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Sample records for balloon flight solar

  1. Results of the 1970 balloon flight solar cell standardization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    For the eighth consective year, high-altitude calibration of solar cells was accomplished with the aid of free-flight balloons. Flights were conducted to an altitude of 36,576 m which is above 99.5% of earth's atmosphere where all water vapor levels and significant ozone bands are absent. Solar cells calibrated in this manner are significant used as intensity references in solar simulators and in terrestrial sunlight. Discussed is the method employed for high altitude balloon flight solar cell calibration. Also presented are data collected on 52 standard solar cells on two flights conducted in 1970. Solar cells flown repeatedly on successive flights have shown correlation of better than + or - 1.0%.

  2. A search for solar neutrons on a long duration balloon flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, R.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.; Denehy, B. V.; Mace, O.; Thomas, J.

    1985-01-01

    The EOSCOR 3 detector, designed to measure the flux of solar neutrons, was flown on a long duration RACOON balloon flight from Australia during Jan. through Feb, 1983. The Circum-global flight lasted 22 days. No major solar activity occurred during the flight and thus only an upper limit to the solar flare neutrons flux is given. The atmospheric neutron response is compared with that obtained on earlier flights from Palestine, Texas.

  3. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard-particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  4. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The IMP-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  5. Results of the 1987 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 23, 1987, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-eight modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.0 km). The cells calibrated can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  6. Results of the 1986 NASA/JPL Balloon Flight Solar Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The 1986 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on July 15, 1986, meeting all objectives of the program. Thirty modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  7. Results of the 1989 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 9, 1989, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-two modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  8. Results of the 1988 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 7, 1988, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-eight modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  9. Results of the 1985 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on July 12, 1985, meeting all objectives of the program. Fifty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of 115,000 ft (35.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  10. Results of the 1989 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Weiss, R.S.

    1989-11-01

    The 1989 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 9, 1989, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-two modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  11. Results of the 1973 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Greenwood, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    High altitude balloon flights carried 37 standard solar cells for calibration above 99.5 percent of the earth's atmosphere. The cells were assembled into standard modules with appropriate resistors to load each cell at short circuit current. Each standardized module was mounted at the apex of the balloon on a sun tracker which automatically maintained normal incidence to the sun within 1.0 deg. The balloons were launched to reach a float altitude of approximately 36.6 km two hours before solar noon and remain at float altitude for two hours beyond solar noon. Telemetered calibration data on each standard solar cell was collected and recorded on magnetic tape. At the end of each float period the solar cell payload was separated from the balloon by radio command and descended via parachute to a ground recovery crew. Standard solar cells calibrated and recovered in this manner are used as primary intensity reference standards in solar simulators and in terrestrial sunlight for evaluating the performance of other solar cells and solar arrays with similar spectral response characteristics.

  12. Results of the 1992 NASA/JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 1, 1992. All objectives of the flight program were met. Forty-one modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.3 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to 39 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  13. Results of the 1994 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 1994 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 6, 1994. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the 6 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  14. Results of the 1991 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 1, 1991. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-nine modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft. (36.3 km). Data telemetered from the modules were corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  15. Results of the 1993 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on July 29, 1993. All objectives of the flight program were met. Forty modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to 8 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  16. Results of the 1993 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Weiss, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    The 1993 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on July 29, 1993. All objectives of the flight program were met. Forty modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to 8 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  17. Results of the 1991 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Weiss, R.S.

    1991-10-01

    The 1991 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 1, 1991. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-nine modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft. (36.3 km). Data telemetered from the modules were corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  18. Results of the 1994 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Weiss, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    The 1994 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 6, 1994. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the 6 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  19. Results of the 1995 JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) solar cell calibration program was conceived to produce reference standards for the purpose of accurately setting solar simulator intensities. The concept was to fly solar cells on a high-altitude balloon, to measure their output at altitudes near 120,000 ft (36.6 km), to recover the cells, and to use them as reference standards. The procedure is simple. The reference cell is placed in the simulator beam, and the beam intensity is adjusted until the reference cell reads the same as it read on the balloon. As long as the reference cell has the same spectral response as the cells or panels to be measured, this is a very accurate method of setting the intensity. But as solar cell technology changes, the spectral response of the solar cells changes also, and reference standards using the new technology must be built and calibrated. Until the summer of 1985, there had always been a question as to how much the atmosphere above the balloon modified the solar spectrum. If the modification was significant, the reference cells might not have the required accuracy. Solar cells made in recent years have increasingly higher blue responses, and if the atmosphere has any effect at all, it would be expected to modify the calibration of these newer blue cells much more so than for cells made in the past. JPL has been flying calibration standards on high-altitude balloons since 1963 and continues to organize a calibration balloon flight at least once a year. The 1995 flight was the 48th flight in this series. The 1995 flight incorporated 46 solar cell modules from 7 different participants. The payload included Si, amorphous Si, GaAs, GaAs/Ge, dual junction cells, top and bottom sections of dual junction cells, and a triple junction cell. A new data acquisition system was built for the balloon flights and flown for the first time on the 1995 flight. This system allows the measurement of current-voltage (I-V) curves for 20 modules in addition to

  20. Results of the 1997 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of three flights, the first flight on June 11, 1997, the second flight on August 2, 1997, and the third flight on August 24, 1997. One flight, flown on August 14, 1997, was terminated early because of a telemetry transmitter failure, and its payload was reflown on the August 24 flight. All objectives of the flight program were met. Ninety-eight modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 32 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 66 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  1. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Topka, Kenneth P.

    1992-01-01

    The definition phase of a scientific study of active regions on the sun by balloon flight of a former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) is described. SOUP is an optical telescope with image stabilization, tunable filter and various cameras. After the flight phase of the program was cancelled due to budgetary problems, scientific and engineering studies relevant to future balloon experiments of this type were completed. High resolution observations of the sun were obtained using SOUP components at the Swedish Solar Observatory in the Canary Islands. These were analyzed and published in studies of solar magnetic fields and active regions. In addition, testing of low-voltage piezoelectric transducers was performed, which showed they were appropriate for use in image stabilization on a balloon.

  2. Results of the 1998 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of one flight, which occurred on August 15, 1998. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-one modules were carried to an altitude of = 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 4 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 27 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  3. THz Solar Observations on Board of a Trans-Antarctic Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Abrantes, A.; Bortolucci, E. C.; Caspi, A.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Kropotov, G.; Kudaka, A. S.; Laurent, G.; Machado, N.; Marcon, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A new system of two photometers was built to observe the Sun at 3 and 7 THz from space, named SOLART. It has been flown coupled to U.C. Berkeley GRIPS experiment on a NASA stratospheric balloon flight over Antarctica, 19-30 January 2016. The mission was successfully accomplished. We describe the system performance, solar brightness determination and the first THz impulsive burst detected.

  4. Results of the 1990 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, Bruce E.; Weiss, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 solar cell calibration balloon flight consisted of two flights, one on July 20, 1990 and the other on September 6, 1990. A malfunction occurred during the first flight, which resulted in a complete loss of data and a free fall of the payload from 120,000 ft. After the tracker was rebuilt, and several solar cell modules were replaced, the payload was reflown. The September flight was successful and met all the objectives of the program. Forty-six modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 a.u. The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  5. Results of the 2000 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 27, 2000, and July 5, 2000. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-two modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on sixteen of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on thirty-seven modules (forty-six cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. Nine modules were flown for temperature measurement only. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496x10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  6. Results of the 1996 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign was completed with the first flight on June 30, 1996 and a second flight on August 8, 1996. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-four modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full 1-5 curves were measured on 22 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 42 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  7. Results of the 1999 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 14, 1999, and July 6, 1999. All objectives of the flight program were met. Fifty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of approximately equal to 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on five of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on forty-three modules (forty-five cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10 (exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  8. The solar diameter and oblateness measured by the solar disk sextant on the 1992 September 30 balloon flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.; Heaps, W.; Twigg, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a balloon flight of the Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) on 1992 September 30. This was the first flight in which the SDS used a wedge assembly fabricated by molecular contact in order to eliminate the wedge angle variations observed in previous flights. The instrument performed as designed. The main results obtained are values of the solar diameter for a number of discrete heliocentric latitudes, and the solar oblateness. The accuracy of the diameter values is better than 0.2 sec whereas the precision is approximately 1-2 mas. The equatorial solar diameter, at 1 AU, was 1919.06 sec +/- 0.12 sec, and the oblateness epsilon = 8.63 +/- 0.88 x 10(exp -6).

  9. Results of the 2001 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 26, 2001, and July 4, 2001. Fifty-nine modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on nineteen of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on thirty-two modules (forty-six cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. Nine modules were flown for temperature measurement only. The data from the fixed load cells on the first flight was not usable. The temperature dependence of the first-flight data was erratic and we were unable to find a way to extract accurate calibration values. The I-V data from the first flight was good, however, and all data from the second flight was also good. The data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8)km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  10. Solar Observations at THz Frequencies on Board of a Trans-Antartic Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Abrantes, André; Bortolucci, Emilio; Caspi, Amir; Fernandes, Luis Olavo T.; Kropotov, Grigory; Kudaka, Amauri; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Machado, Nelson; Marcon, Rogério; Marun, Adolfo; Nicolaev, Valery; Hidalgo Ramirez, Ray Fernando; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert; Silva, Claudemir; Timofeevsky, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Sub-THz and 30 THz solar burst observations revealed a new spectral component, with fluxes increasing towards THz frequencies, simultaneously with the well known component peaking at microwaves, bringing challenging constraints for interpretation. The THz flare spectra can be completed with measurements made from space. A new system of two photometers was built to observe the Sun at 3 and 7 THz named SOLAR-T. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and detect small burst with sub-second time resolution. The photometers use two Golay cell detectors at the foci of 7.6 cm Cassegrain telescopes. The incoming radiation undergoes low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. The system has been integrated to redundant data acquisition system and Iridium short-burst data services telemetry for monitoring during the flight. SOLAR-T has been flown coupled to U.C. Berkeley solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging spectro-polarimeter GRIPS experiment launched on a NASA CSBF stratospheric balloon from U.S. McMurdo base on January 19, 2016, on a trans-Antarctic flight. The mission ended on January 30. The SOLAR-T on-board computers were recovered from the payload that landed in the Argentina Mountain Range, nearly 2100 km from McMurdo. The SOLAR-T performance was successfully attained, with full space qualification instrumentation. Preliminary results provide the solar disk THz brightness temperatures and indicate a 7 THz burst enhancement time coincident to a sub-THz burst observed by SST during the 28 January GOES C9.6 class soft X-ray burst, the largest occurred during the flight.

  11. Energy from solar balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Grena, Roberto

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  12. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, extended definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Technical studies of the feasibility of balloon flights of the former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter, with a modern charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, to study the structure and evolution of solar active regions at high resolution, are reviewed. In particular, different CCD cameras were used at ground-based solar observatories with the SOUP filter, to evaluate their performance and collect high resolution images. High resolution movies of the photosphere and chromosphere were successfully obtained using four different CCD cameras. Some of this data was collected in coordinated observations with the Yohkoh satellite during May-July, 1992, and they are being analyzed scientifically along with simultaneous X-ray observations.

  13. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  14. Power supplies for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichfield, Ernest W.

    Long duration balloon flights require more electrical power than can be carried in primary batteries. This paper provides design information for selecting rechargeable batteries and charging systems. Solar panels for recharging batteries are discussed, with particular emphasis on cells mounting suitable for balloon flights and panel orientation for maximum power collection. Since efficient utilization of power is so important, modern DC to DC power conversion techniques are presented. On short flights of 1 day or less, system designers have not been greatly concerned with battery weight. But, with the advent of long duration balloon flights using superpressure balloons, anchor balloon systems, and RACOON balloon techniques, power supplies and their weight become of prime importance. The criteria for evaluating power systems for long duration balloon flights is performance per unit weight. Instrumented balloon systems have flown 44 days. For these very long duration flights, batteries recharged from solar cells are the only solution. For intermediate flight duration, say less than 10 days, the system designer should seriously consider using primary cells. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. B-SSIPP: A Miniature Solar Observatory for Rocket or Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Diller, Jed; Brownsberger, Judy

    2016-05-01

    The Southwest Solar Instrument Pointing Package (SSIPP) is a miniature solar observatory for flight application. Conceived as a way to lower barriers to entry to spaceflight, SSIPP conditions a broadband solar beam for use by an IR, visible, or UV instrument on an optical table -- just as do ground-based observatories. The beam is conditioned by a closed-loop tip/tilt pointing system that can lock onto the Sun over a 20° cone of angles, and maintain arcsecond-class pointing from a dynamic flight platform. SSIPP was originally conceived as an instrument platform for the XCOR Lynx suborbital sportsrocket. It has been adapted for ballloon flight, incorporating a novel coarse pointing system that measures torsional pendulation in-flight to construct a stable pointing law on-the-fly. First flight is projected for June 2016 (shortly after SPD). We present status, major design elements, and future plans for the platform.

  16. Solar research with stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Manuel; Wittmann, Axel D.

    Balloons, driven by hot air or some gas lighter than air, were the first artificial machines able to lift payloads (including humans) from the ground. After some pioneering flights the study of the physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere constituted the first scientific target. A bit later astronomers realized that the turbulence of the atmospheric layers above their ground-based telescopes deteriorated the image quality, and that balloons were an appropriate means to overcome, total or partially, this problem. Some of the most highly-resolved photographs and spectrograms of the sun during the 20th century were actually obtained by balloon-borne telescopes from the stratosphere. Some more recent projects of solar balloon astronomy will also be described.

  17. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  18. Upcoming long-duration balloon flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Saint Hilaire, Pascal; Duncan, Nicole A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Bain, Hazel; Maruca, Bennett A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Zoglauer, Andreas C.; Smith, David; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the status of preparations for the upcoming Antarctic long-duration balloon flight of the balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument in December 2015. GRIPS will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from ~20 keV to >~10 MeV. GRIPS will address questions raised by recent solar flare observations regarding particle acceleration and energy release, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution of <0.1 mm3. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten-alloy slit/slat grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. The MPRM is situated 8 meters from the spectrometer to provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e., as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare.

  19. Concepts for autonomous flight control for a balloon on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinsheimer, Thomas F.; Friend, Robyn C.; Siegel, Neil G.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons operating as airborne rovers have been suggested as ideal candidates for early exploration of the Martian surface. An international study team composed of scientists from the U.S.S.R., France, and the U.S.A. is planning the launching in 1994 of a balloon system to fly on Mars. The current likely design is a dual thermal/gas balloon that consists of a gas balloon suspended above a solar-heated thermal balloon. At night, the thermal balloon provides no lift, and the balloon system drifts just above the Martian surface; the lift of the gas balloon is just sufficient to prevent the science payload from hitting the ground. During the day, the balloon system flies at an altitude of 4 to 5 kilometers, rising due to the added lift provided by the thermal balloon. Over the course of a single Martian day, there may be winds in several directions, and in fact it can be expected that there will be winds simultaneously in different directions at different altitudes. Therefore, a balloon system capable of controlling its own altitude, via an autonomous flight control system, can take advantage of these different winds to control its direction, thereby greatly increasing both its mission utility and its longevity.

  20. The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, S. K.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Deutsch, W.; Doerr, H.-P.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Gizon, L.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Lagg, A.; Meller, R.; Tomasch, G.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Gasent Blesa, J. L.; Balaguer Jiménez, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; López Jiménez, A. C.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Schmidt, W.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Pérez Grande, I.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Card, G.; Centeno, R.; Knölker, M.; Lecinski, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, consisting of a 1 m aperture telescope that provides a stabilized image to a UV filter imager and an imaging vector polarimeter, carried out its second science flight in 2013 June. It provided observations of parts of active regions at high spatial resolution, including the first high-resolution images in the Mg ii k line. The obtained data are of very high quality, with the best UV images reaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at 3000 Å after Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution reconstruction accounting for phase-diversity information. Here a brief update is given of the instruments and the data reduction techniques, which includes an inversion of the polarimetric data. Mainly those aspects that evolved compared with the first flight are described. A tabular overview of the observations is given. In addition, an example time series of a part of the emerging active region NOAA AR 11768 observed relatively close to disk center is described and discussed in some detail. The observations cover the pores in the trailing polarity of the active region, as well as the polarity inversion line where flux emergence was ongoing and a small flare-like brightening occurred in the course of the time series. The pores are found to contain magnetic field strengths ranging up to 2500 G, and while large pores are clearly darker and cooler than the quiet Sun in all layers of the photosphere, the temperature and brightness of small pores approach or even exceed those of the quiet Sun in the upper photosphere.

  1. Absorption spectrometer balloon flight and iodine investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A high altitude balloon flight experiment to determine the technical feasibility of employing absorption spectroscopy to measure SO2 and NO2 gases in the earth's atmosphere from above the atmospheric ozone layer is discussed. In addition to the balloon experiment the contract includes a ground-based survey of natural I emissions from geological sources and studies of the feasibility of mapping I2 from spacecraft. This report is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) the planning engineering and execution of the balloon experiment, (2) data reduction and analysis of the balloon data, and (3) the results of the I2 phase of the contract.

  2. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  3. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  4. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  5. Test flights of the NASA ultra long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H.

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Two Ultra Long Duration balloon test flights took place from Australia in early 2001. The results from these flights, as well as the challenges presented, will be discussed. With these lessons learned and incorporating both material and design improvements, a test flight of a full-scale 610,500m3 balloon with a 2,800 kg suspended load will be completed in Spring of 2002 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. This balloon, the largest single celled super- pressure balloon ever flown, has been sized to satisfy the requirements for the planned ULDB CREAM mission in late 2003. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned from the two Australia flights, will be presented. The results, highlighting balloon performance, from the Spring 2002 test flight will be presented. This will include information related to the balloon preparation, flight operations, and flight performance. A review of the radiative environmental influences on the balloon related to this flight will be presented. A second test flight of a full-scale Ultra Long Duration Balloon is scheduled for December of 2002. This flight is expected to be one orbit or approximately 15 days. The plans for this Southern Hemisphere, Australia launched, global flight will also be presented.

  6. Test flights of the NASA ultra-long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ultra-Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the NASA Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Descriptions of two test flights from early 2001 are presented along with lessons learned. Results are also presented of a July 2002 test flight of a full-scale 610,500 m 3 balloon with a 2800 kg suspended load that incorporated the lessons learned.

  7. CREAM Balloon Flights and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica on December 21, 2010 for its sixth flight. A cumulative exposure of ~ 161 days was achieved when this almost 6-day flight was terminated on December 26, 2010. The calorimeter module was recovered in one piece on the pallet without dis-assembly, despite the challenging recovery location at high altitude on the opposite side of the Antarctic continent from McMurdo Station. The recovered CREAM-VI instrument was calibrated at CERN in October 2011, and it is being integrated for a CREAM-VII flight in Antarctica. The CREAM-V instrument recovered previously was refurbished, and it is being re-configured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  8. Measurements of Load Train Motion on a Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruner, Timothy D.; Olney, David J.; Russo, Angela M.

    2005-01-01

    Attitude measurements using gyros and magnetometers placed on a stratospheric balloon during a non-pointed test flight were used to observe the natural azimuth and elevation motions of a balloon/load train/gondola at an altitude of 36 km over a total flight time of 400 minutes. Time traces of the entire flight are presented. This flight, conducted under nominal atmospheric conditions, had significant motion about the azimuth. Some discussion on balloon disturbances is also included.

  9. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  10. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  11. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  12. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  13. The NASA super pressure balloon - A path to flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has invested significant time and effort in extensive ground testing of model super pressure balloons. The testing path has been developed as an outgrowth of the results of the super pressure balloon test flight in 2006. Summary results of the June 2006 super pressure test flight from Kiruna, Sweden are presented including the balloon performance and "lessons learned". This balloons flight performance exceeded expectations, but did not fully deploy. The flight was safely terminated by command. The results of this test flight refocused the project's efforts toward additional ground testing and analysis; a path to flight. A series of small 4 m diameter models were made and tested to further explore the deployment and structural capabilities of the balloons and materials. A series of ˜27 m model balloons were successfully tested indoors. These balloons successfully replicated the cleft seen in the Sweden flight, explored the deployment trade space to help characterize better design approaches, and demonstrated an acceptable fix to the deployment issue. Photogrammetry was employed during these ˜27 m model tests to help characterize both the balloon and gore shape evolution under pressurization. A ˜8.5 m ground model was used to explore the design and materials performance. Results of these tests will be presented. A general overview of some of the other project advancements made related to demonstrating the strain arresting nature of the proposed design, materials and analysis work will also be presented. All of this work has prepared a clear path toward a renewed round of test flights. This paper will give an overview of the development approach pursued for this super pressure balloon development. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned, is presented. A short deployment test flight of the National Aeronautics and Space

  14. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  15. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  16. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  17. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  18. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  19. Scientific study in solar and plasma physics relative to rocket and balloon projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research are to provide scientific and technical capabilities in the areas of solar and plasma physics contained in research programs and instrumentation development relative to current rocket and balloon projects; to develop flight instrumentation design, flight hardware, and flight program objectives and participate in peer reviews as appropriate; and to participate in solar-terrestrial physics modeling studies and analysis of flight data and provide theoretical investigations as required by these studies.

  20. A high resolution gamma-ray and hard X-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, M.; Feffer, P. T.; Hurley, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lin, R. P.; McBride, S.; Primbsch, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Youseffi, K.; Zimmer, G.

    1992-10-01

    The elements of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, developed for observations of solar flares, are described. Emphasis is given to those aspects of the system that relate to its operation on a long duration balloon platform. The performance of the system observed in its first flight, launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica on 10 January, 1992, is discussed. Background characteristics of the antarctic balloon environment are compared with those observed in conventional mid-latitude balloon flights and the general advantages of long duration ballooning are discussed.

  1. Balloon Flight Demonstration of an Oscillating Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuke, H.; Okazaki, S.; Ogawa, H.; Miyazaki, Y.

    The oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is a novel heat-transfer technique used in thermal engineering. Although the OHP offers many technical advantages, it has not yet been actually used in the sky. Motivated by the need to develop a cooling system for use in the balloon-borne General Anti-Particle Spectrometer (GAPS) project, we are developing OHP technologies. To demonstrate the thermal performances of an OHP in real balloon flight conditions, a scaled-down OHP model was launched by a stratospheric balloon in Japan. In this study, we report the results of the flight demonstration.

  2. New Design Concept and Flight Test of Superpressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Honda, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Matsushima, Kiyoho

    A new ballon design method named ‘three-dimensional gore design’ was developed. It is based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. This type of balloon can be manufactured with gores having a size larger than that of the conventional gore. The sides of each gore are fixed to the adjacent short load tapes with controlled shortening rates. The gore length is chosen so as not to create any meridional tension. Hence, the superpressure limit of these balloons is simply given as film strength divided by bulge radius. As the limit does not depend on the balloon size, a large balloon with a high superpressure limit can be easily constructed without strong films. A test flight as well as indoor inflation and burst experiment showed that this new design method can realize a larger and lighter superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload in the stratosphere.

  3. Long duration balloon flights in the middle stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaterre, P.

    1993-02-01

    Research and development performed by the French Space Agency (CNES) over the past 10 years has given the scientific community the Infrared Montgolfiere, a balloon capable of lifting 50-kg payloads into the stratosphere for periods of several weeks. The Infrared Montgolfiere is a hot air balloon that captures infrared radiation using the earth as a heat source. Thirty flights have been launched so far, some lasting more than sixty days and circling the globe twice.

  4. Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance of high altitude balloon ascending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Dongxu

    2015-08-01

    Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance are addressed for the high altitude balloon ascending process. A novel dynamic model was established to describe thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of balloon which consists of atmospheric, thermal and dynamic submodels. Based on the model, ascending processes of a high altitude balloon under different initial launch conditions were simulated. The initial launch conditions were classified into three types: inflating quantity, launch time and launch position. The ascending velocity and the differential pressure were defined and used as evaluation parameters of flight performance. Results showed that the inflating quantity is the most effective factor for ascending process, and the upper and lower limits were also proposed separately from safety and performance perspectives. For both launch time and launch location conditions, different solar radiation is the main effect approach during ascending process. Specifically, the influence mechanism of launch time in one day and launch longitude are completely identical due to the Earth's rotation. Results also showed that the sunset process is the optimal selection for safety of balloon and efficient utilization of solar energy. Due to the Earth's revolution, the influence mechanism of launch date and launch latitude are identical and the effects are more seasonal and less effective. Launch time and location should be considered comprehensively in practical operation of ballooning.

  5. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  6. Winds analysis for polar and equatorial stratospheric balloons flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivano, Musso; Cardillo, Andrea; Ibba, Roberto; Spoto, Domenico; Amaro, Francesco; Memmo, Adelaide

    Astrophysicists, meteorologists and biologists are only some of the scientists that are requiring stratospheric flights and in particular Long Duration Balloon Flights for their researches and experiments. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) is therefore coordinating an effort for the developing of stratospheric balloons' campaigns from North Pole, where ASI collaborates with Andoya Rocket Range preparing the Nobile/Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Centre at Svalbard and from the ASI satellite receiving station in Malindi Kenya. Flights have been ongoing by other agencies in Antarctica. From the Northern Polar Region and Equatorial Africa similar flights will be possible without the logistical difficulties of that area. Answering to a specific scientific requirement, polar nocturnal and equatorial flights are now being investigated. Missions during polar winter are interesting because they provide regions of the sky where measurements are normally impossible. Trajectories are evaluated with a statistical wind analysis. Summer flights provide circular paths from Svalbard around the Pole and a safe recovery in Greenland after two weeks or more. The nocturnal flights do not have the same stability: isobaric lines are not centred above the Pole and trajectories around Svalbard involving Russia, Norway and Greenland are usual between December and February. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennal oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds.

  7. Balloon-assisted flight of radio-controlled insect biobots.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Alper; F Gilmour, Robert; Lal, Amit

    2009-09-01

    We report on radio-controlled insect biobots by directing the flight of Manduca sexta through neuromuscular activation. Early metamorphosis insertion technology was used to implant metal wire probes into the insect brain and thorax tissue. Inserted probes were adopted by the developing tissue as a result of the metamorphic growth. A mechanically and electrically reliable interface with the insect tissue was realized with respect to the insect's behavioral and anatomical adoption. Helium balloons were used to increase the payload capacity and flight duration of the insect biobots enabling a large number of applications. A super-regenerative receiver with a weight of 650 mg and 750 muW of power consumption was built to control the insect flight path through remotely transmitted electrical stimulation pulses. Initiation and cessation of flight, as well as yaw actuation, were obtained on freely flying balloon-assisted moths through joystick manipulation on a conventional model airplane remote controller.

  8. Imaging solar flares in hard X-rays and gamma raysfrom balloon-borne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol JO

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-rays and gamma rays carry the most direct evidence available for the roles of accelerated particles in solar flares. An approach that employs a spatial Fourier-transform technique for imaging the sources of these emissions is described and plans for developing a balloon-borne gamma ray imaging device (GRID) based on this instrumental approach is presented. This instrument, GRID on a balloon, would enable observations with a 1.6 arcsecond angular resolution, 10 millisecond time resolution, and whole-Sun field of view on long-duration balloon flights during MAX 1991.

  9. Overview of medical operations for a manned stratospheric balloon flight.

    PubMed

    Blue, Rebecca S; Law, Jennifer; Norton, Sean C; Garbino, Alejandro; Pattarini, James M; Turney, Matthew W; Clark, Jonathan B

    2013-03-01

    Red Bull Stratos was a commercial program designed to bring a test parachutist protected by a full-pressure suit via a stratospheric balloon with a pressurized capsule to 120,000 ft (36,576 m), from which he would freefall and subsequently parachute to the ground. On March 15, 2012, the Red Bull Stratos program successfully conducted a preliminary manned balloon test flight and parachute jump, reaching a final altitude of 71,581 ft (21,818 m). In light of the uniqueness of the operation and medical threats faced, a comprehensive medical plan was needed to ensure prompt and efficient response to any medical contingencies. This report will serve to discuss the medical plans put into place before the first manned balloon flight and the actions of the medical team during that flight. The medical operations developed for this program will be systematically evaluated, particularly, specific recommendations for improvement in future high-altitude and commercial space activities. A multipronged approach to medical support was developed, consisting of event planning, medical personnel, equipment, contingency-specific considerations, and communications. Medical operations were found to be highly successful when field-tested during this stratospheric flight, and the experience allowed for refinement of medical operations for future flights. The lessons learned and practices established for this program can easily be used to tailor a plan specific to other aviation or spaceflight events.

  10. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  11. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  12. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  13. USV test flight by stratospheric balloon: Preliminary mission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, A.; Musso, I.; Ibba, R.; Cosentino, O.

    The Unmanned Space Vehicle test flights will use a 7 m 1300 kg aircraft. The first three launches will take place at the Italian Space Agency ASI base in Trapani Milo, Sicily, through a stratospheric balloon that will drop the aircraft at a predefined height. After free fall acceleration to transonic velocities, the parachute deployment will allow a safe splash down in the central Mediterranean Sea. The goal of this article is to show the preliminary analysis results for the first USV flight. We carried out a statistical study for the year 2000 2003, evaluating the typical summer and winter launch windows of the Trapani Milo base. First, in the center Mediterranean, we define safe recovery areas. They cannot be reached during the balloon ascending phase so, after a sufficiently long floating part able to catch the open sea, the balloon will go down to the release height (24 km). The simulation foresees a 400,000 m3 balloon and 3 valves for the altitude transfer. A safe splash down must occur far enough from the nearest coast: the minimum distance is considered around 25 km. The vehicle should be released at a distance, from the nearest coast, greater than this minimum amount plus the USV model maximum horizontal translation, during its own trajectory from balloon separation to splash down. In this way we define safe release areas for some possible translations. Winter stratospheric winds are less stable. The winter average flight duration is 7 h and it is probably too long for the diurnal recovery requirement and its scheduled procedures. Comparing past stratospheric balloons flights and trajectories computed using measured meteorological data (analysis), with their predictions made using forecast models and soundings, we obtain the standard deviation of the trajectory forecast uncertainty at the balloon aircraft separation. Two cases are taken into account: predictions made 24 and 6 h before the launch. Assuming a Gaussian latitudinal uncertainty distribution for

  14. JACEE long duration balloon flights. [Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experiments with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

  15. JACEE long duration balloon flights. [Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experiments with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

  16. Implementing Improved Security and Encryption for Balloon Flight Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denney, Andrew; Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility uses a broad array of communication techniques be-tween its balloon-borne flight systems and ground command and control systems. These com-munication mediums vary from commercially available routing such as e-mail and IP based TCP/UDP protocols to military grade proprietary line-of-sight configurations; each with their own unique benefits and shortfalls. While each new advancement in technology improves secu-rity in some capacity, it does not always address the limitation of older, less advanced security or encryption capabilities. As the proliferation of newer, more commercially viable technologies become common place, safeguarding mission critical applications from unauthorized access and improve data integrity in the process becomes ever more necessary. Therefore, this paper will evaluate several security measures and methods of data encryption; including formalizing a standardized security philosophy that improves and addresses the mixture of established and emerging technologies.

  17. Solar radiation measurements from coordinated radiosonde flights during the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Williams, Paul; Nicoll, Keri

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation sensors can be carried on standard weather balloon packages and provide additional information about the atmosphere's vertical structure beyond the traditional thermodynamic measurements [1]. An interesting set of circumstances for such sensors occurs during a solar eclipse, which provides a rapidly changing solar radiation environment within the duration of a typical free balloon flight. Coordinating several launches of solar radiation measuring radiosondes brings a good likelihood of at least one being above any cloud during the maximum eclipse, allowing solar eclipse radiation measurements for comparison with theory. For the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44N, 0.94W), Lerwick (60.15N, 1.13W) and Reykjavik (64.13N, 21.90W), straddling the path of the eclipse. All three balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. These approaches, which are essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. [1] K.A. Nicoll and R.G. Harrison, Balloon-borne disposable radiometer Rev Sci Instrum 83, 025111 (2012) doi: 10.1063/1.3685252

  18. Long-Duration Altitude-Controlled Balloons for Venus: A Feasibility Study Informed by Balloon Flights in Remote Environments on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, P. B.; Nott, J.; Cutts, J. A.; Hall, J. L.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Limaye, S. S.; Baines, K. H.; Hole, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    In situ exploration of the upper atmosphere of Venus, approximately 65-77 km altitude, could answer many important questions (Limaye 2013, Crisp 2013). This region contains a time-variable UV absorber of unknown composition that controls many aspects of the heat balance on Venus. Understanding the composition and dynamics of this unknown absorber is an important science goal; in situ optical and chemical measurements are needed. However, conventional approaches do not provide access to this altitude range, repeated traverses, and a mission lifetime of several months needed to effectively carry out the science. This paper examines concepts for altitude-controlled balloons not previously flown on planetary missions that could potentially provide the desired measurements. The concepts take advantage of the fact that at 60 km altitude, for example, the atmospheric density on Venus is about 40% of the sea-level density on earth and the temperature is a moderate 230 K. The solar flux is approximately double that on earth, creating some thermal challenges, but making photovoltaic power highly effective. Using a steady-state thermodynamic model and flight data from Earth, we evaluate the suitability of two types of altitude-controlled balloons for a potential mission on Venus. Such balloons could repeatedly measure profiles, avoid diurnal temperature extremes, and navigate using wind shear. The first balloon design uses air ballast (AB) whereby ambient air can be compressed into or released from a constant-volume balloon, causing it to descend or ascend accordingly. The second design uses lift-gas compression (LGC) to change the volume of a zero-pressure balloon, thereby changing its effective density and altitude. For an altitude range of 60-75 km on Venus, we find that the superpressure volume for a LGC balloon is about 5% of that needed for an AB balloon while the maximum pressurization is the same for both systems. The compressor work per km descent of the LGC balloon

  19. Balloon measurements of cosmic ray protons and helium over half a solar cycle 1965-1969.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygg, T. A.; Earl, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of differential energy spectra for protons and helium covering the energy range from 100 to 260 MeV/nucleon obtained from balloon flights made each summer (1965 to 1969) at Churchill, Manitoba, with the aid of a Geiger-tube hodoscope operated in conjunction with two scintillation elements used to measure dE/dx and E. Supplementary data from balloon flights at Minneapolis, Minn., and Sioux Falls, S. Dak. and from calibration exposures to protons and electrons were used to define backgrounds and to verify the predicted detector response. The observed proton spectra are characterized over a wide range of energy (30 to 300 MeV) by a simple relationship between cosmic-ray intensity J and kinetic energy T: J = AT. The helium spectra also follow this law at solar maximum but rise less steeply near solar minimum. This characteristic behavior can be interpreted in terms of a simple model in which convection is balanced by adiabatic deceleration.-

  20. A balloon-borne high-resolution spectrometer for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Starr, R.; Stottlemyre, A. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, and balloon-flight verification of a payload for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares are reported. The payload incorporates a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, standard NIM and CAMAC electronics modules, a thermally stabilized pressure housing, and regulated battery power supplies. The flight system is supported on the ground with interactive data-handling equipment comprised of similar electronics hardware. The modularity and flexibility of the payload, together with the resolution and stability obtained throughout a 30-hour flight, make it readily adaptable for high-sensitivity, long-duration balloon fight applications.

