore, the presence of UL40-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood was significantly associated with allograft dysfunction, which manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). Therefore, this study suggests that minor histocompatibility antigens presented by HLA-E can represent an additional risk factor following lung transplantation.

  16. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Dubovsky, Jason A.; Flynn, Ryan; Du, Jing; Harrington, Bonnie K.; Zhong, Yiming; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Yang, Carrie; Towns, William H.; Lehman, Amy; Johnson, Amy J.; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Devine, Steven M.; Jaglowski, Samantha; Serody, Jonathan S.; Murphy, William J.; Munn, David H.; Luznik, Leo; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Wong, Henry K.; MacDonald, Kelli K.P.; Maillard, Ivan; Koreth, John; Elias, Laurence; Cutler, Corey; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Byrd, John C.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell–driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell–mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials. PMID:25271622

  18. Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan; Vulic, Ante; Robinson, Tara M; Lineburg, Katie E; Alexander, Kylie A; Meng, Jingjing; Roy, Sabita; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Loschi, Michael; Hill, Geoffrey R; Serody, Jonathan S; Maillard, Ivan; Miklos, David; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; MacDonald, Kelli P; Schacker, Timothy W; Luznik, Leo; Blazar, Bruce R

    2017-05-04

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is hampered by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), resulting in multiorgan fibrosis and diminished function. Fibrosis in lung and skin leads to progressive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and scleroderma, respectively, for which new treatments are needed. We evaluated pirfenidone, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for its therapeutic effect in cGVHD mouse models with distinct pathophysiology. In a full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched, multiorgan system model with BO, donor T-cell responses that support pathogenic antibody production are required for cGVHD development. Pirfenidone treatment beginning one month post-transplant restored pulmonary function and reversed lung fibrosis, which was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and transforming growth factor-β production. Pirfenidone dampened splenic germinal center B-cell and T-follicular helper cell frequencies that collaborate to produce antibody. In both a minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched as well as a MHC-haploidentical model of sclerodermatous cGVHD, pirfenidone significantly reduced macrophages in the skin, although clinical improvement of scleroderma was only seen in one model. In vitro chemotaxis assays demonstrated that pirfenidone impaired macrophage migration to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as IL-17A, which has been linked to cGVHD generation. Taken together, our data suggest that pirfenidone is a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate fibrosis in cGVHD. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. [1990-1996: the experience of the La Fe Lung Transplant Group (Valencia)].

    PubMed

    Borro Maté, J M; Morales Marín, P; Lozano Ruiz, C; Tarrazona Hervás, V; Galán Gil, G; Calvo Medina, V; Morant Guillén, P; Ramos Briones, F; Vicente Guillén, R; Paris Romeu, F

    1997-10-01

    Objective to review the experience of the lung transplantation unit at Hospital La Fe (Valencia). Between February 1990 and March 1996 we performed 40 lung transplants. The following causes were most common: cystic fibrosis (9 cases), emphysema (8), pulmonary fibrosis (8) and bronchiectasis (7). Types of intervention were 27 double lung transplants (25 sequential and 9 blocked), 9 single lung transplants, and 4 heart-lung transplants. We then reviewed the 36 single and double lung transplants. The main exclusion criteria were age over 65 years, malignant disease, kidney or liver disease, severe or non reversible central nervous system disease, and drug addiction. Prior surgery, mechanical ventilation and the presence of Aspergillus were considered lower-order contraindications. Mean patient age was 37.7 years (14-59). Six patients were colonized by Aspergillus before transplantation. Five had undergone earlier surgery and two were mechanically ventilated before the transplant. The most common complication was respiratory infection, which was present in 6 of the 7 patients who died. Other complications in order of frequency were dehiscence and/or bronchial stenosis, corticoid myopathy and postoperative bleeding. The actuarial survival rate of single and double lung transplants was 67.85 after 3 years, and 87.5% in patients with cystic fibrosis. Lung transplantation is a well-established procedure that is gradually being extended to treat more conditions. The main obstacle is the scarcity of donors. The main challenge at present is bronchiolitis obliterans.

  20. Maintenance of airway epithelium in acutely rejected orthotopic vascularized mouse lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mikio; Gelman, Andrew E; Tietjens, Jeremy R; Ibricevic, Aida; Kornfeld, Christopher G; Huang, Howard J; Richardson, Steven B; Lai, Jiaming; Garbow, Joel R; Patterson, G Alexander; Krupnick, Alexander S; Brody, Steven L; Kreisel, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Lung transplantation remains the only therapeutic option for many patients suffering from end-stage pulmonary disease. Long-term success after lung transplantation is severely limited by the development of bronchiolitis obliterans. The murine heterotopic tracheal transplantation model has been widely used for studies investigating pathogenesis of obliterative airway disease and immunosuppressive strategies to prevent its development. Despite its utility, this model employs proximal airway that lacks airflow and is not vascularized. We have developed a novel model of orthotopic vascularized lung transplantation in the mouse, which leads to severe vascular rejection in allogeneic strain combinations. Here we characterize differences in the fate of airway epithelial cells in nonimmunosuppressed heterotopic tracheal and vascularized lung allograft models over 28 days. Up-regulation of growth factors that are thought to be critical for the development of airway fibrosis and interstitial collagen deposition were similar in both models. However, while loss of airway epithelial cells occurred in the tracheal model, airway epithelium remained intact and fully differentiated in lung allografts, despite profound vascular rejection. Moreover, we demonstrate expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in airway epithelial cells of acutely rejected lung allografts. These findings suggest that in addition to alloimmune responses, other stimuli may be required for the destruction of airway epithelial cells. Thus, the model of vascularized mouse lung transplantation may provide a new and more physiologic experimental tool to study the interaction between immune and nonimmune mechanisms affecting airway pathology in lung allografts.

  1. Male circumcision to prevent syphilis in 1855 and HIV in 1986 is supported by the accumulated scientific evidence to 2015: Response to Darby.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brian J; Wamai, Richard G; Krieger, John N; Banerjee, Joya; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    An article by Darby disparaging male circumcision (MC) for syphilis prevention in Victorian times (1837-1901) and voluntary medical MC programs for HIV prevention in recent times ignores contemporary scientific evidence. It is one-sided and cites outlier studies as well as claims by MC opponents that support the author's thesis, but ignores high quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. While we agree with Darby that risky behaviours contribute to syphilis and HIV epidemics, there is now compelling evidence that MC helps reduce both syphilis and HIV infections. Although some motivations for MC in Victorian times were misguided, others, such as protection against syphilis, penile cancer, phimosis, balanitis and poor hygiene have stood the test of time. In the absence of a cure or effective prophylactic vaccine for HIV, MC should help lower heterosexually acquired HIV, especially when coupled with other interventions such as condoms and behaviour. This should save lives, as well as reducing costs and suffering. In contrast to Darby, our evaluation of the evidence leads us to conclude that MC would likely have helped reduce syphilis in Victorian times and, in the current era, will help lower both syphilis and HIV, so improving global public health.

  2. Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

    2010-12-01

    For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

  3. Comparison of Recharge Estimation Methods During a Wet Period in a Karst Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Durán Valsero, Juan José; Pedrera, Antonio; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo; Liñán Baena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Management of water resources, implying their appropriate protection, calls for a sound evaluation of recharge. Such assessment is very complex in karst aquifers. Most methods are developed for application to detrital aquifers, without taking into account the extraordinary heterogeneity of porosity and permeability of karst systems. It is commonly recommended to estimate recharge using multiple methods; however, differences inherent to the diverse methods make it difficult to clarify the accuracy of each result. In this study, recharge was estimated in a karst aquifer working in a natural regime, in a Mediterranean-type climate, in the western part of the Sierra de las Nieves (southern Spain). Mediterranean climate regions are characterized by high inter-annual rainfall variability featuring long dry periods and short intense wet periods, the latter constituting the most important contribution to aquifer water input. This paper aims to identify the methods that provide the most plausible range of recharge rate during wet periods. Six methods were tested: the classical method of Thornthwaite-Mather, the Visual Balan code, the chloride balance method, and spatially distributed methods such as APLIS, a novel spatiotemporal estimation of recharge, and ZOODRM. The results help determine valid methods for application in the rest of the unit of study and in similar karst aquifers. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Methane airborne measurements and comparison to global models during BARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Veronika; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph; Bergamaschi, Peter; Bruhwiler, Lori; Houweling, Sander; Röckmann, Thomas; Kolle, Olaf; Steinbach, Julia; Koch, Thomas; Sapart, Célia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Frankenberg, Christian; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Longo, Karla M.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2012-08-01

    Tropical regions, especially the Amazon region, account for large emissions of methane (CH4). Here, we present CH4 observations from two airborne campaigns conducted within the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) project in the Amazon basin in November 2008 (end of the dry season) and May 2009 (end of the wet season). We performed continuous measurements of CH4 onboard an aircraft for the first time in the Amazon region, covering the whole Amazon basin with over 150 vertical profiles between altitudes of 500 m and 4000 m. The observations support the finding of previous ground-based, airborne, and satellite measurements that the Amazon basin is a large source of atmospheric CH4. Isotope analysis verified that the majority of emissions can be attributed to CH4 emissions from wetlands, while urban CH4 emissions could be also traced back to biogenic origin. A comparison of five TM5 based global CH4 inversions with the observations clearly indicates that the inversions using SCIAMACHY observations represent the BARCA observations best. The calculated CH4 flux estimate obtained from the mismatch between observations and TM5-modeled CH4 fields ranges from 36 to 43 mg m-2 d-1 for the Amazon lowland region.

  5. Flow-mediated vasodilation is augmented in a corkscrew collateral artery compared with that in a native artery in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuichi; Fujimura, Noritaka; Mikami, Shinsuke; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Noma, Kensuke; Higashi, Yukihito

    2011-12-01

    A healthy endothelium maintains vascular tone and structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate endothelial function in corkscrew collateral arteries in Buerger disease. We measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in corkscrew arteries in 26 patients with Buerger disease, in control arteries in 26 healthy subjects, and in native arteries in 16 patients with Buerger disease. Hyperemic flow was lower in corkscrew arteries than in native arteries in patients with Buerger disease and in control arteries in healthy subjects. There was no significant difference between hyperemic flow in patients with Buerger disease in whom measurements were performed in native arteries and that in healthy subjects. FMD was lower in corkscrew arteries and native arteries in patients with Buerger disease than in control arteries in healthy subjects. There was no significant difference between FMD in corkscrew arteries in patients with Buerger disease and in that in native arteries. The ratio of FMD to hyperemic flow was significantly smaller in native arteries in patients with Buerger disease than in corkscrew arteries and in control arteries in healthy subjects (5.5 ± 6.2 vs 8.8 ± 8.9 and 9.6 ± 7.6 mL/min, P < .001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the ratio of FMD to hyperemic flow between corkscrew arteries in Buerger disease and control arteries in healthy subjects. Nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation was similar in all leg arteries. Endothelial function of a corkscrew collateral artery in patients with Buerger disease is maintained, while endothelial function is impaired in a native artery in Buerger disease. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Induced sputum evaluation in microwave popcorn production workers.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Stemple, Kimberly J; Enright, Paul L; Fahy, John V; Bledsoe, Toni A; Kreiss, Kathleen; Weissman, David N

    2005-08-01

    Severe airways obstruction and bronchiolitis obliterans have been reported in microwave popcorn production workers and attributed to inhalation of flavoring agents. We investigated whether exposure to flavoring agents is associated with airways inflammation in popcorn production workers. Fifty-nine workers with high exposures and 22 patients with low exposures to flavoring vapors completed a questionnaire, spirometry, and sputum induction. Sputum cell counts were categorized as "high" if greater than (and "low" if less than or equal to) the median cell counts of a healthy external control group (n = 24). We compared high- and low-exposure groups as well as all workers with control subjects. Neutrophil concentrations in nonsmoking workers were significantly higher than those of the healthy nonsmoking control group (p < 0.05). The smoking-adjusted odds ratio for high neutrophil count (> 1.63 x 10(5)/mL) was 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 11.5) in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Sputum interleukin-8 and eosinophil cationic protein levels were higher in high-exposure workers than in low-exposure workers (p < 0.05). For the worker group, mean values of FEV1 percentage of predicted and FEV1/FVC percentage of predicted were > 95%. There were no relationships between sputum characteristics and the presence of airways obstruction. High exposure to popcorn flavoring agents is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation in popcorn production workers. These data provide further evidence that popcorn production workers face a significant occupational hazard through exposure to flavoring agents.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of Microbacterium yannicii, a recently described multidrug resistant bacterium isolated from a lung transplanted patient with cystic fibrosis in France.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Diene, Seydina M; Thibeaut, Sandrine; Bittar, Fadi; Roux, Véronique; Gomez, Carine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2013-05-03

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota consists of diverse species which are pathogens or opportunists or have unknown pathogenicity. Here we report the full characterization of a recently described multidrug resistant bacterium, Microbacterium yannicii, isolated from a CF patient who previously underwent lung transplantation. Our strain PS01 (CSUR-P191) is an aerobic, rod shaped, non-motile, yellow pigmented, gram positive, oxidase negative and catalase positive bacterial isolate. Full length 16S rRNA gene sequence showed 98.8% similarity with Microbacterium yannicii G72T type strain, which was previously isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome size is 3.95Mb, with an average G+C content of 69.5%. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between our Microbacterium yannicii PS01isolate in comparison with Microbacterium testaceum StLB037 and Microbacterium laevaniformans OR221 genomes revealed very weak relationship with only 28% and 25% genome coverage, respectively. Our strain, as compared to the type strain, was resistant to erythromycin because of the presence of a new erm 43 gene encoding a 23S rRNA N-6-methyltransferase in its genome which was not detected in the reference strain. Interestingly, our patient received azithromycin 250 mg daily for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome for more than one year before the isolation of this bacterium. Although significance of isolating this bacterium remains uncertain in terms of clinical evolution, this bacterium could be considered as an opportunistic human pathogen as previously reported for other species in this genus, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation Lung Ablation: Preliminary Results in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deodhar, Ajita; Monette, Sebastien; Single, Gordon W.

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses direct electrical pulses to create permanent 'pores' in cell membranes to cause cell death. In contrast to conventional modalities, IRE has a nonthermal mechanism of action. Our objective was to study the histopathological and imaging features of IRE in normal swine lung. Materials and Methods: Eleven female swine were studied for hyperacute (8 h), acute (24 h), subacute (96 h), and chronic (3 week) effects of IRE ablation in lung. Paired unipolar IRE applicators were placed under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Some applicators were deliberately positioned near bronchovascular structures. IRE pulse delivery was synchronized withmore » the cardiac rhythm only when ablation was performed within 2 cm of the heart. Contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed immediately before and after IRE and at 1 and 3 weeks after IRE ablation. Representative tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Results: Twenty-five ablations were created: ten hyperacute, four acute, and three subacute ablations showed alveolar edema and necrosis with necrosis of bronchial, bronchiolar, and vascular epithelium. Bronchovascular architecture was maintained. Chronic ablations showed bronchiolitis obliterans and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Immediate post-procedure CT images showed linear or patchy density along the applicator tract. At 1 week, there was consolidation that resolved partially or completely by 3 weeks. Pneumothorax requiring chest tube developed in two animals; no significant cardiac arrhythmias were noted. Conclusion: Our preliminary porcine study demonstrates the nonthermal and extracellular matrix sparing mechanism of action of IRE. IRE is a potential alternative to thermal ablative modalities.« less

  9. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodesmore » (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  10. Lung transplantation in adults and children: putting lung function into perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Bruce Robert; Westall, Glen Philip; Paraskeva, Miranda; Snell, Gregory Ian

    2014-11-01

    The number of lung transplants performed globally continues to increase year after year. Despite this growing experience, long-term outcomes following lung transplantation continue to fall far short of that described in other solid-organ transplant settings. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains common and is the end result of exposure to a multitude of potentially injurious insults that include alloreactivity and infection among others. Central to any description of the clinical performance of the transplanted lung is an assessment of its physiology by pulmonary function testing. Spirometry and the evaluation of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity, remain core indices that are measured as part of routine clinical follow-up. Spirometry, while reproducible in detecting lung allograft dysfunction, lacks specificity in differentiating the different complications of lung transplantation such as rejection, infection and bronchiolitis obliterans. However, interpretation of spirometry is central to defining the different 'chronic rejection' phenotypes. It is becoming apparent that the maximal lung function achieved following transplantation, as measured by spirometry, is influenced by a number of donor and recipient factors as well as the type of surgery performed (single vs double vs lobar lung transplant). In this review, we discuss the wide range of variables that need to be considered when interpreting lung function testing in lung transplant recipients. Finally, we review a number of novel measurements of pulmonary function that may in the future serve as better biomarkers to detect and diagnose the cause of the failing lung allograft. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. CSF-1–dependant donor-derived macrophages mediate chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kylie A.; Flynn, Ryan; Lineburg, Katie E.; Kuns, Rachel D.; Teal, Bianca E.; Olver, Stuart D.; Lor, Mary; Raffelt, Neil C.; Koyama, Motoko; Leveque, Lucie; Le Texier, Laetitia; Melino, Michelle; Markey, Kate A.; Varelias, Antiopi; Engwerda, Christian; Serody, Jonathan S.; Janela, Baptiste; Ginhoux, Florent; Clouston, Andrew D.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; MacDonald, Kelli P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is the major cause of late, nonrelapse death following stem cell transplantation and characteristically develops in organs such as skin and lung. Here, we used multiple murine models of cGVHD to investigate the contribution of macrophage populations in the development of cGVHD. Using an established IL-17–dependent sclerodermatous cGVHD model, we confirmed that macrophages infiltrating the skin are derived from donor bone marrow (F4/80+CSF-1R+CD206+iNOS–). Cutaneous cGVHD developed in a CSF-1/CSF-1R–dependent manner, as treatment of recipients after transplantation with CSF-1 exacerbated macrophage infiltration and cutaneous pathology. Additionally, recipients of grafts from Csf1r–/– mice had substantially less macrophage infiltration and cutaneous pathology as compared with those receiving wild-type grafts. Neither CCL2/CCR2 nor GM-CSF/GM-CSFR signaling pathways were required for macrophage infiltration or development of cGVHD. In a different cGVHD model, in which bronchiolitis obliterans is a prominent manifestation, F4/80+ macrophage infiltration was similarly noted in the lungs of recipients after transplantation, and lung cGVHD was also IL-17 and CSF-1/CSF-1R dependent. Importantly, depletion of macrophages using an anti–CSF-1R mAb markedly reduced cutaneous and pulmonary cGVHD. Taken together, these data indicate that donor macrophages mediate the development of cGVHD and suggest that targeting CSF-1 signaling after transplantation may prevent and treat cGVHD. PMID:25157821

