Science.gov

Sample records for balantidiasis

  1. [Colonic balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    González de Canales Simón, P; del Olmo Martínez, L; Cortejoso Hernández, A; Arranz Santos, T

    2000-03-01

    Balantidium coli is a Protozoa that is not usually pathogenic in man, although epidemics have been described in tropical areas. It mainly affects the colon and clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic forms to severe dysenteric syndromes. We present a case of endoscopically diagnosed colonic balantidiasis and review the most important characteristics of this parasite-induced disease. PMID:10804691

  2. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    PubMed Central

    Tajik, Javad; Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; paidar, Amin; Anousheh, Samaneh; Dehghani, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g) and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin) and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine), the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  3. Clinical trials with metronidazole in human balantidiasis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Laverde, A; de Bonilla, L

    1975-09-01

    Therapeutic activity of metronidazole against Balantidium coli was evaluated by using two drug regimens in 20 human cases of balantidiasis. All patients also harbored Trichuris trichiura. Children received a total amount of drug that varied from 2.5 g during 5 days to 7.5 g in a period of 10 days. Adults were given 5 g in 5 days or 12.5 g during a period of 10 days. In all patients B. coli disappeared after the 4th day of treatment. Frequent posttreatment stool examination remained negative. All patients tolerated the drug well and there were no side effects. PMID:1190365

  4. Invasive balantidiasis presented as chronic colitis and lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Ladas, S D; Savva, S; Frydas, A; Kaloviduris, A; Hatzioannou, J; Raptis, S

    1989-10-01

    A unique case of chronic balantidiasis is described, presenting with chronic colitis and inflammatory polyposis of the rectum and sigmoid colon and an intrapulmonary mass. Histology of the colonic polyps showed Balantidium coli, and both Aspergillus and Balantidium coli were found in the aspirate of the pulmonary mass. The patient was treated with doxycycline HCl 100 mg/day for 10 days with complete clinical recovery and marked improvement of the endoscopic appearance of the colonic mucosa. PMID:2791818

  5. [Balantidiasis in a rural community from Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Devera, R; Requena, I; Velásquez, V; Castillo, H; Guevara, R; De Sousa, M; Marín, C; Silva, M

    1999-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the etiologic agent of balantidiasis, an infrequent zoonose of worldwide distribution. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological aspects of balantidiasis in a rural community in the Bolivar State in Venezuela. Fifty persons and 12 pigs were evaluated. Fecal samples were analyzed by direct examination and by the methods of Faust and Willis. The global rate of intestinal parasitoses detected was 88.0% for the human population and 83.3% for the pigs. The prevalence of human and porcine balantidiais was 12.0% (6/50) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively. The disease was only detected in children, all of them with multiple parasites and with clinical manifestations. Deficient environmental sanitation, absence of basic services in the dwellings, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of pigs infected with B. coli are the factors that explain and maintain the conditions favorable to the transmission of balantidiasis in the population studied. PMID:10488584

  6. Urinary balantidiasis: A rare incidental finding in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Gupta, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. Balantidium coli is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who was on steroids for a long time. He has no symptoms of bowel or urinary involvement. We are reporting this case because of its rarity in human urine and also for future references. PMID:27756993

  7. Prevalence, hematology, and treatment of balantidiasis among donkeys in and around Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Khan, M S; Avais, M; Ijaz, M; Ali, M M; Abbas, T

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of Balantidium coli among donkeys in Lahore and adjoining areas was surveyed and a trial conducted to determine the efficacy of two antiprotozoal drugs: secnidazole (Dysen Forte) and Kalonji (Nigella sativa). Four-hundred donkeys were examined, and 73 (18.3%) were found positive for Balantidium coli. A slight decrease in PCV and an increase in Hb values of infected donkeys were found after antiprotozoal treatment. Secnidazole was 89.5% effective for the treatment of equine balantidiasis compared to 40.0% for Nigella sativa. This is the first report of balantidiasis in equines from Pakistan. It is not known if balantidiasis is an emerging problem in equines or whether it is a newly reported infection. PMID:23394797