  1. Preliminary feasibility study of sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long duration flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    Long duration flights are required for many scientific observations on stratospheric balloons. The flight duration of a super-pressure balloon is limited mainly by the flight distance due to limitations of the telemetry link, recovery possibility and national borders. A stratospheric super-pressure balloon which is anchored to the sea would have following ca-pabilities. 1) Long duration flight 2) Easy telemetry link to ground station 3) Wide launch window 4) Rapid gondola recovery 5) Fixed-point observation 6) Safety flight operation On the other hand, free-flying super-pressure balloons would be required to develop a flight trajectory control system for the long duration flight. Conventional quasi-static launch of a tethered bal-loon is difficult to ascent into the stratosphere through the jet stream. Because the dynamic pressure of the jet stream is significantly high for the balloon structure. The sea-anchored stratospheric balloon system consists of a long tether, a tether reel and a drag sail at the tether end. The flight sequence of the balloon is as follows. 1) Balloon launch with the reeled-in tether 2) Level flight at a designed altitude on the sea 3) Reel-out the tether with the drag sail 4) Sink the drag sail into the sea 5) Anchor the balloon by the drag sail 6) Observation 7) Cut the tether and terminate the flight The sea-anchored balloon does not require additional ground systems. The flight operation is same as normal balloon flights except for the reel-out and the cut of the tether. The sea-anchored balloon would have an appropriate altitude for its feasibility. The lower balloon altitude in the stratosphere results in significant increase of the dynamic pressure due to the jet stream, while the stress on the tether increases with increasing the balloon altitude by its own weight. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored ballon is investigated in particular on the tether strength, balloon altitude and the system mass based on the present

  2. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  3. Balloon observation of the 1983 solar eclipse in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, H.; Isobe, S.; Akiyama, H.; Koma, Y.; Okabe, T.; Nishimura, J.; Maihara, T.; Mizutani, K.; Soegijo, J.; Hariadi, T. E.

    A balloon observation of the total solar eclipse on June 11, 1983 was carried out as a cooperative work between Japanese and Indonesian teams. The observation was a photo-polarimetry of the F corona in both visual and near-infrared regions. The balloon of 15,000 cu m with a payload of 150-kg was launched at 7:13 on June 11 from the Watukosek balloon base in East Java. Observation at an altitude of 30.5-km was successfully made during the totality (11:28-11:32) at a position of about 40-km east-south-east from Jogjakarta. As a preliminary result, an excess in infrared brightness has been found near the position of 3.8 solar radius west from the sun, which may be due to thermal emission from a high-temperature dust cloud located around the sun.

  4. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  5. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  6. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on Space Shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  7. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on Space Shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  8. Flight demonstration of a superpressure balloon by three-dimensional gore design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, N.; Yajima, N.; Ohta, S.; Honda, H.; Kurokawa, H.; Matsushima, K.

    On May 15, 1999, a balloon with a volume of 3,100 cubic meters was successfully launched from Sanriku Balloon Center of Japan. It became a superpressure balloon at 19.2km in altitude with 20% pressure difference to the ambient atmosphere. This is the first superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload. It was designed by the new 'three-dimensional gore design' method and was based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. The balloon climbed up to 21.6km in altitude by dropping the ballast and held out against a 64% pressure difference over the ambient atmosphere. This flight test proved the capability of large stratospheric superpressure balloons by this new design method.

  9. The NASA Balloon Program: Implementing a New Flight Program for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program continues to support the scientific community providing enhanced capabilities across a spectrum of balloon related disciplines. Long Duration Ballooning (LDB) continues to be a prominent element of the program with a mission model of a two flight campaign in each the Northern and Southern Hemispheres per year. A new LDB endurance record was achieved in Antarctica with the LDB/CREAM mission. Both polar and mid-latitude LDB capabilities continue to be on-going operational elements of the flight program. The Swedish Space Corporation/Esrange and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) inaugurated a joint European/U.S. capability for LDB balloon flights from Sweden to Canada in June 2005. This will complement the NASA/U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs achievement of more than a decade of successful long-duration flights around Antarctica. Most of Antarctic flights have flown one time around the South Pole in 8-20 days using conventional (zero differential pressure) balloons. One flight went twice around in 31 days and another went three times around in 42 days using conventional balloons. Balloon technology efforts have continued to broaden in scope and new plans for activities to provide advancements have been initiated. A new balloon volume record was established with the successful flight of a 1,700,000 m3 volume zero-pressure balloon. The capability to fly a 700 kg payload (200 kg science instrument) to 160,000 ft has also been demonstrated. A new super-pressure (constant volume) balloon is currently under development for future flights of 60 - 100 day at any latitude. The Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) project for the development of a 100-day duration balloon capability has been progressing with additional ground and flight tests having been conducted. The Program has also continued to introduce new technology and improvements into flight

  10. Feasibility study of a sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long-duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    2012-08-01

    Sea-anchored balloons are stratospheric super-pressure balloons that are anchored to the sea. The sea-anchored balloon is a simple system that has the capability for long-duration flights, fixed-point observations, flexible launch windows, easy telemetry links to ground stations, and quick recoveries. Such balloons are not required to fly through the jet stream while tethered to the ground or sea, because the tether is deployed from a reel on the balloon after reaching a floating altitude. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored balloon is investigated, with particular emphasis on the tether strength, balloon altitude, and system mass, based on the present technological level of the tether's specific strength. Although the wind distribution with altitude is a dominant factor for feasibility, a sea-anchored balloon with an altitude of about 25 km would be feasible if the velocity of the jet stream is sufficiently low. The sea-anchored balloon can be simply flight-tested, since additional ground facilities and special flight operations are not necessary.

  11. Solar Powered Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoff (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Solar powered flight within the Venus environment from the surface to the upper atmosphere was evaluated. The objective was to see if a station-keeping mission was possible within this environment based on a solar power generating system. Due to the slow rotation rate of Venus it would be possible to remain within the day light side of the planet for extended periods of time. However the high wind speeds and thick cloud cover make a station-keeping solar powered mission challenging. The environment of Venus was modeled as a function of altitude from the surface. This modeling included density, temperature, solar attenuation and wind speed. Using this environmental model flight with both airships and aircraft was considered to evaluate whether a station-keeping mission is feasible. The solar power system and flight characteristics of both types of vehicles was modeled and power balance was set up to determine if the power available from the solar array was sufficient to provide enough thrust to maintain station over a fixed ground location.

  12. Implementation of a Novel Flight Tracking and Recovery Package for High Altitude Ballooning Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Aqsa; Nekkanti, Sanjay; Mohan Suri, Ram; Shankar, Divya; Prasad Nagendra, Narayan

    High altitude ballooning is typically used for scientific missions including stratospheric observations, aerological observations, and near space environment technology demonstration. The usage of stratospheric balloons is a cost effective method to pursue several scientific and technological avenues against using satellites in the void of space. Based on the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) ballooning program for studying Comet ISON using high altitude ballooning, a cost effective flight tracking and recovery package for ballooning missions has been developed using open source hardware. The flight tracking and recovery package is based on using Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and has a redundant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) based Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker. The APRS based tracker uses AX.25 protocol for transmission of the GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude, altitude, time) alongside the heading and health parameters of the board (voltage, temperature). APRS uses amateur radio frequencies where data is transmitted in packet messaging format, modulated by radio signals. The receiver uses Very High Frequency (VHF) transceiver to demodulate the APRS signals. The data received will be decoded using MixW (open source software). A bridge will be established between the decoding software and the APRS software. The flight path will be predicted before the launch and the real time position co-ordinates will be used to obtain the real time flight path that will be uploaded online using the bridge connection. We also use open source APRS software to decode and Google Earth to display the real time flight path. Several ballooning campaigns do not employ payload data transmission in real time, which makes the flight tracking and package recovery vital for data collection and recovery of flight instruments. The flight tracking and recovery package implemented in our missions allow independent development of the payload package

  13. Attenuation of Parachute Opening Shock Loads on Scientific Balloon Flight Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Erich

    ABSTRACT Attenuation of Parachute Opening Shock Loads on Scientific Balloon Flight Systems The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) has successfully flight tested a rip-stitch energy modulator for parachute decelerator systems flown on scientific balloons. The modulator was developed and fabricated by Pioneer Aerospace Corporation. The modulator reduces the post-line stretch rebound of the parachute system at flight termination thereby reducing the opening shock loads imparted on the balloon flight system. CSBF has conducted a total of four balloon flights with the modulator and flight test instrumentation, i.e., accelerometers and high definition video confirmed the modulator performance was excellent on all four flights. The violent translations of critical CSBF electronic packages located in the parachute decelerator systems were virtually eliminated. The complex and fragile science instruments were also spared the sharp pulse loading of canopy opening shock which is highly desired by the scientific community. This paper will describe the development and implementation of the rip-stitch energy modulator for scientific ballooning.

  14. Results of the ultra-long duration balloon flight support system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlik, D. W.; Black, R. K.; Thompson, L. D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) developed an Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) balloon support system that was flown on a balloon test flight at Fort Sumner, NM in May of 2001. The objectives were to develop a flight support system that would meet the generic requirements of supporting ULDB missions for up to 100 days. The flight system consists of hardware and software elements including RF communications, power system, attitude control, command and data handling, thermal control and mechanical structures. An overview of the flight support systems is presented along with the results from the balloon test flight. A key result of this test flight was the proven capability to transmit 150 kbps through a newly developed TDRSS high gain antenna. In addition, the balloon flight support system is currently being reconfigured to support the Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) mission scheduled for launch out of Antarctica in December 2003. The technical capabilities and performance of the flight support system has been analyzed in light of limited resources to support the CREAM mission. A discussion of the technical trade-offs that has resulted in a baseline design to meet the CREAM mission requirements will be presented.

  15. Results of the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon Flight Support System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, R.; Stuchlik, D.; Thompson, L.

    NASA/Wallops Flight Facility developed an Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) balloon support system that was flown on a balloon test flight at Fort Sumner, NM in May of 2001. The objectives were to develop a flight support system that would meet the generic requirements of supporting ULDB missions for up to 100 days. The flight system consists of hardware and software elements including RF communications, power system, attitude control, command and data handling, thermal control and mechanical structures. An overview of the flight support systems is presented along with the results from the balloon test flight. A key result of this test flight was the proven capability to transmit 150 kbps through a newly developed TDRSS high gain antenna. In addition, the balloon flight support system is currently being reconfigured to support the Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) mission scheduled for launch out of Antarctica in December 2003. The technical capabilities and performance of the flight support system has been analyzed in light of limited resources to support the CREAM mission. A discussion of the technical trade-offs that has resulted in a baseline design to meet the CREAM mission requirements will be presented.

  16. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  17. Potential of balloon payloads for in flight validation of direct and nulling interferometry concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demangeon, Olivier; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Cassaing, Frédéric; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mourard, Denis; Kern, Pierre; Lam Trong, Tien; Evrard, Jean; Absil, Olivier; Defrere, Denis; Lopez, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    While the question of low cost / low science precursors is raised to validate the concepts of direct and nulling interferometry space missions, balloon payloads offer a real opportunity thanks to their relatively low cost and reduced development plan. Taking into account the flight capabilities of various balloon types, we propose in this paper, several concepts of payloads associated to their flight plan. We also discuss the pros and cons of each concepts in terms of technological and science demonstration power.

  18. Torsional balloon flight line oscillations: Comparison of modelling to flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, François; Bayman, Benjamin; Hanany, Shaul; Franco, Hugo; Marsh, Justin; Didier, Joy; Miller, Amber D.

    2017-08-01

    During the EBEX2013 long duration flight the payload was free to rotate in azimuth. The observed azimuth motion consisted of a superposition of full rotations with a period of 10-30 min and oscillatory motion with an amplitude of tens of degrees, average period of 79 s, and period dispersion of 12 s. We interpret the full rotations as induced by slow rotations of the balloon and the shorter period oscillatory motion as due to torsional oscillations of the flight line. We derive the torsional stiffness of the flight line using the bifilar pendulum model and apply it to the flight line of the EBEX2013 payload. We find a torsional spring constant of 36 kg m2/s2 corresponding to a period of 58 s. We conclude that the bifilar model, which accounts for the geometry of the flight line but neglects all material properties, predicts a stiffness and period that are 45% larger and 25% shorter than those observed. It is useful to have a simple, easy to use, coarse approximation for the torsional constant of the flight line.

  19. The balloon flights in the Tropics of the HIBISCUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

    2005-08-01

    HIBISCUS is a project for studying the dynamics, microphysics and chemistry of the Tropical Tropopause Layer based on balloon measurements. Thirteen heavy sondes and 18 short duration balloons of different types have been used for local process studies. Eight superpressure (BP) and 3 Infra Red Montgolfier (MIR) long duration balloons have been flown for extending the investigations at global scale around the world. Overall the campaign has been very successful operationally as well as scientifically. The paper provides a description of the balloons, the instruments and the strategy used for meeting at best the goals of the project.

  20. Flight Performance of the HEROES Solar Aspect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Rodriguez, Marcello; Gregory, Kyle; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Connor, Brian; Sobey, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Furthermore, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration in the non-flaring corona. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. The HEROES Solar Aspect System (SAS) was developed and built to provide pointing knowledge during solar observations to better than the ~20 arcsec FWHM angular resolution of the HXR instrument. The SAS consists of two separate systems: the Pitch-Yaw aspect System (PYAS) and the Roll Aspect System (RAS). The PYAS compares the position of an optical image of the Sun relative to precise fiducials to determine the pitch and yaw pointing offsets from the desired solar target. The RAS images the Earth's horizon in opposite directions simultaneously to determine the roll of the gondola. HEROES launched in September 2013 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the performance of the SAS for that flight.

  1. Design considerations &practical results with long duration systems for manned flight: cryogenic helium and superpressure balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    The paper will describe two manned flights made in polyethylene zero pressure balloons with liquid helium carried to provide all in-flight buoyancy adjustment. These balloons were of 1,600 and 8,000 cubic meter volumes. Two flights have been made, both lasting 24 hours. The first flight cruised and flew through the sunset at 18,000 feet / 5,500 meters. The second flight using a pressurized cabin included flying through the night at about 32,000 feet / 10,000 meters. These flights highlight a wide range of theoretical and practical design concerns. For a craft carrying a crew, structural integrity and manageability &control in flight are naturally important. These flights demonstrated the complete feasibility of this system which will be described in detail. In addition the author constructed a 1,600 cubic meter pumpkin balloon used for a two day fight across Australia with a crew of two. Considerable problems were discovered during construction with distortion of the balloon. Although this work was done some time ago, the results have not been published in detail. The reason for publications at this time is that the work is very relevant to the problems recently encountered with the ULDB pumpkin design. The author, who is a physicist as well as a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, was the principal desig ner as well as pilot of these craft. Ends...

  2. Private and Commercial Pilot: Free Balloon: Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide has been prepared to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the private pilot or commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air category and free balloon class rating. It contains information and guidance concerning the pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test: layout and…

  3. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Towards the First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzo, Maxime J.; Rinehart, S. A.; Dhabal, A.; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Griffin, M.; Juanola Parramon, R.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Maher, S. F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is a balloon-borne, far-infrared direct detection interferometer with a baseline of 8 m and two collectors of 50 cm. It is designed to study galactic clustered star formation by providing spatially-resolved spectroscopy of nearby star clusters. It is being assembled and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for a first flight in Fall 2016. We report on recent progress concerning the pointing control system and discuss the overall status of the project as it gets ready for its commissioning flight.

  4. The CNES Balloon collaboration on the NAL / NASDA HSFD II flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, S.; Vargas, A.; Faucon, P.; Yanagihara, M.

    The 1st of July 2003, 4 h TU, the CNES Balloon Department launched from Esrange, the SSC base near Kiruna, Sweden, the NAL/NASDA High Speed Flight Demonstration PhaseII (HSFD II) vehicle. After the ascent and a short ceiling at 23 km, the vehicle was released from the balloon and accelerated into free fall up to 0,8 Mach for its flight test. The HSFD Phase II was planned as part of the NAL/NASDA joint research for the H-II Orbiting Plane Experiment (HOPE-X) unmanned re-entry vehicle project. The purpose was to clarify the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of the HOPE-X configuration and to verify its guidance and control systems for the transonic speed region. This flight test was conducted in collaboration with the CNES Balloon Department, which was responsible for the balloon system, the launch operations, and the flight service including the site, the TM/TC system, the flight survey, the safety and the helicopter recovery after touch down. CNES has an extensive experience in engineering experiments with balloons. The HSFD flight mission was nevertheless a very unusual one, and CNES had to lead specific developments. In particular, the CNES/HSFD interface required to develop a dedicated housekeeping gondola in order to power supply the vehicle during the ground tests and the flight under the balloon. The HSFD vehicle and the CNES gondola are integrated in the flight train through a dedicated mechanical interface piece together with a dedicated release system. The launch procedures had also to be adapted.

  5. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  6. Balloons for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Vincent E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and use of scientific balloons. Topics addressed include: (1) types of balloons; (2) lifting gases; (3) polyethylene balloons; (4) duration of balloon flight; and (5) use of balloons in scientific research. (JN)

  7. Long Duration Balloon flights development. (Italian Space Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Dragoy, P.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, earth observations, near space research and commercial component testing, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78º N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennial oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultra-light payloads and TM systems ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program. This paper discusses the development of the launch facilities and international LDB development.

  8. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  9. Precooled turbojet engine flight experiment using balloon-based operation vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Sawai, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Tsuboi, N.; Taguchi, H.; Kojima, T.; Okai, K.; Sato, T.; Miyaji, Koji

    2006-07-01

    Development of the Balloon-based Operation Vehicle (BOV) is currently in progress for the first flight scheduled in 2006. In a series of BOV experiments, a vehicle in a wing-body configuration is lifted by a high-altitude balloon and dropped, after which the microgravity experiments will be performed onboard the vehicle under favor of the quasi-free-fall environments. Although the BOV is originally designed for the microgravity experiments, various types of experiments can also be performed in a hypersonic flight at lower altitudes. One candidate currently under review is a flight experiment of a precooled turbojet engine in reduced dimension. In this article, an overview of the BOV experiment is introduced, and the current development status of the BOV and a flight model of the precooled turbojet engine is presented. The aerodynamic load and the aerodynamic characteristics of the BOV are obtained by computational fluid-dynamic analyses and wind-tunnel experiments.

  10. The Sunrise balloon-borne observatory: Results from the second flight and outlook on the third flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.

    2017-08-01

    The balloon-borne solar observatory Sunrise flew for a second time in June 2013 and provided seeing-free UV images and spectropolarimetric data at close to the diffraction limit of the 1m telescope. The data analysis has so far concentrated on a time series of the heart of an active region recorded in the Stokes vector of the Fe I 525.02 nm line and a time series of UV images of the same region. First results were published in a special issue of the ApJ Supplement, vol. 229, in April 2017. The data suggest the presence of very strong fields in pores, a low-lying canopy of slender fibrils and different types of waves propagating along these fibrils. Furthermore, properties of the complex emergence of magnetic flux, of moving magnetic features around a pore and of a siphon flow along a low-lying slender magnetic loop are determined. A novel technique for inversions of Stokes profiles including constraints to make the results more physically consistent has also been developed and for the first time applied to Sunrise II data. In addition, the presence of small-scale mixed polarities and chromospheric jets was detected at the footpoints of particularly bright coronal loops. These and more results will be briefly presented. Preparations for the next flight of Sunrise have started. Many new features are being designed for this flight, which will allow it to reach considerably extended science goals. Thus it will feature two new spectropolarimeters, one exploring the near UV (from MPS), the other concentrating on chromospheric fields and their connection to the photosphere (led by NAOJ). The IMaX vector-magnetograph (provided by a Spanish consortium) will also be updated to be able to sample multiple spectral lines. Finally, Sunrise will have a new gondola (coming from APL) and an improved image stabilization system (from KIS).

  11. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Godfrey, G.; Williams, S. M.; Grove, J. E.; Mizuno, T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Kamae, T.; Ampe, J.; Briber, Stuart; Dann, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under conditions similar to those expected in orbit. Results from a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on August 4, 2001, show that the BFEM successfully obtained gamma-ray data in this high-background environment.

  12. Balloon Flight Tests of a Gas-Ionization-Chamber-Based Isotope Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Milliken, B.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution studies of the isotopic composition of heavy elements in the galactic cosmic radiation have been performed using satellites. The performance of the Tracking Heavy Isotope Spectrometer Telescopes for Low Energies (THISTLE) is investigated using data from a balloon flight carried out in 1993. The instrument design is discussed; and data, and additional analysis, is shown.

  13. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R. L.; Dunnam, F. E.; Rester, A. C.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector (GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high-altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 deg S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of Co-56 in the supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software.

  14. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  15. Polaris Experiment: Data Collected During the Stratospheric Flight on the Balloon BEXUS 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, D.; Cacco, C.; Cipriani, F.; Cocco, F.; Cortese, T.; Vecchia, R. D.; La Grassa, M.; Lora, M.; Zorzan, M.; Branz, F.; Olivieri, L.; Sansone, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    POLARIS experiment, POLymer-Actuated Radiator with Independent Surfaces, is a technology demonstrator based on a new concept of heat radiator, conceived for space and planetary applications. This innovative radiator, named “multi-plate”, is able to influence actively the heat amount dissipated towards the environment through a simple geometry change, varying its equivalent thermal resistance. In order to better understand the potentialities of this radiator concept in one of its most likely scenario of application, POLARIS flew into stratosphere on the BEXUS1 8 balloon, in the framework of the REXUS-BEXUS programme; the flight took place from the ESRANGE Space Center on October 12th, 2014. The conditions that the experiment experienced during the flight allowed to evaluate the radiator in a realistic context, giving an extraordinary opportunity to characterize its capabilities. In this paper, POLARIS architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from the stratospheric balloon flight are presented and discussed.

  16. Balloon stratospheric research flights, November 1974 to January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    These flights were designed to measure the vertical concentration profile of trace stratospheric species which form major links in the photochemical system of the upper atmosphere. An overview of the specific goals of the program, a statement of program management and support functions, a brief description of the instrumentation flown, pertinent engineering and payload operations data, and a summary of the scientific data obtained for each of the last five flights during this period are presented.

  17. Small balloon flights for investigating the impact of convective overshooting on the tropical lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Held, Gerhard

    Thunderstorm convective overshooting over tropical land can reach an altitude of 20-21 km (Pommereau et al, Cospar 2018, Id 15676). For better understanding the process and the impact on the lower stratosphere, a small balloon flight program combining frequent flights of plastic and large rubber balloons next to thunderstorms has been carried in S-E Brazil in the frame of a French TROPICO project. Given the goal flying as close as possible from thunderstorms and ATC and safety requirements at landing, a specific control procedure was developed based on C-band radar observations and use of light-weight Iridium telemetry/remote control whose data were made available in real time to ATC by Internet for following the flight. A total of 37 flights have been carried out within two 3 weeks campaigns (20 in March 2012 and 17 in February 2013) of 3-40 kg payloads, among which FLASH Lyman alpha stratospheric hygrometers, PicoSDLA water vapor, N2O and CH4 diode laser sensors and COBALD cloud and aerosols detectors, operated and recovered in safe conditions. Altogether those balloon data, complemented by a variety of ground-based measurements of cloud altitude, atmospheric optical thickness and 4 radiosondes/day, allow confirming the stronger convective intensity over land in the southern tropics. An promising approach for further investigating the possible differences with other continents, i.e. Central Africa and Northern Australia, would be to carry similar measurements from long duration circumnavigating Infra Montgolfier, when their flights will be newly authorized. Details on technical aspects, payloads and procedures applied for carrying safe balloon flights in agreement with Brazilian authorities will be presented.

  18. Recent balloon flight results concerning the galactic center 511 keV line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventhal, M.

    Results of three new balloon flights have recently become available concerning the galactic center electron-positron annihilation line at 511 keV. The groups involved were the University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hamsphire; NASA Goddard Center for Nuclear Studies, USA; CEN Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette, France; and Bell Laboratories/Sandia Laboratories, USA. In these flights a ``low'' or ``off'' state was observed in the fall of 1981. Also, new evidence for a low energy ``positronium'' - like tail on the line has been obtained from a 1977 flight. These results are reviewed.

  19. Search for gamma ray bursts with coincident balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A search was conducted for cosmic gamma ray bursts of small size and of sufficient frequency of occurrence to be detected during a one day observation program. Two similar detectors, successfully balloon-borne from launch sites in South Dakota and Texas, achieved about 20 hours of simultaneous operation at several millibars atmospheric depth, with continuous separation of over 1,500 km. Fluctuations of the counting rates of less than 150 keV photons with temporal structures from microseconds to several minutes were compared in order to detect coincident or associated responses from the two instruments. No coincident gamma-ray burst events were detected. The resulting integral size spectrum of small bursts, from this and from all other searches, remains a spectrum of upper limits, consistent with an extrapolation of the size spectrum of the largest known bursts, fitting a power low of index -1.5.

  20. Isotopic abundances of stratospheric ozone from balloon-borne high-resolution infrared solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Kosters, J. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    IR solar absorption spectra at 0.002-0.0003/cm resolution in the 10-micron region obtained during two balloon flights near 32 deg N latitude are examined to determine the isotopic ratios of (O-16)(O-16)(O-18) and (O-16)(O-18)(O-16) relative to normal ozone in the stratosphere. For November 18, 1987, the results show column-averaged isotopic enhancement ratios of 1.20 + or - 0.14 and 1.40 + or - 0.18 for (O-16)(O-18)(O-16)/(O-16)(O-16)(O-16) and (O-16)(O-16)(O-18)/(O-16)(O-16)(O-16), respectively. The corresponding values for June 6, 1988, show ratios of 1.16 + or - 0.08 and 1.25 + or - 0.12. The results are compared with heavy-to-normal O3 ratios obtained using other techniques.

  1. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew; Wolford, David; Snyder, David; Piszczor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of space photovoltaics using ground-based simulators requires primary standard cells which have been characterized in a space or near-space environment. Due to the high cost inherent in testing cells in space, most primary standards are tested on high altitude fixed wing aircraft or balloons. The ER-2 test platform is the latest system developed by the Glenn Research Center (GRC) for near-space photovoltaic characterization. This system offers several improvements over GRC's current Learjet platform including higher altitude, larger testing area, onboard spectrometers, and longer flight season. The ER-2 system was developed by GRC in cooperation with NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) as well as partners at the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory. The system was designed and built between June and September of 2014, with the integration and first flights taking place at AFRC's Palmdale facility in October of 2014. Three flights were made testing cells from GRC as well as commercial industry partners. Cell performance data was successfully collected on all three flights as well as solar spectra. The data was processed using a Langley extrapolation method, and performance results showed a less than half a percent variation between flights, and less than a percent variation from GRC's current Learjet test platform.

  2. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  3. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  4. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Martínez-Pillet, V.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.

    2010-06-01

    On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (<10-3) and a high resolution spectrograph (bandwidth <70mÅ). The magnetic vectorial map can be extracted thanks to the well-know Zeeman effect, which takes place in the solar atoms, allowing to relate polarization and spectral measurements to magnetic fields. The technological challenge of the IMaX development has a special relevance due to the utilization of innovative technologies in the Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs) as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  5. Solar Array Experiment (SAE) Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, H. C.; Young, L. E.; Turner, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    The space flight testing of a large, flat, flexible panel solar array is examined. The experiment objectives are: to demonstrate the functional operational of the wind deployment and packaging system; Electrical performance; Thermal performance; and dynamic performance. A complete description of the experiment and the flight results are given.

  6. Polarization analysis of a balloon-borne solar magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1987-01-01

    The main text of the report contains the particular results of our research which relate to the Experimental Vector Magnetograph (EXVM) and the Balloon-borne Vector Magnetograph (BVM). A brief overview of which elements in the EXVM and BVM that are relevant to this polarization analysis are presented. The possible meaning of the 10(exp -5) polarization specification for the BVM is discussed qualitatively. A recommendation of which polarization specification is most relevant for the BVM is provided. A diattenuation budget for the various surfaces in the BVM which will allow the polarization specification to be met is discussed. An explanation of the various coating specifications which are recommended is presented. Optical design of the EXVM and coating specification sheets for the BVM are presented. The appendices of this report contain the more general results of our research on the general topic of polarization aberrations. A general discussion of polarization aberration theory, in terms of the SAMEX solar magnetograph, and rigorous derivations for the Mueller matrices of optical systems are also presented in the appendices.

  7. Identification of the V3 vibration-rotation band of CF4 in balloon-borne infrared solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.; Cook, G. R.; Van Allen, J. W.; Bonomo, F. S.; Blatherwick, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared solar spectra in the 850 to 1350/cm region, at 0.02/cm resolution, were obtained during a balloon flight made on 27 October 1978 from Alamogordo, New Mexico. Analysis of the 1275-1290/cm region indicates that the atmospheric absorption lines of CH4, N2O, H2O, HNO3 and CO2 near 1283/cm are super-imposed on a broader absorption feature which we interpret as due to the V3 band of CF4. Fine structure of CF4 is also identified. Preliminary estimates from the sunset spectra show approximately 75 pptv CF4 near 25 km.

  8. Duster - in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Return: a Balloon Flight in Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Ciucci, Alessandra; de Angelis, Simone; Brunetto, Rosario; Rotundi, Alessandra; Rietmeijer, Frans Jm; Peterzen, Steven; Masi, Silvia; Bussoletti, Ezio; Brucato, John Robert; Colangeli, Luigi; Esposito, Francesca; Mazzotta Epifani, Elena; Mennella, Vito; Ibba, Roberto

    This self-contained instrument was designed to collect nanometer to micrometer scale solid and condensed-liquid aerosol particles in the upper stratosphere at about 40 km that operates in a stand-alone autonomous mode when carried aloft during long-duration stratospheric balloon flights. During its maiden flight as part of an Italian Space Agency campaign, DUSTER [0.4x0.4x0.3 m3 and weighing 30 kg] was launched from Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway) on June 2008. The autonomous instrument was in the stratosphere for 3.5 days, and collected aerosol particles at an average 37 ± 1 km altitude during a 55-hour period. With this first flight we have demonstrated that 1. The self-contained design of the instrument survives transportation and recovery, 2. The instrument performed within the design parameters of environmental specifications (-80° C; 3-10 mbar) and continuous autonomous operation in the sampling mode, 3. Inertial impact collection of aerosols ˜500nm to 150 microns on holey-carbon thin films mounted on Au mesh grids was achieved by continuous air flow through the chamber, 4. The dual-module design of an active collector exposed to the air flux was and a collector to monitor the pre-flight and flight environments within of the collector using an identical sample holder provided a `blank' internal dust environment sample, 5. Save storage of collected samples, and subsequent retrieval in the laboratory, was achieved with no measurable contamination, 6. Reduced sample manipulation allowed the chemical and structural characterization of col-lected dust particles by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyses, and infrared and Raman micro-spectroscopy. The main and most ambitious goal is the collection and characterization of solid aerosol par-ticles less then 2 microns of solar system debris, or from the interstellar medium, that are currently not sampled on a routine basis. DUSTER will provide a time-stamped record of the

  9. Solar Flight on Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, Christopher; Colozza, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Solar powered aircraft are of interest for exploring both Mars and Venus. The thin atmosphere of Mars presents a difficult environment for flying. It is clear that a new approach is needed. By making a totally solar airplane, we can eliminate many of the heavy components, and make an airplane that can fly without fuel. Using high efficiency solar cells, we can succeed with an airplane design that can fly for up to 6 hours in near-equatorial regions of Mars (4 hours of level flight, plus two hours of slow descent), and potentially fly for many days in the polar regions. By designing an airplane for a single day flight. In particular, this change means that we no longer have to cope with the weight of the energy storage system that made previous solar powered airplanes for Mars impractical). The new airplane concept is designed to fly only under the optimal conditions: near equatorial flight, at the subsolar point, near noon. We baseline an 8 kg airplane, with 2 kg margin. Science instruments will be selected with the primary criterion of low mass. Solar-powered aircraft are also quite interesting for the exploration of Venus. Venus provides several advantages for flying a solar-powered aircraft. At the top of the cloud level, the solar intensity is comparable to or greater than terrestrial solar intensities. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. The atmospheric pressure on Venus is presented. From an altitude of approximately 45 km (pressure = 2 bar), to approximately 60 km (pressure = 0.2 bar), terrestrial airplane experience can be easily applied to a Venus airplane design. At these flight altitudes, the temperature varies from 80 C at 45 km, decreasing to -35 C at 60 km. Also, the slow rotation of Venus allows an airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight, eliminating the need for energy storage for nighttime flight. These factors make Venus a prime choice for a long-duration solar-powered aircraft

  10. Photometric and spectroscopic gamma-ray observations of solar transient phenomena using long duration balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelling, M. R.; Duttweiler, F.; Lin, R. F.; Levedahl, W. K.; Primbach, H.; Curtis, D. W.; Burley, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A program currently in progress to conduct extended duration spectroscopic and photometric observation of solar X-ray phenomena from balloons is described. High photometric sensitivity to weak hard X-ray bursts is attained using a 600 sq cm array of phoswich scintillators. High spectral resolution for stronger bursts is available from an array of planar germanium detectors. These instruments are carried in a novel balloon gondola dssigned for the 15 to 20 day float durations available through using conventional zero pressure balloons in the radiation controlled (RACOON) mode.

  11. Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Frederick F.

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

  12. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-3, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-3 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anaomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  13. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-2, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-2 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  14. GRAINE 2011 balloon-borne experiment: flight data analysis and detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki

    2012-07-01

    Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE) is the balloon-born experiment project to observe gamma-ray sources precisely in the 10MeV-100GeV region. A new generation detector "emulsion gamma-ray telescope" has one order higher angular resolution compared with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. As the first step in GRAINE, a technical flight was performed by employing a small-scale prototype (125 cm ^{2} aperture). On June 8, 2011, the balloon was launched from Taiki Aerospace Research Field and realized the level flight at the altitude of 34.8 km for 1.5 hours. Tracks recorded in emulsion chambers were read by the fully automated scanning system and gamma-ray events in field of view in 2.2 sr were reconstructed. Event time stamps were done by "multi-stage shifter" mechanism, which gives sub-second time resolution to tracks using their position displacements caused by shifting multiple chambers during the flight. As an initial result, we succeeded in pointing gamma-ray directions on celestial coordinates, and demonstrated feasibility of each component of the detector for future experiments with larger apertures.

  15. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight - the StratEx Program.