  12. Long-term Prognosis After Lung Transplantation: A Monocentric Study in 510 Patients.

    PubMed

    Montoro Ballesteros, F; Sánchez Fernández, J J; Vaquero Barrios, J M; Redel Montero, J; Cobos Ceballos, M J; Esteban Amarilla, C; Palomares Muriana, A M; Santos Luna, F

    2018-03-01

    Lung transplantation is the final treatment option in patients with respiratory failure. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with the management of complications is high despite advances. Postoperative complications include acute transplant rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans, and infections. Because of that, the success of this treatment option depends on the correct choice of donor and candidates to receive a transplant. This study aims to perform a survival analysis of transplanted patients in our center and determine predictive variables of mortality. This study is a retrospective assessment of data collected from 510 patients at the Hospital University Reina Sofía from October 1993 to December 31, 2016. Patients who were retransplanted were excluded. We collected data regarding basal characteristics of the donors and candidates to receive a transplant. We analyzed the impact in terms of future survival of basal variables from donor and donor recipients. Five hundred ten patients were included (average age 44 ± 17 years, 69% male), with a maximum follow-up period of 21.6 years (average follow-up 4.52 years, interquartile ratio: 0.13 to 6.97 years). Two hundred twenty-seven patients died (54.3% of the total amount). The influence of donor's basal characteristics on mortality was analyzed; moreover, the relationship between basal variables and survival were analyzed using univariate analysis. Available variables were analyzed through multivariate analysis. Lung transplantation is a treatment option with an acceptable risk of morbidity and mortality. Increased awareness of features of evolution could help to reduce postoperative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  14. Impact of Donor Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen on Outcomes After Lung Transplantation in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Recipients.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kirkby, Stephen E; Reynolds, Susan D; Mansour, Heidi M; Tobias, Joseph D; Tumin, Dmitry

    2016-08-01

    Donor PaO2 levels are used for assessing organs for lung transplantation (LTx), but survival implications of PaO2 levels in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receiving LTx are unclear. UNOS registry data spanning 2005-2013 were used to test for associations of donor PaO2 with patient survival and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in adult (age ≥ 18 years) first-time LTx recipients diagnosed with CF. The analysis included 1587 patients, of whom 1420 had complete data for multivariable Cox models. No statistically significant differences among donor PaO2 categories of ≤200, 201-300, 301-400, or >400 mmHg were found in univariate survival analysis (log-rank test p = 0.290). BOS onset did not significantly differ across donor PaO2 categories (Chi-square p = 0.480). Multivariable Cox models of patient survival supported the lack of difference across donor PaO2 categories. Interaction analysis found a modest difference in survival between the two top categories of donor PaO2 when examining patients with body mass index (BMI) in the lowest decile (≤16.5 kg/m(2)). Donor PaO2 was not associated with survival or BOS onset in adult CF patients undergoing LTx. Notwithstanding statistically significant interactions between donor PaO2 and BMI, there was no evidence of post-LTx survival risk associated with donor PaO2 below conventional thresholds in any subgroup of adults with CF.

  15. Evaluation of the butter flavoring chemical diacetyl and a fluorochemical paper additive for mutagenicity and toxicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Paul; Clarke, Jane J; San, Richard H C; Begley, Timothy H; Dunkel, Virginia C

    2008-08-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a yellowish liquid that is usually mixed with other ingredients to produce butter flavor or other flavors in a variety of food products. Inhalation of butter flavoring vapors was first associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans among workers in microwave popcorn production. Recent findings have shown irreversible obstructive lung disease among workers not only in the microwave popcorn industry, but also in flavoring manufacture, and in chemical synthesis of diacetyl, a predominant chemical for butter flavoring. It has been reported that perfluorochemicals utilized in food packaging are migrating into foods and may be sources of oral exposure. Relatively small quantities of perfluorochemicals are used in the manufacturing of paper or paperboard that is in direct contact with food to repel oil or grease and water. Because of recent concerns about perfluorochemicals such as those found on microwave popcorn bags (e.g. Lodyne P208E) and diacetyl in foods, we evaluated both compounds for mutagenicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Lodyne P208E was less toxic than diacetyl and did not induce a mutagenic response. Diacetyl induced a highly mutagenic response in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mutation assay in the presence of human liver S9 for activation. The increase in the frequency of small colonies in the assay with diacetyl indicates that diacetyl causes damage to multiple loci on chromosome 11 in addition to functional loss of the thymidine kinase locus.

  16. Effects of Tramadol Coadministration on Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio in Patients Receiving Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Tomomi; Kondo, Aiko; Kambayashi, Yasuyuki; Homma, Masato

    2017-01-01

    Several case studies have reported a possible drug interaction between warfarin and tramadol where tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. To assess this drug interaction, changes in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) before and after tramadol coadministration were investigated in patients receiving warfarin. For this study, we examined 54 patients (male/female: 22/32, 68.4±12.7 years) who were being treated with warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis obliterans, congestive heart failure, and other vascular diseases. Significant increases in PT-INR were observed 9.5 (1-118) d after coadministration of tramadol (1.81±0.56 vs. 2.47±1.10, p<0.01). Twenty-eight patients (PT-INR increased group) with PT-INR elevation of greater than 0.5 or dose reduction of warfarin after coadministration of tramadol were compared with other groups of patients to find drug interaction risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower levels of albumin (3.5 g/dL or less) [odds ratio (OR) 22.1; 95%CI 2.9-169.9]; lower eGFR (50 mL/min or less) (OR 7.7; 95%CI 1.4-42.0); and PT-INR before tramadol coadministration (OR 38.2; 95%CI 3.7-397.6) were characteristic of the PT-INR increased group. These results suggest that tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin in patients with higher PT-INR, lower albumin levels and decreased renal function as the risk factors for this drug interaction.

  17. Lung Transplant in Patients with Scleroderma Compared with Pulmonary Fibrosis. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria M; Bermudez, Christian A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Johnson, Bruce A; George, M Patricia; Bhama, Jay; Morrell, Matthew; D'Cunha, Jonathan; Shigemura, Norihisa; Richards, Thomas J; Pilewski, Joseph M

    2016-06-01

    Patients with advanced lung disease due to systemic sclerosis have long been considered suboptimal and often unacceptable candidates for lung transplant. To examine post-lung transplant survival of patients with systemic sclerosis compared with patients with pulmonary fibrosis and to identify risk factors for 1-year mortality. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared post-lung transplant outcomes of 72 patients with scleroderma with those of 311 patients with pulmonary fibrosis between June 2005 and September 2013 at our institution. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. In Cox regression models, we determined risk factors for post-transplant mortality, controlling for whether patients had scleroderma or pulmonary fibrosis. Post-transplant survival did not differ significantly between scleroderma and pulmonary fibrosis at year 1 (81% scleroderma vs. 79% pulmonary fibrosis; P = 0.743), at year 5 conditional on 1-year survival (66% vs. 58%; P = 0.249), or overall (P = 0.385). In multivariate analysis, body mass index greater than or equal to 35 kg/m(2) predicted poor 1-year survival in pulmonary fibrosis (hazard ratio, 2.76; P = 0.003). Acute cellular rejection-free survival did not differ significantly between the scleroderma and pulmonary fibrosis cohorts. Patients with scleroderma had significantly better bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome stage 1 or higher-free survival than did patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings that 1- and 5-year survival rates of patients with scleroderma were similar to those of patients with pulmonary fibrosis indicate that lung transplant is a reasonable treatment option in selected patients with scleroderma.

  18. Respiratory viral infection in obliterative airway disease after orthotopic tracheal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Elbert; Bharat, Ankit; Goers, Trudie; Chapman, Will; Yan, Le; Street, Tyler; Lu, Wei; Walter, Michael; Patterson, Alexander; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2006-09-01

    The long-term survival after human lung transplantation is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Clinically, community-acquired respiratory viral infections have been correlated with an increased incidence of BOS. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of respiratory viral infections in chronic lung allograft rejection using the murine orthotopic tracheal transplantation model. Eighty orthotopic tracheal transplants were performed using BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Recipient mice were infected intranasally with Sendai virus (SdV), a murine parainfluenza type I virus. Experiments altering the infectious dose, infection time, harvest time, allogeneic response, and viral response were performed. Tracheal allograft rejection was monitored using percent fibrosis and lamina propria to cartilage ratio measurements. Interferon-gamma ELISPOT analysis against irradiated donor (BALB/c) splenocytes was used as immunologic indicator of alloreactivity after transplantation. Sendai virus infection revealed a dose-dependent transient suppression of alloreactivity with a decrease in tracheal allograft fibrosis and frequency of alloreactive T cells at 30 days. This immunosuppression was reversed by day 60, leading to increased tracheal allograft fibrosis with a concomitant increase in the frequency of interferon-gamma producing alloreactive T cells. Pretransplant sensitization with donor antigens prevented the initial suppression of alloreactivity due to SdV infection. Furthermore, pretransplant immunization against SdV infection resulted in rapid clearing of the infection and reduced the immunopathology of rejection. Respiratory viral infections can cause enhanced tracheal allograft rejection despite the initial phase of transient immunosuppression. Early treatment or vaccination against the respiratory infections may represent a viable intervention to reduce the risk of chronic rejection.

  19. Pediatric and adult lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mendeloff, E N; Huddleston, C B; Mallory, G B; Trulock, E P; Cohen, A H; Sweet, S C; Lynch, J; Sundaresan, S; Cooper, J D; Patterson, G A

    1998-02-01

    This paper was undertaken to review the experience at our institution with bilateral sequential lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis. Since 1989, 103 bilateral sequential lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have been performed (46 pediatric, 48 adult, 9 redo); the mean age was 21 +/- 10 years. Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in all but one pediatric (age <18) transplant, and in 15% of adults. Hospital mortality was 4.9%, with 80% of early deaths related to infection. Bronchial anastomotic complications occurred with equal frequency in the pediatric and the adult populations (7.3%). One- and 3-year actuarial survival are 84% and 61%, respectively (no significant difference between pediatric and adult age groups; average follow-up 2.1 +/- 1.6 years). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second increased from 25% +/- 9% before transplantation to 79% +/- 35% 1 year after transplantation. Acute rejection occurred 1.7 times per patient-year, with most episodes taking place within the first 6 months after transplantation. The need for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections occurred 1.2 times per patient in the first year after transplantation. Actuarial freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans was 63% at 2 years and 43% at 3 years. Redo transplantation was performed only in the pediatric population and was associated with an early mortality of 33%. Eight living donor transplants (four primary transplants, four redo transplants) were performed with an early survival of 87.5%. Patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis can undergo bilateral lung transplantation with morbidity and mortality comparable to that seen in pulmonary transplantation for other disease entities.

  20. Constrictive (obliterative) bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, C; Veeraraghavan, S; Koss, M N

    1998-09-01

    Constrictive bronchiolitis (CB), also termed in lung transplant patients obliterative bronchiolitis, is inflammation and fibrosis occurring predominantly in the walls and contiguous tissues of membranous and respiratory bronchioles with resultant narrowing of their lumens. CB is found in a variety of settings, most often as a complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation (affecting 34% to 39% of patients, usually in the first 2 years after transplantation) and bone marrow transplantation, but also in rheumatoid arthritis, after inhalation of toxic agents such as nitrogen dioxide, after ingestion of certain drugs such as penicillamine and ingestion of the East Asian vegetable Sauropus androgynous, and as a rare complication of adenovirus, influenza type A, measles, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in children. In lung transplants, CB is the single most important factor leading to death thereafter. In one study, the overall mortality rate was 25%. However, at the same time, 87% of patients who were asymptomatic and diagnosed solely by transbronchial biopsy had resolution or stabilization of disease. Decreases in FEV1 from baseline can be used to clinically support CB in transplant patients; the term bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is used to denote this clinical dysfunction, and a grading system has been established for it that is now widely used in the literature. Significant risk factors for the development of CB in lung transplants include alloantigen-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In the former group are late acute rejection and HLA mismatches at the A loci; in the latter are ischemia/reperfusion injuries to airways that result from the transplantation surgery and cytomegalovirus infection.

  1. [Short-term outcomes of lung transplant recipients using organs from brain death donors].

    PubMed

    He, W X; Jiang, C; Liu, X G; Huang, W; Chen, C; Jiang, L; Yang, B; Wu, K; Chen, Q K; Yang, Y; Yu, Y M; Jiang, G N

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis. Seventeen donors were 16 males and 1 female, with 10 traumatic brain injury, 5 cerebrovascular accident and 2 sudden cardiac death. Of 17 recipients receiving DBD lung transplant, 16 were single lung transplant. Data were collected including intubation duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, incidence of pulmonary infection bronchus anastomosis complications, primary graft dysfunction (PGD), and acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) as well as mortality of 90-day after lung transplantation. Results: Median duration of intubation were 2 (2) days ( M ( Q R )) in recipients after lung transplantation. The incidence of pulmonary infection and bronchus anastomosis complications were 15/17 and 5/17, respectively. Median length of stay in hospital were 56 (19) days. The ratio of readmission 1 month after discharge were 10/17. Mortality of 90-day post-transplant were 2/17. The incidence of PGD and BOS were 1/17 and 2/17, respectively. Conclusion: Recipients with DBD lung transplantation have an acceptable survival during short-term follow-up, but with higher incidences of complications related to infection post-transplantation.

  2. Dating Amazonian laterites through the novel geochronometers kaolinite and iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Thierry; Bressan Riffel, Silvana; Gautheron, Cécile; Fernandes Soares, Bruna; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; Morin, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soils on Earth's surface are in constant interaction with climate. As a matter of fact, soils cannot only produce greenhouse effect gases, such as NO2 and CH4, but also behave as sinks for CO2, especially by silicate weathering. Major processes of silicate weathering are known and exhibit climatic zonation at the global scale. Laterites are particularly relevant because they are ancient and deeply weathered soils of major significance. They occupy 30 % of the continental surface and can keep records of past climates and landscape modifications (paleosurface) through specific mineral markers. These formations reach several tens of meters and are mainly composed of kaolinite, iron and aluminium oxides as well as relicts of parent minerals such as quartz and ancillary minerals. Once the major processes of laterite formation are known, their age will allow a growth of researches, owing to the implementation of various chronometers. Moreover, it is fundamental to date laterites in order to improve our understanding of soil formation related to paleoclimates, and to build predictive models of their evolution. In this study, we focus on comparing kaolinite ages with the still unknown ages of lateritic duricrusts from the central Amazon region (Brazil), where strong weathering processes were developed from the early Tertiary, after the Andean uplift. The central Amazon region displays flat areas and dissected plateaus (100-180 m a.s.l.) sustained by weathered clastic sedimentary rocks and latosols. The region contains horizons of duricrusts, relatively continuous layers of Fe-cuirasses, stratified lateritic profiles, and kaolin deposits. Here we employed two methods to date ubiquitous secondary minerals of laterite, which are consistent with geological time-scale. The corresponding geochronometers are the following: (i) radiation-induced defects in kaolinite (trapped in duricrusts) analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) (Balan et al., 2005), and (ii

  3. Correlation and Agreement of Handheld Spirometry with Laboratory Spirometry in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guang-Shing; Campbell, Angela P.; Xie, Hu; Stednick, Zach; Callais, Cheryl; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Englund, Janet A.; Chien, Jason W.; Boeckh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early detection of subclinical lung function decline may help identify allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients who are at increased risk for late non-infectious pulmonary complications including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). We evaluated the use of handheld spirometry in this population. METHODS Allogeneic HCT recipients enrolled in a single center observational trial performed weekly spirometry with a handheld spirometer for one year after transplantation. Participants performed pulmonary function tests in an outpatient laboratory setting at 3 time points: pre-transplant, day 80 and 1 year post-transplant. Correlation between the two methods was assessed by Pearson and Spearman correlations; agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS A total of 437 subjects had evaluable pulmonary function tests. Correlation for FEV1 was r=0.954 (p<.0001) at day 80 and r=0.931 (p<.0001) at 1 year when the handheld and laboratory tests were performed within one day of each other. Correlation for handheld FEV6 with laboratory FVC was r=0.914 (p<.0001) at day 80 and r=0.826 (p<.0001) at 1 year. The bias, or the mean difference (handheld minus laboratory) for FEV1 at day 80 and 1 year was −0.13L (−0.63, 0.37) and −0.10L (−0.77, 0.56), respectively. FEV6 showed greater bias at day 80 [−0.51L (−1.44, 0.42)] and 1 year [−0.40L (−1.81, 1.01)]. CONCLUSIONS Handheld spirometry correlated well with laboratory spirometry after allogeneic HCT and may be useful for self-monitoring of patients for early identification of airflow obstruction. PMID:26748162

  4. Lungs from donation after circulatory death donors: an alternative source to brain-dead donors? Midterm results at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Zych, Bartlomiej; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Amrani, Mohamed; Bahrami, Toufan; Redmond, Karen Christina; Krueger, Heike; Carby, Martin; Simon, André Ruediger

    2012-09-01

    Donor organ shortage remains to be the major limitation in lung transplantation, and donation after circulatory death (DCD) might represent one way to alleviate this problem. DCD was introduced to our institution in 2007 and has been a part of our clinical routine since then. Here, we present the mid-term results of lung transplantation from DCD in a single institution and compare the outcomes with the lung recipient cohort receiving lungs from donation after brain death (DBD). Since initiation of the DCD programme in March 2007, of the 157 lung transplantations performed, 26 (16.5%) were retrieved from DCD donors, with 25 double- and 1 single-lung transplants being performed. Results were compared with standard DBD transplantations. Analyses included, amongst others, donor characteristics, survival, prevalence of primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, lung function tests during follow-up, onset of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) as well as duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay. While there was no significant difference between lung function, BOS and survival between the two groups, lungs from DCD donors had a higher PaO(2) (median; interquartile range) 498.3 (451.5; 525) vs. DBD 442.5 (371.25; 502) kPa before retrieval (P = 0.009). There was also a longer total ischaemic time in the DCD vs. DBD group: 320 min (298.75; 393.25) vs. 285.5 min (240; 373) (P = 0.025). All other parameters were comparable. Medium-term results after lung transplantation with organs procured after circulatory death are comparable with those obtained after standard lung transplantation. Therefore, DCD could be used to significantly increase the donor pool.