  8. Prevalence, hematology, and treatment of balantidiasis among donkeys in and around Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Khan, M S; Avais, M; Ijaz, M; Ali, M M; Abbas, T

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of Balantidium coli among donkeys in Lahore and adjoining areas was surveyed and a trial conducted to determine the efficacy of two antiprotozoal drugs: secnidazole (Dysen Forte) and Kalonji (Nigella sativa). Four-hundred donkeys were examined, and 73 (18.3%) were found positive for Balantidium coli. A slight decrease in PCV and an increase in Hb values of infected donkeys were found after antiprotozoal treatment. Secnidazole was 89.5% effective for the treatment of equine balantidiasis compared to 40.0% for Nigella sativa. This is the first report of balantidiasis in equines from Pakistan. It is not known if balantidiasis is an emerging problem in equines or whether it is a newly reported infection.

  9. A rare case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Karuna, T; Khadanga, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the largest ciliated protozoa infecting humans by the feco-oral transmission from pigs. Large gut is the most common site of involvement. Symptomatology varies from asymptomatic carrier to invasive dysentery. Extra-intestinal infections can occur in liver, lung and urogenital tract. There are very few case reports of urinary balantidiasis. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly farmer having diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This case is reported for its rarity and future references. PMID:24754028

  10. A rare case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly renal failure patient.

    PubMed

    Karuna, T; Khadanga, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the largest ciliated protozoa infecting humans by the feco-oral transmission from pigs. Large gut is the most common site of involvement. Symptomatology varies from asymptomatic carrier to invasive dysentery. Extra-intestinal infections can occur in liver, lung and urogenital tract. There are very few case reports of urinary balantidiasis. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in an elderly farmer having diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This case is reported for its rarity and future references. PMID:24754028

  11. A case report of an uncommon parasitic infection of human balantidiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manochitra; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, S C

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli, a large, ciliated pathogen, is known to cause balantidiasis in humans. We report a case of B. coli infection in a 37-year-old male with tuberculosis and presenting with fever, anorexia, mild abdominal pain, and episodes of loose stools for 1 week. PMID:26998438

  12. A case report of an uncommon parasitic infection of human balantidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manochitra; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, SC

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli, a large, ciliated pathogen, is known to cause balantidiasis in humans. We report a case of B. coli infection in a 37-year-old male with tuberculosis and presenting with fever, anorexia, mild abdominal pain, and episodes of loose stools for 1 week. PMID:26998438

  13. Human balantidiasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Currie, A R

    1990-03-01

    A 58-year-old woman, who presented to hospital with melaena and faecal peritonitis due to a perforated terminal ileum, was found to be infected with Balantidium coli. This protozoan parasite is commonly found in pigs, but can infect man, and may mimic amoebic infection. The diagnosis may be missed unless fresh stools are examined immediately. The patient died from septicaemia. PMID:2339302

  14. Epizootic of balantidiasis in lowland gorillas.

    PubMed

    Teare, J A; Loomis, M R

    1982-12-01

    Acute enteritis characterized by watery diarrhea and lethargy occurred in 4 lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during a 5-week period at the Los Angeles Zoo. Numerous trophozoites of Balantidium coli were seen in fresh feces from each gorilla. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 1 fecal sample. Results of fecal flotation examinations were negative for eggs of metazoan parasites. The gorillas were treated with antibiotics and metronidazole or paromomycin, or both. The most severely affected gorilla had blood and mucus in its feces, became dehydrated, and required hospitalization for supportive fluid therapy. This gorilla as well as the other gorillas recovered rapidly with treatment. Balantidium coli was not seen in fecal samples after the gorillas' recovery. PMID:7174457

  15. Balantidiasis in Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Angles, R; Ash, L R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-12-01

    Balantidium coli infection was coprologically studied in 2,124 Aymara children 5-19 years of age from the schools of 22 communities of the northern Bolivian Altiplano over a five-year period. Infection with B. coli was found in 11 of the communities surveyed, with prevalences of 1.0-5.3% (overall prevalence=1.2%). The prevalences observed are some of the highest reported and did not differ significantly among the various age groups or between boys and girls. These prevalences, the apparent absence of symptoms or signs of illness due to this parasite in the schoolchildren surveyed at the time of stool sampling, and the consistency of stool samples of the infected students suggest that they are apparently asymptomatic carriers. Infection with B. coli must be considered as an endemic anthropozoonosis in the area studied. A relationship between B. coli infection and Altiplanic pigs is suggested.