    PubMed

    Menon, Anil S; Jourdan, David; Nusbaum, Derek M; Garbino, Alejandro; Buckland, Daniel M; Norton, Sean; Clark, Johnathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2016-10-01

    The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events. Menon AS , Jourdan D , Nusbaum DM , Garbino A , Buckland DM , Norton S , Clark JB , Antonsen EL . Crew recovery and contingency planning for a manned

  16. Balloon-Borne, High Altitude Gravimetry: The Flight of DUCKY II (October 1985)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-28

    largely unpredictable environment, where little, if any gound truth"adta are available. The motions-of the balloon must be very accurately accounted for in...System Description 13 2.3.1.3 Method for Frequency Counting 16 2.3.2 Motion-Sensing Instrument Package 16 2.3.2.1 Instruments 17 2.3.2.2 System Description...Gravimetry The Flight of DUCKY II (October 1985) 1. INTRODUCTION Gravity field values at high altitudes, between altitudes for aerial surveys and

  17. A balloon-borne payload for imaging hard X-rays and gamma rays from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol J.; Dennis, Brian R.; Orwig, Larry E.; Schmahl, Edward J.; Lang, Frederic L.; Starr, Richard; Norris, Jay P.; Greene, Michael E.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Johnson, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    Hard X-rays and gamma rays provide direct evidence of the roles of accelerated particles in solar flares. An approach that employs a spatial Fourier-transform technique for imaging the sources of these emissions is described, and the development of a balloon-borne imaging device based on this instrumental technique is presented. The detectors, together with the imaging optics, are sensitive to hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission in the energy-range from 20 to 700 keV. This payload, scheduled for its first flight in June 1992, will provide 11-arc second angular resolution and millisecond time resolution with a whole-sun field of view. For subsequent flights, the effective detector area can be increased by as much as a factor of four, and imaging optics with angular resolution as fine as 2 arcsec can be added to the existing gondola and metering structures.

  18. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, F.

    Scientific ballooning activity in Japan during 2001 and 2002 is presented. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched 10 balloons from Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC) located 500 km north of Tokyo in 2001. Six flights were for scientific observations, observations of high energy cosmic electrons, cryogenic sampling of the air at high altitude, an observation of atmospheric ozone distribution, an observation of hard X-ray spectra of solar flare and a sampling of microorganism in the stratosphere. Two balloons made with 3.4 micron polyethylene film, of 30,000 m^3 without exhaust tube and 1,000 m^3 with exhaust tube were successfully flown and reached at altitudes of 50.7 km and 30.8 km respectively. It has been scheduled to launch 10 balloons in 2002 to observe solar flare, NO_2 and O_3 in the atmosphere, low frequency radiation in the environment, and atmospheric ozone density and to sample the air at high altitude. International collaborative balloon observations of cosmic-rays, Galactic infrared radiation and atmospheric ozone density were successfully conducted in USA, India and Spitzbergen, respectively in 2001. Two balloons will be flown from antarctica for the observations of cosmic-ray electrons and for auroral X-rays, respectively in December of 2002.

  19. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  20. The Design and Performance of the Gondola Pointing System for the Sunrise II Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, A.; Card, G.; Knölker, M.; Hardy, B.

    With its 1m aperture, the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Solar Observatory was the largest space-based solar telescope. It was designed to study the magneto-convective processes of the sun at resolutions higher than 100km and the payload took data during a flight from June 12 to June 17, 2013. To achieve its science requirements, the telescope had to point to an accuracy of 26‧‧ for extended periods of time. Pointing of the instrument was effected by the Sunrise Pointing System (PS). The PS used measurements provided by a Lockheed Intermediate Sun Sensor (LISS) and passed the data through a cascade of up to four digital filters to calculate the best voltages to drive the azimuthal and elevation motors. All filter settings could be modified in flight to adapt to changing conditions. Using this design, the PS met its requirements, pointing the instrument with an accuracy better than 26‧‧ for 60% of the flight and for continuous time periods of up to 99min. In this paper, we detail the design and performance of the PS during the 2013 flight.

  1. Balloon for Long-Duration, High-Altitude Flight at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffrey; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Yavrouian, Andre; Fairbrother, Debora; Said, Magdi; Sandy, Chuck; Fredrickson, Thad

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a 5.5-m-diameter, helium-filled balloon designed for carrying a scientific payload having a mass of 44 kg for at least six days at an altitude of about 55 km in the atmosphere of Venus. The requirement for floating at nearly constant altitude dictates the choice of a mass-efficient spherical super-pressure balloon that tracks a constant atmospheric density. Therefore, the balloon is of a conventional spherical super-pressure type, except that it is made of materials chosen to minimize solar radiant heating and withstand the corrosive sulfuric acid aerosol of the Venusian atmosphere. The shell consists of 16 gores of a multilayer composite material. The outer layer, made of polytetrafluoroethylene, protects against sulfuric acid aerosol. Next is an aluminum layer that reflects sunlight to minimize heating, followed by an aluminized polyethylene terephthalate layer that resists permeation by helium, followed by an aromatic polyester fabric that imparts strength to withstand deployment forces and steady super-pressure. A polyurethane coat on the inner surface of the fabric facilitates sealing at gore-to-gore seams. End fittings and seals, and a tether connecting the end fittings to a gondola, are all made of sulfuric-acid-resistant materials.

  2. Solar flare gamma-ray and hard x ray imaging with the GRID-on-a-balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwig, Larry E.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, Brian R.; Starr, R.; Hurford, G. J.; Hudson, H. S.; Vanbeek, F.; Greene, M. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Norris, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    A primary scientific objective for solar flare research during the rapidly approaching maximum in solar activity is the imaging of gamma-ray and hard x ray sources of solar flare emissions. These goals will be pursued by the Gamma Ray Imaging Device (GRID) instrument, one of three instruments recently selected for NASA's Max '91 Solar Balloon Program. The GRID instrument is based on the technique of Fourier transform imaging and utilizes scanning modulation grid collimator optics to provide full-Sun imaging with 1.9-arcsecond resolution over the energy range from 20 to 700 keV at time resolutions from 0.1 to 2 s. The GRID telescope will employ 32 subcollimators, each composed of a matched pair of high-Z collimator grids separated by 5.2 meters and a phoswich scintillation spectrometer detector having no spatial resolution. The subcollimators and integrally-mounted fine aspect system are contained within a telescope canister which will be pointed to 0.1 degree accuracy and cyclically scanned to produce source modulation. The 32 subcollimators provide a uniform distribution of grid slit orientations and a logarithmic distribution of slit spacings corresponding to angular dimensions of 1.9 arcseconds to several arcminutes. The instrument is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the HXIS instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and nearly 10 times more sensitive than any similar instrument scheduled to fly during the next solar maximum. The payload, designed for long-duration high-altitude balloon capability, is scheduled for its first science flight (8 to 14 days duration) from the Antarctic in January of 1992.

  3. Preliminary Results Of the 2007 Flight of the Solar Bolometric Imager at Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, P. N.; Foukal, P. V.; Eaton, H. H.; Noble, M.

    2008-05-01

    On September 13 2007, the Solar Bolometric Imager (SBI) successfully observed the Sun for several hours while suspended from a balloon in the stratosphere above New Mexico. The SBI represents a totally new approach in finding the sources of the solar irradiance variation. The SBI detector is an array of 320x240 thermal IR elements whose spectral absorptance has been extended and flattened by a deposited layer of gold-black. The telescope is a 30-cm Dall-Kirkham with uncoated primary and secondary Pyrex mirrors. The combination of telescope and bolometric array provide an image of the Sun with a constant spectral response between ~ 280 and 2600 nm, over a field of view of 960 x 720 arcsec with a pixel size of 3 arcsec. This is the second successful flight of SBI, following a successful one on September 2003 which produced the first measurements in broad band of the center-to-limb variation of bolometric facular contrast (a flight attempt from Antarctica in 2006 was aborted). This latest flight provided bolometric (integrated light) maps of the solar photosphere during a time of minimum of solar activity. The SBI imagery will enable us to evaluate the photometric contribution of weak magnetic structures (e.g. network) more accurately than has been achievable with spectrally selective imaging over restricted wavebands. It will also enable us to investigate the presence, if any, of other thermal structures unrelated to magnetic activity, such as e.g. giant cells and pole-to-equator temperature gradients. During the 16 hour flight the SBI gathered several thousand bolometric images that are now being processed to produce full-disk maps of spatial variation in total solar output at solar minimum. The SBI flight is also providing important engineering data to validate the space worthiness of the novel gold-blackened thermal array detectors. In this paper we will briefly describe the characteristics of the SBI, its in-flight performance, and we will present the first

  4. Balloon-borne imagery of the solar granulation. II - The lifetime of solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehltretter, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Phenomenological aspects of the temporal evolution of photospheric granulation are reported as derived from time series of granulation photographs obtained during a flight of a balloon-borne telescope. The distribution of granule lifetime probabilities is determined, and it is found that the data can be represented by an exponential decrease with a 'decay constant' of 5.9 min. The general properties of granular evolution are described along with the way individual granules evolve with time. The most common type of granule is shown to be a medium-sized or small fragment, and it is suggested that all granules are produced by fragmentation of preexisting granules. The relative frequencies of granule destruction by fragmentation, fading, and merging are determined to be 51%, 21%, and 28%, respectively. An average radial velocity of 0.8 km/s is computed for conglomerates with an average diameter of 2.25 arcsec.

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Wind Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has operated a Solar Wind Facility (SWF) to provide long term particle and photon exposure to material samples. The requirements on the particle beam details were not stringent as the cumulative fluence level is the test goal. Motivated by development of the faraday cup instrument on the NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission, the MSFC SWF has been upgraded to included high fidelity particle beams providing broadbeam ions, broadbeam electrons, and narrow beam protons or ions, which cover a wide dynamic range of solar wind velocity and flux conditions. The large vacuum chamber with integrated cryo-shroud, combined with a 3-axis positioning system, provides an excellent platform for sensor development and qualification. This short paper provides some details of the SWF charged particle beams characteristics in the context of the Solar Probe Plus program requirements. Data will be presented on the flux and energy ranges as well as beam stability.

  6. Radiation measurement platform for balloon flights based on the TriTel silicon detector telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research airplanes. However the cosmic radiation field is not well known between 15 km and 30 km. Our experiment idea based on to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere. The main technical goals of our experiment were to test at first time the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope system for future ISS missons and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TriTel system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the ballon flight and to intercompare the TriTel and Pille results to provide a correction factor definition method for the Pille ISS measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TriTel silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Müller counters, Pille passive thermoluminescent dosimeters and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities and flew on board the BEXUS stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden (from ESRANGE Space Center). The float altitude was approximately 28.6 km and the total flight time was about 4 hours. The active instruments measured in real time and the ground team received the collected data continuously during the mission. The main technical goals were received since the operation of the TriTel experienced no failures and the experiment worked as it expected. This paper presents the scientific goals and results. From the TriTel measurements the deposited energy spectra, the Linear Energy Transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined for the

  7. TROPIX: A solar electric propulsion flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark; Hillard, G. Barry; Oleson, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The Transfer Orbit Plasma Interaction Experiment (TROPIX) is a proposed scientific experiment and flight demonstration of a solar electric propulsion vehicle. Its mission goals are to significantly increase our knowledge of Earth's magnetosphere and its associated plasma environment and to demonstrate an operational solar electric upper stage (SEUS) for small launch vehicles. The scientific investigations and flight demonstration technology experiments are uniquely interrelated because of the spacecraft's interaction with the surrounding environment. The data obtained will complement previous studies of the Earth's magnetosphere and space plasma environment by supplying the knowledge necessary to attain the strategic objectives of the NASA Office of Space Science. This first operational use of a primary ion propulsion vehicle, designed to withstand the harsh environments from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit, may lead to the development of a new class of electric propulsion upper stages or space-based transfer vehicles and may improve future spacecraft design and safety.

  8. Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, François; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clenet, Antoine; Derrien, Solène; Doerenbecher, Alexis; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Fontaine, Alain; Hache, Emeric; Jambert, Corinne; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurised balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport lightweight scientific payloads at isopycnic level and offer a quasi-Lagrangian sampling of the lower atmosphere over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks).

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are widely used under small sounding balloons. However, their autonomy is limited to a few hours owing to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation. An adaptation of the ECC sonde has been developed specifically for long-duration BLPB flights. Compared to conventional ECC sondes, the main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences (with possible remote control during the flight). To increase the ozonesonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min). The rest of the time, the sonde pump is turned off. Results of preliminary ground-based tests are first presented. In particular, the sonde was able to provide correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV-absorption ozone analyser every 15 min for 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched over the western Mediterranean during three summer field campaigns of the ChArMEx project (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr): TRAQA in 2012, and ADRIMED and SAFMED in 2013. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 h and covered more than 1000 km. Satisfactory data were obtained when compared to independent ozone measurements close in space and time. The quasi-Lagrangian measurements allowed a first look at ozone diurnal evolution in the marine boundary layer as well as in the lower free troposphere. During some flight segments, there was indication of photochemical ozone production in the marine boundary layer or even

  9. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J.

    1978-01-01

    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  10. The First Science Flight of the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Milliard, Bruno; Schiminovich, David; Tuttle, Sarah; Matuszewski, Matt; Rahman, Shahin; Evrard, Jean; Frank, Stephan; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Peroux, Celine

    We have completed the second flight of the path-finding experiment, the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL), designed to discover and map faint emis-sion from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The second flight was fully successful, proving a fully functional fine pointing gondola with arcsec level capability, a 1 meter diameter (fixed) parabola primary telescope with planar sidereostat for pointing, a complete closed loop guide camera and control software, and a fiber fed UV integral field spectrograph feeding a spare GALEX Near UV detector. Three scientific targets were observed, and analysis of the data shows that the instrument performed as expected. The flux measurements obtained will be compared to models for IGM emission. We discuss future modifications to the payload that will achieve a 10-to 30-fold increase in sensitivity over science flight 1. We also discuss other instrument configurations that can utilize the 1-meter UV telescope and arcsecond pointing platform, and their corresponding science objectives. FIREBALL is a collaboration of NASA, Caltech, Columbia University, CNES, and Laboratorie Astrophysique Marseille, and is sup-ported by NASA, CNES, and CNRS.

  11. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  12. Results from the First Flight of the High Energy Imaging Device (HEIDI) Balloon Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Gaither, C. C., III; Hartman, C. N.; Orwig, L. E.; Lang, F. L.; Starr, R.; Schmahl, E. J.; Greene, M. E.; Tan, H.; Hurford, G. J.; Johnson, W. N.

    1993-12-01

    Imaging solar flares in hard X rays and gamma rays is the current scientific frontier for solar flare physics. The objectives of the HEIDI Project are to develop the Fourier-transform imaging technique using rotating modulation collimators (RMCs) and to obtain hard X-ray and gamma-ray images of solar flares and non-solar, cosmic X-ray sources such as the Crab Nebula. As currently configured, the HEIDI payload has two RMCs with 25-arcsecond and 11-arcsecond angular resolution, respectively; sensitivity to photon energies as high as 700 keV; and time resolution for individual photon events of 100 microseconds. It flew for the first time on June 22, 1993, and was pointed at the Crab Nebula and at the Sun throughout the six-hour flight. The HEIDI effort is envisioned as part of a long-term growth plan in which HEIDI will serve not only as a vehicle for testing grids and associated alignment techniques being developed for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) mission, but also as a hard X-ray and gamma-ray imager, ready to fly during the next solar maximum should HESP not come to fruition. Results from the first flight and a description of plans for the future of HEIDI will be presented.

  13. Nocturnal atmospheric uv background measurements in the 300-400 nm band with baby 2001: a balloon borne experiment to flight on board of a transmediterranean balloon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarrusso, S.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Cusumano, G.; Gugliotta, G.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.; Sacco, B.

    In the framework of the EUSO project (an experiment approved by ESA to be accommodate on board of the ISS) we present a new balloon borne experimental apparatus, named BABY 2001 that is devoted to systematic and exhaustive observations of the UV nocturnal atmospheric background. The BABY 2001 experiment is foreseen to flight on the 3rd 4th week of July 2001 from the Milo-Trapani base on board of a transmediterranean balloon, looking downward from about 40 km of altitude the dark nocturnal atmosphere over the sea. The apparatus used for the BABY 2001 experiment was designed and built at the IFCAI-CNR in Palermo. The instrument is composed by 8 filtered and collimated fast photomultipliers, two of them detecting the UV light in the 300-400 nm wavelengths band and the others in the three narrow bands centered at the emission lines of the atmospheric Nitrogen molecules.

  14. Ground-based evaluation of dosimeters for NASA high-altitude balloon flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, T.; Mertens, C. J.; Lusby, T. C.; Gersey, B.; Tobiska, W. K.; Norman, R. B.; Gronoff, G. P.; Hands, A.

    2016-11-01

    Results are presented from evaluations of radiation dosimeters prior to a NASA high-altitude balloon flight, the RaD-X mission. Four radiation dosimeters were on board RaD-X: a Far West Hawk (version 3), a Teledyne dosimeter (UDOS001), a Liulin dosimeter (MDU 6SA1), and a RaySure dosimeter (version 3b). The Hawk is a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the others are solid-state Si sensors. The Hawk served as the "flight standard" and was calibrated for this mission. The Si-based dosimeters were tested to make sure they functioned properly prior to flight but were not calibrated for the radiation environment in the stratosphere. The dosimeters were exposed to 60Co gamma rays and 252Cf fission radiation (which includes both neutrons and gamma rays) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The measurement results were compared with results from standard "benchmark" measurements of the same sources and source-to-detector distances performed contemporaneously by LLNL calibration facility personnel. For 60Co gamma rays, the dosimeter-to-benchmark ratios were 0.84 ± 0.06, 1.07 ± 0.32, 1.31 ± 0.07, and 0.82 ± 0.24 for the TEPC, Teledyne, Liulin, and RaySure, respectively. For 252Cf radiation, the dosimeter-to-benchmark ratios were 0.94 ± 0.15, 0.55 ± 0.18, 0.58 ± 0.08, and 0.33 ± 0.12 for the TEPC, Teledyne, Liulin, and RaySure. Some examples of how the results were used to help interpret the flight data are also presented.

  15. Altitude-Controlled Balloons for Long-Duration Flights on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, P. B.; Nott, J.; Cutts, J. A.; Hall, J. L.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Limaye, S. S.; Baynes, K. H.; Bennett, B.; Hole, L. R.

    2014-06-01

    Balloons provide a relatively simple and well-proven platform for accessing the upper atmosphere of Venus. We analyze several types of altitude-controlled balloons and assess their suitability for an extended mission on Venus.

  16. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Data Handling Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rochester, Leon S

    2002-09-25

    The GLAST Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) represents one of 16 towers that constitute the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a high-energy (>20 MeV) gamma-ray pair-production telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006. The prototype tower consists of a Pb/Si pair-conversion tracker (TKR), a CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), an anti-coincidence detector (ACD) and an autonomous data acquisition system (DAQ). The self-triggering capabilities and performance of the detector elements have been previously characterized using positron, photon and hadron beams. External target scintillators were placed above the instrument to act as sources of hadronic showers. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the BFEM data-reduction process, from receipt of the flight data from telemetry through event reconstruction and background rejection cuts. The goals of the ground analysis presented here are to verify the functioning of the instrument and to validate the reconstruction software and the background-rejection scheme.

  17. First Flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Mock, L.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The ATILT instrument is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range -10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC was launched as a long duration test balloon flight on 12/28/00 local time from McMurdo, Antarctica. The operations preceding and during launch went very smoothly. During the first -20 hr while the instrument remained within line of sight (LOS), a full system check out was conducted, the experiment was operated in several test configurations, and all major tuning was completed. Preliminary analysis of the science data indicates that the overall detector system is functioning as expected. With our fully functioning analysis software we were able to monitor the data in nearly real time. Each event was reconstructed event-by-event to confirm the detector performance. The shower profiles indicate that the shower maximum location is deeper in the calorimeter for higher energy events, as expected. The energy spectra of protons, Helium nuclei, and "all particles" appear to follow power laws. Both the Si matrix and top scintillator layer of the charge module show clear charge separation for p and He. As the statistics increase, heavy nuclei charge separation will be evaluated. We will present preliminary results of the LOS data, as well as other data that will be available from the flight-data hard disk,

  18. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  19. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  20. Testing of Radio Communication Subsystems for the NUTS CubeSat on a Meteorological Balloon Flight from Andoya in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommer, M.; Birkeland, R.; Gjersvik, A.; Stein, T. A.; Vestnes, F.; Skagmo, J. P.; Kvamtro, K. M.; Eckholdt, F.; Alstad, T.; Grande, J.; Mathisen, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    In April 2014, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Test Satellite (NUTS) team carried out a balloon campaign at Andøya, Norway. The purpose was to test the on-board UHF and VHF radio prototypes. In accordance with the project mission goals, this campaign marked the test of the engineering model's communication subsystems. One of the mission requirements was that these systems should be as close to the final flight-model as possible. Parts of the system were built and assembled in advance at NTNU, and the final system integration was carried out at Andøya. A standard PTU probe with a GPS module transmitting the balloon's location in the UHF band was used to track the flight. The probe was mounted below the NUTS payload box. The payload radios was tracked using Yagi antennas based on the received GPS coordinates from the PTU probe. A two-way communication link was established and maintained between the balloon and the ground station. This paper will present the results from the mission as well as lessons learned related to the preparation and execution of balloon campaigns.

  1. Balloon flight background measurement with actively-shielded planar and imaging CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Narita, Tomohiko; Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Perrin, Marshall; Murray, Ruth; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from the flight of two prototype CZT detectors on a scientific balloon payload in September 2000. The first detector, referred to as CZT1, consisted of a 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm CZT crystal with a single gold planar electrode readout. This detector was shielded by a combination of a passive collimator in the front, giving a 40 degree field of view and surrounded by plastic scintillator, and a thick BGO crystal in the rear. The second detector, CZT2, comprised two 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm CZT crystals, one made of eV Products high pressure Bridgman material and the other of IMARAD horizontal Bridgman material, each fashioned with a 4 x 4 array of gold pixels on a 2.5 mm pitch. The pixellated detectors were flip-chip-mounted side by side and read out by a 32-channel ASIC. This detector was also shielded by a passive/plastic collimator in the front, but used only additional passive/plastic shielding in the rear. Both experiments were flown from Ft. Sumner, NM on September 19, 2000 on a 24 hour balloon flight. Both instruments performed well. CZT1 recorded a non-vetoed background level at 100 keV of approximately 1 x 10-3 cm-2s-1keV-1. Raising the BGO threshold from 50 keV to approximately 1 MeV produced only an 18% increase in this level. CZT2 recorded a background at 100 keV of approximately 4 times 10-3 cts cm-2s-1keV-1 in the eV Products detector and approximately 6 x 10-3 cts cm-2s-1keV-1 in the IMARAD detector, a difference possibly due to our internal background subtracting procedure. Both CZT1 and CZT2 spectra were in basic agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, though both recorded systematically higher count rates at high energy than predicted. No lines were observed, indicating that neutron capture reactions, at least those producing decay lines at a few 100 keV, are not significant components of the CZT background. Comparison of the CZT1 and CZT2 spectra indicates that passive/plastic shielding may provide adequately low background levels for

  2. High Altitude Ozone Research Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Timothy A.; Daniel, Leslie A.; Herrick, Sally C.; Rock, Stacey G.; Varias, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to create a mission model of the high altitude ozone research balloon (HAORB) several options for flight preparation, altitude control, flight termination, and payload recovery were considered. After the optimal launch date and location for two separate HAORB flights were calculated, a method for reducing the heat transfer from solar and infrared radiation was designed and analytically tested. This provided the most important advantage of the HAORB over conventional balloons, i.e., its improved flight duration. Comparisons of different parachute configurations were made, and a design best suited for the HAORB's needs was determined to provide for payload recovery after flight termination. In an effort to avoid possible payload damage, a landing system was also developed.

  3. Thin film strain transducer. [in-flight measurement of stress or strain in walls of high altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  4. Stratochip, a dual balloon high-altitude platform: controlled altitude flight experiments and potential applications in geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2014-05-01

    A high-altitude dual balloons system, the 'Stratochip', was designed at the Geological Survey of Belgium to serve as a development platform to carry measurement and earth observation equipments, in altitudes comprised between 1000 and 25000m. These working altitudes far exceed the range of current motor powered unmanned aerial vehicules, with a higher weight carrying capacity (up to 10-15kg). This platform is built around a two helium balloons configuration, than can be released one by one at a target altitude or location, allowing a partially controlled drift of the platform. Using a 'nowcasting' meteorological model, updated by flight telemetry, the predicted path can be refined live to follow and retrieve the equipment in a predicted landing area. All subsystems (balloon cut-off devices, flight controller, telemetry system) have been developed in-house. Three independent communication channels, designed to work at extremely low temperature (up to -60° C) ensure a continuous tracking until landing. A calibrated parachute is used to control the safe descent of the equipment. Several flight tests have been performed in Belgium to control the meteorological model accuracy for wind predictions (model based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data). Those tests demonstrated the capability of the platform to maintain its altitude in a predicted path, allowing using the platform for new types of atmospheric studies and affordable high-altitude remote-sensing applications (i.e. sub-meter resolution stereo imagery).

  5. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  6. Investigations To Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells In The Stratosphere Using Low-Cost Balloon And Communication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, Glenroy A.; Wang, Qianghua; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of current balloon, control and communication technologies to test multi-junction solar sell in the stratosphere to achieve near AMO conditions have been investigated. The design criteria for the technologies are that they be reliable, low cost and readily available. Progress is reported on a program to design, launch, fly and retrieve payloads dedicated to testing multi-junction solar cells.

  7. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  8. Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettanini, C.

    A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

  9. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. L.

    2015-04-01

    A novel balloon concept is demonstrated that uses mechanical compression as altitude control mechanism to sustain long duration balloon probe flight in the cloud level region of Venus’ atmosphere between 45 and 58 km altitude.

  10. Ultra high resolution images of the solar chromosphere and corona using coordinated rocket and balloon observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the scientific objectives that can be pursued by simultaneous coronal/chromospheric observation with the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), and a new balloon-borne observatory called the Ultra-High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroheliograph (UHRVS). Attention is given to the proposed UHRVS observatory, which will incorporate two instruments, a 65-cm aperture telescope with narrowband filters for high resolution photographic and photoelectric spectroheliograms, and a very high resolution spectrograph which uses a 40-cm aperture telescope. The capabilities of the MSSTA, and the joint UHRVS/MSSTA observing program that is envisioned are reviewed.

  11. Ultra high resolution images of the solar chromosphere and corona using coordinated rocket and balloon observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the scientific objectives that can be pursued by simultaneous coronal/chromospheric observation with the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), and a new balloon-borne observatory called the Ultra-High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroheliograph (UHRVS). Attention is given to the proposed UHRVS observatory, which will incorporate two instruments, a 65-cm aperture telescope with narrowband filters for high resolution photographic and photoelectric spectroheliograms, and a very high resolution spectrograph which uses a 40-cm aperture telescope. The capabilities of the MSSTA, and the joint UHRVS/MSSTA observing program that is envisioned are reviewed.

  12. Long duration flights of stratospheric balloons in the frame of the Taranis project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Catoire, Valery; Huret, Nathalie

    The satellite instrument TARANIS will be dedicated to the study of the Transient Luminous Events (TLE) above storms, and of the energy transfers between the Earth atmosphere and space. Such phenomena can affect the atmospheric chemistry. Stratospheric balloon instruments can be used for the detection of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen chemistry perturbations induced by these high energy phenomena. Obviously, it is difficult to know in advance when such phenomena can occur and then to be ready for opportune launching of a stratospheric balloon. Then, we propose to use long duration balloons that can reside in the lower and middle stratosphere for more than one week. Open stratospheric balloons could be used for such purpose. Some tests have shown that these balloons could stay several days in the middle stratosphere (around an altitude of 30 km) and can carry heavy gondolas, typically up to 200 kg. Such balloon can flown over large storms and cloud expanses without any risk. In the frame of the TARANIS project, we propose to use such balloons with gondolas carrying different kinds of instruments. Ozone and NO2 measurements can be conducted using remote sensing techniques, using Moon and Sun as light source (SALOMON-type instrument). The integrated path length of the measurements is between tens and few hundreds of km. Following the motion of the balloon (carried by winds) and the motion of the Moon and Sun, a part of the stratosphere above the balloon float motion can be sampled. On the other hand, the estimation of the position of the NO2 enhancements cannot be accurately determined. The second technique involves in situ measurements (SPIRIT-type instrument). In this case, the location of the enhancements can be accurately determined, as well as the absolute values of the species concentrations. On the other hand, the probability of detection is smaller than with remote sensing techniques. Finally, instruments dedicated to the detection of atmospheric "terrestrial

  13. The Wave-Front Correction System for the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Soltau, D.; Bell, A.; Doerr, H. P.; Feger, B.; Friedlein, R.; Gerber, K.; Heidecke, F.; Kentischer, T.; v. D. Lühe, O.; Sigwarth, M.; Wälde, E.; Barthol, P.; Deutsch, W.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Grauf, B.; Meller, R.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.; Knölker, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S. K.; Title, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the wave-front correction system developed for the Sunrise balloon telescope, and it provides information about its in-flight performance. For the correction of low-order aberrations, a Correlating Wave-Front Sensor (CWS) was used. It consisted of a six-element Shack - Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS), a fast tip-tilt mirror for the compensation of image motion, and an active telescope secondary mirror for focus correction. The CWS delivered a stabilized image with a precision of 0.04 arcsec (rms), whenever the coarse pointing was better than ± 45 arcsec peak-to-peak. The automatic focus adjustment maintained a focus stability of 0.01 waves in the focal plane of the CWS. During the 5.5 day flight, good image quality and stability were achieved during 33 hours, containing 45 sequences, which lasted between 10 and 45 min.

  14. Recent and future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    2012-07-01

    PlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter located in northern country-regionplaceSweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have an unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern country-regionplaceCanada. The Swedish and Russian Governments have signed an agreement for peaceful exploration of space on 19 March 2010, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we are able to offer the science community long duration balloon flights in the Northern Hemisphere with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at placePlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern country-regionplaceSweden. We have also received requests from placePlaceNameJapanese PlaceTypeUniversities and JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall was ready for use in April 2011. Circumpolar balloon flights from PlaceNameplaceEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are possible due to the specific conditions during the Arctic summer with continuous daylight and nearly constant solar heating keeping the balloon at a constant altitude with a minimum of ballast. In total 10 payloads have been flying for 4 to 5 days from Esrange westwards with landing in northern Canada since 2005. The SUNRISE balloon borne solar telescope is one example which made in June metricconverterProductID2009 a2009 a more than 4 days semi-circular balloon flight from Esrange. The CitySunrise project is a collaborative project between the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Katlenburg-Lindau and

  15. Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL)-2: Flight Test of Next Generation UV Detector and Spectrograph (Co-I Proposal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiminovich, David

    Columbia University is a Co-I institution in a collaborative research program with Caltech, the Lead Institution (PI: Christopher Martin). We have developed and successfully flown a path-finding experiment, the Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL), designed to discover and map faint emission from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). Our successful science flight in June 2009, proved every aspect of the complex instrument performance, and provided the strongest measurements and constraints on IGM emission available from any instrument. We are preparing a significantly upgraded experiment, FIREBALL-2, for launch in Fall 2015 at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. We have made progress in spectrograph, detector, and payload design and development. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and gondola flight support team. Because of a CNES balloon mishap and funding constraints, support for a FIREBALL launch was delayed from Fall 2013 to Fall 2015. We propose 18 months of bridge funding to support the FIREBALL team that includes one woman Ph.D. student at Columbia University. FIREBALL directly supports NASA Science Plan Objectives to "Understand the many phenomena and processes associated with galaxy, stellar, and planetary system formation and evolution from the earliest epochs to today." FIREBALL directly addresses four Core Science Questions from the Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (New Worlds New Horizons). FIREBALL provides flight and science testing of new UV technologies directly called out by NWNH as high priority for the next decade as a precursor to a 4-m class UV/optical future mission.

  16. Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL)-2: Flight Test of Next Generation UV Detector and Spectrograph (Lead Institution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher

    We have developed and successfully flown a path-finding experiment, for which this is the lead proposal, the Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL), designed to discover and map faint emission from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). Our successful science flight in June 2009, proved every aspect of the complex instrument performance, and provided the strongest measurements and constraints on IGM emission available from any instrument. We are preparing a significantly upgraded experiment, FIREBALL-2, for launch in Fall 2015 at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. We have made progress in spectrograph, detector, and payload design and development. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and gondola flight support team. Because of a CNES balloon mishap and funding constraints, support for a FIREBALL launch was delayed from Fall 2013 to Fall 2015. We propose 18 months of bridge funding to support the FIREBALL team that includes two female graduate students and one female Post Doctoral scholar (separately supported by NSF and Caltech Millikan Fellowships). FIREBALL directly supports NASA Science Plan Objectives to "Understand the many phenom-ena and processes associated with galaxy, stellar, and planetary system formation and evolution from the earliest epochs to today." FIREBALL directly addresses four Core Science Questions from the Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (New Worlds New Horizons). FIREBALL provides flight and science testing of new UV technologies directly called out by NWNH as high priority for the next decade as a precursor to a 4-m class UV/optical future mission.

  17. Feasibility study of a long duration balloon flight with NASA/GSFC and Soviet Space Agency Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, William E.; Knoll, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    A feasibility study of conducting a joint NASA/GSFC and Soviet Space Agency long duration balloon flight at the Antarctic in Jan. 1993 is reported. The objective of the mission is the verification and calibration of gamma ray and neutron remote sensing instruments which can be used to obtain geochemical maps of the surface of planetary bodies. The gamma ray instruments in question are the GRAD and the Soviet Phobos prototype. The neutron detectors are supplied by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Soviet Phobos prototype. These are to be carried aboard a gondola that supplies the data and supplies the power for the period of up to two weeks.

  18. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  19. Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra from the Bess-Polar Long-Duration Balloon Flights Over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in December 2004 and December 2007, at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei 0.15-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.1-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 GV to 160 GV and compare to ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  20. Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra from the BESS-Polar Long-duration Balloon Flights over Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Mitchell, J. W.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    2016-05-01

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in 2004 December and 2007 December at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei in the range 0.15-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic-rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.1-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 to 160 GV and compare this to the ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  1. Solar Wind Driven Magnetotail Ballooning-interchange Evolves to Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Theory and 3D simulations for the mid-tail dynamics showing a proposed solution to the 3-minute problem are presented motivated by the CLUSTER and THEMIS substorm data [ Nakamura et al. 2006]. The model shows that the ballooning-interchange starts the dynamics and then after a suitably long period of minutes in the nonlinear state there is a change in structure to that of magnetic reconnections. While these two eigenmodes have opposite symmetries in the classic symmetric geotail geometry [Prichett-Coroniti-Pellat (1997)], the symmetry is broken for typical solar winds on to a tilted Earth magnetic dipole. The model includes distinct north IN(t) and south IS(t) magnetopause closing currents with corresponding N-S magnetopause boundary conditions. Small asymmetric perturbations are sufficient in the quasi-stationary nonlinear state of the ballooning interchange dynamics to have the structures evolve into fast magnetic reconnection events. The classic measure of interchange called delta-prime is stable during this simuations. The nonlinear growth rates are obtained with nonlinear FLR-fluid two component fluid simulations. When the mid-tail Bz (x,z,t) structure is such as to give the fast ballooning-interchange instability we show that in the nonlinear stage the dynamics changes the structure producing magnetic islands of the scale observed in the CLUSTER substorm data. We conclude that asymmetric geotail models give more reliable forecasting of the onset of subtorms. We discuss the effect of the dynamics on magnetospheric structures as they propagate to the inner magnetospheric-tail boundary layer.

  2. "SP.ACE" 2013-2015: ASGARD Balloon and BIFROST Parabolic Flights: Latest Developments in Hands-On Space Education Projects for Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schrijver, E.; Chameleva, H.; Degroote, C.; D'Haese, Z.; Paice, C.; Plas, H.; Van den Bossche, A.; Vander Donckt, L.; Vander Vost, J.