  5. Clinical outcome following lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis colonised with Burkholderia cepacia complex: results from two French centres.

    PubMed

    Boussaud, V; Guillemain, R; Grenet, D; Coley, N; Souilamas, R; Bonnette, P; Stern, M

    2008-08-01

    Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is a life threatening complication of cystic fibrosis (CF), often seen as a contraindication for lung transplantation. A long term retrospective study was conducted of all patients with CF undergoing lung transplants from January 1990 to October 2006 in two French centres allowing transplantation in patients colonised with BCC. 22 of the 247 lung transplant patients with CF were infected with BCC (B. cenocepacia genomovar III (n = 8), B. multivorans genomovar II (n = 11), B. vietnamiensis genomovar V (n = 2) and B. stabilis genomovar IV (n = 1)). BCC colonisation was not associated with any significant excess mortality (HR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.2; p = 0.58). However, early mortality rates tended to be higher in the BCC group than in the non-BCC group (3 month survival: 85% vs 95%, respectively; log rank p = 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that the risk of death was significantly higher for the eight patients infected with B. cenocepacia than for the other 14 colonised patients (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.9; p = 0.04). None of the other risk factors tested-primary graft failure, late extubation, septicaemia-had a significant effect. The 5 year cumulative incidence rate of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was not significantly higher in the BCC group than in the non-BCC group (38% vs 24%, respectively; p = 0.35). Our results suggest that BCC infection with a non-genomovar III organism may not be associated with excess mortality after lung transplantation in patients with CF and should not be seen as sufficient reason to exclude lung transplantation. However, colonisation with B. cenocepacia remains potentially detrimental.

  6. Clinical lung transplantation from uncontrolled non-heart-beating donors revisited.

    PubMed

    Gomez-de-Antonio, David; Campo-Cañaveral, Jose Luis; Crowley, Silvana; Valdivia, Daniel; Cordoba, Mar; Moradiellos, Javier; Naranjo, Jose Manual; Ussetti, Piedad; Varela, Andrés

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study is to review and update the long-term results from our previously published series of lung transplantation in uncontrolled non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). A prospective collection of data was undertaken from all lung transplants performed among uncontrolled NHBDs between 2002 and December 2009. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-nine lung transplants were performed. Mean total ischemic times for the first and second lung were 575 minutes (SD 115.6) and 701 minutes (SD 111.3), respectively. Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) G1, G2 and G3 occurred in 5 cases (17%), 5 cases (17%) and 11 cases (38%), respectively. Overall hospital mortality rate was 17% (5 patients). Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant association of mortality with ischemic times and with PGD. In terms of overall survival, 3-month, 1-year, 2-year and 5-year survival rates were 78%, 68%, 57% and 51%, respectively, and the conditional survival rates in those who survived the first 3 months were 86%, 72% and 65%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) was 11%, 35% and 45% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Lung transplantation from uncontrolled non-heart-beating donors shows acceptable results for both mid- and long-term survival and BOS; however, the higher rates of PGD and its impact on early mortality must make us more demanding with respect to the acceptance criteria and methods of evaluation used with these donors. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Results of clinical lung transplant from uncontrolled non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    de Antonio, David Gómez; Marcos, Roberto; Laporta, Rosalía; Mora, Gema; García-Gallo, Cristina; Gámez, Pablo; Córdoba, Mar; Moradiellos, Javier; Ussetti, Piedad; Carreño, María C; Núñez, José R; Calatayud, Joaquín; Del Río, Francisco; Varela, Andrés

    2007-05-01

    The scarcity of grafts for lung transplant and the growing number of candidates expecting an organ has led to an increase of deaths in patients waiting for lung transplantation. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) represent a promising source of grafts for those who are involved in clinical lung transplantation. We present the results of our series of 17 out-of-hospital NHBD lung transplantations performed since 2002. We have collected data from 17 donors and recipients involved in NHBD lung transplants since 2002, as well as data referring to the type of procedure and peri-operative events. We describe the incidence of post-operative complications with special attention to primary graft disfunction (PGD), bronchial healing, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and survival. We used Kaplan-Meier method to obtain the survival curve. G2-G3 PGD was reported in 9 patients (53%), with a complete restoration of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in 170 hours for G2 and 168 hours for G3. There were no deaths directly related to PGD. Acute rejection was detected in 7 patients (41%), 4 of which exceeded grade 1. The incidence of BOS after transplantation was 1 (7%) of 14 patients during the first year, 2 (11%) of 9 in the second year, and 2 (50%) of 4 in the third year. Hospital mortality rate was 17%. The survival rates were 82% at 3 months, 69%, at 1 year, and 58% at 3 years. Mid-term results confirm the adequacy of uncontrolled NHBD as a promising complementary source of lung donors for clinical transplant.

  8. Reemergence of Lower-Airway Microbiota in Lung Transplant Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Saad A; Whelan, Fiona J; Waddell, Barbara; Rabin, Harvey R; Parkins, Michael D; Surette, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lung infections are a hallmark of cystic fibrosis; they are responsible for progressive airway destruction and ultimately lead to respiratory death or the requirement for life-saving bilateral lung transplant. Furthermore, recurrent isolation of airway pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the allograft after transplant is associated with adverse outcomes, including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and acute infections. Little information exists on the impact of bilateral lung transplant on the lower-airway microbiota. To compare, at a microbiome and single-pathogen level (P. aeruginosa), the bacterial communities in pre- and post-transplant samples. We retrospectively accessed our biobank of sputum samples and sputum-derived bacterial pathogens for patients who had matched samples, including those who were clinically stable before transplant, those who had a pulmonary exacerbation before transplant, and those who had pulmonary exacerbation after transplant. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the lower-airway microbiome of 14 adult transplant patients with cystic fibrosis. Genotyping and phenotyping of P. aeruginosa isolates from 12 of these patients with matched isolates was performed. Although α-diversity (richness and evenness) of patient microbiomes was similar before and after transplant, β- diversity (core microbiome composition) measures stratified patients evenly into two groups with more similar and more dissimilar communities. P. aeruginosa strains isolated before transplant were found to reemerge in 11 of 12 patients; however, phenotypic variation was observed. These findings indicate that recolonization by P. aeruginosa after transplant is almost always strain specific, suggesting a within-host source. The polymicrobial colonization of the airways after transplant does not always reflect the pretransplant sputum microbiota.

  9. Predictors of post-traumatic psychological growth in the late years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kristen R; Posluszny, Donna M; DiMartini, Andrea F; DeVito Dabbs, Annette J; Rosenberger, Emily M; Zomak, Rachelle A; Bermudez, Christian; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Although lung transplantation improves quality of life, most psychosocial research focuses on adverse psychological and social functioning outcomes. Positive effects, particularly in the late-term years as physical morbidities increase, have received little attention. We provide the first data on a psychological benefit - post-traumatic growth (PTG) - and we focused on long-term (>5 yr) survivors. Among 178 patients from a prospective study of mental health during the first two yr post-transplant, we recontacted survivors 6-11 yr post-transplant. We assessed PTG (i.e., positive psychological change resulting from the transplant) and examined its relationship to other patient characteristics with multivariable regression analyses. Sixty-four patients (86% of survivors) were assessed (M = 8.1 yr post-transplant, SD = 1.2). Mean PTG exceeded the scale's midpoint (M = 38.6, SD = 10.0; scale midpoint = 25). Recipients experiencing greater PTG were female (p = 0.022), less educated (p = 0.014), and had a history of post-transplant panic disorder (p = 0.005), greater friend support (p = 0.048), and better perceived health (p = 0.032). Neither other pre- or post-transplant mood and anxiety disorders nor transplant-related morbidities (acute rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome) predicted PTG. PTG exceeded levels observed in other chronic disease populations, suggesting that lung transplantation may uniquely foster positive psychological change in long-term survivors. PTG occurs despite physical and psychiatric morbidities. Whether PTG promotes other positive post-transplant psychosocial outcomes deserves attention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Two Decades of Lung Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Hall, David J; Belli, Erol V; Gregg, Jon A; Salgado, Juan C; Baz, Maher A; Staples, E Denmark; Beaver, Thomas M; Machuca, Tiago N

    2017-04-01

    Lung retransplantation (ReTx) comprises an increasing share of lung transplants and recently has shown improved outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors affecting overall survival after pulmonary ReTx. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify patients undergoing lung transplantation at our institution from 1995 to 2014. Of the total 542 lung transplants performed, 87 (16.1%) were ReTxs. The primary outcome was overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to assess the effect of recipient and donor characteristics on survival. Of the patients who underwent ReTx, median survival was 2 years. Predictors of worse survival include recipient age between 50 and 60 years (relative risk, 4.3; p = 0.02) or older than 60 years (relative risk, 10.2; p < 0.001), and time to ReTx of less than 2 years (relative risk, 3.8; p = 0.01). ReTx for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome had longer median survival than for restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction (2.7 years vs 0.9 years; p = 0.055). Overall survival of ReTx patients after initiation of the lung allocation score was not significantly different (p = 0.21). Lung ReTx outcomes are significantly worse than for primary transplantation but may be appropriate in well-selected patients with certain diagnoses. Lung ReTx in patients older than 50 years or within 2 years of primary lung transplantation was associated with decreased survival. Further work is warranted to identify patients who benefit most from ReTx. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SciTech Connect

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Komaki, Ritsuko; Fujimoto, Kiminori

    Purpose: We observed a rare and unique occurrence of radiation-induced pulmonary injury outside the tangential field for early breast cancer treatment. The findings appeared to be idiopathic and were called radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) syndrome. We surveyed major hospitals in Japan to review their findings of radiation-induced BOOP, in particular the clinical and pictorial characteristics of the entity. Methods and Materials: We reviewed surveys completed and returned by 20 institutions. The survey responses were based on a total of 37 cases of BOOP syndrome. We also reviewed X-ray and computed tomography scans provided by these institutions. We discussedmore » the information derived from the questionnaire and analyzed patients' characteristics, methods used in the treatment of BOOP syndrome, and prognosis. Results: The incidence of the radiation-induced BOOP syndrome was about 1.8% (37 of 2,056). We did not find a relationship between the characteristics of patients and the occurrence of radiation-induced BOOP syndrome. The pulmonary findings were classified into four patterns on chest computed tomography scans. Progression of the pulmonary lesions observed on chest X-ray was classified into three patterns. Pneumonitis appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy was completed and disappeared within 6-12 months after its onset. At 5-year follow-up, 2 patients had died, 1 of breast cancer and the other of interstitial pneumonitis, which seemed to be idiopathic and unrelated to the radiation-induced BOOP syndrome. Conclusions: Although the incidence of BOOP syndrome and its associated prognosis are not significant, the patients' clinical condition must be carefully followed.« less

  12. Chronic suppurative lung disease in a developing country: impact on child and parent.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Anna Marie; Muthusamy, Ananthan; Thavagnanam, Surendran; Hashim, Azfawahiza; de Bruyne, Jessie

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the impact of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) on growth and lung function in the child as well as quality of life of the child and parent. Cross-sectional study in 60 children with CSLD, bronchiectasis (including cystic fibrosis) and bronchiolitis obliterans. Thirty-five parents were interviewed while the remaining patients' data were collated from medical notes. Anthropometric measurements at first diagnosis and at interview were compared. The most recent lung function was also collected. The Parent Cough-Specific Quality of Life (PC-QOL) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS21) questionnaires were administered to parents. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 1.3 (0.2-11) years. The median (IQR) duration between anthropometric measurements was 35 (15, 59) months. Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) had improvements both in weight and BMI, whereas children with non-CF CSLD had no improvements in any growth parameter. Seventy-eight percent of children who performed spirometry had values <80% of normal predicted value. PC-QOL scores were low. Frequent exacerbations (more than twice in the past 6 months) and cough (more than 2 days/week) were not associated with significantly lower PC-QOL scores. Seventy-seven percent of interviewed parents had abnormal DASS21 scores with 54% being stressed and 51% being depressed. Mental health was better in parents of children with CF. CSLD had a negative impact on growth, lung function, and quality of life. Children with CF had a better outcome in growth as well as better parental mental health compared to children with other etiologies. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:435-440. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of Ocimum basilicum L. on cyclo-oxygenase isoforms and prostaglandins involved in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Umar, Anwar; Zhou, Wenting; Abdusalam, Elzira; Tursun, Arzigul; Reyim, Nadira; Tohti, Ibadet; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-02-27

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) is a plant used in traditional Uyghur medicine for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. In previous studies we had found an antihypertensive and antithrombotic effect suggestive of an effect on prostaglandins, which we attempt to document here. 6-keto-PGF1α, the metabolite of prostacyclin, and PGE2 were measured in the supernatant of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and basal or LPS-stimulated mouse coeliac macrophage cultures exposed to OBL ethanol (OBL-E) extracts and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol (PE, C, EA, B) fractions. In addition, 6-keto-PGF1α and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were measured in a rat model of thromboangiitis obliterans exposed or not to OBL. Short-term exposure to OBL-E dose-dependently increased 6-keto-PGF1α from HUVEC, and long-term (24h) exposure decreased it. OBL-C and OBL-B increased 6-keto-PGF1α, whereas the other fractions tended to decrease it after 24h exposure. The extract and all fractions decreased basal and stimulated PGE2 production, but only OBL-EA and OBL-B reduced PGE2 in stimulated cultures to concentrations below the unstimulated values (P<0.05). In vivo OBL increased 6-keto-PGF1α and decreased TXB2. OBL and its extracts increased 6-keto-PGF1α and reduced PGE2 and TXB2 production in a dose and time-related manner. This could indicate simultaneous inhibition of COX-2 and stimulation of endothelial COX-1. The butanol fraction seemed most promising in this respect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung transplantation for respiratory failure; Belgium amongst the world leaders.

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, D; Verleden, G M

    2011-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment option in carefully selected patients with end-stage lung disease. Life expectancy after this form of treatment has progressively increased with a current survival of 90% after 1 year, 70% after 5 years, and 50% after 10 years in experienced centers. Apart from a survival benefit, this treatment aims to improve the quality of life. Bilateral lung transplantation is the type of operation that is performed most frequently because of superior survival results, especially when chronic rejection develops. Single lung transplantation is now reserved for older patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Heart-lung transplantation is rarely done, only in patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or complex congenital heart disease. Belgium is one of the world leaders in terms of number of deceased organ donors with a lung recovery rate of about 35%. With a total of 8.3 lung transplants per million population, Belgium is currently the number 1 in the world. The procedure nowadays is performed in 4 University Hospitals (UA-KUL-ULB-UCL) in the country. Between 1983 and 2009, nearly 1000 proedures were performed. The most common indication was emphysema, followed by cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and Eisenmenger's syndrome. Further application of this treatment option is hampered by several problems such as donor organ shortage, primary graft dysfunction, chronic rejection presenting as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and side effect of chronic immunosuppression. In the Laboratory for Experimental Thoracic Surgery and the Laboratory for Pneumology at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, intensive research is done by our group looking for new methods to increase the lung donor pool and to prevent and to treat chronic rejection.