  16. Urinary balantidiasis: diagnosis at a glance by urine sediment examination.

    PubMed

    Maino, Alberto; Garigali, Giuseppe; Grande, Romualdo; Messa, Piergiorgio; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2010-01-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who had previously been treated with prolonged intensive chemotherapy, was hospitalized for an acute and reversible kidney injury of multifactorial origin. The urinary sediment examination, performed daily, demonstrated the presence of renal tubular cells and renal tubular cell casts. Surprisingly, it also showed the presence of trophozoites of the protozoan Balantidium coli, which were identified on the basis of its characteristic morphology and rapid movements across the slide, and transient leukocyturia. The patient was asymptomatic, his medical history was negative for gastrointestinal disease, and no Balantidium coli was found in the feces. In spite of this, due to the previous chemotherapy, the patient was treated with oral metrodinazole. Only one other case with Balantidium coli in the urine sediment has been described so far and this paper stresses the importance of the examination of the urinary sediment. PMID:20349417

  17. Balantidiasis in Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Angles, R; Ash, L R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-12-01

    Balantidium coli infection was coprologically studied in 2,124 Aymara children 5-19 years of age from the schools of 22 communities of the northern Bolivian Altiplano over a five-year period. Infection with B. coli was found in 11 of the communities surveyed, with prevalences of 1.0-5.3% (overall prevalence=1.2%). The prevalences observed are some of the highest reported and did not differ significantly among the various age groups or between boys and girls. These prevalences, the apparent absence of symptoms or signs of illness due to this parasite in the schoolchildren surveyed at the time of stool sampling, and the consistency of stool samples of the infected students suggest that they are apparently asymptomatic carriers. Infection with B. coli must be considered as an endemic anthropozoonosis in the area studied. A relationship between B. coli infection and Altiplanic pigs is suggested. PMID:9886201

  18. Balantidiasis in the gastric lymph nodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Shin, Sung-Shik; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-06-01

    A 4-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) was found dead in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo. The animal had previously exhibited weakness and lethargy, but no signs of diarrhea. The carcass was emaciated upon presentation. The main gross lesion was characterized by severe serous atrophy of the fat tissues of the coronary and left ventricular grooves, resulting in the transformation of the fat to a gelatinous material. The rumen was fully distended with food, while the abomasum evidenced mucosal corrugation with slight congestion. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Balantidium coli trophozoites within the lymphatic ducts of the gastric lymph node and the abdominal submucosa. On rare occasions, these organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the gastric lymph nodes and abomasum. PMID:16645350

  19. [Importance of cellular immunity factors in the pathogenesis of experimental balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    Karapetian, A E; Isaakian, Z S; Zavgorodniaia, A M

    1978-01-01

    Adult white rats were immunized by numerous subcutaneous injections of antigenes obtained from the cultures of B. coli and B. suis. After the rats were sensibilized they were infected with cultural forms of Balantidium. 75% of infected rats were found to have ciliates in the lumen of the large intestine. In the tissues of the intestinal wall up to the muscular layer there were observed certain pathomorphological changes such as hyperemy, oedema, haemorrhagia and ulcers. By means of the macrophaga migration test it was established that in rats during their immunization and following infection appear lymphocytes which are sensibilized in relation to the balantidial antigene that points to the formation of slow allergy in their organisms. PMID:673460

  20. A comparison of nucleic acid content in Balantidium coli trophozoites from different isolates.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, B; Zieliński, R