    2015-09-01

    Flight opportunities on high-altitude ASGARD balloons offered to secondary schools worldwide since 20 1 1 have led to an ever more rapidly increasing number of project proposals. The introduction of beginners' and ‘advanced classes of experiments is hoped to draw in even larger numbers of interested school teams. Furthermore, and in cooperation with ESERO (European Space Education Resources Office), workshops and documentation are being prepared to introduce teachers and students alike to the world of microcontrollers and sensors. A student parabolic flight programme called BIFROST (Brussels' Initiative to provide Flight Research Opportunities to STudents) was initiated to meet the rising demand for hands-on space education projects and the desire to cover the widest possible range of scientific and/or technical domains, which essentially calls for a variety of flight platforms: cansats, balloons and parabolic flight.

  3. A verified technique for calibrating space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Solar cells have been flown on high-altitude balloons for over 24 years, to produce solar cell standards that can be used to set the intensity of solar simulators. The events of a typical balloon calibration flight are reported. These are: the preflight events, including the preflight cell measurements and the assembly of the flight cells onto the solar tracker; the activities at the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas, including the preflight calibrations, the mating of the tracker and cells onto the balloon, preparations for launch, and the launch; the payload recovery, which includes tracking the balloon by aircraft, terminating the flight, and retrieving the payload. In 1985, the cells flow on the balloon were also flown on a shuttle flight and measured independently. The two measurement methods are compared and shown to agree within 1 percent.

  4. Balloon observations of the F-corona at the 1983 total solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, S.; Tanabe, H.; Hirayama, T.; Koma, Y.; Soegijo, J.

    A balloon observation of the F-corona in visual and infrared regions was carried out by Japanese and Indonesian teams at the total solar eclipse on June 11, 1983, in Java, Indonesia. For the visual observation, a SIT television camera, with 4 interference filters (5300 Å, 6000 Å, 7200 Å and 8000 Å) and a 45°-step rotating polarizer, was used. The camera measured brightness distributions in a sky area of 5°×5° centered at the eclipsed sun at each polarizer position for each filter. In this paper, a part of results, which are the brightness and polarization distributions in a half area of the 6000 Å picture, is shown.

  5. Solar flare and pulsar detection with small balloon borne scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-07-01

    We present radiation measurement data from the Sun and the Crab Pulsar using a very light weight payload comprising a scintillator detector from one of the ongoing missions carried out by Indian Centre for Space Physics, India. This is a unique observation in the sense that the payload containing the detector unit was carried off above the Earth atmosphere using small weather balloons in a very cost effective way and with severe weight constraints. In this Mission we have been able to observe two consecutive solar flares and radiation from the Crab pulsar when the payload was under 30 km altitude. We present a brief description of the mission strategy and the temporal and spectral analysis of the data from those sources.

  6. Construction and testing of a pixellated CZT detector and shield for a hard x-ray astronomy balloon flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Narita, Tomohiko; Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2000-12-01

    We report on the construction and laboratory testing of pixellated CZT detectors mounted in a flip-chip, tiled fashion and read out by an ASIC, as required for proposed hard X-ray astronomy missions. Two 10 mm X 10 mm X 5 mm detectors were fabricated, one out of standard eV Products high-pressure Bridgman CZT and one out of IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT. Each was fashioned with a 4 X 4 array of gold pixels on 2.5 mm pitch with a surrounding guard ring. The detectors were mounted side by side on a carrier card, such that the pixel pitch was preserved, and read out by a 32-channel VA-TA ASIC from IDE AS Corp. controlled by a PC/104 single-board computer. A passive shield/collimator surrounded by plastic scintillator encloses the detectors on five sides and provides an approximately 40 degree field of view. Thus this experiment tests key techniques required for future hard X-ray survey instruments. The experiment was taken to Ft. Sumner, NM in May 2000 in preparation for a scientific balloon flight aboard the joint Harvard-MSFC EXITE2/HERO payload. Although we did not receive a flight opportunity, and are currently scheduled to fly in September 2000, we present our calibration data in the flight configuration together with data analysis techniques and simulations of the expected flight background spectrum.

  7. Flight attendant radiation dose from solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeri L; Mertens, Christopher J; Grajewski, Barbara; Luo, Lian; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T

    2014-08-01

    Research has suggested that work as a flight attendant may be related to increased risk for reproductive health effects. Air cabin exposures that may influence reproductive health include radiation dose from galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events. This paper describes the assessment of radiation dose accrued during solar particle events as part of a reproductive health study of flight attendants. Solar storm data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Weather Prediction Center list of solar proton events affecting the Earth environment to ascertain storms relevant to the two study periods (1992-1996 and 1999-2001). Radiation dose from exposure to solar energetic particles was estimated using the NAIRAS model in conjunction with galactic cosmic radiation dose calculated using the CARI-6P computer program. Seven solar particle events were determined to have potential for significant radiation exposure, two in the first study period and five in the second study period, and over-lapped with 24,807 flight segments. Absorbed (and effective) flight segment doses averaged 6.5 μGy (18 μSv) and 3.1 μGy (8.3 μSv) for the first and second study periods, respectively. Maximum doses were as high as 440 μGy (1.2 mSv) and 20 flight segments had doses greater than 190 μGy (0.5 mSv). During solar particle events, a pregnant flight attendant could potentially exceed the equivalent dose limit to the conceptus of 0.5 mSv in a month recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  8. [Solar cosmic radiation and the radiation hazard of space flight].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, L I

    1983-01-01

    Present-day data on the spectrum of solar radiation in the source and near the Earth are discussed as applied to the radiation safety of crewmembers and electronics onboard manned and unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the slope of the solar radiation spectrum changes (flattens) in the low energy range. Quantitative information about absolute solar radiation fluxes near the Earth is summarized in relation to the most significant flares of 1956--1978. The time-related evolution of the solar radiation spectrum in the interplanetary space is described in quantitative terms (as illustrated by the solar flare of 28 September 1961). It is indicated that the nonmonotonic energy dependence of the transport path of solar radiation in the interplanetary space should be taken into consideration. It is demonstrated that the diffusion model of propagation can be verified using solar radiation measurements in space flights.

  9. A balloon strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a unique strain measuring device which is intended to monitor the state of strain in thin balloon films during flight. The gate is bonded directly to the film without significantly altering the state of strain or stress in the wall of the balloon. Results of a model balloon inflation are presented which indicate the gage to measure strain in a deployed balloon.

  10. NASA Scientific Balloon in Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image captured December 25, 2011 A NASA scientific balloon awaits launch in McMurdo, Antarctica. The balloon, carrying Indiana University's Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST), was launched on December 25. After a circum-navigational flight around the South Pole, the payload landed on January 5. The CREST payload is one of two scheduled as part of this seasons' annual NASA Antarctic balloon Campaign which is conducted in cooperation with the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs. The campaign's second payload is the University of Arizona's Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO). You can follow the flights at the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's web site at www.csbf.nasa.gov/antarctica/ice.htm Credit: NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Summary of results from solar monitoring rocket flights

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.H.

    1981-12-01

    Three rocket flights to measure the solar constant and provide calibration data for sensors aboard Nimbus 6, 7, and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were accomplished. The values obtained by the rocket instruments for the solar constant in SI units are: 1367 w/sq m on 29 June 1976; 1372 w/sq m on 16 November 1978; and 1374 w/sq m on 22 May 1980. The uncertainty of the rocket measurements is +- 0.5%. The values obtained by the Hickey-Frieden sensor on Nimbus 7 during the second and third flights was 1376 w/sq m. The value obtained by the Active Cavity Radiometer Model IV (ACR IV) on SMM during the flight was 1368 w/sq m.

  12. Unmanned powered balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    In the late 1960's several governmental agencies sponsored efforts to develop unmanned, powered balloon systems for scientific experimentation and military operations. Some of the programs resulted in hardware and limited flight tests; others, to date, have not progressed beyond the paper study stage. Balloon system designs, materials, propulsion units and capabilities are briefly described, and critical problem areas are pointed out which require further study in order to achieve operational powered balloon systems capable of long duration flight at high altitudes.

  13. A mercuric iodide detector system for X-ray astronomy. II - Results from flight tests of a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ricker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    To establish the expected sensitivity of a new hard X-ray telescope design, described by Ricker et al., an experiment was conducted to measure the background counting rate at balloon altitudes (40 km) of mercuric iodide, a room temperature solid state X-ray detector. The prototype detector consisted of two thin mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors surrounded by a large bismuth germanate scintillator operated in anticoincidence. The bismuth germanate shield vetoed most of the background counting rate induced by atmospheric gamma-rays, neutrons and cosmic rays. A balloon-borne gondola containing a prototype detector assembly was designed, constructed and flown twice in the spring of 1982 from Palestine, TX. The second flight of this instrument established a differential background counting rate of 4.2 + or - 0.7 x 10 to the -5th counts/s sq cm keV over the energy range of 40-80 keV. This measurement was within 50 percent of the predicted value. The measured rate is about 5 times lower than previously achieved in shielded NaI/CsI or Ge systems operating in the same energy range.

  14. A mercuric iodide detector system for X-ray astronomy. II - Results from flight tests of a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ricker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    To establish the expected sensitivity of a new hard X-ray telescope design, described by Ricker et al., an experiment was conducted to measure the background counting rate at balloon altitudes (40 km) of mercuric iodide, a room temperature solid state X-ray detector. The prototype detector consisted of two thin mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors surrounded by a large bismuth germanate scintillator operated in anticoincidence. The bismuth germanate shield vetoed most of the background counting rate induced by atmospheric gamma-rays, neutrons and cosmic rays. A balloon-borne gondola containing a prototype detector assembly was designed, constructed and flown twice in the spring of 1982 from Palestine, TX. The second flight of this instrument established a differential background counting rate of 4.2 + or - 0.7 x 10 to the -5th counts/s sq cm keV over the energy range of 40-80 keV. This measurement was within 50 percent of the predicted value. The measured rate is about 5 times lower than previously achieved in shielded NaI/CsI or Ge systems operating in the same energy range.

  15. A mercuric detector system for X-ray astronomy. 2. Results from flight tests of a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ricker, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    To establish the expected sensitivity of a new hard X-ray telescope design, an experiment was conducted to measure the background counting rate at balloon altitudes (40 km) of mercuric iodide, a room temperature solid state X-ray detector. The prototype detector consisted of two thin mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors surrounded by a large bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) scintillator operated in anticoincidence. The bismuth germanate shield vetoed most of the background counting rate induced by atmospheric gamma-rays, neutrons and cosmic rays. A balloon-borne gondola containing a prototype detector assembly was designed, constructed and flown twice in the spring of 1982 from Palestine, Texas. The second flight of this instrument established a differential background counting rate of 4.2 O.7 x 10-5 counts/sec cm keV over the energy range of 40 to 80 keV. This measurement was within 50% of the predicted value. The measured rate is approx 5 times lower than previously achieved in shielded NaI/CsI or Ge systems operating in the same energy range. The prediction was based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the detector assembly in the radiation environment at float altitude.

  16. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Learned, J. G.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  17. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James L.

    In order to understand the state of stress in scientific balloons, a need exists for the measurement of film deformation in flight. The results of a flight test program are reported where material strain was measured for the first time during the inflation, launch, ascent and float of a typical natural shape, zero pressure scientific balloon.

  18. Effects of space balloon flights on reproductive activity in Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Planel, H; Soleilhavoup, J P; Croute, F

    1975-01-01

    Post autogamous Paramecium aurelia cultures were placed in hermetic containers, including a heating device with accuracy kept around +/- 0.1 degrees C. Kinetics of cellular growth was determined by cell count, after recovery, on in-flight cultures and ground control cultures. Dosimetry was performed by thermoluminescent detectors (CaSO4 activated with dysprosium). Flight durations of maximum altitude (ceiling) ranged between 48 min and 15 hours (repeated flights). Conclusions are as follows: short flights result in a secondary stimulating effect, shown by post-flight increase of the growth rate (total dose above 2 mrads); long flights or repeated flights are accompanied by a decrease in growth rate (total dose ranging from 2 to 6 mrads); in the stimulation experiments, cell counts performed immediately after flight permit identification of a temporary decrease of growth rate. The biphasic character of the biological response after flights may be due to an ionization phenomena induced by cosmic rays. Indeed, the temporary drop of growth rate is not observed after recovery if the cells are subcultured in fresh medium and left on the earth's surface. We observe, on the contrary, an increase in growth rate. These findings confirm the great sensitivity of Paramecium aurelia to very low doses of ionizing radiations and demonstrate the biological effect of cosmic radiation.

  19. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Lind, J.; Strömberg, J.-E.; Welin, O.; Iyudin, A.; Shifrin, D.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.

  20. Recent results in the NASA research balloon program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Balloon Program has progressed from a total hiatus in the fall of 1985 to an unprecedented flight success rate in the fall of 1988. Using heavy-lift balloons being regularly supplied by two manufacturers, the program has provided a timely response for investigations of Supernova 1987A from Australia, low energy cosmic ray investigations from Canada during periods of near-solar-minimum, and routine domestic turnaround flights for a variety of investigations. Recent re-evaluation of balloon flight-safety have resulted in severe constraints on flights launched from the Palestine, Texas facility. The future program must rely heavily on the use of remote launch sites to meet the growing requirements for more frequent and longer duration flights being planned for the next 3 - 5 years.

  1. Thin film strain transducer. [suitable for in-flight measurement of scientific balloon strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making same is disclosed wherein a beryllium-copper ring having four strain gages disposed thereon is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of the ring and providing an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A figure is provided which illustrates a pattern of a one-half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium-copper for chem-mill etch formation, prior to bending and welding of a pair of the segments to form a ring structure.

  2. Balloon Program Wraps up in Antarctica, Heading to New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Pressure Balloon,” said Debbie Fairbrother, NASA’s Balloon Program Office Chief. Most scientific balloons see altitude variances based on temperature changes in the atmosphere at night and during the day. The SPB is capable of missions on the order of 100 days or more at constant float altitudes due to the pressurization of the balloon. “Stable, long-duration flights at near-space altitudes above more than 99 percent of the atmosphere are highly desirable in the science community, and we’re ready to deliver,” said Fairbrother. In addition to the SPB flight in March, the Balloon Program Office has 10 more balloon missions planned through September 2015 to include scheduled test flights of the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator, which is testing new technologies for landing larger, heavier payloads on Mars. NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility manages the agency’s Scientific Balloon Program with 10 to 15 flights each year from launch sites worldwide. The balloons are massive in volume; the average-sized balloon could hold the volume of nearly 200 blimps. Previous work on balloons have contributed to confirming the Big Bang Theory. For more information on NASA’s Scientific Balloon Program, see: sites.wff.nasa.gov/code820/index.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. NASA Balloon Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program s technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, balloon-craft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  4. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  5. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  6. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  7. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  8. Planetary atmospheres minor species sensor balloon flight test to near space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, Robert E.; Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Muraviev, Andrei V.; Maukonen, Douglas; Quddusi, Hajrah M.; Calhoun, Seth; Colwell, Joshua E.; Lachenmeier, Timothy A.; Dewey, Russell G.; Stern, Alan; Padilla, Sebastian; Bode, Rolfe

    2015-05-01

    The Planetary Atmospheres Minor Species Sensor (PAMSS) is an intracavity laser absorption spectrometer that uses a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in an open external cavity for sensing ultra-trace gases with parts-per-billion sensitivity. PAMSS was flown on a balloon by Near Space Corporation from Madras OR to 30 km on 17 July 2014. Based on lessons learned, it was modified and was flown a second time to 32 km by World View Enterprises from Pinal AirPark AZ on 8 March 2015. Successes included continuous operation and survival of software, electronics, optics, and optical alignment during extreme conditions and a rough landing. Operation of PAMSS in the relevant environment of near space has significantly elevated its Technical Readiness Level for trace-gas sensing with potential for planetary and atmospheric science in harsh environments.

  9. Measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters and ELF electromagnetic emissions during a meteorological balloon flight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Robert; Dujany, Matthieu; Berthomieu, Roland; Boissier, Mathilde; Bruneel, Pierre; Fischer, Lucie; Focillon, William; Gullo, Robin; Hubert, Valentin; Lafforgue, Gaétan; Loe-Mie, Marichka; Messager, Adrien; Roy, Felix; Auvray, Gérard; Bertrand, Fabrice; Coulomb, Romain; Deprez, Gregoire; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of electric field and atmospheric conductivity were performed onboard a small payload flown under a meteorological balloon during a fair weather period. This experiment is part of a project to study thunderstorms and TLE organized in the frame of the engineering cursus at Ecole Polytechnique. The payload is equipped with 4 electrodes to measure the 3 components of the DC and AC electric fields up to 3.2 kHz. Dedicated sequences of operation, when one electrode is operated in the relaxation mode, have been used to determine the positive and negative electrical conductivities. Altitude profiles of the DC vertical electric field and conductivities in agreement with expected fair weather parameters were obtained from ~ 3.5 to ~ 13 km before the failure of a battery. At an altitude of ~ 9 km slight disturbances in the electric field suggest the traversal of thin clouds with disturbed electrical characteristics. Schumann resonances were observed up to the fifth harmonics at levels that are typical of a quiet period over Europe with most thunderstorms located over remote longitudinal sectors. EM waves due the power lines at 50Hz are detected during the whole measuring period and their altitude and horizontal variations will be presented as a function of the position of the balloon over the ground power network. A surprising and interesting observation was made of a Russian transmitter at 82 Hz located in Murmansk region and used for sub-marine communications. We shall present an initial analysis of the amplitude and polarization of the corresponding signal.

  10. The Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator: Flight and Post-Flight Conditions and Modeling of Instrumental Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Olinger, Chad; Wurz, Peter; Heber, Veronika S.; Burnett, Donald S.

    2013-06-01

    The Genesis mission Solar Wind Concentrator was built to enhance fluences of solar wind by an average of 20x over the 2.3 years that the mission exposed substrates to the solar wind. The Concentrator targets survived the hard landing upon return to Earth and were used to determine the isotopic composition of solar-wind—and hence solar—oxygen and nitrogen. Here we report on the flight operation of the instrument and on simulations of its performance. Concentration and fractionation patterns obtained from simulations are given for He, Li, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Ar in SiC targets, and are compared with measured concentrations and isotope ratios for the noble gases. Carbon is also modeled for a Si target. Predicted differences in instrumental fractionation between elements are discussed. Additionally, as the Concentrator was designed only for ions ≤22 AMU, implications of analyzing elements as heavy as argon are discussed. Post-flight simulations of instrumental fractionation as a function of radial position on the targets incorporate solar-wind velocity and angular distributions measured in flight, and predict fractionation patterns for various elements and isotopes of interest. A tighter angular distribution, mostly due to better spacecraft spin stability than assumed in pre-flight modeling, results in a steeper isotopic fractionation gradient between the center and the perimeter of the targets. Using the distribution of solar-wind velocities encountered during flight, which are higher than those used in pre-flight modeling, results in elemental abundance patterns slightly less peaked at the center. Mean fractionations trend with atomic mass, with differences relative to the measured isotopes of neon of +4.1±0.9 ‰/amu for Li, between -0.4 and +2.8 ‰/amu for C, +1.9±0.7‰/amu for N, +1.3±0.4 ‰/amu for O, -7.5±0.4 ‰/amu for Mg, -8.9±0.6 ‰/amu for Si, and -22.0±0.7 ‰/amu for S (uncertainties reflect Monte Carlo statistics). The slopes of the

  11. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  12. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  13. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the results of a flight test program in which scientific research balloon material strain was measured in order to determine stress levels. Attention is given to material strain characteristics during the inflation, launch, ascent, and flight of a natural shape, zero-pressure scientific balloon. Measurements were conducted with a simple thin film strain transducer. Thermal, meridional and circumferential strain history data for the test flight are given.

  14. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  15. Cosmic-Ray Background Flux Model based on a Gamma-Ray Large-Area Space Telescope Balloon Flight Engineering Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T

    2004-09-03

    Cosmic-ray background fluxes were modeled based on existing measurements and theories and are presented here. The model, originally developed for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Experiment, covers the entire solid angle (4{pi} sr), the sensitive energy range of the instrument ({approx} 10 MeV to 100 GeV) and abundant components (proton, alpha, e{sup -}, e{sup +}, {mu}{sup -}, {mu}{sup +} and gamma). It is expressed in analytic functions in which modulations due to the solar activity and the Earth geomagnetism are parameterized. Although the model is intended to be used primarily for the GLAST Balloon Experiment, model functions in low-Earth orbit are also presented and can be used for other high energy astrophysical missions. The model has been validated via comparison with the data of the GLAST Balloon Experiment.

  16. Early results of the ATS-6 solar cell flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Corrigan, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ATS-6 solar-cell flight-experiment data through the first 247 days in synchronous orbit. The experiment is transmitting data on forty 2 x 2-cm solar cells representing 16 solar-cell configurations. The experiment is designed to study the effect of this orbit on select solar cells and cover-glass parameters such as solar-cell thickness and base resistivity, cover-glass thickness variation, new cover processes, and materials such as 7940 and 7070 integral covers as well as the FEP covers, the COMSAT 'violet' cell, and backside irradiation effects. The in-space solar-cell data indicate short-circuit currents are running higher by 1% to 8% than in measurements made with solar simulations; maximum power varied between -1% and +6%. Degradation of short-circuit current due to ultraviolet effects was determined to be about 2% after 50 days in orbit. All cells performed well through 247 days in orbit except the FEP-covered cells, which appear to have increased their rate of degradation during the eclipse season.

  17. Joint US/Russian Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wanhainen, J.S.; Tyburski, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    The United States and Russia have agreed to jointly develop a solar dynamic (SD) system for flight demonstration on the Russian orbital station, Mir, starting in late 1997. This project is funded under the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 activities which involve joint US/Russian cooperative efforts to reduce risk and enhance working relationships in preparation for the joint integration of ISS. Of the projects falling under the Phase 1 program, the SD Flight Demonstration (SDFD) project is most complex in terms of the level of interfacing required. This paper provides a brief description of the solar dynamic technology, the project chronology of events, the US/Russian roles on the SDFD project, the project schedule, and project management tools used in dealing with the international team.

  18. NASA Balloon Technology Advancements -Balloons, Testing, Analysis, and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Debora; Pierce, David; Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Young, Leyland

    Advancing balloon system technology is at the heart of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office's research and development efforts. These advances span a number of critical areas ranging from new techniques for materials characterization and structural design to flight test vehicles. A thorough understanding of the various balloon materials is key to extending and expanding the use of the current balloon designs. Particular emphasis has been placed on advanced methods for the characterization and analysis of the constituent components of the envelope structure, namely the film and the tendon. These components have been characterized over a broad range of temperatures and conditions that mimics the expected flight exposure conditions and loadings. This understanding is also needed to successfully design and test the next generation of balloon designs. An overview of these advances will be presented. Much of the technology advancements are focused on the NASA Super Pressure Balloon development. Integral parts to balloon development efforts are the analyses of the balloons and flight performance predictions. Overviews of these analyses in the context of balloon design and flight testing will be presented. The Super Pressure Balloon development is aimed at providing extended duration stable float altitude flights to the science community. A number of Super Pressure balloon test flights have been flow in the past two years. These flights have included incremental steps up in balloon volume and payload carrying capability. A very successful test flight of a 200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. Results of this flight will be presented. Two test flights, one from Sweden and one from Antarctica, of a 420,400 m3 balloon were completed in 2009. The results of these flights will also be presented. This paper

  19. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  20. NASA balloon technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  1. Report on Project to Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells in the Stratosphere using Low-Cost Balloon and Communication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirza, Ali; Sant, David; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Balloon, control and communication technologies are under development in our laboratory for testing multi-junction solar cells in the stratosphere to achieve near AM0 conditions. One flight, Suntracker I, has been carried out reported earlier. We report on our efforts in preparation for a second flight, Suntracker II, that was aborted due to hardware problems. The package for Suntracker I system has been modified to include separate electronics and battery packs for the 70 centimeter and 2 meter systems. The collimator control system and motor gearboxes have been redesigned to address problems with the virtual stops and backlash. Surface mount technology on a printed circuit board was used in place of the through-hole prototype circuit in efforts to reduce weight and size, and improve reliability. A mobile base station has been constructed that includes a 35' tower with a two axis rotator and multi-element yagi antennas. Modifications in Suntracker I and the factors that lead to aborting Suntracker II are discussed.

  2. Report on Project to Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells in the Stratosphere using Low-Cost Balloon and Communication Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Ali; Sant, David; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2002-10-01

    Balloon, control and communication technologies are under development in our laboratory for testing multi-junction solar cells in the stratosphere to achieve near AM0 conditions. One flight, Suntracker I, has been carried out reported earlier. We report on our efforts in preparation for a second flight, Suntracker II, that was aborted due to hardware problems. The package for Suntracker I system has been modified to include separate electronics and battery packs for the 70 centimeter and 2 meter systems. The collimator control system and motor gearboxes have been redesigned to address problems with the virtual stops and backlash. Surface mount technology on a printed circuit board was used in place of the through-hole prototype circuit in efforts to reduce weight and size, and improve reliability. A mobile base station has been constructed that includes a 35' tower with a two axis rotator and multi-element yagi antennas. Modifications in Suntracker I and the factors that lead to aborting Suntracker II are discussed.

  3. Cosmic ray nuclei detection in the balloon borne nuclear emulsion gamma ray telescope flight in Australia (GRAINE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyono, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Saya; Aoki, Shigeki; Hara, Toshio; Kuretsubo, Kenji; Marushima, Toshitsugu; Matsumoto, Haruka; Mizutani, Fukashi; Ozaki, Keita; Shibayama, Emi; Suzuki, Atsumu; Takahashi, Satoru; Tateishi, Yurie; Yabu, Misato; Yamada, Kyohei; Kodama, Koichi; Hamada, Kaname; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Komatsu, Masahiro; Miyanishi, Motoaki; Morishita, Misaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Nanano, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Akira; Niwa, Kimio; Otsuka, Naoto; Rokujo, Hiroki; Sato, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion plates for studying elementary particle physics as well as cosmic ray physics are very powerful tracking tools with sub-micron spatial resolutions of charged particle trajectories. Even if gamma rays have to be detected, electron-positron pair tracks can provide precise information to reconstruct their direction and energy with high accuracy. Recent developments of emulsion analysis technology can digitally handle almost all tracks recorded in emulsion plates by using the Hyper Track Selector of the OPERA group at NAGOYA University. On the other hand, the potential of time resolutions have been equipped by emulsion multilayer shifter technology in the GRAINE (Gamma Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion) experiments, the aims of which are to detect cosmic gamma rays such as the Vela pulsar stellar object by precise emulsion tracking analysis and to study cosmic ray particle interactions and chemical compositions. In this paper, we focus on the subject of cosmic ray nuclei detection in the GRAINE balloon flight experiments launched at Alice Springs, Australia in May 2015.

  4. Post-flight investigation programmes of recently retrieved solar generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grelach, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 two ESA solar power generators were successfully retrieved from space: EURECA with its 10 panel rigid array in August, after 11 months in a 500 km orbit, and one of the two flexible Hubble Space Telescope (HST) arrays in December, after almost 4 years in a 600 km orbit. Both solar generators are undergoing separate post-flight investigation programs (PFIP). These programs cover investigations of all solar array (SA) components and mechanisms. Since both programs have much in common, most of the component and material investigations are the same. Extremely valuable information on numerous essential subjects, such as atomic oxygen, radiation, meteoroid and space debris environment resulting damage, low cycle fatigue, material degradation, etc. are expected to be obtained for both types of arrays. We will also be able to explain and understand the anomalies experienced on both solar arrays in orbit. The paper will outline both post-flight investigation programs and will concentrate on reporting the first results and findings.

  5. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  6. ATM solar array in-flight performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J. P.; Crabtree, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and electrical characteristics of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) solar array are described and in-flight performance data are analyzed and compared with predicted results. Two solar cell module configurations were used. Type I module consists of 228 2 x 6 cm solar cells with two cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. Type II modules contain 684 2 x 2 cm cells with six cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. A different interconnection scheme was used for each type. Panels using type II modules with mesh interconnect system performed marginally better than those using type I module with loop interconnect system. The average degradation rate for the ATM array was 8.2% for a 271-day mission.

  7. Solar array flight experiment/dynamic augmentation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leighton E.; Pack, Homer C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the objectives, design, testing, and data analyses of the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE) that was tested aboard Shuttle in September 1984. The SAFE was a lightweight, flat-fold array that employed a thin polyimide film (Kapton) as a substrate for the solar cells. Extension/retraction, dynamics, electrical and thermal tests, were performed. Of particular interest is the dynamic behavior of such a large lightweight structure in space. Three techniques for measuring and analyzing this behavior were employed. The methodology for performing these tests, gathering data, and data analyses are presented. The report shows that the SAFE solar array technology is ready for application and that new methods are available to assess the dynamics of large structures in space.

  8. Results from the Balloon Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (BOIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Hagemeyer, R.; Mentall, J.; Torres, A.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bass, A.; Evans, W.; Barnes, R. A.; Komhyr, W.; Robbins, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the BOIC which consisted of three balloon missions conducted in Palestine, Texas from June 1983 to March 1984 are presented. The BOIC was to assess the ability to perform ozone measurements from balloon platforms. The accuracy and precision of the various ozone measurement systems, which were composed of a photometer, a mass spectrometer, and solar UV absorption sensors, are evaluated. The ozone observations obtained with the instruments on the three flight missions are analyzed and intercompared. The flight in situ data are also compared to the National Bureau of Standards reference photometer, satellite measurements, and under simulated stratospheric pressure and ozone concentrations.

  9. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  10. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  11. Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.; Turnipseed, A.

    A tethered balloon sampling system was used to measure vertical profiles of ozone, particles, and solar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico City, in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environment-Mexico experiment. Several commercial sensors, designed for surface applications, were deployed on a tethered balloon platform. Profiles indicate that for these 3 scalars the boundary layer (surface up to 700 m) was well mixed in the period 10:00-16:00 LST. Good agreement was observed for median surface and balloon ozone and particle number concentrations. For most profiles, the surface deposition of ozone was not significant compared to median profile concentrations. Particle number concentration (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μm) also showed little variation with attitude. Radiatprofiles showed a monotonic increase in diffuse radiation from the maximum altitude of profiles to the surface. Consequently, it was inferred that surface measurements of these likely were representative of lower boundary layer values during this time period.

  12. First flight of SMASH, the SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Shoffner, Michael; Higuera Caubilla, David; Meurisse, Jeremie; Smith, Kelly; Shih, Albert Y.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; DeForest, Craig; Mansour, Nagi N.; Hathaway, David H.

    2016-05-01

    The SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays (SMASH) was successfully flown from Antarctica in January (19-30) 2016, as a piggy-back instrument on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload. SMASH is a technological demonstration of a new miniaturized hard X-ray (HXR) detector for use on CubeSats and other small spacecraft, including the proposed CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS).HXRs are the observational signatures of energetic processes on the Sun, including plasma heating and particle acceleration. One of the goals of CubIXSS will be to address the question of how plasma is heated during solar flares, including the relationship between thermal plasma and non-thermal particles. SMASH demonstrated the space-borne application of the commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123-CdTe, a miniature cadmium telluride photon-counting HXR spectrometer. The CdTe detector has a physical area of 25 mm^2 and 1 mm fully-depleted thickness, with a ~100 micron Be window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar photons from ~5 to ~100 keV with ~0.5-1.0 keV FWHM resolution. Photons are accumulated into histogram spectra with customizable energy binning and integration time. With modest resource requirements (~1/8 U, ~200 g, ~2.5 W) and low cost (~$10K), the X123-CdTe is an attractive solution for HXR measurements from budget- and resource-limited platforms such as CubeSats. SMASH flew two identical X123-CdTe detectors for redundancy and increased collecting area; the supporting electronics (power, CPU) were largely build-to-print using the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat design.We review the SMASH mission, design, and detector performance during the 12-day Antarctic flight. We present current progress on our data analysis of observed solar flares, and discuss future applications of the space-qualified X123-CdTe detector, including the CubIXSS mission

  13. Accuracy of analyzed temperatures, winds and trajectories in the Southern Hemisphere tropical and midlatitude stratosphere as compared to long-duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, B. M.; Christensen, T.; Hertzog, A.; Deme, A.; Vial, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.

    2006-12-01

    Eight super-pressure balloons floating at constant level between 50 and 80 hPa and three Infra-Red Montgolfier balloons of variable altitude (15 hPa daytime, 40-80 hPa night time) have been launched at 22° S from Brazil in February-May 2004 in the frame of the HIBISCUS project. The flights lasted for 7 to 79 days residing mainly in the tropics, but some of them passed the tropical barrier and went to southern midlatitudes. Compared to the balloon measurements just above the tropical tropopause the ECMWF operational temperatures show a systematic cold bias of 0.9 K and the easterly zonal winds are too strong by 0.7 m/s. This bias in the zonal wind adds to the ECMWF trajectory errors, but they still are relatively small with e.g. about an error of 700 km after 5 days. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis trajectory errors are substantially larger (1300 km after 5 days). In the southern midlatitudes the cold bias is the same, but the zonal wind bias is almost zero. The trajectories are generally more accurate than in the tropics, but for one balloon a lot of the calculated trajectories end up on the wrong side of the tropical barrier and this leads to large trajectory errors.

  14. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - In the NASA spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a balloon gently lifts the solar array panel to be installed on the Gravity Probe B spacecraft. Installing each array is a 3-day process and includes a functional deployment test. The Gravity Probe B mission is a relativity experiment developed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Stanford University and Lockheed Martin. The spacecraft will test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity that he advanced in 1916: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Gravity Probe B consists of four sophisticated gyroscopes that will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. The mission will look in a precision manner for tiny changes in the direction of spin.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-04

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - In the NASA spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, a balloon gently lifts the solar array panel to be installed on the Gravity Probe B spacecraft. Installing each array is a 3-day process and includes a functional deployment test. The Gravity Probe B mission is a relativity experiment developed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Stanford University and Lockheed Martin. The spacecraft will test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity that he advanced in 1916: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Gravity Probe B consists of four sophisticated gyroscopes that will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. The mission will look in a precision manner for tiny changes in the direction of spin.

  15. Constellations Solar Array Design, Industrialization And In-Flight Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combet, Yannick; Clapper, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Constellations has become a recurring opportunities in Thales Alenia Space since 3 majors programs had been awarded: Globalstar was the pathfinder with 48 flight sets followed by O3b with 8 an the latest is Iridium Next with 81 models. For these 3 programs, the Solar Array is fully developed, validated and produced by Thales Alenia Space with major subcontractors. This new segment of the activity leads to new development, design and industrialization approaches. This paper describes the Solar Array design and the alternative to current approach build and applied with the following drivers: - the low recurring cost and mass of the flight hardware, with particular attention on the Solar Array, - high robustness for system integration and in-orbit operations, - a long mission duration (typically 15 years in LEO) leading to take into account high number of thermal cycles (60 to 72.000 cycles), - new production concept with strict schedule management, - design segmented in subassemblies to reduce the integration time as well as a improved trouble shooting management, - delivery rate up to 1 wing per week and after learning curve effect, a integration duration divided by 3 compared to current production, - a delivery of a qualified PFM solar array in 22 months including the design to producibility constrains, This demanding requirement for delivery scheme and cost target did not jeopardize the requirements and standards for space application. After a brief description of the way the main drivers have been considered, the paper presents the main features and performances of the subsystem and shows the main validation test results. The first launch was successful in October 2010 and the first in-orbit results are presented.