  15. HLA Matching at the Eplet Level Protects Against Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Walton, D C; Hiho, S J; Cantwell, L S; Diviney, M B; Wright, S T; Snell, G I; Paraskeva, M A; Westall, G P

    2016-09-01

    Donor selection in lung transplantation (LTx) is historically based upon clinical urgency, ABO compatibility, and donor size. HLA matching is not routinely considered; however, the presence or later development of anti-HLA antibodies is associated with poorer outcomes, particularly chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Using eplet mismatches, we aimed to determine whether donor/recipient HLA incompatibility was a significant predictor of CLAD. One hundred seventy-five LTx undertaken at the Alfred Hospital between 2008 and 2012 met criteria. Post-LTx monitoring was continued for at least 12 months, or until patient death. HLA typing was performed by sequence-based typing and Luminex sequence-specific oligonucleotide. Using HLAMatchmaker, eplet mismatches between each donor/recipient pairing were analyzed and correlated against incidences of CLAD. HLA-DRB1/3/4/5+DQA/B eplet mismatch was a significant predictor of CLAD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71-8.29 p < 0.001). When bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) were analyzed independently, HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 + DQA/B eplet mismatch was shown to significantly predict RAS (HR 8.3, 95% CI: 2.46-27.97 p < 0.001) but not BOS (HR 1.92, 95% CI: 0.64-5.72, p = 0.237). HLA-A/B eplet mismatch was shown not to be a significant predictor when analyzed independently but did provide additional stratification of results. This study illustrates the importance of epitope immunogenicity in defining donor-recipient immune compatibility in LTx. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS): a novel form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaaki; Waddell, Thomas K; Wagnetz, Ute; Roberts, Heidi C; Hwang, David M; Haroon, Ayesha; Wagnetz, Dirk; Chaparro, Cecilia; Singer, Lianne G; Hutcheon, Michael A; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-07-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) with small-airway pathology and obstructive pulmonary physiology may not be the only form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation. Characteristics of a form of CLAD consisting of restrictive functional changes involving peripheral lung pathology were investigated. Patients who received bilateral lung transplantation from 1996 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline pulmonary function was taken as the time of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). CLAD was defined as irreversible decline in FEV(1) < 80% baseline. The most accurate threshold to predict irreversible decline in total lung capacity and thus restrictive functional change was at 90% baseline. Restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) was defined as CLAD meeting this threshold. BOS was defined as CLAD without RAS. To estimate the effect on survival, Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used. Among 468 patients, CLAD developed in 156; of those, 47 (30%) showed the RAS phenotype. Compared with the 109 BOS patients, RAS patients showed significant computed tomography findings of interstitial lung disease (p < 0.0001). Prevalence of RAS was approximately 25% to 35% of all CLAD over time. Patient survival of RAS was significantly worse than BOS after CLAD onset (median survival, 541 vs 1,421 days; p = 0.0003). The RAS phenotype was the most significant risk factor of death among other variables after CLAD onset (hazard ratio, 1.60; confidential interval, 1.23-2.07). RAS is a novel form of CLAD that exhibits characteristics of peripheral lung fibrosis and significantly affects survival of lung transplant patients. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  18. Lymphocytic Arteritis in Epstein-Barr Virus Vulvar Ulceration (Lipschütz Disease): A Report of 7 Cases.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Mary M; Sangüeza, Martin; Werner, Betina; Kutzner, Heinz; Carlson, John A

    2015-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can rarely present as painful genital ulcers, mostly in young female adolescents. Typically diagnosed by clinical findings, EBV vulvar ulceration (EBVVU) is rarely biopsied. Herein, the authors report the histopathology in 8 biopsies from 7 EBVVU patients, all serologically confirmed for acute (4/7) or reactivated-chronic (3/7) EBV infection. The 7 women all presented with 1 or more painful, punched-out vulvar ulcers. Only patients with acute EBV infection showed other clinical findings: fever and/or atypical lymphocytosis affected 75% (3/4); lymphadenopathy in 50%; and malaise/fatigue, dysuria and/or hepatomegaly in 25%. All reactivated-chronic EBVVU had a solitary ulcer, and 2 had history of a similar episode of vulvar ulceration (aphthosis). Histopathologically, lymphocytic arteritis was identified in 88% (7/8); a submucosal scar was found in the eighth specimen. Other histopathologies included venulitis (62%), endarteritis obliterans (38%), thrombosis (25%), neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis (25%), and mucosal lymphoid hyperplasia (12%). Dense angiocentric CD3 CD4 T-cell lymphocyte-predominant infiltrates were found, regionally or diffusely. In 2 specimens, neutrophils compromised half of the infiltrate. Minor components of CD8, CD20, and CD30 lymphocytes, CD123 plasmacytoid monocytes, CD68 macrophages, and plasma cells were present. Small-vessel endothelium and smooth muscle adjacent to the ulcers faintly expressed cytoplasmic EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1). In situ hybridization for early EBV mRNA (EBER) identified rare solitary or scattered clustered positive lymphocytes in 38%. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA was positive in one EBER positive biopsy. EBV infection has been documented in muscular vessel vasculitis. Based on the aforementioned, EBVVU appears to be the consequence of localized lymphocytic arteritis.

  19. Survival benefit of lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tanash, Hanan A; Riise, Gerdt C; Ekström, Magnus P; Hansson, Lennart; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is a therapeutic option for patients with life-threatening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is refractory to conventional therapies. The survival benefit of LTx for COPD is difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish series of LTx performed to treat COPD and to identify differences in outcome between COPD related to severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and COPD with normal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 342 patients (128 AATD and 214 non-AATD) receiving lung transplants for end stage COPD from 1990 through 2012. The majority (71%) of patients received a single lung transplant. The median survival time after LTx for all COPD patients was 9 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8 to 10). Non-AATD recipients had a shorter survival time than AATD recipients, 6 years (95% CI: 5.0 to 8.8) versus 12 years (95% CI: 9.6 to 13.5, p = 0.000). Mortality was higher among non-AATD recipients after adjusting for age, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, oxygen therapy use, exercise capacity, donor age, cytomegalovirus mismatch, and transplant type (hazard ratio 1.70, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.82). The 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the AATD recipients were 75% and 59%, respectively, compared with 60% and 31% for the non-AATD recipients. Early deaths were mainly due to cardio/cerebrovascular accidents and sepsis, and late deaths to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and pulmonary infections. Survival after LTx is significantly better for patients with severe AATD and end stage COPD than for the patients with COPD related to cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of lung donors older than 55 years: a review of the United Network of Organ Sharing database.

    PubMed

    Bittle, Gregory J; Sanchez, Pablo G; Kon, Zachary N; Claire Watkins, A; Rajagopal, Keshava; Pierson, Richard N; Gammie, James S; Griffith, Bartley P

    2013-08-01

    Current lung transplantation guidelines stipulate that the ideal donor is aged younger than 55 years, but several institutions have reported that outcomes using donors aged 55 years and older are comparable with those of younger donors. We retrospectively reviewed the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database to identify all adult lung transplants between 2000 and 2010 in the United States. Patients were stratified by donor age 18 to 34 (reference), 35 to 54, 55 to 64, and ≥ 65 years. Primary outcomes included survival at 30 days and at 1, 3, and 5 years and rates of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for mortality were identified by multivariable Cox and logistic regression. We identified 10,666 recipients with median follow-up of 3 years (range, 0-10 years). Older donors were more likely to have died of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular causes, but there were no differences in recipient diagnosis, lung allocation score, or incidence of BOS as a function of donor age. The use of donors aged 55 to 64 years was not a risk factor for mortality at 1 year (odds ratio, 1.1; p = 0.304) or 3 years (odds ratio, 0.923; p = 0.571) compared with the reference group; however, use of donors aged > 65 years was associated with increased mortality at both time points (odds ratio, 2.8 and 2.4, p < 0.02). Outcomes after lung transplantation using donors aged 55 to 64 years were similar to those observed with donors meeting conventional age criteria. Donors aged ≥ 65 years, however, were associated with decreased intermediate-term survival, although there was no increased risk of BOS for this group. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis is not a risk factor for poor clinical Outcomes following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Julia; Thakrar, Mitesh V; Somayaji, Ranjani; Surette, Michael G; Rabin, Harvey R; Helmersen, Doug; Lien, Dale; Purighalla, Swathi; Waddell, Barbara; Parkins, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Epidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ePA) causing infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) have been commonly identified from clinics around the world. ePA disproportionally impacts CF patient pre-transplant outcomes manifesting in increased exacerbation frequency, worsened treatment burden and increased rate of lung function decline, and disproportionally leads to death and/or transplantation. As other CF factors such as pre-transplant infection with multi-resistant organisms, and isolation of P. aeruginosa in the post transplant graft, may impact post-transplant outcomes, we sought to determine if infection with ePA similarly adversely impact post-transplant outcomes. Between 1991-2014, 53 CF patients from our center received lung transplants. Bacterial strain typing was performed retrospectively on isolates collected prior to transplantation. Comprehensive chart reviews were performed to obtain baseline patient characteristics and post-transplant outcomes. Of the 53 transplanted patients, 57% of patients were infected with ePA prior to transplant; the other 43% of patients had unique strains of P. aeruginosa. Mean age at transplant was 29.0years for ePA and 33.3years for unique (p=0.04). There were no differences in overall survival (HR=0.75, 95% CI 0.31-1.79), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) free survival (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.54-4.84) or all other assessed outcomes including exacerbation frequency, chronic renal failure, acute cellular rejections, Aspergillus infection, airway stenosis, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Unlike pre-transplant outcomes, CF patients infected with ePA do not experience worse post-transplant outcomes than those infected with unique strains. Therefore, lung transplantation should be considered for all patients with P. aeruginosa infection and end stage lung disease, irrespective of infection with ePA. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Boan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yaoxian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of serious mortality and morbidity, which often happens in inpatients and especially with the postoperative population [1]. The golden standard to diagnose DVT is venography, which relies on complicated imaging modalities requiring to be injected in a vein below the clot invasively and ionizing procedures that employing xray imaging to show where and how the DVT blocks. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is recently found to be an intriguing and potential method detecting DVT in clinics. It has been reported recently that employing NIRS to diagnose DVT. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), local extremities manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, usually cause thrombosis and the reduction of distal blood flow. Thrombolytic therapy is to use exogenous activator to activate the dissolution system, which can dissolve intracoronary thrombus. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those DVT and ASO patients did not take treatments and normal population. 8 DVT and 9 ASO patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited to take the measurements of concentration variation of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) by NIRS-based thrombosis monitor. Thereinto, 5 DVT and 6 ASO patients has taken the thrombolytic treatment, and the data for the periods before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment were extracted for analysis. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in DVT and ASO patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converge to the curves of normal subjects. And the Δ[Hb] emerges the similar trends, except for the rising trend in the beginning and the downtrend after thrombolytic therapy. The findings indicated NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.

  3. Effects of Curcuminoids-Piperine Combination on Systemic Oxidative Stress, Clinical Symptoms and Quality of Life in Subjects with Chronic Pulmonary Complications Due to Sulfur Mustard: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Hajhashemi, Ali; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of chronic pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard (SM). Curcuminoids are polyphenols with documented safety and antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of short-term supplementation with curcuminoids (co-administered with piperine to enhance the bioavailability of curcuminoids) in alleviating systemic oxidative stress and clinical symptoms, and improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects suffering from chronic pulmonary complications due to SM exposure who are receiving standard respiratory treatments. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited to this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, being randomly allocated to either curcuminoids (1500 mg/day) + piperine (15 mg/day) combination (n = 45) or placebo (n = 44) for a period of 4 weeks. High-resolution computed tomography suggested the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans in all subjects. Efficacy measures were changes in serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonedialdehyde (MDA). The severity and frequency of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL were also assessed using St. George respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) indices. Serum levels of GSH were increased whilst those of MDA decreased by the end of trial in both groups. Likewise, there were significant improvements in the total as well as subscale (symptoms, activity and impact) SGRQ and CAT scores in both groups. However, comparison of magnitude of changes revealed a greater effect of curcuminoids-piperine combination compared to placebo in elevating GSH, reducing MDA and improving CAT and SGRQ (total and subscale) scores (p < 0.001). Regarding the promising effects of curcuminoids on the measures of systemic oxidative stress, clinical symptoms and HRQoL, these phytochemicals may be used as safe adjuvants in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications who are receiving standard treatments.

  4. Unilateral localized conjunctival amyloidosis in a patient with a history of contralateral orbit/eyelid lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Byers, Joshua T; Qing, Xin; Lo, Christopher; French, Samuel W; Ji, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the deposition of insoluble abnormal proteins in the extracellular space. It may occur as a localized lesion or as a systemic disease involving multiple organs and systems. Localized conjunctival amyloidosis is rare and is less frequently associated with systemic involvement. Although amyloidosis itself is a benign lesion involvement of multiple organs and systems is associated with poor prognosis. Diagnosis of amyloidosis is made on biopsy specimens with Congo red staining for the appearance of apple-green birefringence under polarized light microscopy. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is much more sensitive in diagnosing amyloidosis and can determine the type of amyloid deposit. Here we reported a case of conjunctival amyloidosis in a 52 year-old male patient who was presented with left lower eyelid swelling to our medical center. He has a complicated past medical history of anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, Buerger's disease (thromboangitis obliterans), and small cell lymphoma (SLL) of the right orbit/eyelid. The patient received radiation to the right orbit to treat SLL with therapy completed one and a half years prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed a firm, raised yellowish colored lesion in the left lower conjunctiva. The conjunctival lesion was biopsied, and tissue sections were examined with Congo red stains and LC-MS/MS analysis. The biopsy showed amyloid deposits without evidence of malignancy, and the type of proteins in the deposit was immunoglobulin light chain (AL) of kappa type. A complete work up was taken for possible systemic involvement of amyloidosis and results were all negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of localized conjunctival amyloidosis with a history of contralateral orbit/eyelid SLL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    PubMed

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  6. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH <4) and weakly acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  7. Acute Lung Injury and Persistent Small Airway Disease in a Rabbit Model of Chlorine Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, David M.; Powell, Karen S.; Roberts, Andrew M.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. PMID:27913141

  8. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation.

    PubMed

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F; Humphrey, David M; Powell, Karen S; Roberts, Andrew M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24h after exposure to 800ppm chlorine for 4min to study acute effects or up to 7days after exposure to 400ppm for 8min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24h after inhalation of 800ppm chlorine for 4min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400ppm chlorine for 8min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-dose computed tomography volumetry for subtyping chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomohito; Horie, Miho; Sato, Masaaki; Nakajima, Daisuke; Shoushtarizadeh, Hassan; Binnie, Matthew; Azad, Sassan; Hwang, David M; Machuca, Tiago N; Waddell, Thomas K; Singer, Lianne G; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Paul, Narinder S; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2016-01-01

    The long-term success of lung transplantation is challenged by the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and its distinct subtypes of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). However, the current diagnostic criteria for CLAD subtypes rely on total lung capacity (TLC), which is not always measured during routine post-transplant assessment. Our aim was to investigate the utility of low-dose 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) lung volumetry for differentiating RAS from BOS. This study was a retrospective evaluation of 63 patients who had developed CLAD after bilateral lung or heart‒lung transplantation between 2006 and 2011, including 44 BOS and 19 RAS cases. Median post-transplant follow-up was 65 months in BOS and 27 months in RAS. The median interval between baseline and the disease-onset time-point for CT volumetry was 11 months in both BOS and RAS. Chronologic changes and diagnostic accuracy of CT lung volume (measured as percent of baseline) were investigated. RAS showed a significant decrease in CT lung volume at disease onset compared with baseline (mean 3,916 ml vs 3,055 ml when excluding opacities, p < 0.0001), whereas BOS showed no significant post-transplant change (mean 4,318 ml vs 4,396 ml, p = 0.214). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CT lung volume for differentiating RAS from BOS was 0.959 (95% confidence interval 0.912 to 1.01, p < 0.0001) and the calculated accuracy was 0.938 at a threshold of 85%. In bilateral lung or heart‒lung transplant patients with CLAD, low-dose CT volumetry is a useful tool to differentiate patients who develop RAS from those who develop BOS. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunology mini-review: the basics of T(H)17 and interleukin-6 in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, T; Inoue, M; Minami, M; Shintani, Y; Okumura, M

    2012-05-01

    The outcomes of organ transplantation are determined by graft rejection, the mechanisms of which are some of the most important areas of study in the transplantation field. The main cause of rejection is the immunologic response of the recipient toward the transplanted organ. The immunologic responses are regulated by T-cell subsets, especially helper T-cells, which have been characterized as T(H)1 or T(H)2 cells according to their profiles of cytokines production. A unique subset of recently identified lymphocytes, the regulatory T cells (T(reg)s), seem to play a role in tolerance. The recently identified T(H)17 cells are a subset of effector-helper lymphocytes that specifically secrete interleukin (IL) 17. Interestingly, T(H)17 and T(reg) both develop from naïve T cells on stimulation by transforming growth factor β. The difference is only the existence of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine. T(H)17 clears pathogens that are not adequately handled by T(H)1 and T(H)2 elements, as well as contributing to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory diseases. Autoimmune diseases are caused by reactions to self-antigens. T(H)17 (or IL-17) and IL-6 are also thought to be involved in rejection after organ transplantation. We examined the contributions of T(H)17 and IL-6 in bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), the histologic finding in chronic rejection of lung transplantations. Earlier studies have reported that T(H)17 and IL-6 contribute not only to chronic rejection of lung transplantations, but also to the rejection of other solid organs, e.g., heart, liver, and kidney. In addition, prospective avenues of research on T(H)17 and IL-6 in transplantation have emerged from the perspectives of recent studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Assessment of complications in patients with lung transplantation with high resolution computerized tomography].