    1997-01-01

    Cytophotometric assays were performed on Balantidium coli trophozoites isolated from 30 pigs affected by acute balantidiasis (Group I) and from 30 pigs with symptom-free balantidiasis (Group II). Trophozoites from cultures obtained from Group I and II pig isolates were assayed for comparison. Comparative cytophotometric studies on nucleic acids of B. coli trophozoites isolated from acute and symptomless balantidiasis-affected pigs as well as from in vitro cultured trophozoites showed differences which could have resulted from differences between populations in the trophozoans under investigation. PMID:9643168

  1. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of peroxisomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliophora.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, B

    1997-01-01

    Peroxisomes of the trophozoites of Balantidium coli isolated from pig intestine content were investigated, using ultrastructural and cytochemical techniques. The peroxisomes of B. coli trophozoites from pigs with subclinical balantidiasis are less then 0.8 mm in diameter whereas those from pigs with acute balantidiasis are greater than 0.8 micron in diameter. In all the trophozoites peroxisomes are round, oval or dumb-bell shaped. Catalase as an indicative enzyme was detected by cytochemical techniques in B. coli peroxisomes. PMID:9643167

  2. Case report of Balantidium coli in human from south of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleky, F

    1998-05-01

    A Patient with Balantidiasis in an urinary bladder is reported. Trichomonas vaginalis were identified and no other cause of the haematuria was apparent. This condition didn't common and may be linked to ectopic Balantidium in urinary bladder. PMID:9808912

  3. Balantidium coli pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulou, Alexandra; Dimarongona, Kyriaki; Samakovli, Anastasia; Papadimitris, Konstantinos; Avlami, Athina

    2003-01-01

    A fatal case is reported of Balantidium coli pneumonia in a 71-y-old woman suffering from anal cancer. The diagnosis was made by the discovery of motile trophozoites in a wet mount from bronchial secretions. The usual habitat of the parasite is the colon; lung balantidiasis is very rare. PMID:12693570

  4. Nitroheterocyclic drugs with broad spectrum activity.

    PubMed

    Raether, W; Hänel, H

    2003-06-01

    The group of biologically active nitroheterocyclic compounds includes various 5- and 2-nitroimidazoles and 5-nitrofurans, which can be used as therapeutic agents against a variety of protozoan and bacterial (anaerobic) infections of humans and animals. The current status in the the treatment of giardiasis, trichomoniasis, balantidiasis, histomoniasis, and amebiasis (including infections due to opportunistic amebas) is presented. The most relevant drugs (benznidazole, furazolidone, metronidazole, misonidazole, nifurtimox, nimorazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, secnidazole, and tinidazole) are characterized with regard to their chemical, chemotherapeutic, toxicological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological properties, including the mechanism of action and resistance in certain parasitic protozoa. PMID:12811546

  5. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  6. Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-12-01

    The roles free-living amebae and the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium coli play as agents of waterborne zoonotic diseases are examined. The free-living soil and water amebae Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are recognized etiologic agents of mostly fatal amebic encephalitides in humans and other animals, with immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts among the victims. Acanthamoeba spp. are also agents of amebic keratitis. Infection is through the respiratory tract, breaks in the skin, or by uptake of water into the nostrils, with spread to the central nervous system. E. histolytica and B. coli are parasitic protozoa that cause amebic dysentery and balantidiasis, respectively. Both intestinal infections are spread via a fecal-oral route, with cysts as the infective stage. Although the amebic encephalitides can be acquired by contact with water, they are not, strictly speaking, waterborne diseases and are not transmitted to humans from animals. Non-human primates and swine are reservoirs for E. histolytica and B. coli, and the diseases they cause are acquired from cysts, usually in sewage-contaminated water. Amebic dysentery and balantidiasis are examples of zoonotic waterborne infections, though human-to-human transmission can occur. The epidemiology of the diseases is examined, as are diagnostic procedures, anti-microbial interventions, and the influence of globalization, climate change, and technological advances on their spread. PMID:15567581

  7. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes. PMID:21158624

  8. Pulmonary Balantidium coli infection in a leukemic patient.

    PubMed

    Anargyrou, K; Petrikkos, G L; Suller, M T E; Skiada, A; Siakantaris, M P; Osuntoyinbo, R T; Pangalis, G; Vaiopoulos, G