  16. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert Y.; Duncan, Nicole; Bain, Hazel; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kelley, Nicole; Godbole, Niharika; Kaufmann, Pierre; Caspi, Amir; Sample, John; Hoberman, Jane; Mochizuki, Brent; Olson, Jerry; Boggs, Steven E.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Hurford, Gordon J.; Smith, David M.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload was successfully flown in January 2016 from Antarctica (Jan 19 to Jan 30).GRIPS provides a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma ray/hard X-ray emissions from ~20 keV to >~10 MeV. GRIPS’s goal is to address questions raised by recent solar flare observations regarding particle acceleration and energy release, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of six 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution <0.1 mm3. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten alloy slit/slat grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. The MPRM is situated 8 meters from the spectrometer to provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs, with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS was also equipped with active BGO shields, and three piggy-back instruments: a solar terahertz radiometer (Solar-T), a hard X-ray spectrometer (SMASH), and a sonic anemometer (TILDAE).We will present an overview of GRIPS's first flight, the performance of its instruments and subsystems, including the solar pointing and aspect systems, and

  17. New concepts for interplanetary balloons and blimps, particularly for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    This paper proposes novel approaches for balloons for planets Titan BALLUTE A balloon or blimp arriving at a planet or moon with an atmosphere might inflate falling under a parachute or after landing Neither is ideal In both cases the envelope must include qualities needed for inflation as well as those for flight A ballute BALLoon parachUTE could be used thus a ballute is like a hot air balloon with a large mouth Initially it fills by ram pressure descending through an atmosphere As proposed it would then be heated by solid propellant It would stop descending and float level with hot air lift It is now a perfect location for inflation without wind or movement through the atmosphere and away from the uncertainties of the surface A ballute could be used over several bodies in the solar system BALLOONS FOR LOW TEMPERATURES Flight in very low temperatures is also discussed Conditions are so different that it is useful to examine basic factors These apply for any planet with low temperature and weather calm enough for balloons or blimps First for terrestrial hot air balloons thermal radiation is usually the dominant way heat is lost But radiation rises with the 4th power of absolute temperature At Titan radiation will be one or two orders of magnitude smaller Also the dense atmosphere allows small balloons small temperature differences So convection is small It appears a hot air balloon can easily be heated by a radioactive source likely carried to make electricity Pinholes are not important in such a balloon

  18. SAM 2 balloon test (stratospheric aerosol measurement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    As a parallel effort to the LACATE balloon experiment a small optical system was constructed to enable a balloon test of a diode filter system similar to the type planned for the Nimbus-G SAM II experiment. The system was called the SAM II Balloon Test. Results of the balloon flight are summarized.

  19. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  20. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  1. Low-cost balloon missions to Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Cutts, J.; Hall, J.

    2003-01-01

    The first successful flight demonstration of aerial deployment of Mars balloon prototypes in June 2002 and, earlier, of Venus balloon prototype deemed to be a turning point in the risk assessment of balloon missions.

  2. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Nicole; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Hurford, G. J.; Bain, H. M.; Amman, M.; Mochizuki, B. A.; Hoberman, J.; Olson, J.; Maruca, B. A.; Godbole, N. M.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J.; Kelley, N. A.; Zoglauer, A.; Caspi, A.; Kaufmann, P.; Boggs, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument is a balloon-borne telescope designed to study solar- are particle acceleration and transport. We describe GRIPS's first Antarctic long-duration flight in January 2016 and report preliminary calibration and science results. Electron and ion dynamics, particle abundances and the ambient plasma conditions in solar flares can be understood by examining hard X-ray (HXR) and gamma-ray emission (20 keV to 10 MeV). Enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry of are emissions in this energy range are needed to study particle acceleration and transport questions. The GRIPS instrument is specifically designed to answer questions including: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? GRIPS's key technological improvements over the current solar state of the art at HXR/gamma-ray energies, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), include 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs) and a single-grid modulation collimator, the multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM). The 3D-GeDs have spectral FWHM resolution of a few hundred keV and spatial resolution <1 mm3. For photons that Compton scatter, usually > 150 keV, the energy deposition sites can be tracked, providing polarization measurements as well as enhanced background reduction through Compton imaging. Each of GRIPS's detectors has 298 electrode strips read out with ASIC/FPGA electronics. In GRIPS's energy range, indirect imaging methods provide higher resolution than focusing optics or Compton imaging techniques. The MPRM gridimaging system has a single-grid design which provides twice the throughput of a bi-grid imaging system like RHESSI. The grid is

  3. First Flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Nicole; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Hurford, G. J.; Bain, H. M.; Amman, M.; Mochizuki, A. B.; Hoberman, J.; Olson, J.; Maruca, B. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar ares (GRIPS) instrument is a balloon-borne telescope designed to study solar-flare particle acceleration and transport. We describe GRIPS's first Antarctic long-duration flight in January 2016 and report preliminary calibration and science results. Electron and ion dynamics, particle abundances and the ambient plasma conditions in solar flares can be understood by examining hard X-ray (HXR) and gamma-ray emission (20 keV to 10 MeV). Enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry of flare emissions in this energy range are needed to study particle acceleration and transport questions. The GRIPS instrument is specifically designed to answer questions including: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? GRIPS's key technological improvements over the current solar state of the art at HXR/gamma-ray energies, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), include 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs) and a single-grid modulation collimator, the multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM). The 3D-GeDs have spectral FWHM resolution of a few hundred keV and spatial resolution less than 1cu mm. For photons that Compton scatter, usually greater or equal to 150 keV, the energy deposition sites can be tracked, providing polarization measurements as well as enhanced background reduction through Compton imaging. Each of GRIPS's detectors has 298 electrode strips read out with ASIC/FPGA electronics. In GRIPS's energy range, indirect imaging methods provide higher resolution than focusing optics or Compton imaging techniques. The MPRM grid-imaging system has a single-grid design which provides twice the throughput of a bi-grid imaging system

  4. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Flight Performance Data and Computational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA was launched to Mir in November 1995 and installed on the Kvant-1 module in May 1996. Since the MCSA photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) are nearly identical to those of the International Space Station (ISS) photovoltaic arrays, MCSA operation offered an opportunity to gather multi-year performance data on this technology prior to its implementation on ISS. Two specially designed test sequences were executed in June and December 1996 to measure MCSA performance. Each test period encompassed 3 orbital revolutions whereby the current produced by the MCSA channels was measured. The temperature of MCSA PPMs was also measured. To better interpret the MCSA flight data, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. Flight data compared very favorably with computational performance predictions. This indicated that the MCSA electrical performance was fully meeting pre-flight expectations. There were no measurable indications of unexpected or precipitous MCSA performance degradation due to contamination or other causes after 7 months of operation on orbit. Power delivered to the Mir bus was lower than desired as a consequence of the retrofitted power distribution cabling. The strong correlation of experimental and computational results further bolsters the confidence level of performance codes used in critical ISS electric power forecasting. In this paper, MCSA flight performance tests are described as well as the computational modeling behind the performance predictions.

  5. Mir Cooperative Solar Array flight performance data and computational analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerslake, T.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA was launched to Mir in November 1995 and installed on the Kvant-1 module in May 1996. Since the MCSA photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) are nearly identical to those of the International Space Station (ISS) photovoltaic arrays, MCSA operation offered an opportunity to gather multi-year performance data on this technology prior to its implementation on ISS. Two specially designed test sequences were executed in June and December 1996 to measure MCSA performance. Each test period encompassed 3 orbital revolutions whereby the current produced by the MCSA channels was measured. The temperature of MCSA PPMs was also measured. To better interpret the MCSA flight data, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. Flight data compared very favorably with computational performance predictions. This indicated that the MCSA electrical performance was fully meeting pre-flight expectations. There were no measurable indications of unexpected or precipitous MCSA performance degradation due to contamination or other causes after 7 months of operation on orbit. Power delivered to the Mir bus was lower than desired as a consequence of the retrofitted power distribution cabling. The strong correlation of experimental and computational results further bolsters the confidence level of performance codes used in critical ISS electric power forecasting. In this paper, MCSA flight performance tests are described as well as the computational modeling behind the performance predictions.

  6. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinks, Virgil L.; Brinks, Robyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps. The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be "lighter than air." (PR)

  7. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinks, Virgil L.; Brinks, Robyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps. The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be "lighter than air." (PR)

  8. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) Applications at Solar System Bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Polidan, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Northrop Grumman and L'Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere. The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieve this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the "habitable layers" of Venus' atmosphere at night. Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low, medium, or high altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  9. Determination of balloon drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, George R.; Robbins, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of an empirical drag relationship that has stimulated rethinking regarding the physics of balloon drag phenomena is discussed. Combined parasitic drag from all sources in the balloon system are estimated to constitute less than 10 percent of the total system drag. It is shown that the difference between flight-determined drag coefficients and those based on the spherical assumption should be related to the square of the Froude number.

  10. Penetration of solar irradiance in the Schumann-Runge bands of O2 - A comparison of balloon-borne measurements and calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Hudson, R. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the attenuated solar irradiance made from the STRATCOM VIII balloon are compared with calculated values of the solar irradiance reaching the 40 km level for a solar zenith angle of 66.18 deg. The ability of theory to match intensity maxima which correspond to the cross section minima between the bands is investigated. The comparisons show that model results are too small by a factor of 1.8 between 199 and 22 nm, which is attributed to a systematic calibration offset between the balloon data and the irradiances of Bruckner et al. (1976). A large disagreement between the observed and calculated intensities at peaks H and I results from an error in the cross sections used in current aeronomic work.

  11. Balloon and Lear Jet Testing of Scarlet Modules and Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskenazi, Michael; Murphy, David M.; Anspaugh, Bruce E.; Mueller, Robert L.; Brinker, Dave; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents test results from SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) experiments performed on several Lewis Research Center Lear jet flights and two JPL balloon flights. The tests were performed in support of the BMDO sponsored SCARLET II program, which is building a 2.6 kW SCARLET solar array to supply the primary power for the JPL New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission. The experiments involve TECSTAR dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge cells flown bare and under two different types of SCARLET lenses. The two types of lenses tested were a developmental design consisting of monolithic THV fluoroplastic and the current baseline flight design consisting of ceria-doped microsheet and silicone. Measured lens and total module efficiencies are presented and the flight data is compared to various solar simulator test results.

  12. Optimum Designs for Superpressure Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Rainwater, E.

    Natural shape balloons have been employed for minimum stress envelope design in zero pressure scientific balloons since the 1940's. Superpressure balloons, on the other hand, have traditionally been spheres with tangential load attachment points. Application of natural shape design principles to superpressure balloons is relatively new. The resulting natural shape superpressure balloon shape generally fits Euler's Elastica. There are numerous examples of superpressure cylinder balloons which take on the elastica shape when pressurized. Techniques tried for reducing circumferential stresses in the NASA ULDB natural shape superpressure balloons have revealed new challenges both for design and manufacture. This paper will present a thorough background in the development of the current design concept as well as a review of the current challenges associated with manufacturing these envelopes. Approaches for achieving an optimum design will be presented along with ground and flight test data.

  13. Pioneering Space Research with Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. V.

    NASA s Scientific Ballooning Planning Team has concluded that ballooning enables significant scientific discoveries while providing test beds for space instruments and training for young scientists Circumpolar flights around Antarctica have been spectacularly successful with fight durations up to 42 days Demand for participation in this Long-Duration Balloon LDB program a partnership with the U S National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs is greater than the current capacity of two flights per campaign Given appropriate international agreements LDB flights in the Northern Hemisphere would be competitive with Antarctic flights and super-pressure balloons would allow comparable flights at any latitude The Balloon Planning Team made several recommendations for LDB flights provide a reliable funding source for sophisticated payloads extend the Antarctic capability to three flights per year and develop a comparable capability in the Arctic provide aircraft for intact-payload recovery develop a modest trajectory modification capability to enable longer flights and enhance super-pressure balloons to carry 1-ton payloads to 38 km Implementation of these recommendations would facilitate frequent access to near-space for cutting-edge research and technology development for a wide range of investigations

  14. Ballooning Comes of Age: Make Your Own Balloon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckford, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for building a working model of a hot-air balloon, offering suggestions for a successful flight. Indicates that children can be involved in the projects, for example, by filling in colors in the panels of a balloon drawing. (JN)

  15. A general-purpose balloon-borne pointing system for solar scientific instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    A general purpose balloonborne pointing system for accommodating a wide variety of solar scientific instruments is described. It is designed for precise pointing, low cost, and quick launch. It offers the option of three-axis control, pitch-yaw-roll, or two-axis control, pitch-yaw, depending on the needs of the solar instrument. Simulation results are presented that indicate good pointing capability at Sun elevation angles ranging from 10 to 80 deg.

  16. Recent developments in scientific ballooning and launching of stratopause balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The Balloon Facility, Hyderabad has been launching stratospheric zero pressure balloons for scientific, engineering experiments and sounding balloons for getting winds at balloon float altitudes. Sounding balloons of volume 4,000 cubic meters made with thin film of 5.8 microns can reach up to 43 kilometers with a maximum payload of 1 kilogram. To keep pace with growing demand from user scientists in terms of higher payload capability and higher float altitude, developmental work in the area of very thin film continued, resulting in the development of very thin film of 3.8 microns thickness. Using this very thin film, four balloons of volume 60,000 cubic meters each, capable of carrying 10 kilograms payload to stratopause (approximately 47 kilometers) were fabricated for the first time for trial and evaluation. These balloons are precursors to our ultimate aim of developing still thinner film of 2.7 microns, to be used in balloons for reaching mesosphere with 10 kilogram payload. Raw material selection, manufacturing process, test and evaluation of the film in laboratory, new launching techniques for handling the very thin film balloons are described. A summary of the successful balloon flights carried out in last two years for scientific experiments and launching results of very thin film balloon is presented.

  17. A 100,000 pulse height analyzer for use in High Energy Cosmic Ray Experiments (HECRE) on high altitude balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancro, C. A.; Garrahan, N. M.; Mcgowan, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of a wide dynamic range pulse height analyzer system developed for use on High Energy Cosmic Ray Experiment (HECRE) Balloon Flights. A wide dynamic range of 100,000 is obtained by extending the range of a basic 1024 channel analyzer through the use of multiple ranges and range selection. The system described here contains four 100,000 pulse height analyzers. Each 100,000 pulse height analyzer consists of a group of cordwood welded modules mounted and interconnected on a printed circuit card. Four of these card assemblies, the required clock drive circuitry (discrete components mounted and interconnected on a separate card) and three input-output connectors are interconnected and mounted on the system board.

  18. The Role of Structural Models in the Solar Sail Flight Validation Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is currently soliciting proposals via the New Millennium Program ST-9 opportunity for a potential Solar Sail Flight Validation (SSFV) experiment to develop and operate in space a deployable solar sail that can be steered and provides measurable acceleration. The approach planned for this experiment is to test and validate models and processes for solar sail design, fabrication, deployment, and flight. These models and processes would then be used to design, fabricate, and operate scaleable solar sails for future space science missions. There are six validation objectives planned for the ST9 SSFV experiment: 1) Validate solar sail design tools and fabrication methods; 2) Validate controlled deployment; 3) Validate in space structural characteristics (focus of poster); 4) Validate solar sail attitude control; 5) Validate solar sail thrust performance; 6) Characterize the sail's electromagnetic interaction with the space environment. This poster presents a top-level assessment of the role of structural models in the validation process for in-space structural characteristics.

  19. Development overview of the revised NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2008-11-01

    The desire for longer duration stratospheric flights at constant float altitudes for heavy payloads has been the focus of the development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) effort. Recent efforts have focused on ground testing and analysis to understand the previously observed issue of balloon deployment. A revised approach to the pumpkin balloon design has been tested through ground testing of model balloons and through two test flights. The design approach does not require foreshortening, and will significantly reduce the balloon handling during manufacture reducing the chances of inducing damage to the envelope. Successful ground testing of model balloons lead to the fabrication and test flight of a ˜176,000 m3 (˜6.2 MCF Million Cubic Foot) balloon. Pre-flight analytical predictions predicted that the proposed flight balloon design to be stable and should fully deploy. This paper provides an overview of this first test flight of the revised Ultra Long Duration Balloon design which was a short domestic test flight from Ft. Sumner, NM, USA. This balloon fully deployed, but developed a leak under pressurization. After an extensive investigation to the cause of the leak, a second test flight balloon was fabricated. This ˜176,000 m3 (˜6.2 MCF) balloon was flown from Kiruna, Sweden in June of 2006. Flight results for both test flights, including flight performance are presented.

  20. Universal stratospheric balloon gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yury; Filippov, Sergey; Brekhov, Oleg; Nikolaev, Nikolay

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth’s crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). For investigation of Earth's magnetic field one of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN and MAI during already about 25 years. This system consists of three instrumental containers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. Up today this set has been used only for geomagnetic purposes. So we describe this system on example of the measuring of the geomagnetic field gradient. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one’s name is - stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Process of SBMG deployment, feature of the exit of rope from the magazine at the moment of balloon launching has been studied. Used magazine is cellular type. The hodograph of the measuring base of SBMG and the technique of correction of the deviations of the measuring base from the vertical line (introduction of the amendments for the deviation) during the flight have been investigated. It is shown that estimation of the normal level of values of the vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field is determined by the accuracy of determining the length of the measuring base SBMG

  1. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  2. Balloon-based interferometric techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, David

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne triple-etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer, observing the Doppler shifts of absorption lines caused by molecular oxygen and water vapor in the far red/near infrared spectrum of backscattered sunlight, has been used to evaluate a passive spaceborne remote sensing technique for measuring winds in the troposphere and stratosphere. There have been two successful high altitude balloon flights of the prototype UCL instrument from the National Scientific Balloon Facility at Palestine, TE (May 80, Oct. 83). The results from these flights have demonstrated that an interferometer with adequate resolution, stability and sensitivity can be built. The wind data are of comparable quality to those obtained from operational techniques (balloon and rocket sonde, cloud-top drift analysis, and from the gradient wind analysis of satellite radiance measurements). However, the interferometric data can provide a regular global grid, over a height range from 5 to 50 km in regions of clear air. Between the middle troposphere (5 km) and the upper stratosphere (40 to 50 km), an optimized instrument can make wind measurements over the daylit hemisphere with an accuracy of about 3 to 5 m/sec (2 sigma). It is possible to obtain full height profiles between altitudes of 5 and 50 km, with 4 km height resolution, and a spatial resolution of about 200 km, along the orbit track. Below an altitude of about 10 km, Fraunhofer lines of solar origin are possible targets of the Doppler wind analysis. Above an altitude of 50 km, the weakness of the backscattered solar spectrum (decreasing air density) is coupled with the low absorption crosssection of all atmospheric species in the spectral region up to 800 nm (where imaging photon detectors can be used), causing the along-the-track resolution (or error) to increase beyond values useful for operational purposes. Within the region of optimum performance (5 to 50 km), however, the technique is a valuable potential complement to existing wind

  3. A long duration balloon-borne telescope for solar gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Alan; Chupp, Edward L.; Dunphy, Philip P.

    1989-01-01

    A new solar gamma-ray telescope is described which is intended to take advantage of current long-duration ballon facilities such as the RACOON system. The primary scientific objective is to detect and measure gamma-ray lines from solar flares, along with the associated low-energy continuum. The proposed instrument is centered on a multiheaded Ge system and is designed to operate over the energy range 50 keV to 200 200 MeV. In the nuclear transition energy region, the average energy resolution of the primary detectors is over 20 times better than that achieved with the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite.

  4. New data analysis technique developed for the determination of the solar limb position in measurements of the solar diameter and oblateness, and application to observations obtained with the balloon-borne Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djafer, D.; Sofia, S.; Irbah, A.; Thuillier, G.; Egidi, A.; Caccin, B.

    Solar diameter measurements performed from ground by several instruments during these last decades show variations which are not in agreement. In relation with solar activity, these measurements do not reveal consistent results. These results can be either attributed to Earth atmosphere effects or to instrumental ones especially in presence of noise. Noise affects directly the determination of the solar diameter defined as the zero crossing of the second derivative of the solar limb. Furthermore, presence of noise in data causes additional problems requiring appropriate data filtering without changing the solar limb slope. Several methods have been developed and used for a correct inflexion point position determination, among them, is the Fast Fourier Transform Definition (FFTD). We first present a complete description of the FFTD tool and in particular a new method to choose the filtering parameter (a) to be determined for applying FFDT. An alternative method by filtering using the wavelet analysis is also shown. The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument which has been flown on stratospheric balloons from 1992 to 1998 at 37 km altitude preventing all atmospheric effects. SDS uses a prism as angular reference. We present and discuss results obtained from SDS data analysis and compare them using others methods of inflexion point position detection. Finally, we discuss all other SDS experimental parameters able to cause solar diameter measurement variations.We show the relationship between the diameter variation and solar variability.

  5. Flight solar calibrations using the mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM) - Low scattering mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1991-01-01

    The solar calibration instrumentation and approaches to the scanning radiometers in the ERBE experiment are described in detail. Emphasis is given to evaluating the stability of the mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM) solar diffusing plate. Flight and ground MAM calibration measurements are presented and compared.

  6. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  7. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tonne of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  8. A balloon-borne experiment to investigate the Martian magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Feldhofer, H.; Koren, W.; Jernej, I.; Stachel, M.; Riedler, W.; Slamanig, H.; Auster, H.-U.; Rustenbach, J.; Fornacon, H. K.; Schenk, H. J.; Hillenmaier, O.; Haerendel, G.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Styashkin, V.; Zaroutzky, A.; Best, A.; Scholz, G.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J.; Pierce, D.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1996-03-01

    The Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy, of Sciences (Graz, Austria) in cooperation with MPE (Berlin, Germany), GFZ Potsdam (Obs. Niemegk, Germany) IZMIRAN/IOFAN (Moscow, Russian) and IGPP/UCLA (Los Angeles, USA) is designing the magnetic field experiment MAGIBAL (MAGnetic field experiment aboard a martian BALloon) to investigate the magnetic field on the surface of Mars. The dual sensor fluxgate magnetometer is part of the MARS-98/MARS-TOGETHER balloon payload. During a ten days period the balloon will float over a distance of about 2000 km at altitudes between 0 and 4 km. Due to the limited power and telemetry allocation the magnetometer can transmit only one vector per ten seconds and spectral information in the frequency range from 2 - 25 Hz. The dynamic range is +/- 2000 nT. The main scientific objectives of the experiment are: • Determination of the magnetism of the Martian rocks • Investigation of the leakage of the solar wind induced magnetosphere using the correlation between orbiter and balloon observations • Measurement of the magnetic field profile between the orbiter and the surface of Mars during the descent phase of the balloon. Terrestrial test flights with a hot air balloon were performed in order to test the original MAGIBAL equipment under balloon flight conditions.

  9. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ∼14.50°N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) particularly covering the solar maximum in the 24th solar cycle. We present low energy (15-140 keV) secondary radiation measurement results extending from the ground till the near space (∼40 km) using a scintillator detector on board rubber weather balloons. We also concentrate on the cosmic ray intensity at the Regener-Pfotzer maxima and find a strong anti-correlation between this intensity and the solar activity even at low geomagnetic latitudes.

  10. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Alston, Erica J.; Straume, Tore; Gersey, Brad; Lusby, Terry C.; Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Tobiska, W. Kent; Wilkins, Rick

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. One of the main goals of the RaD-X mission is to improve aviation radiation model characterization of cosmic ray primaries by taking dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum before the production of secondary particles occurs. The second goal of the RaD-X mission is to facilitate the pathway toward real-time, data assimilative predictions of atmospheric cosmic radiation exposure by identifying and characterizing low-cost radiation measurement solutions.

  11. Atmospheric Background Measurement in the 300-400 nm Band with a Balloon Borne Experiment During a Nocturnal Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Agnetta, Gaetano; Biondo, Benedetto; Catalano, Osvaldo; Celi, Filippo; Di Raffaele, Renato; Giarrusso, Salvatore; Mangano, Angelo; Russo, Francesco; Linsley, John; Lo Bue, Angelo

    2001-03-01

    The balloon borne experiment, named BABY (BAckground BYpass) belongs to a wider program, AIRWATCH-OWL, intended for the observation of high energy Cosmic Rays from space, detecting the faint UV fluorescence light emitted by the atmospheric Nitrogen as final result of a complex hadronic cascade. In this framework, one of the fundamental information concern the knowledge of the background level. This is one of the main parameters that contribute to the sensitivity of any kind of instrument. The apparatus used for the BABY experiment was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR in Palermo. The instrument is composed by two filtered and collimated photomultipliers (PMT) that detect the UV light in the 300-400 nm wavelength. We report a brief description of the design of the detector and the results coming from a preliminary analysis of the data taken during a nocturnal over-sea observation.

  12. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  13. Scientific ballooning in India: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. N.; Damle, S. V.

    The National Scientific Balloon Facility (NBF) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) has been conducting regular balloon flights for various experiments in the areas of Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in all aspects of Scientific Ballooning through a sustained R and D programme ensures uptodate services and a better handle on the design specifications for the balloon. Recent developments in balloon grade films, continuous improvements in design specifications, balloon manufacturing methods, flight operational procedures and improved balloon flight capabilities have resulted in a greatly improved flight performance in the last five years. A launch capability upgradation programme in terms of new launch spool and new launch vehicle has been initiated to be able to safely launch balloons with gross lifts upto 3500 kg, balloon volumes upto 450,000 m^3 and payloads upto 1400 kg. A series of steps have been initiated to improve long duration flight capabilities. In this paper, we present details on some of these aspects of Scientific Ballooning in India.

  14. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A view looking over the payload – the instruments that fly under a balloon – while the BARREL balloon inflates. The orange parachute lies on the ground in front of the payload, while most of the balloon length can be seen stretched along the ground toward the part being inflated. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasas-barrel-returns-success... -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.Follow us on TwitterLike us on FacebookFind us on Instagram

  15. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-31

    BARREL researchers get ready to release the top part of the balloon, called the bubble, as it fills with enough helium to support itself. Only the top part of the balloon is inflated before launch since the helium expands as the balloon ascends. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Nicky Knox Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Thermal performance evaluation of the Northrop model NSC-01-0732 concentrating solar collector array at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar house test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The thermal efficiency of the concentrating, tracking solar collector was tested after ten months of operation at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. The test procedures and results are presented.

  17. Balloon-borne remote sensing of stratospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Kosters, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Data on species of interest in the photochemistry of the ozone layer obtained from balloon flights are presented. The flights made use of remote-sensing instruments that took measurements in the wavelength region from the ultraviolet to millimeter wavelengths. Most of the data were obtained with instruments whose readings were in the midinfrared wavelengths. Descriptions are given of the two techniques generally used in this type of research, namely solar absorption and atmospheric emission. The promise that these techniques hold for providing data on the photochemistry of the ozone layer is discussed.

  18. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the Nairas Aviation Radiation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Odstrcil, D.; Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.; Bain, H. M.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Gold, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    In preparation for Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter we consider a series of SEP modeling experiments based on the global MHD WSA-ENLIL model. The models include the Solar Energetic Particle Model (SEPMOD) (Luhmann et al., 2007; 2010) and the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM) (Schwadron et al., 2010)). WSA-ENLIL provides a time-dependent background heliospheric description including CME-like clouds which can generate shocks during their propagation. SEPMOD makes use of the ENLIL-provided magnetic topologies of observer-connected magnetic field lines and all plasma and shock properties along those field lines. The model injects protons onto a sequence observer field lines at intensities dependent on the connected shock source strength which are then integrated at the observer to approximate the proton flux. EMMREM couples with MHD models such as ENLIL and computes energetic particle distributions based on the focused transport equation along a Lagrangian grid of nodes that propagate out with the solar wind. In this presentation we compare SEP modeling results with data, and consider SEP variability in longitude and latitude. Additionally we study the relative importance of observer-connectivity to the solar source and shock locations, as derived from ENLIL. We evaluate the shock geometry and compare model-derived shock parameters with those observed. Finally, we test the effect of the seed population on the resulting profiles.

  19. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope—ProtoEXIST1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Apple, J.; Cleveland, W. H.

    2011-10-01

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8×8 array of closely tiled 2 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8×8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm2 active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9°×9° (and 19°×19° for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20‧. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cm×26 cm×2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as ≳100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for ˜1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4° off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2σ in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The success of this first flight is very

  20. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  1. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie

    1987-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  2. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie

    1987-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  3. A disturbance isolation controller for the solar electric propulsion system flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    A disturbance isolation controller (DIC) is developed for a simplified model of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) flight experiment which consists of a rigid Sperry gimbal torquer (AGS) mounted to a rigid orbiter and the SEPS solar array (rigid) end mounted to the AGS. The main purpose of the DIC is to reduce the effects of orbiter disturbances which are transmitted to the flight experiment. The DIC uses an observer, which does not require the direct measurement of the plant inputs, to obtain estimates of the plant states and the rate of the plant states. The state and rate of state information is used to design a controller which isolates disturbances from specified segments of the plant, and for the flight experiment, the isolated segment is the SEPS solar array.

  4. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  5. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  6. FOXSI-2: Upgrades of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager for its Second Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Buitrago-Casas, Camilo; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Turin, Paul; Shourt, Van; Foster, Natalie; Krucker, Sam

    2016-03-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the second time on 2014 December 11. To enable direct Hard X-Ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated focusing optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. FOXSI’s first flight provided the first HXR focused images of the Sun. For FOXSI’s second flight several updates were made to the instrument including updating the optics and detectors as well as adding a new Solar Aspect and Alignment System (SAAS). This paper provides an overview of these updates as well as a discussion of their measured performance.

  7. Observations of a weak gamma ray burst, A0535 plus 26, NP0532 and solar flare events by a balloon-borne detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of a cosmic gamma ray burst of about 10 to the -6 erg/sq cm, pulsed emission profiles of A0535 plus 26 and NP0532, and two solar flare events are reported for several energy intervals in 45-500 keV. The measurements were made with a NaI (Tl) detector array flown on a balloon to 4 g/sq cm residual atmosphere from Palestine, Texas Oct. 6-8, 1980 for 28 hours. The detector is a prototype of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment to be flown on the Gamma Ray Observatory.

  8. Summary results of the ATS-6 solar cell flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Synchronous orbit performance data are analyzed for solar cells of 13 different configurations involved in the ATS-6 solar cell radiation damage experiment. It is found that the cells generally performed as expected through 6 to 9 months in orbit, but that after 2-1/3 years were more severely degraded in current than expected. An anomalous additional degradation of 5-9% in short circuit current has been observed for some cells.

  9. ATS-6 - Solar cell flight experiment after 325 days in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) solar cell flight experiment to isolate and identify solar cell degradation mechanisms resulting from particulate radiation and to obtain specific design data applicable to extended synchronous spacecraft missions are presented. The experiment includes 80 individual cells representing 16 different solar cell/cover glass configurations. Most of the cells are 0.030 cm thick boron doped n/p cells with 10 ohm cm resistivity and solder-coated AgTi contacts. The voltage-current characteristics were measured regularly. The data for the first 325 days of flight show short circuit currents 1-8% higher than measurements made with solar simulations. Maximum power varied between -1 and +6%. After 50 days in orbit the degradation of short circuit current due to ultraviolet effects was determined to be about 2%. All cells except those with fluorinated ethylene propylene covers performed well after 325 days.

  10. Measurements of the UV Nocturnal Atmospheric Background in the 300-400 nm Wavelength Band with the Experiment BaBy during a Transmediterranean Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarrusso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Raffaele, R.Di.; Espirito-Santo, M.C.; Gabriele, M.; Rosa, G.La; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A.; Mineo, T.; Pimenta, M.; Russo, F.; Sacco, B.; Santangelo, A.; Scarsi, P.; Tome, B.

    2003-07-01

    We present new results of U V no cturnal atmospheric background measured with the balloon borne experiment BaBy that performed a trans-Mediterranean flight on July 11 2002. The experiment looked downwards from about 40 km of altitude the dark no cturnal atmosphere over the sea in a moonless night. It is composed of 8 filtered and collimated fast PMTs detecting the U V light in the 300-400 nm wavelength band and in the 3 narrow bands centered at the emission lines of the atmospheric Nitrogen molecules. Both single photon counting and charge integration methods are used in pairs of PMTs with the same filter. The background measured over the sea is about 300 photons m-2 sr-1 ns-1 in the 300-400 nm wavelength band. Introduction The Backround Bypass, BaBy, experiment is a scientific support activity to the evaluation of the sensitivity of EUSO [3], devoted to the observation of the Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays from space by detecting U V fluorescence light. One of the fundamental information in EUSO design is the U V no cturnal atmospheric background level whose main sources are: light pollution from cities, planes and ships, naturally occurring bioluminescence, lightning flashes, reflected moonlight and starlight, auroral flashes, low energy cosmic ray air showers and atmospheric chemical reactions. Since 1998, no cturnal atmospheric U V background measurements, in the wavelength interval (300-400 nm) relevant for EUSO, have been performed by

  11. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. The Micro-Instrumentation Package: A Solution to Lightweight Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Jill

    This paper discusses the design and testing of an over the horizon (OTH) light weight telemetry and termination system that can be used for small ballooning payloads. Currently, the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provides telemetry for the science payload by integrating one of two types of support packages. The type of support package integrated depends on whether the flight will stay in range of line of sight (LOS) or will exceed LOS requiring the use of over the horizon (OTH) telemetry. The weights of these systems range from 100 pounds to 350 pounds depending upon the use of redundant systems, equipment for high data rates, and batteries and/or solar panels for power requirements. These weight values are not as significant for larger payloads but can be crippling for smaller payloads. In addition, these support package systems are fairly expensive, placing a high importance on recovery. A lightweight and inexpensive telemetry system could be beneficial for various reasons. First, it would allow scientists to fly lightweight payloads on large balloons reaching even higher altitudes. Second, scientists could fly lightweight payloads on less expensive balloons such as meteorological balloons. Depending on the payload, these flights could be fairly inexpensive and even disposable. Third, a compact telemetry system on any balloon will free up more room for the science portion of the payload. In response, a compact telemetry/termination system called the Micro-Instrumentation Package (MIP) was developed. The MIP provides uplink and downlink communications, an interface to the science, housekeeping information including global positioning system (GPS) position, and relays. Instead of a power-hungry microprocessor, the MIP's central consists of a microcontroller. Microcontrollers are lower power, easily programmed, and can be purchased for less than ten dollars. For uplink and downlink telemetry, the MIP uses an LOS serial transceiver and an Iridium unit

  13. Balloons Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeskova, Z.; Featonby, D.; Fekova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst everyone is familiar with the process of blowing up a balloon, few of us have gone further to quantify the actual pressures involved at different stages in the inflation process. This paper seeks to describe experiments to fill some of those gaps and examine some of the apparently anomalous behaviour of connected balloons. (Contains 12…

  14. The CNES Balloon Program : an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzy, G.; Cazaux, C.

    The CNES (French Space Agency) Balloon Program continues to support the scientific community providing enhanced measurements capabilities across different kind of balloons: zero pressure balloon (80 % of activities), Infra-Red Montgolfiere (MIR) and superpressure balloon. For ENVISAT satellite validation, CNES has set up with ESA an important international balloon program with six dedicated campaigns, in 2002 - 2004 period, from mid-latitude; northern and tropical balloon launch facilities. In the framework of an European program, CNES participates to HIBISCUS project by organizing balloon campaigns (2003 & 2004) in tropical region with the launches of zero-pressure balloon, MIR and superpressure balloon from the same facility. In cooperation with US, CNES is preparing the VORCORE project which consists to study the atmospheric circulation of Antarctica polar vortex, using superpressure balloons launched from the Mac-Murdo station. This paper will present the CNES balloon activities in the 2002-2004 period, mainly focused on atmospheric chemistry, will give an overview of balloon technology development, and will present also the JAXA / CNES cooperation for the HSFD shuttle drop from stratospheric balloons with a first flight realized in 2003.