    PubMed

    Macori, F; Iacari, V; Falchetto Osti, M; Potente, G; Anaveri, G

    1998-01-01

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) has been used by many authors to study the early complications of lung transplantation. Bronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy and the clinical parameters are the tools of choice to diagnose such complications; HRCT showed excellent sensitivity (100%) and good specificity (93%) especially in detecting bronchial stenoses. We report the preliminary results of HRCT in detecting early/late complications in lung transplant recipients. Sixteen lung transplant recipients (5 single and 11 double transplants) were examined with HRCT at the Servizio Speciale Diagnostica V of "La Sapienza" University (Rome, Italy). The CT findings were compared with the results of bronchoscopy and respiratory function tests. The patients (8 men and 8 women; age range: 18-57 years, mean: 37.5) had cystic fibrosis (9), emphysema (3), alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (1), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (2), and bronchiectasis (1). During the follow-up, one patient died of pulmonary edema. CT findings were normal in 3 patients and mild pleural effusion was seen in 2. The other HRCT findings were: bronchial stenosis in 5 cases (which was bilateral in 1) and bronchial dehiscence in 1 patient; four cases of infection (1 CMV, 1 aspecific bacterial pneumonia, 1 Chlamydia psittacea and 1 Aspergillosis) and one of brochiolitis obliterans. A patient was treated for acute and one for chronic rejection. A CMV infection involved only the native lung in a patient. CT is easy to perform and a repeatable and well-tolerated tool with high sensitivity (100%) and good specificity (93%) in the early diagnosis of complications, particularly bronchial stenoses, which complications are often missed at bronchoscopy or clinically silent. CT should be always performed before bronchoscopy because it can provide valuable information for bronchoscopy targeting. In agreement with other authors we consider HRCT a very useful tool in the early diagnosis of the complications following lung

  12. Lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coloni, G F; Venuta, F; Ciccone, A M; Rendina, E A; De Giacomo, T; Filice, M J; Diso, D; Anile, M; Andreetti, C; Aratari, M T; Mercadante, E; Moretti, M; Ibrahim, M

    2004-04-01

    Lung transplantation is a robust therapeutic option to treat patients with cystic fibrosis. Since 1996, 109 patients with cystic fibrosis were accepted onto our waiting list with 58 bilateral sequential lung transplants performed in 56 patients and two patients retransplanted for obliterative bronchiolitis syndrome. Preoperative mean FEV(1) was 0.64 L/s, mean PaO(2) with supplemental oxygen was 56 mm Hg, and the mean 6-minute walking test was 320 m. Transplantation was performed through a "clam shell incision" in the first 29 patients and via bilateral anterolateral thoracotomies without sternal division in the remaining patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass was required in 14 patients. In 21 patients the donor lungs had to be trimmed by wedge resections with mechanical staplers and bovine pericardium buttressing to fit the recipient chest size. Eleven patients were extubated in the operating room immediately after the procedure. Hospital mortality of 13.8% was related to infection (n = 5), primary graft failure (n = 2), and myocardial infarction (n = 1). Acute rejection episodes occurred 1.6 times per patient/year; lower respiratory tract infections occurred 1.4 times per patient in the first year after transplantation. The mean FEV(1) increased to 82% at 1 year after operation. The 5-year survival rate was 61%. A cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimen was initially employed in all patients; 24 were subsequently switched to tacrolimus because of central nervous system toxicity, cyclosporine-related myopathy, or renal failure, obliterative bronchiolitis syndrome, gingival hyperplasia, or hypertrichosis. Ten patients were subsequently switched to sirolimus. Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans at 5 years was 60%. Our results confirm that bilateral sequential lung transplantation is a robust therapeutic option for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Long-term results after lung transplantation using organs from circulatory death donors: a propensity score-matched analysis†.

    PubMed

    Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Soresi, Simona; Zych, Bartlomiej; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N; García Sáez, Diana; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Wahlers, Thorsten; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wippermann, Jens; Wittwer, Thorsten; De Robertis, Fabio; Bahrami, Toufan; Amrani, Mohamed; Simon, André R

    2016-01-01

    Due to organ shortage in lung transplantation (LTx), donation after circulatory death (DCD) has been implemented in several countries, contributing to an increasing number of organs transplanted. We sought to assess long-term outcomes after LTx with organs procured following circulatory death in comparison with those obtained from donors after brain death (DBD). Between January 2007 and November 2013, 302 LTxs were performed in our institution, whereby 60 (19.9%) organs were retrieved from DCD donors. We performed propensity score matching (DCD:DBD = 1:2) based on preoperative donor and recipient factors that were significantly different in univariate analysis. After propensity matching, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographics and preoperative donor and recipient characteristics. There were no significant differences regarding intraoperative variables and total ischaemic time. Patients from the DCD group had significantly higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction grade 3 at the end of the procedure (P = 0.014), and significantly lower pO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 24 h after the procedure (P = 0.018). There was a trend towards higher incidence of the need for postoperative extracorporeal life support in the DCD group. Other postoperative characteristics were comparable. While the overall cumulative survival was not significantly different, the DCD group had significantly poorer results in terms of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS)-free survival in the long-term follow-up. Long-term results after LTx with organs procured following DCD are in general comparable with those obtained after DBD LTx. However, patients transplanted using organs from DCD donors have a predisposition for development of BOS in the longer follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Flanigan, Skye S; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H; Christiani, David C

    2016-06-01

    There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as "popcorn lung." There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733-739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185.

  15. Prevalence of preoperative penile abnormalities among voluntary male medical circumcision patients in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Anthony R; Ruedrich, Elizabeth; Zust, Christopher; Marugg, Lindsey; VanderWal, Echo; VanderWal, Harry; Sartori, Rebekah; Markert, Ronald; McCarthy, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    Circumcision has been found to be an effective strategy for lowering the transmission of HIV in Africa. The Luke Commission, a mobile hospital outreach program, has used this information to decrease the rate of HIV in Swaziland by performing voluntary male medical circumcisions throughout the country. During many of these circumcisions, genital medical conditions and penile abnormalities are simultaneously discovered and corrected. The goal of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of penile abnormalities discovered and treated during voluntary male medical circumcisions performed by The Luke Commission (TLC) throughout rural Swaziland. We completed a retrospective analysis of all male patients who underwent voluntary male medical circumcision performed by TLC during a period from June-August, 2014. The penile abnormalities included: phimosis, paraphimosis, epispadias, hypospadias, ulcers, balanitis, torsion, and foreskin adherent to the glans. Of 929 total circumcisions, 771 (83%) patients had at least one pre-existing penile abnormality identified during their examinations and procedures, totaling 1110 abnormalities. Three specific abnormalities were detected - phimosis, adherent foreskin, and hypospadias. The 6-12 and 13-19 age groups had adequate sample sizes to yield precise estimates of prevalence (age group 6-12: 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]=84-90%; age group 13-19: 79% (95% CI=74-84%). The Luke Commission is improving the lives of children and adults with limited access to healthcare through regular preoperative evaluations during male circumcision, and the organization is setting an example for other international healthcare groups. Type of Study: Prognostic Study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drainage estimation to aquifer and water use irrigation efficiency in semi-arid zone for a long period of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Molinero-Huguet, J.; Candela, L.

    2009-04-01

    Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.

  17. [BCG infection of the glans penis after intravesical BCG therapy].

    PubMed

    Michelet, N; Spenatto, N; Viraben, R; Cuny, J-F; Mazet, J; Trechot, P; Barbaud, A; Schmutz, J-L

    2008-01-01

    BCG therapy is an effective adjuvant treatment for superficial bladder tumors. Therapy involves intravesical instillation of live attenuated Calmette-Guérin bacilli. BCG infection of the glans is a rare local complication associated with this treatment, two cases of which are reported below. Case 1: A 77-year-old man presented relapsing urothelial bladder carcinoma treated by endoscopic resection and BCG therapy. One week after the seventh instillation, severe balanitis developed. Three months later, examination revealed massive painful perimeatal ulceration with yellowish papules in the peripheral regions. Histology revealed epithelioid giant-cell granulomas. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was positive. Slow cure of the lesions was achieved within 12months using double antitubercular antibiotic therapy. Case 2: In a 61-year-old man receiving BCG therapy for relapsing bladder carcinoma in situ, the sixth instillation was considered traumatic since it was highly painful. One week later, papular nodules appeared on the glans with a sclerosing lesion of the balanopreputial sac, dark purple perimeatal papules and a mass beneath the mucosa of the glans. Antibiotic treatment comprising ofloxacin followed by rifampicin for two months proved ineffective. Histology revealed granulomatous dermal lesions with eosinophilic necrosis. Triple antitubercular antibiotic therapy was initiated. The first reported case of BCG infection of the glans in patients undergoing intravesical BCG therapy was published in 1992. Since then, there have been nine other reports. There is no stereotypical clinical presentation. In most cases, an infiltrated erythematosus plaque is seen together with yellowish papules in certain patients. Diagnosis is based upon history and histological examination.

  18. Dermatoses of the Glans Penis in Korea: A 10-Year Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    You, Hyang-Suk; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Won-Jeong; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic dermatoses can develop on the glans penis, and definitive diagnosis in such cases may be difficult owing to their non-specific symptoms and clinical appearance. Furthermore, data on dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea are limited. Objective In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea and provide clinical data to assist in making an accurate diagnosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, clinical photographs, and histologic slides of 65 patients with dermatoses of the glans penis that visited the Pusan National University Hospital between January 2004 and August 2013. Results Twenty-six types of dermatoses were identified: inflammatory dermatosis was the most common (38/65, 58.5%), followed by infectious (13/65, 20.0%), neoplastic (10/65, 15.4%), and other dermatoses (4/65, 6.2%). The most common dermatosis of the glans penis was seborrheic dermatitis, followed by lichen planus, herpes progenitalis, condyloma accuminatum, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Zoon's balanitis, and psoriasis. In the topographic analysis, the most common type of dermatosis was dermatoses that localized to the glans penis (39/65, 60.0%), followed by dermatoses involving the extra-genitalia and glans penis (22/65, 33.9%), and the genitalia (glans penis plus other genital areas) (4/65, 6.2%). Conclusion This study shows the usefulness of a topographic approach in the diagnosis of dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea. The findings could be used as baseline data for establishing an accurate diagnosis in Koreans. PMID:26848217

  19. Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haumann, F. A.; Batenburg, A. M.; Pieterse, G.; Gerbig, C.; Krol, M. C.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H2 and several other species as well as the H2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) aircraft campaign during the dry season. We derive a relative H2 emission ratio with respect to carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.31 ± 0.04 ppb ppb-1 and an isotopic source signature of -280 ± 41‰ in the air masses influenced by tropical biomass burning. In order to retrieve a clear source signal that is not influenced by the soil uptake of H2, we exclude samples from the atmospheric boundary layer. This procedure is supported by data from a global chemistry transport model. The ΔH2 / ΔCO emission ratio is significantly lower than some earlier estimates for the tropical rainforest. In addition, our results confirm the lower values of the previously conflicting estimates of the H2 isotopic source signature from biomass burning. These values for the emission ratio and isotopic source signatures of H2 from tropical biomass burning can be used in future bottom-up and top-down approaches aiming to constrain the strength of the biomass-burning source for H2. Hitherto, these two quantities relied only on combustion experiments or on statistical relations, since no direct signal had been obtained from in-situ observations.

  20. Emissions from vegetation fires and their influence on atmospheric composition over the Amazon Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Bela, M. M.; de Freitas, S. R.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K. M.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decades, several campaigns have been conducted in the Amazon Basin, during which the emissions from biomass burning were characterized. Other campaigns, as well as remote sensing studies, have produced clear evidence that the budget of traces gases (including CO2) and aerosols over the Basin are strongly perturbed by vegetation fires. We will briefly review these studies and present some recent measurements made during the the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) aircraft measurement program, which consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May-June 2009 (BARCA-B). The measurements covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned across the Amazon Basin. While our results confirm the importance of biomass burning for the atmospheric composition over the Amazon Basin in general, they also highlight some complexities. One is the influence of transatlantic transport: Amazonia is downwind of massive fire regions in Africa, and depending on season and locality, these can make an important contribution to the trace gas and aerosol burden over the Amazon Basin. Another difficulty arises from the fact that representative emission ratios for CO relative to CO2 are difficult to obtain in the field, owing to the influence of biospheric exchange on the distribution of CO2 concentrations. The consequences of these and other uncertainties for a quantitative assessment of the sources of trace gases over Amazonia and for the estimation of carbon exchange with the biosphere will be discussed.

  1. Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haumann, F. A.; Batenburg, A. M.; Pieterse, G.; Gerbig, C.; Krol, M. C.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H2 and several other species as well as the H2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) aircraft campaign during the dry season. We derive a relative H2 emission ratio with respect to carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.31 ± 0.04 ppb/ppb and an isotopic source signature of -280 ± 41‰ in the air masses influenced by tropical biomass burning. In order to retrieve a clear source signal that is not influenced by the soil uptake of H2, we exclude samples from the atmospheric boundary layer. This procedure is supported by data from a global chemistry transport model. The ΔH2/ΔCO emission ratio is significantly lower than some earlier estimates for the tropical rainforest. In addition, our results confirm the lower values of the previously conflicting estimates of the H2 isotopic source signature from biomass burning. These values for the emission ratio and isotopic source signatures of H2 from tropical biomass burning can be used in future bottom-up and top-down approaches aiming to constrain the strength of the biomass-burning source for H2. Hitherto, these two quantities relied only on combustion experiments or on statistical relations, since no direct signal had been obtained from in-situ observations.

  2. A shift in the collagen V antigenic epitope leads to T helper phenotype switch and immune response to self-antigen leading to chronic lung allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Tiriveedhi, V; Angaswamy, N; Brand, D; Weber, J; Gelman, A G; Hachem, R; Trulock, E P; Meyers, B; Patterson, G; Mohanakumar, T

    2012-01-01

    Immune responses to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and self-antigen collagen V (Col-V) have been proposed in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, BOS) following human lung transplantation (LTx). In this study, we defined the role for the shift in immunodominant epitopes of Col-V in inducing T helper phenotype switch leading to immunity to Col-V and BOS. Sera and lavage from BOS(+) LTx recipients with antibodies to Col-V were analysed. Two years prior to BOS, patients developed antibodies to both Col-V,α1(V) and α2(V) chains. However, at clinical diagnosis of BOS, antibodies became restricted to α1(V). Further, lung biopsy from BOS(+) patients bound to antibodies to α1(V), indicating that these epitopes are exposed. Fourteen Col-V peptides [pep1-14, pep1-4 specific to α1(V), pep5-8 to α1,2(V) and pep9-14 to α2(V)] which bind to HLA-DR4 and -DR7, demonstrated that prior to BOS, pep 6, 7, 9, 11 and 14 were immunodominant and induced interleukin (IL)-10. However, at BOS, the response switched to pep1, 4 and 5 and induced interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 responses, but not IL-10. The T helper (Th) phenotype switch is accompanied by decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) in the lavage. LTx recipients with antibodies to α1(V) also demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation with decreased MMP inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), suggesting that MMP activation may play a role in the exposure of new Col-V antigenic epitopes. We conclude that a shift in immunodominance of self-antigenic determinants of Col-V results in induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 with loss of tolerance leading to autoimmunity to Col-V, which leads to chronic lung allograft rejection. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Single vs bilateral, sequential lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema: influence of recipient age on survival and secondary end-points.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D M; Bennett, L E; Novick, R J; Hosenpud, J D

    2001-09-01

    The appropriate age to perform bilateral, sequential lung transplants (BSLT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. Although single lung transplant (SLT) offers an advantage in terms of organ availability, the long-term survival may not warrant this strategy in all age groups. We analyzed 2,260 lung transplant recipients (1835 SLT, 425 BSLT) with COPD recorded in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/United Network for Organ Sharing thoracic registry between January 1991 and December 1997. To assess mortality, we performed univariate (Kaplan-Meier method and the chi-square statistic) and multivariate analyses (proportional hazards method). Because of incomplete morbidity data in the international registry, only data from U.S. centers (n = 1778, 1467 SLT, 311 BSLT) were used in the morbidity analysis. Survival rates (%) computed using the Kaplan-Meier method at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years for the patients aged < 50 years were 93.6, 80.2, and 43.6, respectively, for the SLT patients, and 94.9, 84.7, and 68.2, respectively, for the BSLT patients. For patients aged 50 to 60 years, survival rates (%) were 93.5, 79.4, and 39.8 for the SLT patients compared with 93.0, 79.7, and 60.5 for the BSLT patients. For those aged > 60 years, SLT survival (%) was 93.0, 72.9, and 36.4, compared with 77.8 and 66.0 for the BSLT group (a 5-year rate could not be completed in this group). The multivariate model showed a higher risk ratio for mortality in patients aged 40 to 57 years who received SLT vs BSLT. Recipient age and procedure type did not appear to affect the development of rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchial stricture, or lung infection. Single lung transplant may offer acceptable early survival for patients with end-stage respiratory failure. However, long-term survival data favors BSLT in recipients until approximately age 60 years. These data suggest that a BSLT approach offers a significant

  4. [Lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Santillán-Doherty, Patricio; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, Raúl; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Argote-Greene, Luis Marcelo; Escalante-Tattersfield, Tomás; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LT) has evolved to become an important alternative in the management of patients with end-stage pulmonary disease and chronic respiratory failure. The beginnings of this technique can be traced back to the experiments of Carrel and Guthrie over a hundred years ago. However, it was not until 1963 when the first clinical experience was performed by Hardy. Clinical success did not arrive until the 1980's thanks to the works of the Toronto Lung Transplant Group. Well established criteria have been described in order to consider a patient as a potential candidate to receive a lung. Several diseases are capable of causing terminal lung damage and in general they can be classified according to their origin as obstructive (COPD, emphysema), restrictive (fibrosis), chronic infectious (cystic fibrosis, bronquiectasis), and vascular (primary pulmonary hypertension). The most frequent diagnosis is COPD. Clinically relevant modes of LT include the implant of one lung (single LT), or both lungs (bilateral sequential LT). Transplantation of the cardiopulmonary block is reserved for special situations and lobar transplantation is still considered experimental. Donor condition is essential to the success of LT. The potential donor patient frequently suffers deterioration in lung function due to edema formation or infection and both complications restrict lung's using for transplantation. Lung preservation is also limited to a short period of time which rarely exceeds 6 hours in spite of specially-designed preservative solutions such as the low potassium dextran. Outcome after LT shows current one-year survival between 65-70% with reduction to 40-45% after five years. Mortality within the first year is usually related to primary graft failure and infection. Long-term survival depends on controlling infectious problems due to immunosuppression as well as the development of bronchilitis obliterans as a manifestation of chronic rejection. LT is a therapeutic