    2003-07-01

    A 59-year-old woman suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed pulmonary lesions; bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for possible systemic fungal infection. However, direct microscopic analysis revealed ciliated protozoa identified as Balantidium coli. B. coli is the only known pathogenic ciliate, and is usually associated with intestinal infection in areas associated with pig rearing. On very rare occasions the organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the lungs of an immunocompromised patient. This case is unusual as balantidiasis is rare in Europe, the patient had no obvious contact with pigs, and there was no history of diarrhea prior to pulmonary colonization. Metronidazole was rapidly administered, and the condition improved after 24-48 hr. PMID:12827655

  9. The formation of primary and secondary lysosomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliata.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, B

    1999-01-01

    Trophozoites, vegetative forms of Balantidum coli isolated from pigs affected by acute and asymptomatic balantidiasis were studied. Lysosomes and food vacuoles were revealed by cytochemical detection of lysosomal marker, acid phosphatase. The cytoplasm of all the B. coli trophozoites examined was found to contain numerous structures which differed widely in shape, size and location in the cells. One of them was located among the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes and another one in the vicinity of endosomes. Those structures were regarded as the primary lysosomes. The two types of vesicular structures most probably represent two stages of the primary lysosome formation. Trophozoites were also found to contain secondary lysosomes which are formed by fusion of several primary lysosomes with phagosomes. The ultrathin sections of B. coli trohozoites showed the presence of two types of phagosomes. They were divided, based on their contents, into auto- and heterophagosomes. PMID:10598328

  10. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  11. Preliminary Insights into the Impact of Dietary Starch on the Ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Procházka, Petr; Modrý, David; Bolechová, Petra; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD) (average 14.7% of starch) for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD) (average 0.1% of starch) for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0±134.7) than during the LoSD (3.5±6.8). A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7±0.06 (SE), z = 47.7; p<<0.001). We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections. PMID:24282589

  12. Novel Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like Cyst-forming Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Petrželková, Klára J.; Grim, J. Norman; Levecke, Bruno; Todd, Angelique; Mulama, Martin; Kiyang, John; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes) clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans. PMID:23556024

  13. Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S.; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  14. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Petrželková, Klára J; Grim, J Norman; Levecke, Bruno; Todd, Angelique; Mulama, Martin; Kiyang, John; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes) clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans. PMID:23556024

  15. Massive development of amebas in the large intestine. Fedor Aleksandrovich Lesh (Lösch).

    PubMed

    Lesh, F A

    1975-05-01

    Fedor Aleksandrovich Lesh (Lösch) 1840-1903. Although Lösch was a distinguished Russian physician, little has been written about him in English. A graduate of the Medico-chirurgical Academy in St. Petersburg (1863), he defended a doctoral thesis on pulmonary embolism and infarction in 1866, and became an assistant professor of medicine in 1871. From 1872 to 1885 he was a lecturer on diagnosis at the Women's Medical College and a consultant to the Nikolayev Military Hospital. In 1885 he became Professor of Diagnostic Medicine at Kiev University where he remained until his retirement in 1897. In 1870, Lösch found Balantidium coli in the stools of two patients and made a detailed study of the clinical aspects of balantidiasis. In the same year he described in detail Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis. Altogether, he published some 20 papers on the diagnostic and clinical aspects of various diseases, with special emphasis on the microscopic aspects of coprology. It was in 1875 (exactly 100 years ago) that Lösch, in this monumental paper, reported the clinical aspects of recurrent intestinal amebiasis, identified and described its cause, Entamoeba histolytica, and produced the disease in an experimental animal. This work on amebiasis was completed while he was assistant professor at St. Petersburg, on the wards of Prof. E. Eichwald. Clinicians will cherish the description of the patient's symptoms; protozoologists must be delighted by the description of the parasite and its motility; experimentalists will be nervous about his luck in infecting one of three dogs; and iconoclasts must derive satisfaction from Lösch's caution in not automatically assigning a direct causal relationship between the presence of the parasite and the disease. PMID:1098489