  15. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-02

    Release of a BARREL balloon. The launch crew can be seen on the right holding the payload as the top of the balloon moves overhead where they can release it. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.Follow us on TwitterLike us on FacebookFind us on Instagram

  16. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-16

    Getting ready to lay out a BARREL balloon to prepare for inflation. The helium stillages used to fill the balloon can be seen in the background. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-06

    The BARREL team at Halley Research Station in Antarctica, work to inflate a balloon. The long tube on the left is the inflation tube used to fill the top of the balloon with helium. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.Follow us on TwitterLike us on FacebookFind us on Instagram

  18. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-20

    While large compared to a human, BARREL balloons are actually much smaller than typical science balloons, which can be as large as a football field. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  20. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelles, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-09-01

    In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  1. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory report, January - June 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during Jan. to Jun. 1992. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, and H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  2. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory report, March - May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during March-May 1994. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  3. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory Report, July to December 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during July-December 1992. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  4. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center solar observatory report, January - June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during January-June 1993. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  5. Scientific Balloons for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Yavrouian, Andre; Nott, Julian; Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Wilson, Colin; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Voss, Paul; Hall, Jeffery

    Almost 30 years ago, two balloons were successfully deployed into the atmosphere of Venus as an element of the VeGa - Venus Halley mission conducted by the Soviet Union. As interest in further Venus exploration grows among the established planetary exploration agencies - in Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States, use of balloons is emerging as an essential part of that investigative program. Venus balloons have been proposed in NASA’s Discovery program and ESA’s cosmic vision program and are a key element in NASA’s strategic plan for Venus exploration. At JPL, the focus for the last decade has been on the development of a 7m diameter superpressure pressure(twice that of VeGa) capable of carrying a 100 kg payload (14 times that of VeGA balloons), operating for more than 30 days (15 times the 2 day flight duration of the VeGa balloons) and transmitting up to 20 Mbit of data (300 times that of VeGa balloons). This new generation of balloons must tolerate day night transitions on Venus as well as extended exposure to the sulfuric acid environment. These constant altitude balloons operating at an altitude of about 55 km on Venus where temperatures are benign can also deploy sondes to sound the atmosphere beneath the probe and deliver deep sondes equipped to survive and operate down to the surface. The technology for these balloons is now maturing rapidly and we are now looking forward to the prospects for altitude control balloons that can cycle repeatedly through the Venus cloud region. One concept, which has been used for tropospheric profiling in Antarctica, is the pumped-helium balloon, with heritage to the anchor balloon, and would be best adapted for flight above the 55 km level. Phase change balloons, which use the atmosphere as a heat engine, can be used to investigate the lower cloud region down to 30 km. Progress in components for high temperature operation may also enable investigation of the deep atmosphere of Venus with metal-based balloons.

  6. Vega balloon meteorological measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Vega balloons obtained in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, vertical winds, cloud density, ambient illumination, and the frequency of lightning during their flights in the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements were used to develop a comprehensive description of the meteorology of the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements provide the following picture: large horizontal temperature gradients near the equator, vigorous convection, and weather conditions that can change dramatically on time scales as short as one hour.

  7. In-Flight Results of the Flexible Solar Cell Panel on TET-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Sebastian; Zajac, Kai; Seifart, Klause; Hartmann, Lars; Otte, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    A future alternative to current rigid solar cell technologies for space applications can be realized with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cell technology on a flexible polyimide substrate. Of all thin film technologies, those based on CIGSe have the highest potential to reach attractive photovoltaic conversion efficiencies in combination with low weight to realize high power densities on generator level.The on-orbit verification program offers a flight opportunity for a solar cell payload to be tested in space environment. The TET-1 spacecraft was successfully launched on 22 July 2012 into earth orbit. After the successful commissioning phase the payload on board being tested over a period of one year. The paper will present the experimental solar array of CIGSe thin film solar cells on TET-1 spacecraft, outline the on orbit results and will provide an outlook for future projects.

  8. ATS-6 solar cell flight experiment through 2 years in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    ATS-6 solar cell flight experiment data through 2 years of synchronous orbit operation are presented. Comparisons are made of the performances of the 13 different types of solar cell/cover configurations, including new cover processes and materials, and the Comsat violet cell. These performances are also compared: (1) to the performances of the LES-6 solar cell experiment, the ATS-6 main solar arrays, and the Hughes Aircraft Company solar arrays, and (2) to laboratory spectrum electron irradiations. It was found that the cells of the ATS-6 experiment generally performed as expected through 6 to 9 months in orbit, but that at 2 years they were more severely degraded than expected.

  9. UltraSail CubeSat Solar Sail Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, David; Burton, Rodney; Coverstone, Victoria; Swenson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    UltraSail is a next-generation, highrisk, high-payoff sail system for the launch, deployment, stabilization, and control of very large (km2 class) solar sails enabling high payload mass fractions for interplanetary and deep space spacecraft. UltraSail is a non-traditional approach to propulsion technology achieved by combining propulsion and control systems developed for formation- flying microsatellites with an innovative solar sail architecture to achieve controllable sail areas approaching 1 km2, sail subsystem area densities approaching 1 g/m2, and thrust levels many times those of ion thrusters used for comparable deep space missions. UltraSail can achieve outer planetary rendezvous, a deep-space capability now reserved for high-mass nuclear and chemical systems. There is a twofold rationale behind the UltraSail concept for advanced solar sail systems. The first is that sail-andboom systems are inherently size-limited. The boom mass must be kept small, and column buckling limits the boom length to a few hundred meters. By eliminating the boom, UltraSail not only offers larger sail area, but also lower areal density, allowing larger payloads and shorter mission transit times. The second rationale for UltraSail is that sail films present deployment handling difficulties as the film thickness approaches one micrometer. The square sail requires that the film be folded in two directions for launch, and similarly unfolded for deployment. The film is stressed at the intersection of two folds, and this stress varies inversely with the film thickness. This stress can cause the film to yield, forming a permanent crease, or worse, to perforate. By rolling the film as UltraSail does, creases are prevented. Because the film is so thin, the roll thickness is small. Dynamic structural analysis of UltraSail coupled with dynamic control analysis shows that the system can be designed to eliminate longitudinal torsional waves created while controlling the pitch of the blades

  10. Pathfinder aircraft prepared for flight showing solar cell arrays on wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The solar cell arrays, which cover about 75 percent of its upper wing surface, are clearly evident in this view of the Pathfinder solar-electric aircraft. The solar arrays are capable not only of absorbing direct sunlight, but can also absorb light reflected from the ground through the transparent lower surface of the 98-foot-long wing. Engineers and technicians from Pathfinder's developer, AeroVironment, Inc., conducted a successful two-hour check-out flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on Nov. 19, 1996. The craft then underwent preperations at AeroVironment's Simi Valley, California, facility for a new series of flight tests in Hawaii, during summer, 1997. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the

  11. Pathfinder aircraft prepared for flight showing solar cell arrays on wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The solar cell arrays, which cover about 75 percent of its upper wing surface, are clearly evident in this view of the Pathfinder solar-electric aircraft. The solar arrays are capable not only of absorbing direct sunlight, but can also absorb light reflected from the ground through the transparent lower surface of the 98-foot-long wing. Engineers and technicians from Pathfinder's developer, AeroVironment, Inc., conducted a successful two-hour check-out flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on Nov. 19, 1996. The craft then underwent preperations at AeroVironment's Simi Valley, California, facility for a new series of flight tests in Hawaii, during summer, 1997. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the

  12. Solar Thermal Propulsion Improvements at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) is a concept which operates by transferring solar energy to a propellant, which thermally expands through a nozzle. The specific impulse performance is about twice that of chemical combustions engines, since there is no need for an oxidizer. In orbit, an inflatable concentrator mirror captures sunlight and focuses it inside an engine absorber cavity/heat exchanger, which then heats the propellant. The primary application of STP is with upperstages taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit or earth escape velocities. STP engines are made of high temperature materials since heat exchanger operation requires temperatures greater than 2500K. Refractory metals such as tungsten and rhenium have been examined. The materials must also be compatible with hot hydrogen propellant. MSFC has three different engine designs, made of different refractory metal materials ready to test. Future engines will be made of high temperature carbide materials, which can withstand temperatures greater than 3000K, hot hydrogen, and provide higher performance. A specific impulse greater than 1000 seconds greatly reduces the amount of required propellant. A special 1 OkW solar ground test facility was made at MSFC to test various STP engine designs. The heliostat mirror, with dual-axis gear drive, tracks and reflects sunlight to the 18 ft. diameter concentrator mirror. The concentrator then focuses sunlight through a vacuum chamber window to a small focal point inside the STP engine. The facility closely simulates how the STP engine would function in orbit. The flux intensity at the focal point is equivalent to the intensity at a distance of 7 solar radii from the sun.

  13. Solar Thermal Propulsion Improvements at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) is a concept which operates by transferring solar energy to a propellant, which thermally expands through a nozzle. The specific impulse performance is about twice that of chemical combustions engines, since there is no need for an oxidizer. In orbit, an inflatable concentrator mirror captures sunlight and focuses it inside an engine absorber cavity/heat exchanger, which then heats the propellant. The primary application of STP is with upperstages taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit or earth escape velocities. STP engines are made of high temperature materials since heat exchanger operation requires temperatures greater than 2500K. Refractory metals such as tungsten and rhenium have been examined. The materials must also be compatible with hot hydrogen propellant. MSFC has three different engine designs, made of different refractory metal materials ready to test. Future engines will be made of high temperature carbide materials, which can withstand temperatures greater than 3000K, hot hydrogen, and provide higher performance. A specific impulse greater than 1000 seconds greatly reduces the amount of required propellant. A special 1 OkW solar ground test facility was made at MSFC to test various STP engine designs. The heliostat mirror, with dual-axis gear drive, tracks and reflects sunlight to the 18 ft. diameter concentrator mirror. The concentrator then focuses sunlight through a vacuum chamber window to a small focal point inside the STP engine. The facility closely simulates how the STP engine would function in orbit. The flux intensity at the focal point is equivalent to the intensity at a distance of 7 solar radii from the sun.

  14. SOLAR/SOLSPEC mission on ISS: In-flight performance for SSI measurements in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Gillotay, D.; Pandey, P.; Cessateur, G.; Foujols, T.; Bekki, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Hersé, M.; Michel, A.; Jacobs, C.; Sela, A.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The SOLar SPECtrum (SOLSPEC) experiment is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, and has been externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) since 2008. SOLAR/SOLSPEC combines three absolutely calibrated double monochromators with concave gratings for measuring the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from 166 nm to 3088 nm. This physical quantity is a key input for studies of climatology, planetary atmospheres, and solar physics. Aims: A general description of the instrument is given, including in-flight operations and performance of the ultraviolet (UV) channel from 175 nm to 340 nm. Methods: We developed a range of processing and correction methods, which are described in detail. For example, methods for correcting thermal behavior effects, instrument linearity, and especially the accuracy of the wavelength and absolute radiometric scales have been validated by modeling the standard uncertainties. Results: The deliverable is a quiet Sun UV reference solar spectrum as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC during the minimum of solar activity prior to cycle 24. Comparisons with other instruments measuring SSI are also presented. The quiet Sun UV spectrum (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A21

  15. Solar cosmic rays as a specific source of radiation risk during piloted space flight.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2004-01-01

    Solar cosmic rays present one of several radiation sources that are unique to space flight. Under ground conditions the exposure to individuals has a controlled form and radiation risk occurs as stochastic radiobiological effects. Existence of solar cosmic rays in space leads to a stochastic mode of radiation environment as a result of which any radiobiological consequences of exposure to solar cosmic rays during the flight will be probabilistic values. In this case, the hazard of deterministic effects should also be expressed in radiation risk values. The main deterministic effect under space conditions is radiation sickness. The best dosimetric functional for its analysis is the blood forming organs dose equivalent but not an effective dose. In addition, the repair processes in red bone marrow affect strongly on the manifestation of this pathology and they must be taken into account for radiation risk assessment. A method for taking into account the mentioned above peculiarities for the solar cosmic rays radiation risk assessment during the interplanetary flights is given in the report. It is shown that radiation risk of deterministic effects defined, as the death probability caused by radiation sickness due to acute solar cosmic rays exposure, can be comparable to risk of stochastic effects. Its value decreases strongly because of the fractional mode of exposure during the orbital movement of the spacecraft. On the contrary, during the interplanetary flight, radiation risk of deterministic effects increases significantly because of the residual component of the blood forming organs dose from previous solar proton events. The noted quality of radiation responses must be taken into account for estimating radiation hazard in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solar cosmic rays as a specific source of radiation risk during piloted space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cosmic rays present one of several radiation sources that are unique to space flight. Under ground conditions the exposure to individuals has a controlled form and radiation risk occurs as stochastic radiobiological effects. Existence of solar cosmic rays in space leads to a stochastic mode of radiation environment as a result of which any radiobiological consequences of exposure to solar cosmic rays during the flight will be probabilistic values. In this case, the hazard of deterministic effects should also be expressed in radiation risk values. The main deterministic effect under space conditions is radiation sickness. The best dosimetric functional for its analysis is the blood forming organs dose equivalent but not an effective dose. In addition, the repair processes in red bone marrow affect strongly on the manifestation of this pathology and they must be taken into account for radiation risk assessment. A method for taking into account the mentioned above peculiarities for the solar cosmic rays radiation risk assessment during the interplanetary flights is given in the report. It is shown that radiation risk of deterministic effects defined, as the death probability caused by radiation sickness due to acute solar cosmic rays exposure, can be comparable to risk of stochastic effects. Its value decreases strongly because of the fractional mode of exposure during the orbital movement of the spacecraft. On the contrary, during the interplanetary flight, radiation risk of deterministic effects increases significantly because of the residual component of the blood forming organs dose from previous solar proton events. The noted quality of radiation responses must be taken into account for estimating radiation hazard in space.

  17. Ballooning Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rector, Bronwyn

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize balloons to encourage students to explore questions related to scientific concepts. Concepts explored include light, heat, charged ions, polarization, and the sense of smell. (MDH)

  18. Scientific Ballooning Activities and Recent Developments in Technology and Instrumentation of the TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) is a unique center of expertise working throughout the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons mainly for space astronomy, atmospheric science and engineering experiments. Recently TIFR-BF extended its support to new user scientists for conducting balloon launches for biological and middle atmospheric sciences. For the first time two balloon launches conducted for sending live lab rats to upper stratosphere and provided launch support for different balloon campaigns such as Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) to study water vapour content in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric regions over Hyderabad and the other balloon campaign to study the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL) during the Indian summer monsoon season. BATAL is the first campaign to conduct balloon launches during active (South-West) monsoon season using zero pressure balloons of different volumes. TIFR-BF also provided zero pressure and sounding balloon support to various research institutes and organizations in India and for several international space projects. In this paper, we present details on our increased capability of balloon fabrication for carrying heavier payloads, development of high strength balloon load tapes and recent developments of flight control and safety systems. A summary of the various flights conducted in two years will be presented along with the future ballooning plans.

  19. Recent Developments in Balloon Support Instrumentation at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan

    2012-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research has been conducting stratospheric balloon flights regularly for various experiments in Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in Balloon flight Support instrumentation by the Control Instrumentation Group to keep in space with the growing complexities of the scientific payloads have contributed to the total success of balloon flights conducted recently. Recent improvements in display of Balloon position during balloon flight by showing on real time the balloon GPS position against Google TM maps is of immense help in selecting the right spot for payload landing and safe recovery . For further speeding up the payload recovery process, a new GPS-GSM payload system has been developed which gives SMS of the payload position information to the recovery team on their cell phones. On parallel footing, a new GPS- VHF system has been developed using GPS and Radio Modems for Balloon Tracking and also for obtaining the payload impact point. On the Telecommand side, a single board Telecommand/ Timer weighing less than 2 Kg has been specially developed for use in the mesosphere balloon test flight. The interference on the existing Short Range Telemetry System has been eliminated by introducing a Band Pass Filter and LNA in the Receiving system of the modules, thereby enhancing its reliability. In this paper , we present the details of the above mentioned developments.

  20. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  1. Space Weather Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  2. Second flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager sounding rocket [FOXSI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Ramsey, B.; Foster, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket experiment that has flown twice to test a direct focusing method for measuring solar hard X-rays (HXRs). These HXRs are associated with particle acceleration mechanisms at work in powering solar flares and aid us in investigating the role of nanoflares in heating the solar corona. FOXSI-1 successfully flew for the first time on November 2, 2012. After some upgrades including the addition of extra mirrors to two optics modules and the inclusion of new fine-pitch CdTe strip detectors, in addition to the Si detectors from FOXSI-1, the FOXSI-2 payload flew successfully again on December 11, 2014. During the second flight four targets on the Sun were observed, including at least three active regions, two microflares, and ~1 minute of quiet Sun observation. This work is focused in giving an overview of the FOXSI rocket program and a detailed description of the upgrades for the second flight. In addition, we show images and spectra investigating the presence of no thermal emission for each of the flaring targets that we observed during the second flight.

  3. LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00666 LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper left corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Two of the four solar arrays are missing and one appears to be attached at only one corner. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the left center section, has twenty-seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the lower left corner, consist mostly of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The metallized film apparently survived with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the upper right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have changed to a darker color and a light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the right edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the right center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and shear specimen. All

  4. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA. The HASP platform was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and to an altitude of about 36kilometers with flight durations of 15 to 20 hours using a small volume, low pressure balloon. The main objectives of the program, the challenges involved in developing it, and the major achievements and outcomes will be discussed. Future opportunities for the use of high altitude balloons for solar-terrestrial science, such as the diagnosis of radiation belt loss through the flight of alternative X-ray scintillator payloads, on short duration weather balloon flights will also be discussed. The UA-HAB project is undertaken with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  5. Scientific balloons: historical remarks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.

    The paper is an overview of the Human attempt to fly, from the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus to the first "aerostatic" experiment by Joseph-Michel and Jaques-Etienne Montgolfier. Then, via a jump of about 200 years, we arrive to the era of the modern stratospheric ballooning that, from the beginning of the last century, have provided a unique flight opportunity for aerospace experiments. In particular, the Italian scientific community has employed stratospheric balloons since the '50s for cosmic rays and high energy astrophysical experiments with initial launches performed from Cagliari Helmas Airport (Sardinia). More recently an almost ideal location was found in the area of Trapani-Milo (Sicily, Italy), were an old abandoned airport was refurbished to be used as a new launch site that became operative at the beginning of the '70s. Finally, we suggest a short reminiscence of the first transatlantic experiment carried out on August 1975 in collaboration between SAS-CNR (Italy) and NSBF-NASA (USA). The reason why the Long Duration Balloon has been recently re-oriented in a different direction is analysed and future perspectives discussed. Finally, the spirit of the balloon launch performed by the Groups lead by Edoardo Amaldi, Livio Scarsi and other Italian pioneers, with payloads looking like "refrigerators" weighting a few tens of kg is intact and the wide participation to the present Workshop is the clear demonstration.

  6. New balloon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Seely, L. G.; Smith, M. S.

    1993-02-01

    The introduction of StratoFilm® in 1965 solved a number of material related problems that had plagued the balloon community prior to that time. As payloads and float altitudes increased over the years, the balloons also became much larger. Unfortunately, in the late 1970's and early 1980's the catastrophic failure of stratospheric balloons began to reappear which naturally eroded the confidence of the scientific users. At the same time balloon manufacturers intensified their efforts to produce the high quality film so necessary for a reliable, low cost platform operating in the stratosphere. This paper describes the efforts taken by one manufacturer to produce a consistently high quality film for this application. The approach taken was to blend newly developed resins such as linear low density polyethylene with other polymers to achieve the desired properties. The resulting film designated as StratoFilm 372 has enjoyed a 100 percent successful flight record for over three years. In addition, this paper will describe a new resin which has been designed to achieve even superior properties to those now in use.

  7. A long-duration balloon payload for hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Curtis, D. W.; Primbsch, J. H.; Harvey, P. R.; Levedahl, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    A balloon payload designed to study the processes of energy release, particle acceleration, and heating of the active corona in hard X-ray microflares and normal flares is described. An array of liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium detectors together with large area phoswich scintillation detectors provide the highest sensitivity (about 500 sq cm) and energy resolution (not greater than 0.7 keV) ever achieved for solar hard X-ray (about 15-600 keV) measurements. These detectors were flown in February 1987 from Australia on a long duration radiation controlled balloon flight (LDBF) which provided 12 days of observations before cutdown in Brazil. The payload includes solar cells for power, pointing, and navigation sensors, a microprocessor controlled data system with VCR tape storage, and transmitters for GOES and ARGOS spacecraft. This successful flight illustrates the potential of LDBFs for solar flare studies.

  8. A long-duration balloon payload for hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Curtis, D. W.; Primbsch, J. H.; Harvey, P. R.; Levedahl, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    A balloon payload designed to study the processes of energy release, particle acceleration, and heating of the active corona in hard X-ray microflares and normal flares is described. An array of liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium detectors together with large area phoswich scintillation detectors provide the highest sensitivity (about 500 sq cm) and energy resolution (not greater than 0.7 keV) ever achieved for solar hard X-ray (about 15-600 keV) measurements. These detectors were flown in February 1987 from Australia on a long duration radiation controlled balloon flight (LDBF) which provided 12 days of observations before cutdown in Brazil. The payload includes solar cells for power, pointing, and navigation sensors, a microprocessor controlled data system with VCR tape storage, and transmitters for GOES and ARGOS spacecraft. This successful flight illustrates the potential of LDBFs for solar flare studies.

  9. Global electrodynamics from superpressure balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Hu, H.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field and conductivity measurements in the stratosphere between November 1992 and March 1993 have been made using superpressure balloons in the southern hemisphere. Over 400 payload-days of data have been made during a record setting experiment called ELBBO (Extended Life Balloon Borne Observatories). This experiment resulted in 4 flights aloft simultaneously for over 2 months including one flight which lasted over 4 months. Electrodynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ionosphere is studied using the measured electric fields, and a simple empirical model of the stratospheric conductivity. Altitude profiles of conductivity have been obtained from several superpressure balloon flights using the large end-of-flight altitude swings on the last few days of each flight (as the balloon begins to loose superpressure). Coupling between the fields and atmospheric inertial waves has been observed. Effects and dynamics of the global circuit suggest that standard models are missing significant phenomena. Large scale ionospheric convection activity has been studied from the polar cap to the middle latitudes. Cusp latitude fields have been continuously measured for many days in a row.

  10. Global electrodynamics from superpressure balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Hu, H.

    1995-08-01

    Electric field and conductivity measurements in the stratosphere between November 1992 and March 1993 have been made using superpressure balloons in the southern hemisphere. Over 400 payload-days of data have been made during a record setting experiment called ELBBO (Extended Life Balloon Borne Observatories). This experiment resulted in 4 flights aloft simultaneously for over 2 months including one flight which lasted over 4 months. Electrodynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ionosphere is studied using the measured electric fields, and a simple empirical model of the stratospheric conductivity. Altitude profiles of conductivity have been obtained from several superpressure balloon flights using the large end-of-flight altitude swings on the last few days of each flight (as the balloon begins to loose superpressure). Coupling between the fields and atmospheric inertial waves has been observed. Effects and dynamics of the global circuit suggest that standard models are missing significant phenomena. Large scale ionospheric convection activity has been studied from the polar cap to the middle latitudes. Cusp latitude fields have been continuously measured for many days in a row.

  11. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Some of the BARREL balloon launches took place at the South African National Antarctic Expedition Research base, called SANAE IV, the others at Halley Research Station. This balloon is taking flight at SANAE IV. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA

  12. Solar Sail Model Validation from Echo Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Brickerhoff, Adam T.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion program has been engaged in a project to increase the technology readiness of solar sails. Recently, these efforts came to fruition in the form of several software tools to model solar sail guidance, navigation and control. Furthermore, solar sails are one of five technologies competing for the New Millennium Program Space Technology 9 flight demonstration mission. The historic Echo 1 and Echo 2 balloons were comprised of aluminized Mylar, which is the near-term material of choice for solar sails. Both spacecraft, but particularly Echo 2, were in low Earth orbits with characteristics similar to the proposed Space Technology 9 orbit. Therefore, the Echo balloons are excellent test cases for solar sail model validation. We present the results of studies of Echo trajectories that validate solar sail models of optics, solar radiation pressure, shape and low-thrust orbital dynamics.

  13. In-flight performance of the solar maximum mission electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is the first satellite to use the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) base module. The Modular Power Subsystem (MPS) is one of the major subsystems of the MMS. The in-flight performance of the MPS and the other components of the Electrical Power System (EPS) for the first 18 months of the mission is discussed. Details of performance such as solar array current and voltage degradation, Standard Power Regulator Unit (SPRU) efficiency, peak power tracking accuracy, battery charge to discharge ratio, battery voltage degradation and battery differential voltage characteristics are discussed.

  14. A challenge to the highest balloon altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Akita, D.; Fuke, H.; Iijima, I.; Izutsu, N.; Kato, Y.; Kawada, J.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Mizuta, E.; Namiki, M.; Nonaka, N.; Ohta, S.; Sato, T.; Seo, M.; Takada, A.; Tamura, K.; Toriumi, M.; Yamagami, T.; Yamada, K.; Yoshida, T.; Matsushima, K.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-02-01

    Development of a balloon to fly at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive challenges for scientific balloon technologies. After reaching the highest balloon altitude of 53.0 km using the 3.4 μm film in 2002, a thinner balloon film with a thickness of 2.8 μm was developed. A 5000 m3 balloon made with this film was launched successfully in 2004. However, three 60,000 m3 balloons with the same film launched in 2005, 2006, and 2007, failed during ascent. The mechanical properties of the 2.8 μm film were investigated intensively to look for degradation of the ultimate strength and its elongation as compared to the other thicker balloon films. The requirement of the balloon film was also studied using an empirical and a physical model assuming an axis-symmetrical balloon shape and the static pressure. It was found that the film was strong enough. A stress due to the dynamic pressure by the wind shear is considered as the possible reason for the unsuccessful flights. A 80,000 m3 balloon with cap films covering 9 m from the balloon top will be launch in 2011 to test the appropriateness of this reinforcement.

  15. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Members of the BARREL team in Antarctica jump up and down in what they call the Low Wind Dance as they hope for the low wind conditions needed to launch another balloon. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasas-barrel-returns-success... -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The BARREL team at the South African research station, SANAE IV, lay out the 130-foot-long balloon on the ground to prepare for inflation. The entire set up and launch process takes three to four hours. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Nicky Knox Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasas-barrel-returns-success... -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The Halley station team members assisted the BARREL team with the launches. Here, one gives the thumbs up to start inflating a BARREL balloon. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/M. Krzysztofowicz Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from... -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    A BARREL balloon launches up into the sky, destined to float on the circumpolar winds around the South Pole for up to three weeks while measuring Earth's magnetic field and energetic particles from the radiation belts. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-16

    The BARREL team at the South African research station, SANAE IV, poses next to the instrument box, which will float in the atmosphere beneath the balloon that can be seen being inflated in the background. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-31

    A team member from South African research station, SANAE IV, helps unwrap the balloon from its protective yellow plastic cover just prior to inflation. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Nicky Knox Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-28

    The BARREL instrument in Antarctica– prior to being encased in its protective box – destined to float beneath a giant balloon to study magnetic fields and energetic particles near the South Pole. Credit: NASA/Goddard/BARREL/Brett Anderson Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Ballooning in the constant sun of the South Pole summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-01

    BARREL team members lift up the instrument box below an inflated BARREL balloon to help with launch. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Francois Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-barrel-returns-successful-from-antarctica/ -- Three months, 20 balloons, and one very successful campaign. The team for NASA's BARREL – short for Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses -- mission returned from Antarctica in March 2014. BARREL's job is to help unravel the mysterious Van Allen belts, two gigantic donuts of radiation that surround Earth, which can shrink and swell in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun and sometimes expose satellites to harsh radiation. While in Antarctica, the team launched 20 balloons carrying instruments that sense charged particles that are scattered into the atmosphere from the belts, spiraling down the magnetic fields near the South Pole. Each balloon traveled around the pole for up to three weeks. The team will coordinate the BARREL data with observations from NASA's two Van Allen Probes to better understand how occurrences in the belts relate to bursts of particles funneling down toward Earth. BARREL team members will be on hand at the USA Science and Engineering Festival in DC on April 26 and 27, 2014 for the exhibit Space Balloons: Exploring the Extremes of Space Weather. NASA image use policy.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.Follow us on TwitterLike us on FacebookFind us on Instagram

  3. 14 CFR 61.115 - Balloon rating: Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Balloon rating: Limitations. 61.115 Section...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations. (a) If a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with a balloon...

  4. 14 CFR 61.115 - Balloon rating: Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Balloon rating: Limitations. 61.115 Section...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations. (a) If a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with a balloon...

  5. 14 CFR 61.115 - Balloon rating: Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Balloon rating: Limitations. 61.115 Section...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations. (a) If a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with a balloon...

  6. 14 CFR 61.115 - Balloon rating: Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balloon rating: Limitations. 61.115 Section...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations. (a) If a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with a balloon...

  7. Return to Mercury: A Comparison of Solar Simulation and Flight Data for the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercol, Carl J.

    2008-01-01

    The MErcury, Surface, Space, ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft is a NASA Discovery Mission spacecraft developed and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. It was launched on August 3, 2004 and is currently on a course for Mercury orbit insertion in March 2011. To date the mission trajectory has taken the spacecraft to minimum solar distances of 0.332 and 0.313 AU and on January 14, 2008 the first flyby of Mercury in 33 years. From launch through the latest perihelion passage temperature performance data has been collected for the sun facing Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), the sun facing phased array and low gain (omni) antennas, the solar arrays, the sunshade and the two sun facing attitude control 4.4 N thrusters. Prior to launch, extensive solar simulation testing was conducted at the Glenn Research Center, Tank 6 solar simulation facility in Cleveland Ohio. Flight hardware qualification units representing these Sun exposed components were tested in solar environments that represented near mission minimum solar distance as to verify the thermal designs and the material used in fabrication. The paper will review the thermal designs of these components and their thermal performance to date as compared to the solar simulation testing.

  8. A new tool for radiation exposure calculations in aircraft flights during disturbed solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalis, Pavlos; Tezari, Anastasia; Gerontidou, Maria; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and interact with its molecules, which can cause atmospheric showers of secondary particles that are detected by ground based neutron monitor detectors. The cascades are of great importance for the study of the radiation exposure of aircraft crews. A new Geant4 software application is presented based on DYASTIMA (Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application), which calculates the effective dose that aviators may receive in different flight scenarios characterized by different altitudes and different flight routes, during quiet and disturbed solar and cosmic ray activity. The concept is based on Monte Carlo simulations by using phantoms for the aircraft and the aviator and experimenting with different shielding materials.

  9. In-Space Structural Validation Plan for a Stretched-Lens Solar Array Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes in-space structural validation plans for a proposed Space Shuttle-based flight experiment. The test article is an innovative, lightweight solar array concept that uses pop-up, refractive stretched-lens concentrators to achieve a power/mass density of at least 175 W/kg, which is more than three times greater than current capabilities. The flight experiment will validate this new technology to retire the risk associated with its first use in space. The experiment includes structural diagnostic instrumentation to measure the deployment dynamics, static shape, and modes of vibration of the 8-meter-long solar array and several of its lenses. These data will be obtained by photogrammetry using the Shuttle payload-bay video cameras and miniature video cameras on the array. Six accelerometers are also included in the experiment to measure base excitations and small-amplitude tip motions.

  10. Analysis and prediction of stratospheric balloons trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, A.; Memmo, A.; Musso, I.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    The first step to manage a balloon flight from a trajectory point of view is the definition of launch location and period. Analysis data are used to realize a statistical study of the trajectories that can be obtained. The goal is define the conditions able to maximize the probability to respect mission objectives and constrains. Ones started with operations the balloon control centre has to manage the flight respecting safety and science. To predict stratospheric balloon trajectories we must utilize data from different forecast models and real-time measurements of wind and other meteorological entities. These sources of information have to be merged along the simulation of the balloon flight. Great attention has be paid for long duration flight from Pole and Equator, where QBO plays an important role.

  11. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  12. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  13. InP homojunction solar cell performance on the LIPS 3 flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving; Smith, Brian S.

    1988-01-01

    Performance data for the NASA Lewis Research Center indium phosphide n+p homojunction solar cell module on the LIPS 3 Flight Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment is to measure the performance of InP cells in the natural radiation environment of the 1100 km altitude, 60+ deg inclination orbit. Analysis of flight data indicates that the performance of the four cells throughout the first year is near expected values. No degradation in short-circuit current was seen, as was expected from radiation tolerance studies of similar cells. Details of the cell structure and flight module design are discussed. The results of the temperature dependency and radiation tolerance studies necessary for normalization and analysis of the data are included.

  14. InP homojunction solar cell performance on the LIPS III flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving; Smith, Brian S.

    1988-01-01

    Performance data for the NASA Lewis Research Center indium phosphide n+p homojunction solar cell module on the LIPS 3 flight experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment is to measure the performance of InP cells in the natural radiation environment of the 1100 km altitude, 60+ deg inclination orbit. Analysis of flight data indicates that the performance of the four cells throughout the first year is near expected values. No degradation in short-circuit current was seen, as was expected from radiation tolerance studies of similar cells. Details of the cell structure and flight module design are discussed. The results of the temperature dependency and radiation tolerance studies necessary for normalization and analysis of the data are included.

  15. NanoSail-D: The First Flight Demonstration of Solar Sails for Nanosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, Robin; Laue, Greg; Adams, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    The NanoSail-D mission is currently scheduled for launch onboard a Falcon Launch Vehicle in the late June 2008 timeframe. The NanoSail-D, a CubeSat-class satellite, will consist of a sail subsystem stowed in a Cubesat 2U volume integrated with a CubeSat 1U volume bus provided by the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Shortly after deployment of the NanoSail-D from a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) ejection system, the solar sail will deploy and mission operations will commence. This demonstration flight has two primary mission objectives: 1) to successfully stow and deploy the sail and 2) to demonstrate de-orbit functionality. Given a nearterm opportunity for launch, the project was met with the challenge of delivering the flight hardware in approximately six months, which required a significant constraint on flight system functionality. As a consequence, passive attitude stabilization will be achieved using permanent magnets to de-tumble and orient the body with the magnetic field lines and then rely on atmospheric drag to passively stabilize the sailcraft in an essentially maximum drag attitude. This paper will present an introduction to solar sail propulsion systems, overview the NanoSail-D spacecraft, describe the performance analysis for the passive attitude stabilization, and present a prediction of flight data results from the mission.