  5. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  6. Examining ABO compatible donors in double lung transplants during the era of lung allocation score.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Sharven; Jayarajan, Senthil N; Furuya, Yuka; Komaroff, Eugene; Shiose, Akira; Leotta, Eros; Hisamoto, Kazuhiro; Patel, Namrata; Cordova, Francis; Criner, Gerard; Guy, T Sloane; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2014-10-01

    The short-term and long-term effect of using ABO compatible donors in the era of lung allocation score is unknown. This study determined if carefully selected ABO compatible donors could be used in double lung transplantation (DLT) with good outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was retrospectively reviewed for adult DLT from May 2005 to December 2011. Of 6,655 double lung transplants, 493 (7.4%) were with ABO compatible donors and 6,162 (92.6%) were with ABO identical donors. In multivariate analysis, use of ABO compatible donors was not associated with mortality at 30 days (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.79, p = 0.49), 1 year (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.42, p = 0.46), and 5 years (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.34, p = 0.65). Variables associated with mortality at 5 years were donor female sex, donor age 60 years or greater, prolonged ischemic time, increasing recipient creatinine, recipient age, race mismatch, and mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to transplantation. Length of stay was longer in the ABO compatible group (30.9 vs 25.9 days, p = 0.001). Acute rejection episodes on index hospitalization (8.8 vs. 8.9%, p = 1.00), peak posttransplant forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (82.7 vs 79.7%, p = 0.053), and decrement in FEV1 over time were not different (p = 0.13). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was similar (1,475 vs 1,454 days, p = 0.17). The use of ABO compatible donors in the era of lung allocation score was not associated with short-term or long-term mortality and resulted in equivalent posttransplant lung function. A DLT with carefully selected ABO compatible donors can result in excellent outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mendeloff, E N

    1998-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease in which the fundamental physiological defect is failure of cAMP regulation of chloride transport. More than 90% of patients with CF will die of chronic, suppurative, obstructive lung disease, with the median survival in the United States currently being 29 years of age. Currently, although other therapies are being aggressively investigated, bilateral lung transplantation offers the only hope for short-term and mid-term survival in patients with CF and end-stage pulmonary disease. Since 1989, 103 bilateral sequential lung transplants (BLT) for CF have been performed at our institution (46 pediatric, 48 adult, 9 redo) at a mean age of 21+/-10 years. Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in all but one pediatric (age <18) transplantation, and in 15% of adults. The hospital mortality rate was 4.9%, with 80% of early deaths related to infection. Bronchial anastomotic complications occurred with equal frequency in the pediatric and the adult populations (7.3%). One- and 3-year actuarial survival rates are 84% and 61%, respectively (no significant difference between pediatric and adult age groups; average follow-up 2.1+/-1.6 years). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second increased from 25%+/-9% pretransplantation to 79%+/-35% 1 year posttransplantation. Acute rejection occurred 1.7 times per patient-year, with the majority of these episodes taking place the first 6 months posttransplantation. Need for treatment of lower respiratory infections occurred 1.2 times per patient in the first year after transplantation. Actuarial freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans was 63% at 2 years and 43% at 3 years. Redo transplantation was performed only in the pediatric population, and was associated with an early mortality of 33%. Eight living donor transplants (4 primary transplants, 4 redo transplants) were performed with an early survival of 87.5%. Patients with end-stage CF can undergo BLT with morbidity and mortality comparable with that

  8. Patella position is not a determinant for anterior knee pain 10 years after balanced gap total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van Houten, Albert H; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Wymenga, Ate B

    2016-08-01

    Incidence of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported to be between 4 and 49 %. The incidence of AKP at long-term follow-up and possible determinants after cruciate cruciate-retaining TKA were investigated. A 10-year follow-up of a cohort of 55 patients (63 TKAs), who received the balanSys™ cruciate-retaining total knee system (Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) between 1999 and 2002, was performed. Patients had undergone the balanced gap technique, with either a fixed bearing or an AP-glide bearing. Standardised diagnostic questions regarding AKP were collected and categorised into two groups: those with and without AKP. The lateral patellar tilt, patellar displacement measurement and modified Insall-Salvati ratio were used for patella position evaluation on skyline radiographs. The Knee Society Score (KSS), the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were obtained at follow-up. Sixteen patients in the study population experienced AKP. Incidence of AKP (fixed bearing 13/44; AP-glide bearing baring 3/17) was not dependent on type of insert (n.s.). There were no statistical differences in patella position and tibiofemoral contact point between the AKP group and the no AKP group (n.s.). KSS, KOOS, NRS-pain and NRS-satisfaction were significantly lower for the patients with AKP (all p < 0.05). Twenty-six percentage of the patients experienced AKP 10 years after balanced gap TKA. Postoperative patella positioning was not found to be a determinant for anterior knee pain after TKA. However, patellar displacement does not seem completely favourable. Moreover, type of bearing was not found a determinant for AKP at long-term follow-up. Lower quality prospective cohort study (<80 % follow-up, patients enrolled at different time points in disease), Level II.

  9. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  10. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during BARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Winderlich, J.; Gerbig, C.; Hoefer, A.; Rella, C. W.; Crosson, E. R.; van Pelt, A. D.; Steinbach, J.; Kolle, O.; Beck, V.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Chow, V. Y.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  11. Failure on the Foam Eyes Closed Test of Standing Balance Associated With Reduced Semicircular Canal Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric; Bigelow, Robin T; Studenski, Stephanie; Deshpande, Nandini; Agrawal, Yuri

    2018-06-11

    Standing on foam with eyes closed (FOEC) has been characterized as a measure of vestibular function; however, the relative contribution of vestibular function and proprioceptive function to the FOEC test has not been well described. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between peripheral sensory systems (vestibular and proprioception) and performance on the FOEC test in a cohort of healthy adults. A total of 563 community-dwelling healthy adults (mean age, 72.7 [SD, 12.6] years; range, 27 to 93 years) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were tested. Proprioceptive threshold (PROP) was evaluated with passive motion detection at the right ankle. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain was measured using video head impulses. Otolith function was measured with cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Participants stood on FOEC for 40 sec while wearing BalanSens (BioSensics, LLC, Watertown, MA) to quantify center of mass sway area. A mixed-model multiple logistic regression was used to examine the odds of passing the FOEC test based on PROP, VOR, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential function in a multisensory model while controlling for age and gender. The odds of passing the FOEC test decreased by 15% (p < 0.001) for each year of increasing age and by 8% with every 0.1 reduction in VOR gain (p = 0.025). Neither PROP nor otolith function was significantly associated with passing the FOEC test. Failure to maintain balance during FOEC may serve as a proxy for rotational vestibular contributions to postural control. Semicircular canals are more sensitive to low-frequency motion than otoliths that may explain these relationships because standing sway is dominated by lower frequencies. Lower VOR gain and increased age independently decreased the odds of passing the test.

  12. A case of imported paracoccidioidomycosis: an awkward infection in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, P A; Bierenbroodspot, F; Telgtt, D S C; Kwakman, J M; De Wilde, P C M; Meis, J F G M

    2006-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important endemic mycosis in South America. In Europe the disease is very rare and only found as infections in travelers to Latin America. We report here the first case encountered in the Netherlands for which the appropriate diagnosis was not attained for several months. A Dutch 60-year-old man presented with a painful ulceration in the buccal mandibular vestibular mucosa of three months duration. While his medical history was uneventful, he had worked, until 8 years prior to his presentation, as a carpenter for 25 years in the jungles of Peru and Ecuador. An aberrant chest radiograph, CT-scan of the lungs and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate were suggestive of sarcoidosis or a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. There was no improvement in the patient's symptoms despite the use of budesonide and prednisone medication, as well as tuberculosis prophylaxis with isoniazide and rifampicin, and local use of miconazole. Quite to the contrary, as an irritated, irregular hyperemic mucosa and gingiva with ulceration were noticed during this period of time. These precipitated an incisional biopsy through which a mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrate and large yeast cells were found on histopathologic examination. Based on the patient's travel history and the multiple budding yeastlike cells revealed in the biopsy tissue, the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis was finally made. This was supported by the isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in culture. Antimycotic oral therapy with itraconazole was started and continued for 15 months. At two and five year follow-ups, the patient was asymptomatic. In Europe, it may be expected that diseases that are endemic in other areas will be seen more frequently in countries where the diseases are not routinely encountered. It is most likely that the use of corticosteroid medication, with its inherent immunosuppressive effect, resulted in the reactivation of an infection acquired

  13. Lower incidence of CMV infection and acute rejections with valganciclovir prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an important issue. Methods We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. In the whole group of 114 LTRs the impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and 6 year survival) was assessed. Results For the cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was lower in the valganciclovir group compared to the ganciclovir group (24% vs. 54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.005). A lower incidence of acute rejection was observed in the valganciclovir group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. For the entire group of 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Conclusions A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute rejections was

  14. A Canine Model of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, Scott S; Rezvani, Andrew; Sale, George; Stone, Diane; Parker, Maura; Rosinski, Steven; Spector, Michele; Swearingen, Bruce; Kean, Leslie; Storb, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T cell depletion may be preventive, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog. Ten recipient dogs received 920 cGy total body irradiation, infusion of marrow, and an infusion of buffy coat cells from a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-mismatched unrelated donor. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of methotrexate (days 1, 3, 6, 11) and cyclosporine. The duration of cyclosporine administration was limited to 80 days instead of the clinically used 180 days. This was done to contain costs, as chronic GVHD was expected to develop at earlier time points. All recipients were given ursodiol for liver protection. One dog had graft failure and 9 dogs showed stable engraftment. Eight of the 9 developed de novo chronic GVHD. Dogs progressed with clinical signs of chronic GVHD over a period of 43 to 164 (median, 88) days after discontinuation of cyclosporine. Target organs showed the spectrum of chronic GVHD manifestations that are typically seen clinically. These included lichenoid changes of the skin, fasciitis, ocular involvement (xerophthalmia), conjunctivitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, salivary gland involvement, gingivitis, esophageal involvement, and hepatic involvement. Peripheral blood lymphocyte surface antigen expression of CD28 and inducible costimulator was elevated in dogs with GHVD compared with those in normal dogs, but not significantly so. Serum levels of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in GVHD-affected dogs at time of euthanasia were elevated, whereas

  15. Early lung retrieval from traumatic brain-dead donors does not compromise outcomes following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Paula; Alvarez, Antonio; Illana, Jennifer; Espinosa, Dionisio; Baamonde, Carlos; Cerezo, Francisco; Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra, Angel

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether lung retrieval from traumatic donors performed within 24 h of brain death has a negative impact on early graft function and survival after lung transplantation (LT), when compared with those retrieved after 24 h. Review of lung transplants performed from traumatic donors over a 17-year period. Recipients were distributed into two groups: transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved within 24 h of brain death (Group A), and transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved after 24 h of brain death (Group B). Demographic data of donors and recipients, early graft function, perioperative complications and mortality were compared between both groups. Among 356 lung transplants performed at our institution, 132 were from traumatic donors (70% male, 30% female). Group A: 73 (55%); Group B: 59 (45%). There were 53 single, 77 double, and 2 combined LT. Indications were emphysema in 41 (31%), pulmonary fibrosis in 31 (23%), cystic fibrosis in 38 (29%), bronchiectasis in 9 (7%) and other indications in 13 patients (10%). Donor and recipient demographic data, need or cardiopulmonary bypass, postoperative complications and Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay did not differ between groups. Primary graft dysfunction (A vs B): 9 (16%) vs 13 (26%) P = 0.17. PaO2/FiO2 24 h post-transplant (A vs B): 303 mmHg vs 288 mmHg (P = 0.57). Number of acute rejection episodes (A vs B): 0.93 vs 1.49 (P = 0.01). Postoperative intubation time (A vs B): 99 vs 100 h (P = 0.99). 30-day mortality (A vs B): 7 (10%) vs 2 (3.5%) (P = 0.13). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (A vs B): 82, 72, 37, 22 vs 78, 68, 42, 15%, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.889). Survival (A vs B): 65, 54, 46, 42 and 27 vs 60, 50, 45, 43 and 29% at 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.937). In our experience, early lung retrieval after brain death from traumatic donors does not adversely affect early and long-term outcomes after LT.

  16. Utilization of the organ care system for bilateral lung transplantation: preliminary results of a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zeriouh, Mohamed; Sabashnikov, Anton; Mohite, Prashant N; Zych, Bartlomiej; Patil, Nikhil P; García-Sáez, Diana; Koch, Achim; Weymann, Alexander; Soresi, Simona; Wippermann, Jens; Wahlers, Thorsten; De Robertis, Fabio; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R

    2016-09-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) remains the gold standard for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, due to donor organ shortage and brain stem death-related lung injury, only a small proportion of lungs are used increasing the mortality rate on the waiting list. A portable normothermic continuous ex vivo perfusion using the organ care system (OCS) represents one of the tools to increase the pool of donor organs and to improve the function of marginal lungs. We sought to assess mid-term outcomes after LTx using OCS and to compare outcomes including overall survival and freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) with those after conventional preservation. Included were 322 consecutive LTx performed at Harefield Hospital between January 2007 and December 2014. Recipients were divided into two groups depending on the organ storage strategy: the majority of patients (n = 308) were transplanted using lungs after cold storage (cold storage group), whereas 14 organs were preserved using OCS (OCS group). The primary end-points were overall survival and freedom from BOS after LTx. The secondary end-points were perioperative clinical characteristics and adverse events. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of most baseline donor and recipient characteristics. The percentage of heavy smokers among donors [8 (2.9%) vs 6 (42.9%), P < 0.001] and the median number of pack-years smoked by donors [14 (7;24) vs 25 (24;30), P = 0.026] were statistically higher in the OCS group. Patients from the OCS group had significantly better postoperative FEV1 at 3 [69 (54;86) vs 93 (87;89), P < 0.001] and 6 [77 (60;90) vs 94 (84;100), P = 0.006] months. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of cumulative survival and freedom from BOS between the two groups. Results after LTx using OCS are acceptable with excellent survival, and superior early outcome in terms of postoperative lung function despite higher risk in the OCS group. Further

  17. [Pediatric lung lesions: a clinicopathological study of 215 cases].

    PubMed

    Niu, Huilin; Wang, Fenghua; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yong; Chen, Zhengrong; Gao, Qiu; Yi, Peng; Li, Liping; Zeng, Rongxin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate clinical and pathological features of lung lesions in children. Clinical manifestations, radiologic imaging, histopathological features and immunohistochemical results were analyzed in 215 cases of lung lesions in children. A total of 215 cases of lung lesions in children aged 0 day to 13 years (average age of 27.2 months and the median age of 18.0 months) were selected, including 137 male and 78 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.76:1.00. The incidence of congenital lung disease was higher in patients of less than 1 year old than those of over 1 year old age, and the difference of the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). 142 cases had acquired lung diseases, and 73 cases had congenital bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung abscess was the most common lesion seen in 86 cases (40.0%), including 1 case of fungal abscess. Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) was the second most common, seen in 44 patients (20.5%), including 20 cases of type 1, 18 cases of type 2 and 6 cases of type 4 CPAM. Pulmonary sequestration was found in 25 cases (11.6%) including 14 cases of intralobar type and 11 cases of extralobar type. Two cases of extralobar pulmonary sequestration showed simultaneous CPAM2 type 2 lesion. Other lesions included tuberculosis (13 cases, 6.0%), emphysema (12 cases, 5.6%), interstitial pneumonia (7 cases, 3.2%), pulmonary hemorrhage (6 cases, 2.8%), bronchogenic cyst (4 cases, 1.9%), bronchiolitis obliterans (2 cases, 0.9%), idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderin deposition disease (2 cases, 0.9%) and 1 cases of lung non-specific changes. 13 cases of neoplastic lesions (6.0%) were found, of which 11 cases were primary tumors (5.1%), including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in 5 patients (2.3%), pleuropulmonary blastoma in 5 cases (1 case of type I, 2 type II and 2 type III) and 1 case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.5%) and 2 cases of metastatic tumors (hepatoblastoma and Wilm's tumor, 0.9%). Infectious diseases

  18. [Safety of SGLT2 inhibitors. A review of the adverse drug reactions registered in a national database].

    PubMed

    Esteban-Jiménez, O; Navarro-Pemán, C; Urieta-González, L

    To analyse the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors (SGLT2i) notified in Spain since they have been on the market. An analysis was made of all the notifications registered in the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System of drugs for human use, arising from the use of SGLT2i. A total of 311 notifications were recorded, of which 169 (54.34%) were related to dapagliflozin, 81 (26.05%) to empagliflozin, and 61 (19.61%) to canagliflozin. There was a ratio of 52.1% women to 47.9% men. The mean age was 62.07±12.17years. There were 167 (53.7%) notifications were classified as non-serious and 144 (46.3%) as serious. A total of 534 ADRs were notified, with the most common being urinary tract infections in 37 (6.9%) cases, diabetic ketoacidosis in 30 (5.6%), balanoposthitis in 24 (4.5%), ketoacidosis in 16 (3%), vulvovaginal candidiasis in 16 (3%), dizzy spells in 11 (2.1%), and 10 (1.9%) with dysuria, Candida balanitis, and vulvovaginal pruritus. As regards the outcomes of the 534 ADRs, 55.6% recovered with no sequelae, with 14% still recovering, 4.9% not recovered, fatal in 1.1%, and unknown in 24.3%. The majority of the ADRs notified are infections of the urogenital tract, ketoacidosis, and kidney damage. Although the majority of the former were not serious, the ketoacidosis and kidney damage were, leading to hospital admission and being life threatening in some patients. For these reasons, it is recommended that they are, prescribed with caution, the warnings published by the health authorities consulted, as well as notify any ADR that is suspected in this therapeutic group, in order to improve and provide us with further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, T.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Heimann, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Amazon region as a large source of methane (CH4) contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time in the Amazon region, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG), in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation map with inundated area changing in time represents the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget of the Amazon lowland region obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9-31 mg m-2 d-1 for November 2008 and 8-36 mg m-2 d-1 for May 2009.

  20. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, T.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Heimann, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4), contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG), in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation maps based on remote-sensing data represent the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget for the Amazon basin obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9-31 mg m-2 d-1 for November 2008 and 8-36 mg m-2 d-1 for May 2009.

  1. Comparing a Carbon Budget for the Amazon Basin Derived from Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, V. Y.; Dayalu, A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gerbig, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present and compare a carbon budget for the Brazilian Amazon Basin based on the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) aircraft program, which occurred in November 2008 & May 2009, to other published carbon budgets. In particular, we compare our budget and analysis to others also derived from aircraft observations. Using mesoscale meteorological fields from ECMWF and WRF, we drive the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model and couple the footprint, or influence, to a biosphere model represented by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (VPRM). Since it is the main driver for the VPRM, we use observed shortwave radiation from towers in Brazil and French Guyana to examine the modeled shortwave radiation data from GL 1.2 (a global radiation model based on GOES 8 visible imagery), ECMWF, and WRF to determine if there are any biases in the modeled shortwave radiation output. We use WRF-STILT and ECMWF-STILT, GL 1.2 shortwave radiation, temperature, and vegetation maps (IGBP and SYNMAP) updated by landuse scenarios modeled by Sim Amazonia 2 and Sim Brazil, to compute hourly a priori CO2 fluxes by calculating Gross Ecosystem Exchange and Respiration for the 4 significant vegetation types across two (wet and dry) seasons as defined by 10-years of averaged TRIMM precipitation data. SF6 from stations and aircraft observations are used to determine the anthropogenic CO2 background and the lateral boundary conditions are taken from CarbonTracker2013B. The BARCA aircraft mixing ratios are then used as a top down constraint in an inversion framework that solves for the parameters controlling the fluxes for each vegetation type. The inversion provides scaling factors for GEE and R for each vegetation type in each season. From there, we derive a budget for the Basin and compare/contrast with other published basinwide CO2 fluxes.

  2. Methane in the Amazon: A forward and inverse regional modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, F. T.; Karstens, U.; Chen, H.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Bergamaschi, P. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is an important player in the global methane (CH4) cycle, the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2. Different major CH4 sources in the Amazon region such as anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and biomass burning will be affected by changing climate. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the processes is required. Within the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) project, airborne measurements of greenhouse gases, associated tracers and aerosols were taken during the end of the dry season in November 2008 as well as during the end of the wet season in May 2009. These aircraft measurements and additional ground based measurements provide a test bed for high resolution transport simulation of CH4. Here we present a comparison of WRF-Chem passive tracer simulations of CH4 to airborne CH4 observations obtained from the BARCA campaigns in November 2008 and May 2009 using the newly established WRF Greenhouse Gas Model (WRF-GHG) in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models for the calculation of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands (Kaplan and Walter-Heimann) and three different wetland inundation maps (Kaplan, JERS-1SAR, Prigent). The comparison illustrates the importance of a wetland inundation map with inundated area changing in time, and the quality of the representation of atmospheric transport in regional models in tropical regions. In addition, we demonstrate a comparison of WRF-GHG CH4 simulations to TT34 tower observations (35 m above ground; located 60 km north-west of Manaus, Brazil) for August 2009, evaluating the performance of WRF-GHG in representing CH4 observations in the planetary boundary layer in tropical regions. Finally, we present preliminary results of a regional inversion using the TM3-STILT model together with the above mentioned observations for the estimation of the CH4 budget of the Amazon region.

  3. Influence of donor–recipient gender mismatch on graft function and survival following lung transplantation†

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Antonio; Moreno, Paula; Illana, Jennifer; Espinosa, Dionisio; Baamonde, Carlos; Arango, Elisabet; Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra, Angel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In current practice, donors and recipients are not matched for gender in lung transplantation. However, some data have suggested a possible effect of gender combinations on lung transplant outcomes. We examined whether donor–recipient (D/R) gender mismatch is related to adverse outcomes after lung transplantation in terms of early and long-term graft function and survival. METHODS We reviewed 256 donors and lung transplant recipients over a 14-year period. Patients were distributed into four groups: Group A (D/R: female/female), Group B (D/R: male/male), Group C (D/R: female/male), Group D (D/R: male/female). Donor and recipient variables were compared among groups, including early graft function, 30-day mortality, freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and long-term survival. RESULTS Group A: 57 (22%), Group B: 99 (39%), Group C: 62 (24%), Group D: 38 (15%) transplants (P = 0.001). Donor age was 29 ± 14, 27 ± 12, 33 ± 13 and 23 ± 12 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.004). Recipient age was 31 ± 15, 44 ± 17, 42 ± 16 and 30 ± 16 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.000). PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) 24 h post-transplant was: Group A: 276 ± 144, Group B: 297 ± 131, Group C: 344 ± 133 and Group D: 238 ± 138 (P = 0.015). Primary graft dysfunction developed in 23, 14, 17 and 21% of recipients from Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.45). Operative mortality was 4.4, 6.5, 5.2 and 2%, for recipients from Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.66). Freedom from BOS was 73, 59 and 36% for gender-matched transplants vs 76, 67 and 40% for gender-mismatched transplants at 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively (P = 0.618), without differences among groups. A non-significant survival benefit was observed for female recipients, irrespective of the donor gender. CONCLUSIONS Donor–recipient gender mismatch does not have a negative impact on early graft function and mortality following lung transplantation. There is a

  4. Clinical spectrum of intrathoracic Castleman disease: a retrospective analysis of 48 cases in a single Chinese hospital.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin Mei; Li, Shan; Huang, Hui; Cao, Jian; Xu, Kai; Bi, Ya Lan; Feng, Rui E; Huang, Cheng; Qin, Ying Zhi; Xu, Zuo Jun; Xiao, Yi

    2015-04-09

    Thorax is the common place to develop Castleman disease (CD), but there is no systemic clinical analysis for intrathoracic CD. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 48 intrathoracic CD patients with definite pathological diagnosis who were hospitalized between 1992 and 2012 in a Chinese tertiary referral hospital. The study included 16 cases with unicentric CD (UCD) and 32 cases with multicentric CD (MCD). UCD were younger than MCD (30.5y vs 41.6ys, P < 0.05). MCD were more symptomatic (50% vs 96.9%, P < 0.001) and sicker than UCD, including more fever, hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly and hypoalbuminemia. All of UCD showed solitary mass in various sites and two of them were complicated by small pleural effusion. In the MCD group, their chest CT showed obvious lymphadenopathy in the hilum and/or mediastinum (100%), diffuse parenchymal lung shadows (43.75%), pleural effusion (40.6%), mass in the mediastinum (6.25%) or hilum (3.12%) and bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (3.12%). Besides LIP-like images, multiple nodules of different size and sites, patchy, ground-glass opacities and consolidation were showed in their chest CT. Surgery were arranged for all UCD for diagnosis and treatment and all were alive. In MCD group, superficial lymph nodes biopsies (21 cases), surgery biopsy (9 cases) and CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy (2 cases) were performed. Hyaline vascular (HV) variant were more common in the UCD group (75% vs 37.5%, P < 0.05). In MCD group, 28 cases were prescribed with chemotherapy, one refused to receive therapy and the rest three were arranged for regular follow-up. Among MCD, 18 cases was improved, 7 cases was stable, 4 cases lost follow-up and 3 cases died. Intrathoracic MCD was more common than UCD in our hospital. MCD was older, more symptomic and sicker than UCD. HV variant were more common in UCD. All of UCD showed mass in various intrathoracic locations and surgery resection was performed for all and all were alive. Mass, pleural

  5. Anti-inflammatory activities and potential mechanisms of phenolic acids isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba roots in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haimei; Ma, Shuli; Xia, Hongrui; Lou, Hongxiang; Zhu, Faliang; Sun, Longru

    2018-05-08

    The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Lamiaceae) (RSMA) are used as the Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine, to treat the vascular diseases at local clinics, especially for the remedy of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) more than 100 years. Phenolic acids are one of the major effective constituents of RSMA, and some studies have linked phenolic acids with anti-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this research was to isolate phenolic acids from RSMA and investigate their anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms. Nine already known compounds were obtained from RSMA. Their structures were elucidated through the spectroscopic analysis and comparing the reported data. The anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms were investigated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, using salvianolic acid B (SalB) as the positive control. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine the secretory protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). And quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA levels of these inflammatory cytokines. The expression of TLR4, p65, p-p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα were measured using western blot. All these compounds, except for rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for IL-6 protein levels, rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) for IL-6 mRNA, and rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for TNF-α mRNA levels, remarkably inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the concentration of 5 and 25μM in the mRNA and protein levels. Lithospermic acid (7) showed the strongest inhibitory effect among them and was similar to that of SalB. In particular, lithospermic acid (7) and SalB markedly downregulated the expressions of TLR4, p-p65, and p-IκBα induced by LPS in THP-1 macrophages. All the phenolic acids displayed anti-inflammatory properties

  6. Impact and safety of open lung biopsy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G; Garay, M; Mendoza, D; Cardinal-Fernández, P

    2018-02-28

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disorder, and its pathological hallmark is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Given that open lung biopsy (OLB) can sometimes result in severe side effects, it is rarely performed in patients with ARDS. The aims of this study were to describe: (a) the rate of treatment change associated with the histological result; and (b) the incidence of side effects induced by OLB. A retrospective, single-center, descriptive observational study was carried out in Hospital Santa Clara (Bogotá, Colombia) from February 2007 to January 2014. Critically ill patients over 18 years of age, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, diagnosed with ARDS of unknown etiology, and with OLB performed at the bedside. ARDS was diagnosed according to the Berlin definition. DAD was defined by the presence of a hyaline membrane plus at least one of the following: intra-alveolar edema, alveolar type I cell necrosis, alveolar type II cell (cuboidal cells) proliferation progressively covering the denuded alveolar-capillary membrane, interstitial proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, or organizing interstitial fibrosis. The rate of treatment change (RTC) was established according to whether the OLB pathology report resulted in: a) the prescription or discontinuation of an antimicrobial; b) the indication of new procedures; c) medical interconsultation; or d) limitation of therapeutic effort. Patients were followed-up until death or hospital discharge. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee. A total of 32 OLBs were performed during the study period; 17 were ruled out as they did not involve ARDS, and 15 were considered for further analysis. A histological diagnosis was reached in 14 of the 15 patients (12 DAD, one case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and one case of Wegener's granulomatosis with alveolar hemorrhage). The RTC rate was 0.73. The most frequent intervention was discontinuation of

  7. Epitope Analysis of the Collagen Type V-Specific T Cell Response in Lung Transplantation Reveals an HLA-DRB1*15 Bias in Both Recipient and Donor

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Melissa R.; Haynes, Lynn D.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Sullivan, Jeremy A.; Agashe, Vrushali V.; Burlingham, Scott R.; Burlingham, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-17-dependent cellular immune responses to the α1 chain of collagen type V are associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation, and with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and coronary artery disease, primary indications for lung or heart transplantation, respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that 30% of the patients awaiting lung transplantation exhibited a strong cell-mediated immune response to col(V). Of these, 53% expressed HLA-DR15, compared to a 28% HLA-DR15 frequency in col(V) low-responders (p=0.02). After transplantation, patients with HLA-DR1 and -DR17, not -DR15, developed anti-col(V) responses most frequently (p=0.04 and 0.01 vs. controls, respectively). However, recipients of a lung from an HLA-DR15+ donor were at significantly elevated risk of developing anti-col(V) responses (p=0.02) and BOS (p=0.03). To determine the molecular basis of this unusual pattern of DR allele bias, a peptide library comprising the collagenous region of the α1(V) protein was screened for binding to HLA-DR0101, -DR1501, -DR0301 (DR17) or to HLA-DQ2 (DQA1*0501: DQB1*0201; in linkage disequilibrium with -DR17) and -DQ6 (DQA1*0102: DQB1*0602; linked to -DR15). Eight 15-mer peptides, six DR-binding and two DQ-binding, were identified. HLA-DR15 binding to two peptides yielded the highest binding scores: 650 (where 100 = positive control) for p799 (GIRGLKGTKGEKGED), and 193 for p1439 (LRGIPGPVGEQGLPG). These peptides, which also bound weakly to HLA-DR1, elicited responses in both HLA-DR1+ and -DR15+ col(V) reactive hosts, whereas binding and immunoreactivity of p1049 (KDGPPGLRGFPGDRG) was DR15-specific. Remarkably, a col(V)-reactive HLA-DR1+DR15neg lung transplant patient, whose donor was HLA-DR15+, responded not only to p799 and p1439, but also to p1049. Conclusions/Significance HLA-DR15 and IPF disease were independently associated with pre-transplant col(V) autoimmunity. The increased risk of de novo

  8. [The loss of work fitness and the course of invalidism in patients with limb vessel lesions].

    PubMed

    Chernenko, V F; Goncharenko, A G; Shuvalov, A Iu; Chernenko, V V; Tarasov, I V

    2005-01-01

    The growth of the sick rate of limb peripheral vessels associated with a severe outcome (trophic ulcers, amputation) exerts an appreciable effect on the lowering of quality of life in patients. This manifests by the prolonged loss of work fitness, change of the habitual occupation and disability establishment. Objective analytical information on this problem will be of help in the delineation of the tendencies in this direction and potential approaches to the prevention of social losses. The present work is based on an analysis of 2115 statements of medicosocial expert evaluation (MSEE) of invalids suffering from diseases of limb vessels, performed over recent 8 years in the Altai region. The decisions made by the MSEE were based on the results of the clinical examination of patients using the current diagnostic modalities (ultrasonography, duplex scanning, angiography, etc). It has been established that among persons who had undergone MSEE, over the half (64.1%) were under 60 years, i.e. in the age of work fitness. It is noteworthy that the overwhelming number of invalids were men (83%) and workers (84.2%). As for special vascular pathologies, the majority of patients presented with obliterative arterial diseases (OAD) of the lower limbs, accounting for 76.3% whereas patients with venous pathology ranked second in number (15.9%). The highest severity of invalidism (groups I and II) was also recorded in OAD (77.5%), especially in atherosclerosis obliterans (AO) which accounted for 84%. Of note, these diseases were marked by no tendency toward reduction of their incidence. The time of temporary disability (from 3 to 9 months) was also most frequently recorded in OAD of the limbs. In OAD, the temporary or persistent loss of work fitness were caused by critical ischemia and amputations whereas in venous pathology, namely in varicosity and post-thrombophlebotic syndrome, the cause was progressing CVI complicated by trophic ulcers. On the whole, the lack of changes in

  9. Assessment of pathological changes associated with chronic allograft rejection and tolerance in two experimental models of rat lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Y; Marchevsky, A; Zuo, X J; Kass, R M; Matloff, J M; Jordan, S C

    1995-06-15

    Lung transplantation is now routinely performed for a wide range of end-stage cardiopulmonary disorders. Despite overcoming the problems associated with early acute rejection, chronic rejection (CR) in the form of obliterative bronchiolitis has emerged as the primary cause of late graft loss. The mechanisms involved in the development of CR of lung allografts are poorly understood, and no effective therapy is currently available. To better understand the pathological events associated with CR and tolerance, we examined two models of lung allograft rejection established in our laboratory. First, we exchanged left lung allografts between moderately histoincompatible inbred rat strains (WKY-->F344: n = 42 and F344-->WKY: n = 40). The WKY-->F344 model was previously shown to develop spontaneous tolerance, while the converse model (F344-->WKY) showed persistent acute rejection. The purpose of this investigation was to assess histopathological changes associated with long-term grafts left in place up to 140 days after transplant. To confirm that tolerance had developed, skin-grafting experiments were performed. Five skin grafts from each strain were placed on lung allograft recipients on day 35 after transplant and skin allograft survival was assessed and compared with controls. Acute rejection (AR) was graded histologically (stage O-IV) and the pathologic intensity of inflammation and CR were graded (0-4: 0 = 0%, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 = 51-75%, and 4 = 76-100%) on percentage of involvement with the following categories being examined: (a) lymphocytic infiltration (perivascular, peribronchial, and peribronchiolar) and (b) vasculitis, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Finally, chronic rejection was diagnosed by the presence of intimal hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. The WKY-->F344 animals showed progressive AR (stage III, day 21). Thereafter, the AR subsided spontaneously and was stage 0 on day

  10. Short Wave Part of Earth's Energy Budget at Top of Atmosphere During 2009-2017 from Radiometer IKOR-M Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, M.; Spiryakhina, A.; Surkova, Y.; Kulkova, E.; Shishkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    This report describes Earth's energy budget IKOR-M satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite "Meteor-M" No 1 of this project was put into orbit in 2009. The IKOR-M radiometer is a satellite instrument which can measure reflected shortwave radiation (0.3-4.0 µm). It was created in Saratov University and installed on Russian meteorological satellites "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2. IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing short-wave radiation at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), which is one of the components of Earth's energy budget. Such measurements can be used to derive albedo and absorbed solar radiation at TOA. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation, albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurements in August 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. During the radiometer operation, there were two significant El Nino events. Spatial-temporal distribution of the albedo in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean was analyzed. Region with high albedo values of 35-40 % is formed in the region 180E

  11. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael J; Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Anderson, Kim E; Cornish, Jim; Haapala, Matti; Greivell, John

    2017-01-01

    Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities. Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the workers' breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations. Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers' breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0.02 parts per million (ppm) in

  12. Acute native lung hyperinflation is not associated with poor outcomes after single lung transplant for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Weill, D; Torres, F; Hodges, T N; Olmos, J J; Zamora, M R

    1999-11-01

    minute ventilation, early extubation, and cardiopressor agents. No patient required early lung volume reduction surgery or retransplantation. Acute native lung hyperinflation had no effect on FEV1 or 6-minute walk results at 1 year; survival at 1, 2, or 3 years; or the rate of acute rejection, infection, or bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome greater than grade 2. Acute native lung hyperinflation is common radiographically but is rarely clinically severe. Although there was a trend toward an increase in symptomatic ANLH in patients with bullous emphysema, a high-risk group could not be identified preoperatively. Our results do not support the routine use of bilateral lung transplant, the exclusive use of right single-lung transplant, simultaneous lung volume reduction surgery, or independent lung ventilation for patients with emphysema. Management strategies should be employed that limit overdistension of the native lung and lead to early extubation.