  16. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Casey

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  17. Balloon flight and atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Emilio

    1924-01-01

    The air is known to be charged with electricity (chiefly positive) with reference to the earth, so that its potential increases with the altitude and the difference in potential between two points in the same vertical line, divided by the distance between them, gives a value called the "potential gradient," which may vary greatly with the altitude, the nature of the ground and the atmospheric conditions.

  18. Montgolfiere balloon missions from Mars and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    Montgolfieres, which are balloons that are filled with heated ambient atmospheric gas, appear promising for the exploration of Mars as well as of Saturn's moon, Titan. On Earth, Montgolfieres are also known as 'hot air balloons'. Commercial versions are typically heated by burning propane, although a number of radiant and solar-heated Montgolfieres have been flown on earth by CNES.

  19. Reference level winds from balloon platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lally, Vincent E.

    1985-01-01

    The superpressure balloon was developed to provide a method of obtaining global winds at all altitudes from 5 to 30 km. If a balloon could be made to fly for several weeks at a constant altitude, and if it could be tracked accurately on its global circuits, the balloon would provide a tag for the air parcel in which it was embedded. The Lagrangian data on the atmospheric circulation would provide a superior data input to the numerical model. The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) was initiated in large part based on the promise of this technique coupled with free-floating ocean buoys and satellite radiometers. The initial name proposed by Charney for GARP was SABABURA 'SAtellite BAlloon BUoy RAdiometric system' (Charney, 1966). However, although the superpressure balloon exceeded its designers' expectations for flight duration in the stratosphere (longest flight duration of 744 days), flight duration below 10 km was limited by icing in super-cooled clouds to a few days. The balloon was relegated to a secondary role during the GARP Special Observing Periods. The several major superpressure balloon programs for global wind measurement are described as well as those new developments which make the balloon once again an attractive vehicle for measurement of global winds as a reference and bench-mark system for future satellite systems.

  20. Development of scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary Celebration of COSPAR of this year of 2008, it is worthwhile to summarize the results of the Scientific ballooning in early days in connection with the recent developments in various countries. Nishina Laboratories, Riken, had started the observations of cosmic rays with rubber balloons as early as 1942. However it was interrupted soon by the war II. After the war, new research group started in collaboration with several universities with nuclear emulsions put on the rubber balloons in 1950, and then soon after the group manufactured by themselves and launched the first plastic balloon in 1953. Based on additional technologies during a few years developed by these group, the Institute of Nuclear Study, INS, the University of Tokyo, organized the large campaign of 14 emulsion chambers and a pellicle stack with 8 plastic balloons in 1956. It is to be noted that the project was one of the largest in the world standard in those days. By the experience of this campaign, the importance of the balloon technologies was more recognized, and INS organized the group to study the balloon technologies, and had established some developments. The systematic study of scientific ballooning has started, when the scientific ballooning laboratory was founded in 1965, in the new Institute of ISAS, the University of Tokyo. The permanent balloon base of "Sanriku Balloon Center" was founded in 1971. This group has expended all efforts for the scientific ballooning, launching 10-20 balloons in each year with new inventions such as the studies of; Technologies to manufacture the reliable plastic balloons, New Balloon materials, New instrumentations for scientific ballooning, Systems of long duration flights including Antarctica flights, International collaboratiom, etc. Up to now almost 600 plastic balloons were launched during past 50 years. Then the scientific balloonings have played important and indispensable roles for the development of space

  1. Modeling and Flight Data Analysis of Spacecraft Dynamics with a Large Solar Array Paddle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Takanori; Maeda, Ken; Hoshino, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24 2006 and has been operated successfully since then. This satellite has the attitude dynamics characterized by three large flexible structures, four large moving components, and stringent attitude/pointing stability requirements. In particular, it has one of the largest solar array paddles. Presented in this paper are flight data analyses and modeling of spacecraft attitude motion induced by the large solar array paddle. On orbit attitude dynamics was first characterized and summarized. These characteristic motions associated with the solar array paddle were identified and assessed. These motions are thermally induced motion, the pitch excitation by the paddle drive, and the role excitation. The thermally induced motion and the pitch excitation by the paddle drive were modeled and simulated to verify the mechanics of the motions. The control law updates implemented to mitigate the attitude vibrations are also reported.

  2. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  3. Balloon Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, James F.

    1976-01-01

    For the adventurous teacher and student there is an alternative to the often messy mixing, pouring, casting, cutting, scoring and sanding of plaster of Paris for casting or sculptural projects. Balloon sculpture, devised, designed and shown here by a sculptor/teacher, is an eye appealing sculptural form and holds a strong interest for students.…

  4. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  5. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  6. Balloon Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, James F.

    1976-01-01

    For the adventurous teacher and student there is an alternative to the often messy mixing, pouring, casting, cutting, scoring and sanding of plaster of Paris for casting or sculptural projects. Balloon sculpture, devised, designed and shown here by a sculptor/teacher, is an eye appealing sculptural form and holds a strong interest for students.…

  7. High-Altitude Air Mass Zero Calibration of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Snyder, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Air mass zero calibration of solar cells has been carried out for several years by NASA Glenn Research Center using a Lear-25 aircraft and Langley plots. The calibration flights are carried out during early fall and late winter when the tropopause is at the lowest altitude. Measurements are made starting at about 50,000 feet and continue down to the tropopause. A joint NASA/Wayne State University program called Suntracker is underway to explore the use of weather balloon and communication technologies to characterize solar cells at elevations up to about 100 kft. The balloon flights are low-cost and can be carried out any time of the year. AMO solar cell characterization employing the mountaintop, aircraft and balloon methods are reviewed. Results of cell characterization with the Suntracker are reported and compared with the NASA Glenn Research Center aircraft method.

  8. The balloon and the airship technological heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    The balloon and the airship are discussed with emphasis on the identification of commonalities and distinctions. The aerostat technology behind the shape and structure of the vehicles is reviewed, including a discussion of structural weight, internal pressure, buckling, and the development of a stable tethered balloon system. Proper materials for the envelope are considered, taking elongation and stress into account, and flight operation and future developments are reviewed. Airships and tethered balloons which are designed to carry high operating pressure with low gas loss characteristics are found to share similar problems in low speed flight operations, while possessing interchangeable technologies.

  9. A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-09-01

    A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  10. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  11. Innovative Balloon Buoyancy Techniques for Atmospheric Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J.

    2000-01-01

    Until quite recently, the only practical means to control balloon buoyancy, and thus altitude, required consuming large amounts of fuel or the limited venting of helium balloons and/or dropping of ballast. With recent discoveries at JPL, novel long-life, balloon buoyancy techniques have been discovered that for the first time allow balloons to float in the primarily hydrogen atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (using ambient fill-gas), and by using renewable energy sources, allow multiple controlled landings on Venus (using atmospheric temperature differences), Mars (solar heat), Titan (RTG heat), and Earth (planet radiant heat).

  12. Innovative Balloon Buoyancy Techniques for Atmospheric Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J.

    2000-01-01

    Until quite recently, the only practical means to control balloon buoyancy, and thus altitude, required consuming large amounts of fuel or the limited venting of helium balloons and/or dropping of ballast. With recent discoveries at JPL, novel long-life, balloon buoyancy techniques have been discovered that for the first time allow balloons to float in the primarily hydrogen atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (using ambient fill-gas), and by using renewable energy sources, allow multiple controlled landings on Venus (using atmospheric temperature differences), Mars (solar heat), Titan (RTG heat), and Earth (planet radiant heat).

  13. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  14. Stratospheric Balloon Gradient Geomagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Sergey; Tsvetkov, Yury

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth's crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). One of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN during already about 20 years. This system consists of three instrumental con-tainers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one's name is -stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Data trans-mission is carried out by Globalstar satellite link. The obtained data are used in solving the problems of deep sounding of the Earth's crust magnetic structure -an extraction of magnetic anomalies, determination of a depth of bedding of magnetoactive rocks and others. The developed launching technology, deployment in flight, assembly, data processing, transfer and landing the containers with the equipment can be used for other similar problems of monitoring and sounding an environment. Useful flight weights of each instrumental container may be reaching 50 kg. More than ten testing flights (1986-2009) at stratospheric altitudes (20-30 km) have proven the reliability of this system.

  15. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    BARREL team members run under the payload as the balloon first takes flight at the SANAE IV research station in Antarctica. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four

  16. The Brazilian scientific balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Joao

    The Brazilian scientific balloon program is based almost entirely at the National Institute for Space Research -INPE, which has a facility for research and development of scientific balloon systems such as telemetry, command, power supply, separation and flight train devices, ballast control systems, ATC transponders, shock absorbers and especially different launching tech-niques. The Balloon Launching Center of INPE operates since the early 70s, when the first launches were performed in cooperation with French groups for astronomical gamma-ray obser-vations. Since then, the center was involved in a large numbers of international collaborations with France, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Italy, Germany and Tasmania. INPEs high-energy astrophysics group developed several X and Gamma-ray experiments that were launched in balloons since the early 80s. The most complex of these payloads is the MASCO experiment, launched in 2004. It consists in a 2-ton experiment with a large gamma-ray imaging coded-mask telescope and an attitude control system developed at INPE. Currently, the high-energy group is developing a prototype balloon experiment for the MIRAX satellite, named protoMIRAX. Others scientists at INPE have also used balloons for cosmic rays, geophysics and atmospheric electricity experiments.

  17. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Contributes to Solar B/Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Hinode (Sunrise), formerly known as Solar-B before reaching orbit, was launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in Japan on September 23, 2006. Hinode was designed to probe into the Sun's magnetic field to better understand the origin of solar disturbances which interfere with satellite communications, electrical power transmission grids, and the safety of astronauts traveling beyond the Earth's magnetic field. Hinode is circling Earth in a polar orbit that places the instruments in continuous sunlight for nine months each year and allows data dumps to a high latitude European Space Agency (ESA) ground station every orbit. NASA and other science teams will support instrument operations and data collection from the spacecraft's operation center at the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science facility located in Tokyo. The Hinode spacecraft is a collaboration among space agencies of Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) managed development of three instruments comprising the spacecraft; the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT); the X-Ray Telescope (XRT); and the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Provided by the Multimedia support group at MSFC, this rendering illustrates the Solar-B Spacecraft in earth orbit with its solar panels partially extended.

  18. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Contributes to Solar B/Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Hinode (Sunrise), formerly known as Solar-B before reaching orbit, was launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in Japan on September 23, 2006. Hinode was designed to probe into the Sun's magnetic field to better understand the origin of solar disturbances which interfere with satellite communications, electrical power transmission grids, and the safety of astronauts traveling beyond the Earth's magnetic field. Hinode is circling Earth in a polar orbit that places the instruments in continuous sunlight for nine months each year and allows data dumps to a high latitude European Space Agency (ESA) ground station every orbit. NASA and other science teams will support instrument operations and data collection from the spacecraft's operation center at the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science facility located in Tokyo. The Hinode spacecraft is a collaboration among space agencies of Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) managed development of three instruments comprising the spacecraft; the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT); the X-Ray Telescope (XRT); and the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Provided by the Multimedia support group at MSFC, this rendering illustrates the Solar-B Spacecraft in earth orbit with its solar panels completely extended.

  19. Space environmental effect on solar cells: LDEF and other flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruenbaum, Peter; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of several experiments flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) to examine the effects of the space environment on materials and technologies to be used in solar arrays. The various LDEF experiments are compared to each other as well as to other solar cell flight data published in the literature. Data on environmental effects such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet light, micrometeoroids and debris, and charged particles are discussed in detail. The results from the LDEF experiments allow us to draw several conclusions. Atomic oxygen erodes unprotected silver interconnects, unprotected Kapton, and polymer cell covers, but certain dielectric coatings can protect both silver and Kapton. Cells that had wrap-around silver contacts sometimes showed erosion at the edges, but more recently developed wrap-through cells are not expected to have these problems. Micrometeoroid and debris damage is limited to the area close to the impact, and microsheet covers provide the cells with some protection. Damage from charged particles was as predicted, and the cell covers provided adequate protection. In general, silicon cells with microsheet covers showed very little degradation, and solar modules showed less than 3 percent degradation, except when mechanically damaged. The solar cell choices for the Space Station solar array are supported by the data from LDEF.

  20. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  1. Balloons and Science Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balloon Council, Washington, DC.

    This document provides background information on balloons including: (1) the history of balloons; (2) balloon manufacturing; (3) biodegradability; (4) the fate of latex balloons; and (5) the effect of balloons on the rainforest and sea mammals. Also included as part of this instructional kit are four fun experiments that allow students to…

  2. The Latest Developments in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Latest Developments in NASA’s Long Duration Balloon Systems Bryan D. Stilwell, bryan.stilwell@csbf.nasa.gov Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas, USA The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, located in Palestine, Texas offers the scientific community a high altitude balloon based communications platform. Scientific payload mass can exceed 2722 kg with balloon float altitudes on average of 40000 km and flight duration of up to 100 days. Many developments in electrical systems have occurred over the more than 25 years of long duration flights. This paper will discuss the latest developments in electronic systems related to long duration flights. Over the years, the long duration flights have increased in durations exceeding 56 days. In order to support these longer flights, the systems have had to increase in complexity and reliability. Several different systems that have been upgraded and/or enhanced will be discussed.

  3. Interaction of solar wind ions with thin carbon foils: Calibration of time-of-flight spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonin, M.; Buergi, Alfred; Oetliker, M.; Bochsler, P.

    1992-11-01

    With the KAFKA (German acronym for carbon foils collisions analyzer) experiment, charge exchange, energy loss and angular scattering of solar wind ions in thin (1 to 10 microg/sq cm) carbon foils, are studied. Such foils are extensively used in time of flight mass spectrometry. So far, the properties of H, He, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ti, Fe, and Ni and in the 0.5 to 5 keV/u energy range have been investigated.

  4. A Flight Prediction for Performance of the SWAS Solar Array Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneiderman, Gary; Daniel, Walter K.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of ground-based solar array deployment tests with the on-orbit deployment. The discussion includes a summary of the mechanisms involved and the correlation of a dynamics model with ground based test results. Some of the unique characteristics of the mechanisms are explained through the analysis of force and angle data acquired from the test deployments. The correlated dynamics model is then used to predict the performance of the system in its flight application.

  5. A Flight Prediction for Performance of the SWAS Solar Array Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seniderman, Gary; Daniel, Walter K.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of ground-based solar array deployment tests with the on-orbit deployment. The discussion includes a summary of the mechanisms involved and the correlation of a dynamics model with ground based test results. Some of the unique characteristics of the mechanisms are explained through the analysis of force and angle data acquired from the test deployments. The correlated dynamics model is then used to predict the performance of the system in its flight application.

  6. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  7. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  8. NASA super-pressure balloons - designing to meet the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry M., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon project presents a new challenge in balloon design by extending flight duration for large heavy payloads. The pumpkin balloon design is innovative and presents many new challenges. This paper encapsulates the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon Vehicle developments, presents them to the Science Community, and shows points of interaction with the users. The capabilities and limitations are presented to allow potential users to make informed choices in the development of balloon class payloads. Brief summaries of test flights and the cause and effect relationship between suspended load and float altitude are presented. A focus on innovation and the future using the Ultra Long Duration Balloon super-pressure balloon technology is also presented.

  9. Overview of the NASA balloon R&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. Steve, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The catastrophic balloon failure during the first half of the 1980's identified the need for a comprehensive and continuing balloon research and development (R&D) commitment by NASA. Technical understanding was lacking in many of the disciplines and processes associated with scientific ballooning. A comprehensive balloon R&D plan was developed in 1986 and implemented in 1987. The objectives were to develop the understanding of balloon system performance, limitations, and failure mechanisms. The program consisted of five major technical areas: structures, performance and analysis, materials, chemistry and processing, and quality control. Research activitites have been conducted at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), other NASA centers and government facilities, universities, and the balloon manufacturers. Several new and increased capabilities and resources have resulted from this activity. The findings, capabilities, and plan of the balloon R&D program are presented.

  10. Balloon Kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Clinical Need Vertebral compression fractures are one of the most common types of osteoporotic fractures. They can lead to chronic pain and spinal deformity. They are caused when the vertebral body (the thick block of bone at the front of each vertebra) is too weak to support the loads of activities of daily living. Spinal deformity due to a collapsed vertebral body can substantially affect the quality of life of elderly people, who are especially at risk for osteoporotic fractures due to decreasing bone mass with age. A population-based study across 12 European centres recently found that VCFs have a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Complications associated with VCFs are pulmonary dysfunction, eating disorders, loss of independence, and mental status change due to pain and the use of medications. Osteoporotic VCFs also are associated with a higher rate of death. VCFs affect an estimated 25% of women over age 50 years and 40% of women over age 80 years. Only about 30% of these fractures are diagnosed in clinical practice. A Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study reported on the prevalence of vertebral deformity in Canada in people over 50 years of age. To define the limit of normality, they plotted a normal distribution, including mean and standard deviations (SDs) derived from a reference population without any deformity. They reported a prevalence rate of 23.5% in women and a rate of 21.5% in men, using 3 SDs from the mean as the limit of normality. When they used 4 SDs, the prevalence was 9.3% and 7.3%, respectively. They also found the prevalence of vertebral deformity increased with age. For people older than 80 years of age, the prevalence for women and men was 45% and 36%, respectively, using 3 SDs as the limit of normality. About 85% of VCFs are due to primary

  11. NASA Pilot and Researcher Prepare for a Solar Cell Calibration Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-04-21

    Pilot Earle Boyer and researcher Henry Brandhorst prepare for a solar cell calibration flight in a Martin B-57B Canberra at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis was in the early stages of decades-long energy conversion and space power research effort. Brandhorst, a member of the Chemistry and Energy Conversion Division, led a team of Lewis researchers in a quest to develop new power sources to sustain spacecraft in orbit. Solar cells proved to be an important source of energy, but researchers discovered that their behavior varied at different atmospheric levels. Their standardization and calibration were critical. Brandhorst initiated a standardized way to calibrate solar cells in the early 1960s using the B-57B aircraft. The pilots would take the aircraft up into the troposphere and open the solar cell to the sunlight. The aircraft would steadily descend while instruments recorded how much energy was being captured by the solar cell. From this data, Brandhorst could determine the estimated power for a particular solar cell at any altitude. Pilot Earle Boyer joined NASA Lewis in October 1962. He had flown Convair F-102 Delta Dagger fighters in the Air Force and served briefly in the National Guard before joining the Langley Research Center. Boyer was only at Langley a few months before he transferred to Cleveland. He flew the B-57B, a Convair F-106 Delta Dart, Gulfstream G-1 with an experimental turboprop, Learjet and many other aircraft over the next 32 years at Lewis.

  12. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Contributes to Solar B/Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Hinode (Sunrise), formerly known as Solar-B before reaching orbit, was launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in Japan on September 23, 2006. Hinode was designed to probe into the Sun's magnetic field to better understand the origin of solar disturbances which interfere with satellite communications, electrical power transmission grids, and the safety of astronauts traveling beyond the Earth's magnetic field. Hinode is circling Earth in a polar orbit that places the instruments in continuous sunlight for nine months each year and allows data dumps to a high latitude European Space Agency (ESA) ground station every orbit. NASA and other science teams will support instrument operations and data collection from the spacecraft's operation center at the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science facility located in Tokyo. The Hinode spacecraft is a collaboration among space agencies of Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) managed development of three instruments comprising the spacecraft; the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT); the X-Ray Telescope (XRT); and the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Provided by the Multimedia support group at MSFC, this video clip is an animated illustration of the Solar-B Spacecraft in earth orbit.

  13. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  14. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  15. Empirical determination of solar proton access to the atmosphere: Impact on polar flight paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Jason J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Green, Janet C.

    2013-07-01

    Violent expulsions on the Sun's surface release high energy solar protons that ultimately affect HF communication used by aircraft. The geomagnetic field screens the low altitude equatorial region, but these protons can access the atmosphere over the poles. The latitudes over which the solar protons can reach vary with geomagnetic indices such as Kp and Dst. In this study we use observations from low Earth orbit to determine the atmospheric access of solar protons and hence the flights paths most likely to be affected. Observations taken by up to six polar orbiting satellites during 15 solar proton events are analyzed. From this we determine 16,850 proton rigidity cutoff estimates across three energy channels. Empirical fits are undertaken to estimate the most likely behavior of the cutoff dependence with geomagnetic activity. The changing Kp value is found to lead the variation in the cutoffs by 3 h. We provide simple equations by which the geomagnetic latitude at which the protons impact the atmosphere can be determined from a given Kp or Dst value. The variation found in the cutoff with Kp is similar to that used in existing operational models, although we suggest that a 1-2° equatorward shift in latitude would provide greater accuracy. We find that a Kp predictive model can provide additional warning to the variation in proton cutoffs. Hence, a prediction of the cutoff latitudes can be made 3 h to as much as 7 h into the future, meeting suggested minimum planning times required by the aviation industry.

  16. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the large-angle pointing performance.

  17. The Design, Development and Test of Balloonborne and Groundbased Lidar Systems. Volume 2. Flight Test of Atmospheric Balloon Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Balloon Lidar E-xperiment) is part of Air Force Phillips Laboratory’s continuing interest in developing techniques for making remote measurements of...shaft is rotated until the two pointing mirrors are reflecting away from the payload. Using an autocollimator, the reticula pattern reflected from the...laser pointing mirror is made coincident with the reticula pattern reflected from the receiver pointing mirror by adjusting the mounting of the former

  18. Unique High Energy Experiment Initiative by ICSP with Weather Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S. K.; Bhowmick, D.; Sarkar, R.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Midya, S.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of miniaturization of instruments, Indian Centre for Space Physics began exploring high energy Universe using weather balloons about six years ago. Several Payloads of mass within 4 kg have been flown to near space. Along with the main measurement unit which is usually a scintillator detector, attitude measurement unit, GPS tracking unit, video camera and parachute(s) are also flown. Using large duration flights unique to ICSP without using any valve or ballast and any extra cost, this inexpensive initiative brings back very rich scientific data on soft X-ray spectra of Cosmic Rays, Solar flares, Gamma Ray Bursts and Crab Pulsar. Some results are presented. The payloads are reusable, reducing the recurring cost per flight to be less that $500.00.

  19. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  20. Ballooning Then...and Ballooning Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the history of hot-air balloon travel, starting with its French origins and continuing through to the 1978 national championship. An address for Balloon Federation of America membership is included. (MA)

  1. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Flight Dynamics Simulations Using MATLAB (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headrick, R. D.; Rowe, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study to verify onboard attitude control laws in the coarse Sun-pointing (CSP) mode by simulation and to develop procedures for operational support for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995, and the predictions of the simulation were verified with the flight data. This study used a commercial off the shelf product MATLAB(tm) to do the following: Develop procedures for computing the parasitic torques for orbital maneuvers; Simulate onboard attitude control of roll, pitch, and yaw during orbital maneuvers; Develop procedures for predicting firing time for both on- and off-modulated thrusters during orbital maneuvers; Investigate the use of feed forward or pre-bias torques to reduce the attitude handoff during orbit maneuvers - in particular, determine how to use the flight data to improve the feed forward torque estimates for use on future maneuvers. The study verified the stability of the attitude control during orbital maneuvers and the proposed use of feed forward torques to compensate for the attitude handoff. Comparison of the simulations with flight data showed: Parasitic torques provided a good estimate of the on- and off-modulation for attitude control; The feed forward torque compensation scheme worked well to reduce attitude handoff during the orbital maneuvers. The work has been extended to prototype calibration of thrusters from observed firing time and observed reaction wheel speed changes.

  2. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  3. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J

    1964-04-17

    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  4. Flight Qualification And Production Results With Large Area Space Solar Cells And Panel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Hanley, James; Jun, Bogim; Bardfield, Rina; Stone, Beth

    2011-10-01

    Spectrolab's product roadmap provides improvement in product performance in parallel with continuous cost reduction to maintain competitive standing in our industry. Product performance improvement is achieved by developing higher efficiency solar cells (e.g. 29.5% XTJ and 33% IMM cells).Reduced product cost is achieved historically through a variety of means including yield improvements, direct material cost reductions, process changes, and most recently, a transition to large area cell configurations (e.g. "LEONE" at 59.65 cm2). Spectrolab has successfully completed the qualification of its latest triple junction space solar cell, the 29.5% 2 XTJ (26.62 cm ), per AIAA-S-111-2005 - augmented by additional Spectrolab testing. Large area LEONE UTJ and XTJ cells (59.65 cm2 from 100 mm diameter germanium wafer) have also been qualified. Use of these large area cells has resulted in the reduction of solar panel cost, add-on mass and manufacturing cycle time for programs. This evolution to larger area cells is the result of a strategic cost reduction effort initiated in 2006; the first step of which was to manufacture the largest possible cells (LEONE) using the 100 mm germanium (Ge) wafer. In flight production since 2007, the LEONE UTJ cell has now completed rigorous qualification testing to 15,549 GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) and 66,060 LEO (Low Earth Orbit) thermal cycles. Over 53,000 LEONE UTJ cells, including more than 27,000 cells on panels delivered to flight programs, have been produced to date. The on-orbit performance of the LEONE UTJ cells is nominal. Finally, progress on the second step of our strategic cost reduction effort towards larger cells and less piece part handling is presented. This effort involves the establishment of a 150 mm Ge -based manufacturing infrastructure.

  5. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-04

    Liftoff! A balloon begins to rise over the brand new Halley VI Research Station, which had its grand opening in February 2013. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through

  6. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-30

    Watching a BARREL balloon – and the instruments dangling below – float up over the SANAE IV research base in Antarctica. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four

  7. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Pumping helium into the first BARREL balloon to launch from Halley Research Satation. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science

  8. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A crane lowers two BARREL balloon payloads onto the platform at Halley Research Station in Antarctica. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors

  9. CNES super pressure balloons assessment and new developments to prepare Strateole-2 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, Stephanie; Spel, Martin; Cocquerez, Philippe; Meyer, Jean-Renaud; Nicot, Jean-Marc.; Parot, Gael; Perraud, Sophie

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payloada. This paper will describe the main results and lessons achieved during the last CONCORDIASI campaign in 2010 over the Antarctic region. Thus, anomalies on the on-board system were investigated and explained by the effect of atmospheric particles fluxes. Also related to these flights, an accurate thermal model was built to evaluate the temperature distribution in the balloon, and several ageing tests have been made to better understand the effect of solar exposure on the different balloon materials. This paper will also present the new developments in progress for the future STRATEOLE-2 campaign dedicated to advance the knowledge of coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, and foreseen in 2018-2019. In particular, a new command-control system will be developed to be in conformity with the CNES safety rules, and in continuation with the new zero pressure balloons system named NOSYCA. New solar panels are under investigation. Finally, two new balloon sizes will grow the SPB family to respond to the scientist demand of two special altitude densities.

  10. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  11. Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2014-05-01

    As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

  12. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tetsuya

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has conducted scientific ballooning in Japan for almost fifty years. Recent stratospheric balloon operations at Taiki Aerospace Research Field (TARF), Hokkaido, produce significant space science achievements. We have also developed new TT&&C system onboard which realize user-friendly interface between payloads and the balloon system. For the developments of next generation balloons, a tawara-shaped superpressure balloon (SPB) fabricating with polyethylene film was inflated in the TARF hangar in order to verify its pressure resistance. Since polyethylene balloons can float on the recovery, we will be able to carry out flight tests of tawara-shaped SPB repeatedly with no impact on the ocean pollution. The development of high altitude balloons with ultra-thin film was successful, and the flight performance will be presented in another presentation. In order to realize long duration balloon flights, which are quite difficult to be conducted in Japan, Japanese community eager to have complementary balloon campaigns in foreign countries. After two year discussion with Australian government and the University of New South Wales, ISAS will carry out two balloon launches at Alice Springs, Northern Territory, in 2014 Austral summer. Plans and schedule of this Australian campaign will also be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  14. High-altitude balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, William M.; Olson, David S.; Keenan, Donald E.

    1998-09-01

    The mission of the High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) is to resolve critical acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) and fire control issues, validate enabling technologies, and acquire supporting data for future space- based laser experiments. HABE is integrating components from existing technologies into a payload that can autonomously acquire, track, and point a lower power laser at a ballistic missile in its boost phase of flight. For its primary mission the payload will be flown multiple times to an altitude of 85,000 feet above the White Sands Missile Range. From the near-space environment of the balloon flight, HABE will demonstrate the ATP functions required for a space- based laser in a ballistic missile defense role. The HABE platform includes coarse and fine gimbal pointing, infrared and visible passive tracking, active fine tracking, internal auto-alignment and boresighting, and precision line-of-sight stabilization functions. This paper presents an overview and status of the HABE program.

  15. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  16. The Debris Disk Explorer: A Balloon-Borne Coronagraph for Observing Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr; Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Trauger, John; Krist, John; Aldrich, Jack; Brugarolas, Paul; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Wyatt, Mark; Stuchlik, David; Lanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Debris Disk Explorer (DDX) is a proposed balloon-borne investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. DDX will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of tens of disks. These measurements will enable us to place the Solar System in context. By imaging debris disks around nearby stars, DDX will reveal the presence of perturbing planets via their influence on disk structure, and explore the physics and history of debris disks by characterizing the size and composition of disk dust. The DDX instrument is a 0.75-m diameter off-axis telescope and a coronagraph carried by a stratospheric balloon. DDX will take high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Two flights are planned; an overnight test flight within the United States followed by a month-long science flight launched from New Zealand. The long flight will fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to DDX. It will achieve a raw contrast of 10(exp -7), with a processed contrast of 10(exp -8). A technology benefit of DDX is that operation in the near-space environment will raise the Technology Readiness Level of internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  17. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallice, A.; Wienhold, F. G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Immler, F.; Peter, T.

    2011-10-01

    A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30-35 km altitude) is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI) campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s-1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s-1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) in the orographically

  18. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  19. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  20. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certain flight tests. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon) that is... used for a flight test for an airline transport pilot certificate or a class or type rating on...

  1. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  2. Improved model for solar cosmic ray exposure in manned Earth orbital flights

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.; Townsend, L.W.

    1990-06-01

    A calculational model is derived for use in estimating Solar cosmic ray exposure to critical body organs in low-Earth orbit at the center of a large spherical shield of fixed thickness. The effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field and the astronauts' self-shielding are evaluated explicitly. The geomagnetic field model is an approximate tilted eccentric dipole with geomagnetic storms represented as a uniform-impressed field. The storm field is related to the planetary geomagnetic index K(sub p). The code is applied to the Shuttle geometry using the Shuttle mass distribution surrounding two locations on the flight deck. The Shuttle is treated as pure aluminum and the astronaut as soft tissue. Short-term, average fluence over a single orbit is calculated as a function of the location of the lines of nodes or long-term averages over all lines of nodes for a fixed inclination.

  3. Pre-flight calibration of LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmoussa, A.; Dammasch, I. E.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Schühle, U.; Koller, S.; Stockman, Y.; Scholze, F.; Richter, M.; Kroth, U.; Laubis, C.; Dominique, M.; Kretzschmar, M.; Mekaoui, S.; Gissot, S.; Theissen, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Bolsee, D.; Hermans, C.; Gillotay, D.; Defise, J.-M.; Schmutz, W.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. LYRA, the Large Yield Radiometer, is a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) solar radiometer, planned to be launched in November 2009 on the European Space Agency PROBA2, the Project for On-Board Autonomy spacecraft. Methods: The instrument was radiometrically calibrated in the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the Berlin Electron Storage ring for SYnchroton radiation (BESSY II). The calibration was done using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at PTB's VUV and soft X-ray radiometry beamlines using reference detectors calibrated with the help of an electrical substitution radiometer as the primary detector standard. Results: A total relative uncertainty of the radiometric calibration of the LYRA instrument between 1% and 11% was achieved. LYRA will provide irradiance data of the Sun in four UV passbands and with high temporal resolution down to 10 ms. The present state of the LYRA pre-flight calibration is presented as well as the expected instrument performance.

  4. Improved model for solar cosmic ray exposure in manned Earth orbital flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Atwell, William; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1990-01-01

    A calculational model is derived for use in estimating Solar cosmic ray exposure to critical body organs in low-Earth orbit at the center of a large spherical shield of fixed thickness. The effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field and the astronauts' self-shielding are evaluated explicitly. The geomagnetic field model is an approximate tilted eccentric dipole with geomagnetic storms represented as a uniform-impressed field. The storm field is related to the planetary geomagnetic index K(sub p). The code is applied to the Shuttle geometry using the Shuttle mass distribution surrounding two locations on the flight deck. The Shuttle is treated as pure aluminum and the astronaut as soft tissue. Short-term, average fluence over a single orbit is calculated as a function of the location of the lines of nodes or long-term averages over all lines of nodes for a fixed inclination.

  5. Attitude Control Flight Experience: Coping with Solar Radiation and Ion Engines Leak Thrust in Hayabusa (MUSES-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Kominato, Takashi; Shirakawa, Ken'ichi

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the attitude reorientation taking the advantage of solar radiation pressure without use of any fuel aboard. The strategy had been adopted to make Hayabusa spacecraft keep pointed toward the Sun for several months, while spinning. The paper adds the above mentioned results reported in Sedona this February showing another challenge of combining ion engines propulsion tactically balanced with the solar radiation torque with no spin motion. The operation has been performed since this March for a half year successfully. The flight results are presented with the estimated solar array panel diffusion coefficient and the ion engine's swirl torque.

  6. The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercial Demonstration Program at Marshall Space Flight Center - Some problems and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Solar Heating and Cooling Commercial Demonstration Program by the Department of Energy and the Marshall Space Flight Center activities supporting this program from its conception are defined and discussed. Problems are summarized in the design and financial areas. It is concluded that the program has significantly assisted the creation of a viable solar testing and cooling industry. The cost effective procedures evolving from the program are expected to make a major contribution to reducing the effective life cycle cost of solar installation.

  7. Current status of the GRAPE balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Ertley, Camden; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.; Wasti, Sambid K.

    2014-07-01

    The Gamma RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) was first own on a 26-hour balloon flight in the fall of 2011. GRAPE consists of an array of Compton polarimeter modules (based on traditional scintillation technologies) designed to operate in the energy range from 50 keV up to 500 keV. The ultimate goal of our program is to operate GRAPE in a wide FoV configuration for the study of gamma-ray bursts. For the first balloon flight, GRAPE was configured in a collimated mode to facilitate observations of known point sources. The Crab nebula/pulsar, the active Sun, and Cygnus X{1 were the primary targets for the first flight. Polarization results from this flight are summarized. Plans for the next GRAPE balloon flight, which is scheduled to take place in the fall of 2014 from Ft. Sumner, NM, will also be presented. These plans involve modifications designed to improve the polarization sensitivity, including an expansion of the array of polarimeter modules from 16 to 24 and improvements to the instrument shielding. These improvements to the instrument will significantly improve the polarization sensitivity, enabling a measurement of the Crab Nebula polarization to be made during the 2014 balloon flight.