  13. Pulmonary retransplantation in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Dellgren, Göran; Iversen, Martin; Riise, Gerdt C; Bjørtuft, Øystein; Hämmäinen, Pekka; Skog, Ingrid; Fiane, Arnt; Wierup, Per

    2015-05-01

    The increasing demand for pulmonary retransplantation (re-LTx) raises ethical issues on the correct allocation of the scarce donor pool. Thus, we performed a thorough review of the current results for re-LTx in the Nordic countries. Seventy-five patients with a median age of 50 years (range, 22 to 64 years) underwent re-LTx from 1992 until June 2013, of which 53 had single re-LTx, 21 had double re-LTx, and 1 patient underwent a heart-lung retransplantation. Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) was the primary indication in 9 cases, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in 62 cases, and airway complications in 4 cases. Patients who underwent re-LTx in the period 1992 to 1999 (n = 16) had a 1-year survival of 37.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.9 to 70.6), whereas patients who underwent re-LTx in the period 2000 to 2013 (n = 64) had a 1-year survival of 81.0% (95% CI, 71.5 to 91.8). Corresponding 5-year survival was 25.0% (95% CI, 10.7 to 58.4) in the early era group (1992 to 1999) and 57.2% (95% CI, 44.3 to 73.7) in the more recent era group (2000 to 2013; p = 0.0151). Patients with BOS who underwent re-LTx in the period 1992 to 1999 (n = 13) had a 1-year survival of 38.5% (95% CI, 19.3 to 76.5), whereas patients with BOS who underwent re-LTx in the period 2000 to 2013 (n = 49) had a 1-year survival of 85.4% (95% CI, 75.9 to 96.0). Corresponding 5-year survival was 23.1% (95% CI, 8.6 to 62.3) in the early era group (1992 to 1999) and 56.1% (95% CI, 41.9 to 75.2) in the more recent era group (2000 to 2013; p = 0.0199). The cumulative incidence among patients who underwent re-LTx because of BOS and developed BOS again after re-LTX was analyzed. The cumulative incidence curves for time periods 1992 to 1999 and 2000 to 2013 are not statistically different for repeat BOS (p = 0.5087), but they are highly significant for time periods among patients who died (p = 0.02381). Results for re-LTx have improved over time, especially when BOS is the primary indication. The

  14. Immunosuppressive drug therapy for preventing rejection following lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Ian J; Akinyede, Oluwaseun; Robinson, Karen A

    2018-06-18

    review because the investigators of the studies did not report any information specific to people with cystic fibrosis. Our attempts to obtain this information have not yet been successful. We will include any provided data in future updates of the review. The lack of currently available evidence makes it impossible to draw conclusions about the comparative efficacy and safety of the various immunosuppressive drugs among people with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation. A 2013 Cochrane Review comparing tacrolimus with cyclosporine in all lung transplant recipients (not restricted to those with cystic fibrosis) reported no significant difference in mortality and risk of acute rejection. However, tacrolimus use was associated with lower risk of broncholitis obliterans syndrome and arterial hypertension and higher risk of diabetes mellitus. It should be noted that this wider review contained only a small number of included studies (n = 3) with a high risk of bias. Additional randomised studies are required to provide evidence for the benefit and safety of the use of immunosuppressive therapy among people with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation.

  15. Correction of concealed penis with preservation of the prepuce.

    PubMed

    Valioulis, I A; Kallergis, I C; Ioannidou, D C

    2015-10-01

    By definition, congenital concealed penis presents at birth. Children are usually referred to physicians because of parental anxiety caused by their child's penile size. Several surgical procedures have been described to treat this condition, but its correction is still technically challenging. The present study reports a simple surgical approach, which allows preservation of the prepuce. During the last 6 years, 18 children with concealed penis (according to the classification by Maizels et al.) have been treated in the present department (mean age 4.5 years, range 3-12 years). Patients with other conditions that caused buried penis were excluded from the study. The operation was performed through a longitudinal midline ventral incision, which was extended hemi-circumferentially at the penile base. The dysgenetic dartos was identified and its distal part was resected. Dissection of the corpora cavernosa was carried down to the suspensory ligament, which was sectioned. Buck's fascia was fixed to Scarpa's fascia and shaft skin was approximated in the midline. Penoscrotal angle was fashioned by Z-plasty or V-Y plasty. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 8-36). The postoperative edema was mild and resolved within a week. All children had good to excellent outcomes. The median pre-operative to postoperative difference in penile length in the flaccid state was 2.6 cm (range 2.0-3.5). No serious complications or recurrent penile retraction were noted. Recent literature mostly suggests that concealed penis is due to deficient proximal attachments of dysgenetic dartos. Consequences of this include: difficulties in maintaining proper hygiene, balanitis, voiding difficulties with prepuce ballooning and urine spraying, and embarrassment among peers. Surgical treatment for congenital concealed penis is warranted in children aged 3 years or older. The basis of the technique is the perception that in boys with congenital concealed penis, the penile integuments are normal

  16. Let s make progress together!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  17. Variability of Earth's radiation budget components during 2009 - 2015 from radiometer IKOR-M data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    This report describes a new «Meteor-M» satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite of new generation "Meteor-M» № 1 was put into orbit in September, 2009. The radiometer IKOR-M - «The Measuring instrument of short-wave reflected radiation" was created in Saratov State University. It was installed on Russian hydrometeorological satellites «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2. Radiometer IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and also in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. Satellite «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2 are heliosynchronous that allows observing from North to South Poles. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR), albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (http://www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October, 2009 to August, 2014 and second - from August, 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the «Meteor-M» № 1 measurements in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from «Meteor-M» № 2. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation

  18. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Beck, V.; Bela, M.; Freitas, S.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K.; Munger, J. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol particle number concentration (CN) made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May 2009 (BARCA-B), which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin. Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008) originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009) low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow, and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm-3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1-3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires. During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300-500 cm-3) prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced by only ~10 ppb above the mixing line between Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. There was no

  19. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Beck, V.; Bela, M.; Freitas, S.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K.; Munger, J. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol particle number concentration (CN) made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May-June 2009 (BARCA-B), which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin. Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008) originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009) low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm-3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1-3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires. During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300-500 cm-3) prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced by only ~10 ppb above the mixing line between Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. There was no

  20. The power of example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    The Secondary School "Teodor Balan" was evaluated by the National Agency for Quality Assurance with the highest score in an urban area of the county, and is part of the community Gura Humorului, a tourist resort of national interest since 2005. Starting with 2006 the local government implemented a Local Plan, which promotes the concept of sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992. Our school shares the concept of sustainable development and regularly re-evaluates the relationship between man and nature, advocates solidarity between generations, and has constantly developed various successful programs with the students, parents, teachers, and local companies and administration. Quarterly, we maintain and protect the river valley of Moldova arboretum nearby the reserve Oligocene "Stone Pine" and the natural reserve "Stone Hawk". Regarding the preservation of forests, teams of students and teachers from the school conduct activities of afforestation and greening, for the protection of birds. In order to raise public awareness about the harmful effects of radiation on the environment, my work degree in Physics, sustained in 2007, had as theme: Ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The effects of climate change and increasing temperature, as well as the extinction of species such as Amanita regalis and Tremiscus helvelloides mushrooms was studied by my biology colleague, Adriana. She obtained her Ist teaching degree in 2008, with the study "Diversity of macromycetes reported in natural ecosystems surrounding Gura Humorului". There were also organized 3 roundtables in a public awareness campaign initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change on "Integrated Nutrient Pollution Control", and the students learned to take test samples to determine water quality in wells and springs. In order to promote these activities performed by both teachers and students, we organized a National Symposium on "Life sciences at the

  1. Qualité de vie et vécu de la maladie, avant et après hystérectomie vaginale, chez les femmes admises au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville

    PubMed Central

    Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, Léon Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu’il faut éradiquer car elle altère souvent de façon significative la qualité de la vie. L’hystérectomie vaginale est indiquée pour les patientes qui présentent certaines affections gynécologiques graves, elle est donc bénéfique mais, peut également avoir une répercussion néfaste sur la qualité de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le vécu de la maladie et de l’hystérectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et après l’intervention chirurgicale. Nous avons effectué une étude prospective qualitative, à recueil clinique sur une période de 12 mois; qui a concerné les femmes, ayant subi une hystérectomie vaginale. Celles n’ayant pas accepté de participer à l’étude, ou n’ayant pas de contact téléphonique n’ont pas été incluses. Pendant la maladie, le vécu des femmes a été: l’inconfort sexuel 26/40 (65%); les saignements génitaux 12/40 (30%); les douleurs pelviennes 13/40 (32,5%). En Post-opératoire, ont été noté les dyspareunies transitoires30/40 (75%) ; les céphalées secondaires à l’anesthésie 4/40 (10%). Le vécu psychologique a été dominé avant l’HV par la peur de la chirurgie chez toutes les patientes, les troubles du sommeil 38/40 (95%), l’angoisse 30 /40(75%), un sentiment de honte lié aux difficultés à accomplir l’acte sexuel en raison du prolapsus 26/40(65%) et/ ou en raison des saignements génitaux, dus au fibrome utérin 14/40(35%). Le sentiment de la perte de féminité était déclaré par 26/40 femmes porteuses de prolapsus utérin (65%), la modification de l’estime de soi 26/40 (65%). Ces appréciations subjectives ont été améliorées avec l’HV, contre balançant la perte de leur organe de reproduction. Aucune information n’a été donnée par les femmes à leurs proches et aux membres de la famille avant la chirurgie, traduisant ainsi leur sentiment de gène ou de honte. L’arrêt des symptômes a été observé dans tous les

  2. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    computed. Our value for pure Mg-ringwoodite is in very good agreement with the value according to Libowitzky & Rossman (1997) and the absorption coefficient proposed by Balan et al. (2008), but is higher than the extrapolated value from Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010). However, in case of the sample with Fo60 composition water content and ɛ-value determined here are in excellent agreement with those calculated by Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010). Here, we will further discuss general IR calibrations and the dependence of ɛ on structure, composition and frequency for the (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 polymorphs in the mantle. We agree with the findings of Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010), which report that using the calibrations according to Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky & Rossman (1997) leads to a water content underestimation in case of Fe-rich (Fay-Fo60) samples. At this point this cannot be generalized for Mg-rich ringwoodite. References Thomas et al. (2009), Phys. Chem. Mineral., 36, 489-509. Libowitzky & Rossman (1997), Am. Mineral., 82, 1111-1115. Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010), Am. Mineral., in press. Paterson (1982), Bull. Mineral. (Paris), 105, 20-29.

  3. Comparing inversion techniques for constraining CO2 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin with aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, V. Y.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, M.; Koch, F.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ceballos, J. C.; Longo, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) aircraft program spanned the dry to wet and wet to dry transition seasons in November 2008 & May 2009 respectively. It resulted in ~150 vertical profiles covering the Brazilian Amazon Basin (BAB). With the data we attempt to estimate a carbon budget for the BAB, to determine if regional aircraft experiments can provide strong constraints for a budget, and to compare inversion frameworks when optimizing flux estimates. We use a LPDM to integrate satellite-, aircraft-, & surface-data with mesoscale meteorological fields to link bottom-up and top-down models to provide constraints and error bounds for regional fluxes. The Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by meteorological fields from BRAMS, ECMWF, and WRF are coupled to a biosphere model, the Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (VPRM), to determine regional CO2 fluxes for the BAB. The VPRM is a prognostic biosphere model driven by MODIS 8-day EVI and LSWI indices along with shortwave radiation and temperature from tower measurements and mesoscale meteorological data. VPRM parameters are tuned using eddy flux tower data from the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment. VPRM computes hourly CO2 fluxes by calculating Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) and Respiration (R) for 8 different vegetation types. The VPRM fluxes are scaled up to the BAB by using time-averaged drivers (shortwave radiation & temperature) from high-temporal resolution runs of BRAMS, ECMWF, and WRF and vegetation maps from SYNMAP and IGBP2007. Shortwave radiation from each mesoscale model is validated using surface data and output from GL 1.2, a global radiation model based on GOES 8 visible imagery. The vegetation maps are updated to 2008 and 2009 using landuse scenarios modeled by Sim Amazonia 2 and Sim Brazil. A priori fluxes modeled by STILT-VPRM are optimized using data from BARCA, eddy covariance sites, and flask measurements. The

  4. Relationship between Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Casonatto, Juliano; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Dias, Raphael Mendes Ritti

    2017-05-01

    com 1231 adolescentes (716 meninas e 515 meninos, idade de 14-17 anos). Frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e pressão de pulso foram avaliadas com esfigmomanômetro oscilométrico validado para essa população. Peso e altura foram medidos com balança eletrônica e estadiômetro, respectivamente, e a circunferência abdominal, com uma fita inextensível. Análise multivariada com regressão linear investigou a relação entre frequência cardíaca de repouso, pressão arterial e pressão de pulso em meninos e meninas, controlando para obesidade geral e abdominal. Valores maiores de frequência cardíaca de repouso foram observados em meninas (80,1 ± 11,0 bpm) em comparação a meninos (75,9 ± 12,7 bpm) (p ≤ 0,001). Frequência cardíaca de repouso associou-se com pressão arterial sistólica em meninos [Beta = 0,15 (0,04; 0,26)] e meninas [Beta = 0,24 (0,16; 0,33)], com pressão arterial diastólica em meninos [Beta = 0,50 (0,37; 0,64)] e meninas [Beta = 0,41 (0,30; 0,53)], e com pressão de pulso apenas em meninos [Beta = -0,16 (-0,27; -0,04)]. Este estudo demonstrou a relação da frequência cardíaca de repouso elevada com aumento das pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica em ambos os sexos e com pressão de pulso em meninos, mesmo após controle para potenciais fatores de confusão, como obesidade geral e abdominal.

  5. The acetic acid test in evaluation of subclinical genital papillomavirus infection: a comparative study on penoscopy, histopathology, virology and scanning electron microscopy findings.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, A; Hedblad, M A; Johansson, B; Kalantari, M; Syrjänen, S; Lindberg, M; von Krogh, G

    1992-01-01

    17 (19%) of the specimens. Additional histopathological diagnoses (normal epithelium, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, balanitis circinata parakeratotica, verruca plana) were established in another eight (9%) of the cases. Among the HPV DNA positive cases, all of the HPV types tested for were detected with the exception of HPV 18. A severe penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN III) was revealed in five (5%) of biopsies; HPV 16 was present in two and HPV 42 in one of these biopsy specimens. GROUP B--Scanning electron microscopy depiction harmonised with the penoscopy findings showing that subclinical GPVI characteristically exhibits a well demarcated, slightly elevated border and that the central area of lesions often displays a "groove" in which the epithelium appears to be thin with protrusions from beneath that probably represent capillaries. CONCLUSION--Use of the acetic acid test for evaluation of GPVI should be combined with a colposcopic evaluation based on strict topographic hallmarks, followed by a directed biopsy for light microscopic evaluation. We found that the positive predictive value of colposcopy was as high when correlated with histopathological findings (72%) as when virological methods were used, whether HPV DNA hybridisation testing was performed with the well established SB and ISH assays (45%), or by applying the newly introduced and highly sensitive PCR assay as well (71%). False positivity from the acetic acid test occurs and is mainly due to inflammatory conditions but also to the presence of other conditions. Epithelial fissures are evidently associated with some subclinical GPVI lesions and may potentially represent loci minores for infectious stimuli and perhaps facilitate the transmission of some blood-borne STDs. We prose that the term "papillomavirus balanoposthitis" should be used for penile HPV infection associated with inflammatory responses. Our study indicates that PIN III frequently occurs in a subclinical form and may be

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of albedo and absorbed solar radiation during 2009 - 2016 from IKOR-M satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, Maksim; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Spiryakhina, Anastasia; Shishkina, Elena; Surkova, Yana; Kulkova, Eugenia

    2017-04-01

    This report describes Earth's radiation budget IKOR-M satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite "Meteor-M» No 1 of this project was put into orbit in September, 2009. The IKOR-M radiometer is a satellite instrument that measures reflected shortwave radiation (0.3-4.0 µm). It was created in Saratov State University and installed on Russian hydrometeorological satellites "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2. Radiometer IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such measurements can be used to derive Earth's surface albedo and absorbed solar radiation. This information also can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts and in researches of climate change trends (Sklyarov et al., 2016). Satellite "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2 are heliosynchronous that allows observing from North to South Poles. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR), albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (http://www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October, 2009 to August, 2014 and second - from August, 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurements in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2 (Bogdanov et al., 2016). The effect of aging is investigated for first IKOR