  8. Flight qualification test results for violet cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    The violet solar cell has been submitted to a flight qualification program. The tasks included in this program were: to define the violet cell's electrical output from -100 C to +100 C; to determine the violet cell's degradation under 2 MeV, 1 MeV and .3 MeV proton irradiation, under a high humidity environment and under ultraviolet light; to thermal cycle two similar modules of violet cells; to flight qualify a full size violet cell panel for the IMP-J flight; and to obtain a primary balloon-flown standard of the violet cell type. The results of these tests demonstrate that the violet cell is fully qualified for space flight use with no further development work. The tests show that the violet cell offers a power increase of at least twenty-one per cent over presently available commercial cells.

  9. The EUSO-Balloon pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder for JEM-EUSO, the Extreme Universe Space Observatory which is to be hosted on-board the International Space Station. As JEM-EUSO is designed to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR)-induced Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by detecting their ultraviolet light tracks "from above", EUSO-Balloon is a nadir-pointing UV telescope too. With its Fresnel Optics and Photo-Detector Module, the instrument monitors a 50 km2 ground surface area in a wavelength band of 290-430 nm, collecting series of images at a rate of 400,000 frames/sec. The objectives of the balloon demonstrator are threefold: a) perform a full end-to-end test of a JEM-EUSO prototype consisting of all the main subsystems of the space experiment, b) measure the effective terrestrial UV background, with a spatial and temporal resolution relevant for JEM-EUSO. c) detect tracks of ultraviolet light from near space for the first time. The latter is a milestone in the development of UHECR science, paving the way for any future space-based UHECR observatory. On August 25, 2014, EUSO-Balloon was launched from Timmins Stratospheric Balloon Base (Ontario, Canada) by the balloon division of the French Space Agency CNES. From a float altitude of 38 km, the instrument operated during the entire astronomical night, observing UV-light from a variety of ground-covers and from hundreds of simulated EASs, produced by flashers and a laser during a two-hour helicopter under-flight.

  10. Design and Proto-Flight Test Strategy for a Microscale Solar Thermal Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, F. G.; Palmer, P.; Gibbon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that a micro-scale solar thermal engine, using storable monopropellants (e.g., water, ammonia, or hydrazine) and simplified subsystems, augments microsatellite capabilities by permitting velocity changes on the order of 1,500-3,000 m/s. Small satellites have long been seen as "confined" to limited roles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Adding significant propulsive capability opens up new roles and missions--among these, communications in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), as well as lunar orbit insertion and near-earth asteroid flybys. Transfer times range from as little as 30-40 days (for Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit to GEO) to 275 days for selected near-earth object encounters. This is accomplished by performing moderate thrust (~5 N) firings of the solar thermal engine at perigee and/or apogee. This paper will briefly review benchmark missions and preliminary design choices, concentrating on the selected detailed design and its ramifications for testing and spacecraft operational use. The solar thermal propulsion system is to be built as a proto-qualification/proto-flight unit (i.e., tested to qualification levels and subsequently used in on-orbit operations). This will minimize the number of experimental iterations prior to flight and reduce overall development cost. The testing program will include acoustic, sinusoidal, and random vibration tests, in line with Ariane 5's Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads (ASAP) requirements. As several SSTL enhanced microsatellites have flown aboard Ariane, these figures represent excellent baseline values for the test campaign. Additionally, the solar thermal engine will be constructed so as to ensure compatibility with existing host spacecraft operational protocols. SSTL ground operations are "autonomous and self-checking," requiring the equivalent of only several operators per day to manage numerous small satellite passes. It is important that an advanced propulsion system not compromise

  11. LEO Flight Testing of GaAs on Si Solar Cells Aboard MISSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Clark, Eric B.; Ringel, Steven A.; Andre, Carrie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Maurer, William F.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Walters, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research efforts have demonstrated small area (0.04 cm) GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) solar cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 17%. These results were achieved on Si substrates coated with a step graded buffer of Si(x),Ge(1-x) alloys graded to 100% Ge. Recently, a 100-fold increase in device area was accomplished for these devices in preparation for on-orbit testing of this technology aboard Materials International Space Station Experiment number 5 (MISSE5). The GaAs/Si MISSE5 experiment contains five (5) GaAs/Si test devices with areas of lcm(exp 2) and 4cm(exp 4) as well as two (2) GaAs on GaAs control devices. Electrical performance data, measured on-orbit for three (3) of the test devices and one (1) of the control devices, will be telemetered to ground stations daily. After approximately one year on orbit, the MISSE5 payload will be returned to Earth for post flight evaluation. This paper will discuss the development of the GaAs/Si devices for the MISSE5 flight experiment and will present recent ground and on-orbit performance data.

  12. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  13. LEO Flight Testing of GaAs on Si Solar Cells Aboard MISSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Clark, Eric B.; Ringel, Steven A.; Andre, Carrie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Maurer, William F.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Walters, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research efforts have demonstrated small area (0.04 cm) GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) solar cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 17%. These results were achieved on Si substrates coated with a step graded buffer of Si(x),Ge(1-x) alloys graded to 100% Ge. Recently, a 100-fold increase in device area was accomplished for these devices in preparation for on-orbit testing of this technology aboard Materials International Space Station Experiment number 5 (MISSE5). The GaAs/Si MISSE5 experiment contains five (5) GaAs/Si test devices with areas of lcm(exp 2) and 4cm(exp 4) as well as two (2) GaAs on GaAs control devices. Electrical performance data, measured on-orbit for three (3) of the test devices and one (1) of the control devices, will be telemetered to ground stations daily. After approximately one year on orbit, the MISSE5 payload will be returned to Earth for post flight evaluation. This paper will discuss the development of the GaAs/Si devices for the MISSE5 flight experiment and will present recent ground and on-orbit performance data.

  14. Long duration IR montgolfier and super-pressure balloon flights at the tropics for invetigating the impact of deep convection on transport, chemistry and microphysics in the UTLS region: The Hibiscus Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J.; Letrenne, G.

    The HIBISCUS project is to study the uplift of tropospheric air, lightning, water- vapour injection and radiative impact on the lower stratosphere associated to deep convection at the tropics. The main field campaign planned in Brazil during the Austral summer of 2003-04 is to combined measurements around the world by remote sensing from Infra-Red Montgolfier (MIR) and in-situ from constant level super-pressure balloons (BP). Remote sensing includes profiling of O3, NO 2, H2O and atmospheric extinction in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere by UV-Vis spectrometry and aerosol and sub-visible cirrus by a micro-lidar. In-situ measurements are those of water vapour, ozone and clouds at constant level at the tropopause level around 17 km. In preparation to HIBISCUS, several preliminary MIR and BP test flights have been conducted in the tropics and in the Arctic which allow to better understand the anticipated performances of the approach. The goal of the presentation is to describe the results already achieved during those test flights and the undergoing developments for fulfilling the scientific goals of HIBISCUS.

  15. A High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for 0.3-10 MeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics: Construction and Initial Balloon Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1993-01-01

    The results achieved with a 3.5 liter liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXe-TPC) prototype during the first year include: the efficiency of detecting the primary scintillation light for event triggering has been measured to be higher than 85%; the charge response has been measured to be stable to within 0.1% for a period of time of about 30 hours; the electron lifetime has been measured to be in excess of 1.3 ms; the energy resolution has been measured to be consistent with previous results obtained with small volume chambers; X-Y gamma ray imaging has been demonstrated with a nondestructive orthogonal wires readout; Monte Carlo simulation results on detection efficiency, expected background count rate at balloon altitude, background reduction algorithms, telescope response to point-like and diffuse sources, and polarization sensitivity calculations; and work on a 10 liter LXe-TPC prototype and gas purification/recovery system.

  16. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - In the NASA spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers stand by as the balloon at right is released to lift the solar array panel into position for installation on the Gravity Probe B spacecraft. Installing each array is a 3-day process and includes a functional deployment test. The Gravity Probe B mission is a relativity experiment developed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Stanford University and Lockheed Martin. The spacecraft will test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity that he advanced in 1916: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Gravity Probe B consists of four sophisticated gyroscopes that will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. The mission will look in a precision manner for tiny changes in the direction of spin.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-04

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - In the NASA spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers stand by as the balloon at right is released to lift the solar array panel into position for installation on the Gravity Probe B spacecraft. Installing each array is a 3-day process and includes a functional deployment test. The Gravity Probe B mission is a relativity experiment developed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Stanford University and Lockheed Martin. The spacecraft will test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity that he advanced in 1916: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Gravity Probe B consists of four sophisticated gyroscopes that will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. The mission will look in a precision manner for tiny changes in the direction of spin.

  17. Control over the cosmic radiation level during flight of space vehicles Vostok 3, Vostok 4, Vostok 5 and Vostok 6.

    PubMed

    Savenko, I A; Pisarenko, N F; Shavrin, P I; Nesterov, V E

    1965-01-01

    1. During the flights of the"Vostok"series of spaceships the radiation conditions in space were kept under operative control which comprised: a. The solar activity observation and forecasting of the solar flares followed by the appearance of proton fluxes in the near space. b. Probing the upper atmosphere with the help of balloon launchings at high altitudes. c. Direct measuring radiation level inside the "Vostok" spaceships. 2. The radiation dose received by the cosmonauts during the flights of the "Vostok" spaceships is given. Contributions of various components of cosmic radiation are considered. 3. The possibility of flights of the "Vostok" series of spaceships at high altitudes is evaluated.

  18. A Balloon-Borne, Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope with Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter

    Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout and fly it on an engineering balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, NM. The instrument will be of sufficient scale to image the Crab Nebula in a one-day flight. The results of this work will demonstrate conclusively that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the medium-energy gamma-ray band, were it to be applied to a 1 cubic meter instrument on a ULDB or Explorer platform. Such an instrument would be able to make groundbreaking gamma- ray measurements of bright relativistic particle accelerators, such as galactic black holes, pulsars, solar flares, and gamma-ray bursts.

  19. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  20. The extreme UV imager of solar orbiter: from detailed design to flight model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Auchère, F.; Berghmans, D.; Harra, L.; Schühle, U.; Schmutz, W.; Zhukov, A.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Gyo, M.; Kennedy, T.; Mercier, R.; Verbeeck, F.; Thome, M.; Heerlein, K.; Hermans, A.; Jacques, L.; Mazzoli, A.; Meining, S.; Rossi, L.; Tandy, J.; Smith, P.; Winter, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission will provide full-sun and high-resolution image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. After the breadboarding and prototyping activities that focused on key technologies, the EUI project has completed the design phase and has started the final manufacturing of the instrument and its validation. The EUI instrument has successfully passed its Critical Design Review (CDR). The process validated the detailed design of the Optical Bench unit and of its sub-units (entrance baffles, doors, mirrors, camera, and filter wheel mechanisms), and of the Electronic Box unit. In the same timeframe, the Structural and Thermal Model (STM) test campaign of the two units have been achieved, and allowed to correlate the associated mathematical models. The lessons learned from STM and the detailed design served as input to release the manufacturing of the Qualification Model (QM) and of the Flight Model (FM). The QM will serve to qualify the instrument units and sub-units, in advance of the FM acceptance tests and final on-ground calibration.

  1. The French Balloon Program 2013 - 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Vargas, André; Raizonville, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting - as designer and operator - a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique and valuable access to near space science. From 2008 to 2013, an important renovation effort was achieved, beginning by Zero Pressure Balloons (ZPB) systems, to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to the growing reliability and performance requirements from scientific missions. The paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2015 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for ZPB, qualified in flight in 2013. In particular, the PILOT telescope successfully flew during the 2015 campaign, key figures about the flight and mission will be given. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently in process of developement at CNES will be given, as well as the presentation of the Stratéole 2 project, dedicated to the survey of the low stratosphere and upper troposphere in equatorial regions, with a fleet of small suprer pressure balloons (SPB). As far as tropospheric balloons are concerned, the Aeroclipper initiative will be presented, aiming at qualifying a quasi-tethered balloon, pushed by the winds close to the sea surface, for the study of cyclones. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  2. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fort Sumner, New Mexico and Palestine, Texas. NASA has launched and monitored the flights of balloons... originating from CSBF Fort Sumner would increase from 15 to 25 annually; balloons launched from CSBF Palestine... (575-355-2832). (b) Palestine Public Library, 1101 North Cedar Street, Palestine, Texas 75801 (903-729...

  3. Recent developments in the scientific ballooning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India ravi@tifr.res.in/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.

  4. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  5. Balloon Ascent: 3-D Simulation Tool for the Ascent and Float of High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.

    2005-01-01

    The BalloonAscent balloon flight simulation code represents a from-scratch development using Visual Basic 5 as the software platform. The simulation code is a transient analysis of balloon flight, predicting the skin and gas temperatures along with the 3-D position and velocity in a time and spatially varying environment. There are manual and automated controls for gas valving and the dropping of ballast. Also, there are many handy calculators, such as appropriate free lift, and steady-state thermal solutions with temperature gradients. The strength of this simulation model over others in the past is that the infrared environment is deterministic rather than guessed at. The ground temperature is specified along with the emissivity, which creates a ground level IR environment that is then partially absorbed as it travels upward through the atmosphere to the altitude of the balloon.

  6. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-26

    20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-25

    An emperor penguin waddles away on Christmas morning in Antarctica. On Christmas day, the BARREL team visited a penguin colony. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through

  8. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The BARREL team at the SANAE IV research station celebrates their final launch in the Antarctica sun. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors

  9. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    . NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. NASA’s BARREL Mission Launches 20 Balloons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The BARREL cargo on its four-hour journey from the supply ship to the research station. Credit: NASA --- In Antarctica in January, 2013 – the summer at the South Pole – scientists launched 20 balloons up into the air to study an enduring mystery of space weather: when the giant radiation belts surrounding Earth lose material, where do the extra particles actually go? The mission is called BARREL (Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses) and it is led by physicist Robyn Millan of Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. Millan provided photographs from the team’s time in Antarctica. The team launched a balloon every day or two into the circumpolar winds that circulate around the pole. Each balloon floated for anywhere from 3 to 40 days, measuring X-rays produced by fast-moving electrons high up in the atmosphere. BARREL works hand in hand with another NASA mission called the Van Allen Probes, which travels through the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The belts wax and wane over time in response to incoming energy and material from the sun, sometimes intensifying the radiation through which satellites must travel. Scientists wish to understand this process better, and even provide forecasts of this space weather, in order to protect our spacecraft. As the Van Allen Probes were observing what was happening in the belts, BARREL tracked electrons that precipitated out of the belts and hurtled down Earth’s magnetic field lines toward the poles. By comparing data, scientists will be able to track how what’s happening in the belts correlates to the loss of particles – information that can help us understand this mysterious, dynamic region that can impact spacecraft. Having launched balloons in early 2013, the team is back at home building the next set of payloads. They will launch 20 more balloons in 2014. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science

  11. Terahertz photometers to observe solar flares from space (SOLAR-T project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre

    The space experiment SOLAR-T designed to observe solar flares at THz frequencies was completed. We present the concept, fabrication and performance of a double THz photometers system. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and the detection of small burst transients at the same time. It is the first detecting system conceived to observe solar flare THz emissions on board of stratospheric balloons. The system has been integrated to data acquisition and telemetry modules for this application. SOLAR-T uses two Golay cell detectors preceded by low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. Its photometers can detect small solar bursts (tens of solar flux units) with sub second time resolution. One artificial Sun setup was developed to simulate actual observations. Tests comprised the whole system performance, on ambient and low pressure and temperature conditions. It is intended to provide data on the still unrevealed spectral shape of the mysterious THz solar flares emissions. The experiment is planned to be on board of two long-duration stratospheric balloon flights over Antarctica and Russia in 2014-2016. The SOLAR-T development, fabrication and tests has been accomplished by engineering and research teams from Mackenzie, Unicamp and Bernard Lyot Solar Observatory; Propertech Ltda.; Neuron Ltda.; and Samsung, Brazil; Tydex LCC, Russia; CONICET, Argentina; the stratospheric balloon missions will be carried in cooperation with teams from University of California, Berkeley, USA (flight over Antarctica), and Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia (flight over Russia).

  12. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles with application to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Clifford A.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-objective technique for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) path and trajectory autonomy generation, through task allocation and sensor fusion has been developed. The Dual-Optimal Path-Planning (D-O.P-P.) Technique generates on-line adaptive flight paths for UAVs based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmental influenced optimal condition, known as the driver' determines the condition, within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations and orientation built from the UAV kinematics. The intermittent results are pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This sequential optimization technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals, without requiring additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. An example case-study and additional applications are developed and the results are discussed; including the application to the field of Solar Regenerative (SR) High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV flight. Harnessing solar energy has recently been adapted for use on high altitude UAV platforms. An aircraft that uses solar panels and powered by the sun during the day and through the night by SR systems, in principle could sustain flight for weeks or months. The requirements and limitations of solar powered flight were determined. The SR-HALE UAV platform geometry and flight characteristics were selected from an existing aircraft that has demonstrated the capability for sustained flight through flight tests. The goals were to maintain continual Situational Awareness (SA) over a case-study selected Area of Interest (AOI) and existing UAV power and surveillance systems. This was done for still wind and constant wind conditions at altitude along with variations in latitude. The characteristics of solar flux and the dependence on the surface location and orientation were established along with fixed flight maneuvers for

  13. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make sa they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  14. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  15. Zodiac II: debris disk science from a balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rahman, Zahidul; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vaischt, Gautam

    2011-10-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visiblewavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  16. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rahman, Zahidul; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make sa they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  17. Development Overview of the Revised NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathey, H. M.; Gregory, D; Young, L.; Pierce, D.

    2006-01-01

    The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) has made significant strides in addressing the deployment issues experienced in the scaling up of the balloon structure. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon developments that have been, and are currently being planned by the NASA Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility. The goal of the NASA ULDB development project is to attempt to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. A summary of the February 2005 test flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico will be presented. This test flight spurred a number of investigations and advancements for this project. The development path has pursued some new approaches in the design, analysis, and testing of the balloons. New issues have been ideEti6ed throu& both analysis md testing. These have been addressed in the design stage before the next balloon construction was begun. This paper will give an overview of the recent history for this effort and the development approach pursued for ULDB. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned, will be presented. Areas to be presented include the design approach, deployment issues that have been encountered and the proposed solutions, ground testing, photogrammetry, and an analysis overview. Test flight planning and considerations will be presented including test flight safety. An extended duration test flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Ultra Long Duration Balloon is planned for the May/June 2006 time frame. This flight is expected to fly from Sweden to either Canada or Alaska. Preliminary results of this flight will be presented as available. Future plans for both ground testing and additional test flights will also be presented. Goals of the future test flights, which are staged in increments of

  18. Recent Progress Towards Space Applications Of Thin Film Solar Cells- The German Joint Project 'Flexible CIGSE Thin Film Solar Cells For Space Flight' And OOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Sebastian; Zajac, Kai; Nadler, Michael; Seifart, Klaus; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Caballero, Raquel; Schock, Hans-Werner; Hartmann, Lars; Otte, Karten; Rahm, Andreas; Scheit, Christian; Zachmann, Hendrick; Kessler, Friedrich; Wurz, Roland; Schulke, Peter

    2011-10-01

    A group of partners from an academic and industrial background are developing a flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cell technology on a polyimide substrate that aims to be a future alternative to current rigid solar cell technologies for space applications. In particular on missions with high radiation volumes, the superior tolerance of chalcopyrite based thin film solar cell (TFSC) technologies with respect to electron and proton radiation, when compared to the established Si- or III-V based technologies, can be advantageous. Of all thin film technologies, those based on CIGSe have the highest potential to reach attractive photovoltaic conversion efficiencies and combine these with low weight in order to realize high power densities on solar cell and generator level. The use of a flexible substrate ensures a high packing density. A working demonstrator is scheduled for flight this year.

  19. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  20. Morphological characterization of selected balloon films and its effects on balloon performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi A.

    1994-01-01

    Morphological characterization of several polyethylene balloon films have been studied using various techniques. The objective is to determine, if any, differentiating structural or morphological features that can be related to the performance of these balloon film materials. The results of the study indicate that the films are composed of either linear low denstiy polyethylene (LLDPE) or low density polyethylene (LDPE). A selective examination of these data imply that films limited degree of branching and larger crystallites size (same % crystallinity) showed good mechanical properties that appear to correlate with their high level of success in balloon flights.

  1. Development of ultra thin polyethylene balloons for research at mesospheric altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Shankarnarayan, Sreenivasan; Ojha, Devendra; Korra, Sakram; Godi, Stalin Peter; Neerudu, Nagendra; Vasudevan, Rajagopalan

    TIFR Balloon facility had initiated development work during 2011 on ultra-thin polyethylene film balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere to meet the needs of user scientists working in the area of atmospheric dynamics. Pursuant to the successful trials with 61,000 cubic meter balloon made out of 3.8 micro meter Antrix film reaching strato-pause (48 kilometers) for the first time in the history of Balloon facility in the year 2012, fine tuning of launch parameters like percentage free lift, launch technique were carried out to take the same volume balloons to higher altitudes in mesosphere. Three successful balloon flights with a total suspended load of 10 kilograms using 61,000 cubic meter balloon were carried out in the month of January 2014 and all the three balloons crossed in to the mesosphere reaching altitudes of over 51 kilometers. All the balloons flown so far are closed system with no escape ducts. A larger single capped balloon of volume 152,000 cubic meter fabricated out of 5.2 micro meter Antrix film as shell and 8 micro meter Antrix film as external cap having length of 25 meters with side escape ducts and 22 kilogram breaking strength load tapes, capable of carrying 15 kilograms suspended load to penetrate mesosphere is awaiting launch during summer 2014 flight program. Balloon fabrication, development of launch hardware, flight control instruments and launch technique for these mesosphere balloon flights is discussed in this paper.

  2. Flight project data book, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has as its goal the use of the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. OSSA manages the development of NASA's flight instrumentation for space science and applications including free flying spacecraft, Shuttle and Space Station payloads, and the suborbital sounding rockets, balloons, and aircraft programs. A summary is provided of future flight missions, including those approved and currently under development and those which appear in the OSSA strategic plan.

  3. A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

    High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical

  4. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  5. Terahertz Ballooning: STO And GUSSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher L.; Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) Team; Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory (GUSSTO) Team

    2012-05-01

    With a long duration balloon launch from Antarctica in January 2012, the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) has completed its maiden science flight. Our team will present some of the first glimpses from this mission to map the interstellar medium (ISM) in [CII], [NII], and [CI] at high spectral and spatial resolution. Additionally, NASA announced this Fall the missions that will begin Phase A studies under the Explorer Program, which included the Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory (GUSSTO). GUSSTO is a balloon-borne, 1 m off-axis telescope that will survey 300 square degrees of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in 3 important interstellar ines: [CII], [OI], and [NII] at 158, 63, and 205 microns, respectively. With these lines, GUSSTO will map the structure, dynamics, energy balance, pressure, and evolution of the ISM. Our poster will explain the concepts and plans for this exciting mission.

  6. Scientific ballooning payload termination loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's high altitude balloon borne scientific payloads are typically suspended from a deployed flat circular parachute. At flight termination, the recovery train is pyrotechnically separated at the parachute apex and balloon nadir interface. The release of elastic energy stored in the parachute at zero initial vertical velocity in the rarefied atmosphere produces high canopy opening forces that subject the gondola to potentially damaging shock loads. Data from terminations occurring at altitudes to 40 km with payloads up to 2500 kg on parachutes up to 40 m in diameter are presented. Measured loads are markedly larger than encountered via packed parachute deployment for similar canopy loadings. Canopy inflation is significantly suppressed in the early stages and then accelerated during final blossoming. Data interpretation and behavioral phenomena are discussed along with proposed shock attenuation techniques.

  7. Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources was started in 1969 by the late S. Hayakawa of Nagoya Univ. and B. V. Sreekantan of TIFR. Cosmic background X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectra, simultaneous X-ray and optical flux variation, and size of X-ray emitting region of Crab Nebula were observed successfully by balloon flights at Hyderabad in 1969-1975. H. Shibai of Nagoya Univ. and T. N. Rengarajan of TIFR have organized collaboration on far infrared sky survey at wavlength of 150 micron emitted from CII. By employing improved detectors, CII distribution of Orion Nebula has been obtained in good accuracy by more than ten balloon flights in 1999-2008.

  8. In-flight UV and polarized-VL radiometric calibrations of the solar orbiter/METIS imaging coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Capobianco, G.; Andretta, V.; Sasso, C.; Romoli, M.; Landini, F.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Nicolini, G.; Pucci, S.; Uslenghi, M.; Naletto, G.; Nicolosi, P.; Spadaro, D.; Teriaca, L.; SchuÌhle, U. H.; Antonucci, E.

    2014-07-01

    METIS is an innovative inverted occulted solar coronagraph capable of obtaining for the first time simultaneous imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (580-640 nm) and narrow-band (+/- 10 nm) ultraviolet H I Ly-α (121.6 nm). It has been selected to fly aboard the Solar Orbiter1 spacecraft, whose launch is foreseen in July 2017. Thanks to its own capabilities and exploiting the peculiar opportunities offered by the Solar Orbiter planned orbit, METIS will address some of the still open issues in understanding the physical processes in the corona and inner heliosphere. The Solar Orbiter Nominal Mission Phase (NMP) will be characterized by three scientific observing windows per orbit and METIS will perform at least one in-flight calibration per observing window. The two imaging channels of METIS will be calibrated on ground and periodically checked, verified and re-calibrated in-flight. In particular, radiometric calibration images will be needed to determine the absolute brightness of the solar corona. For UV radiometric calibration a set of targets is represented by continuum-emitting early type bright stars (e.g. A and B spectral types) whose photospheres produce a bright far-ultraviolet continuum spectrum stable over long timescales. These stars represent an important reference standard not only for METIS in-flight calibrations but also for other Solar Orbiter instruments and they will be crucial for instruments cross-calibrations as well. For VL radiometric calibration, a set of linearly polarized stars will be used. These targets shall have a minimum degree of linear polarization (DoLP > 5%) and a detectable magnitude, compatible with the instrument integration times constrained by the desired S/N ratio and the characteristics of the spacecraft orbit dynamics.

  9. The 1991 research and technology report, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Montgomery, Harry (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Sullivan, Walter (Editor); Boyle, Charles (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) earth sciences including upper atmosphere, lower atmosphere, oceans, hydrology, and global studies; (2) space sciences including solar studies, planetary studies, Astro-1, gamma ray investigations, and astrophysics; (3) flight projects; (4) engineering including robotics, mechanical engineering, electronics, imaging and optics, thermal and cryogenic studies, and balloons; and (5) ground systems, networks, and communications including data and networks, TDRSS, mission planning and scheduling, and software development and test.

  10. Observational techniques for solar flare gamma-rays, hard X-rays, and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1989-01-01

    The development of new instrumentation and techniques for solar hard X-ray, gamma ray and neutron observations from spacecraft and/or balloon-borne platforms is examined. The principal accomplishments are: (1) the development of a two segment germanium detector which is near ideal for solar hard X-ray and gamma ray spectroscopy; (2) the development of long duration balloon flight techniques and associated instrumentation; and (3) the development of innovative new position sensitive detectors for hard X-ray and gamma rays.

  11. Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, L.; Ko, Y.-K.; Moses, J. D.; Laming, J. M.; Auchere, F.; Casini, R.; Fineschi, S.; Gibson, S.; Knoelker, M.; Korendyke, C.; Mcintosh, S.; Romoli, M.; Rybak, J.; Socker, D.; Tomczyk, S.; Vourlidas, A.; Wu, Q.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere provide the energy for most varieties of solar activity, including high-energy electromagnetic radiation, solar energetic particles, flares, and coronal mass ejections, as well as powering the solar wind. Despite the fundamental role of magnetic fields in solar and heliospheric physics, there exist only very limited measurements of the field above the base of the corona. What is needed are direct measurements of not only the strength and orientation of the magnetic field but also the signatures of wave motions in order to better understand coronal structure, solar activity, and the role of MHD waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind. Fortunately, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make magnetic field measurements is also well suited to measure the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. We present here a mission concept for the Waves And Magnetism In the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) experiment which is proposed for a NASA long-duration balloon flight.

  12. An overview of instrumentation capabilities for Scientific ballooning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Anand; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Bangaru, Kapardhi; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra; Koli, Santosh

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) in India, launches scientific balloons for research in the field of astronomy, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences. TIFR-BF not only has the capability to design, fabricate and launch zero-pressure balloons, but also provide operational and engineering support for launching them. The Control Instrumentation Group (CIG) at the balloon facility handles all electronics related to telemetry, telecommand, tracking, real-time data display, data storage, air-safety and payload recovery. In the recent past, it has designed and developed customized electronics and payload orientation mechanism to meet specific experimental objectives. Small, inexpensive and rugged industrial grade radio data modems were successfully deployed in balloon flights for low bit rate data and image telemetry. This paper will provide an overview and in-flight performance of some of the recent developments in instrumentation and electronics systems. Our plans for future upgradations will also be discussed.

  13. Development of Ultra-Thin Polyethylene Balloons for High Altitude Research upto Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Suneel; Nagendra, N.; Ojha, D. K.; Peter, G. Stalin; Vasudevan, R.; Anand, D.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Reddy, V. Anmi; Rao, T. V.; Sreenivasan, S.

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 μm for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000-gram rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenization of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 μm for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere to meet the needs of user scientists working in the area of atmospheric dynamics commenced in 2011. Pursuant to the successful trials with 61,000-m3 balloon made of 3.8-μm Antrix film reaching stratopause (48 km) for the first time in the history of balloon facility in the year 2012, fine tuning of launch parameters like percentage free lift was carried out to take the same volume balloons to higher mesospheric altitudes. Three successful flights with a total suspended load of 10 kg using 61,000-m3 balloons were carried out in the month of January 2014 and all the three balloons crossed into the mesosphere reaching altitudes of over 51 km. All the balloons flown so far are closed system with no escape ducts. Balloon fabrication, development of launch hardware, flight control instruments and launch technique for these mesospheric balloon flights are discussed in this paper.

  14. BESS and its future prospect for polar long duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe, K.; Anraku, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Fujikawa, M.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Imori, M.; Izumi, K.; Maeno, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsui, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsunaga, H.; McDonald, F. B.; Mitchell, J.; Mitsui, T.; Moiseev, A.; Motoki, M.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Righter, D.; Saeki, T.; Sanuki, T.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shikaze, Y.; Sonoda, T.; Streitmatter, R.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tanizaki, K.; Ueda, I.; Wang, J. Z.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamato, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.; BESS Collaboration

    The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer, BESS, aims to study elementary particle/antiparticle phenomena in the early history of the Universe. The instrument has a unique feature of a thin superconducting solenoid magnet enabling a large geometrical acceptance with a horizontally cylindrical configuration. Seven balloon flights have been successfully carried out since 1993. More than 10 3 comic-ray antiproton have been unambiguously detected, and the energy spectrum has been measured with the characteristic peak at 2 GeV. The search for cosmic-ray antihelium brought the upper-limit of the antihelium/helium ratio down to < 10 -6. To extend the highly sensitive measurements, we are planning polar long duration flights in Antarctica focusing on the very low energy antiproton spectrum towards the solar-minimum in the next decade.

  15. Structure, dynamics, and seasonal variability of the Mars-solar wind interaction: MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer in-flight performance and science results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.; Harada, Y.; Collinson, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F.; Luhmann, J. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the in-flight performance of the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and observations of the Mars-solar wind interaction made during the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) prime mission and a portion of its extended mission, covering 0.85 Martian years. We describe the data products returned by SWIA and discuss the proper handling of measurements made with different mechanical attenuator states and telemetry modes, and the effects of penetrating and scattered backgrounds, limited phase space coverage, and multi-ion populations on SWIA observations. SWIA directly measures solar wind protons and alpha particles upstream from Mars. SWIA also provides proxy measurements of solar wind and neutral densities based on products of charge exchange between the solar wind and the hydrogen corona. Together, upstream and proxy observations provide a complete record of the solar wind experienced by Mars, enabling organization of the structure, dynamics, and ion escape from the magnetosphere. We observe an interaction that varies with season and solar wind conditions. Solar wind dynamic pressure, Mach number, and extreme ultraviolet flux all affect the bow shock location. We confirm the occurrence of order-of-magnitude seasonal variations of the hydrogen corona. We find that solar wind Alfvén waves, which provide an additional energy input to Mars, vary over the mission. At most times, only weak mass loading occurs upstream from the bow shock. However, during periods with near-radial interplanetary magnetic fields, structures consistent with Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures and their wakes form upstream, dramatically reconfiguring the Martian bow shock and magnetosphere.

  16. Report on activities of TIFR Balloon Facility , Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Shankarnarayan, Sreenivasan; Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Devarajan, Anand; Ojha, Devendra

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) located at Hyderabad in the southern part of peninsular India has been conducting stratospheric balloon flights for research in Astronomy and Atmospheric Science for more than four decades. The Balloon Facility has been catering not only from the scientists from the National Laboratories of India but also from abroad. For keeping pace with the ever changing and growing need of the user scientists, continuous R & D activity is maintained for developing newer materials , building balloons with heavy payload capability and upgrading of Telemetry and Telecommand systems. So far, a total of 483 balloon flights have been carried out from the facility. During the past two years , significant strides have been made in building light weight balloons using ultra thin polyethylene film and successfully flying them to penetrate the mesosphere three times and developing a IRIG 106 Format compliant Encoder with added new facilities in putting various serial and parallel data streams in the Encoder Format with increased bit rates upto 500 kbps. This encoder will be tested during the summer flight programme of 2014. This paper describes the balloon flights and developmental work carried out during the past two years.

  17. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Framed by wispy contrails left by passing jets high above, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-electric flying wing shows off its graceful lines during a March 1997 test flight at El Mirage Dry Lake in California's Mojave Desert. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  18. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains as a backdrop and a motorcycle-mounted chase crew alongside, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-powered flying wing soars over El Mirage Dry Lake on an early test flight in March 1997. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  19. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Silhouetted under a bright blue sky, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-powered flying wing shows off its internal rib structure as it floats over the El Mirage Dry Lake in Southern California during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  20. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Silhouetted under a bright blue sky, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-powered flying wing shows off its long, narrow wing as it flies over the broad expanse of El Mirage Dry Lake in Southern California during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del

  1. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Trailed by a van carrying the remote pilot and observers, a radio-controlled quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-electric flying wing makes a low pass over El Mirage Dry Lake in Southern California during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  2. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Trailed by a van carrying the remote pilot and observers, a radio-controlled quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-electric flying wing makes a low pass over El Mirage Dry Lake in Southern California during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  3. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Illuminated by early-morning sunlight, a quarter-scale model of the solar-powered, remotely piloted Centurion ultra-high-altitude flying wing soars over California's Mojave Desert on a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for

  4. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Silhouetted under a bright blue sky, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-powered flying wing shows off its internal rib structure as it floats over the El Mirage Dry Lake in Southern California during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  5. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Illuminated by early-morning sunlight, a quarter-scale model of the Solar-powered, remotely piloted Centurion ultra-high-altitude flying wing demonstrates its abilities during a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  6. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Illuminated by early-morning sunlight, a quarter-scale model of the solar-powered, remotely piloted Centurion ultra-high-altitude flying wing soars over California's Mojave Desert on a March 1997 test flight. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for

  7. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains as a backdrop and a motorcycle-mounted chase crew alongside, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-powered flying wing soars over El Mirage Dry Lake on an early test flight in March 1997. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-al