Science.gov

Sample records for balsams

  1. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  2. Balsam of Peru: past and future.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Rakowski, Ella-Marie; Chou, Vincent; Chhatriwala, Anam; Ross, Jeremy; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Balsam of Peru (BOP) is a well-known contact allergen that is one of the most prevalent in the United States. For some patients allergic to BOP, external avoidance of fragrance is not enough to eliminate their dermatitis. A BOP avoidance diet has been shown to help many of these patients. This article reviews BOP allergens found in food. A special patch test series of allergens found in BOP along with data regarding which foods contain specific BOP constituents makes it possible to design potential targeted, refined, and simplified diets for BOP systemic contact dermatitis.

  3. New insights in the chemical composition of benzoin balsams.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pauline; Casale, Alexandre; Kerdudo, Audrey; Michel, Thomas; Laville, Rémi; Chagnaud, Francis; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Benzoin balsam is an anthropic exudate obtained from the bark of several species of Styrax trees that is mainly used as a perfume fixative as well as a flavouring agent. Benzoe tonkinensis Laos (also commercialized under the denomination Siam benzoin balsam) displaying characteristic vanilla notes and already being largely used to flavour all kinds of edible goods, was intended to be proposed by Agroforex Company to the Codex Committee on Food Additives for evaluation as a food additive. For this purpose, the present paper reports the phytochemical characterisation of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of benzoin balsams and the quantitation of some of the major components by gas and liquid chromatography techniques. Four coniferyl and two morinol derivatives were characterised for the first time in Benzoe tonkinensis Laos. Finally, two liquid chromatographic methods used to easily discriminate Siam from Sumatra balsam (also known as Benzoe sumatranus Indonesia) were developed.

  4. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  5. New insights in the chemical composition of benzoin balsams.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pauline; Casale, Alexandre; Kerdudo, Audrey; Michel, Thomas; Laville, Rémi; Chagnaud, Francis; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Benzoin balsam is an anthropic exudate obtained from the bark of several species of Styrax trees that is mainly used as a perfume fixative as well as a flavouring agent. Benzoe tonkinensis Laos (also commercialized under the denomination Siam benzoin balsam) displaying characteristic vanilla notes and already being largely used to flavour all kinds of edible goods, was intended to be proposed by Agroforex Company to the Codex Committee on Food Additives for evaluation as a food additive. For this purpose, the present paper reports the phytochemical characterisation of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of benzoin balsams and the quantitation of some of the major components by gas and liquid chromatography techniques. Four coniferyl and two morinol derivatives were characterised for the first time in Benzoe tonkinensis Laos. Finally, two liquid chromatographic methods used to easily discriminate Siam from Sumatra balsam (also known as Benzoe sumatranus Indonesia) were developed. PMID:27211689

  6. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  7. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  8. Perfume dermatitis in children sensitized to balsam of Peru in topical agents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1990-01-01

    Hjorth in his classic monogram "Eczematous Allergy to Balsams" emphasized that sensitization to balsam of Peru is most important since secondary allergens such as "fragrances" are ubiquitous. The application of a topical medication containing balsam of Peru to the skin of an infant, particularly in the occluded diaper area, seems a great way to sensitize the infant not only to balsam of Peru but also to our fragrant environment.

  9. Multi element (C, H, O) stable isotope analysis for the authentication of balsamic vinegars.

    PubMed

    Werner, Roland A; Roßmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Balsamic vinegars are important and well-acknowledged products and have become more important all over Europe during the recent past. For their analytical control, stable isotope methods play an important role to check the authenticity of the raw materials applied. For vinegar, but not yet for balsamic vinegar analysis, stable isotope methods using hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope analyses by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and (2)H-NMR have already been introduced as official methods. Nevertheless, the official procedure can be also applied for balsamic vinegars. The evaluation of the stable isotope parameters obtained for the ingredients of balsamic vinegars requires a knowledge and understanding of the natural and industrial processes on which the production of balsamic vinegars is based. Ranges and 'cut-off' values for the multi element stable isotope parameters of balsamic vinegars are described, and a suitable analytical strategy is suggested.

  10. Water and phosphorus budgets and trophic state, Balsam Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, 1987-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The main basin of the lake was mesotrophic, whereas the loading rates determined for the study period would have expected to result in oligotrophic conditions. Internal loading and below-normal external loading during the study are the likely explanation for this discrepancy. The northwest basin of the lake (locally called "Little Balsam Lake") received 66 percent of all external phosphorus that entered Balsam Lake. The trophic state of Little Balsam Lake ranged from upper mesotrophic to lower eutrophic. Phosphorus that entered Little Balsam Lake during the study period would have been expected to result in eutrophic conditions.

  11. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  12. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  14. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  15. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of liquid or aerosol contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of...

  16. Winter chemical defense of Alaskan balsam poplar against snowshoe hares.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, P B; Bryant, J P; Mattes, B R; Clausen, T P; Chapin, F S; Meyer, M

    1990-06-01

    Palatabilities of parts and growth stages of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are related to concentrations of specific plant metabolites that act as antifeedants. Buds are defended from hares by cineol, benzyl alcohol, and (+)-α-bisabolol. Internodes are defended by 6-hydroxycylohexenone (6-HCH) and salicaldehyde. Although defense of interaodes depends upon both compounds, the defense of juvenile internodes is principally related to salicaldehyde concentration; the defense of internode current annual growth is principally related to 6-HCH concentration. The concentration of 6-HCH can be supplemented by the hydrolysis of phenol glycosides when plant tissue is disrupted, raising the possibility of a dynamic element of the chemical defense of poplar.

  17. Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    The application of a selected Acetobacter pasteurianus strain for traditional balsamic vinegar production was assessed. Genomic DNA was extracted from biofilms after enrichment cultures on GYC medium (10% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 2.0% calcium carbonate) and used for PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus/PCR sequencing. Results suggested that double-culture fermentation is suitable for traditional balsamic vinegar acetification.

  18. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)].

    PubMed

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  19. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    PubMed

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  20. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Robertson, Amanda L; Takebayashi, Naoki; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William R; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-04-01

    *Current perceptions that poplars have high levels of nucleotide variation, large effective population sizes, and rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium are based primarily on studies from one poplar species, Populus tremula. *We analysed 590 gene fragments (average length 565 bp) from each of 15 individuals from different populations from throughout the range of Populus balsamifera. *Nucleotide diversity (theta(total) = 0.0028, pi = 0.0027) was low compared with other trees and model agricultural systems. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and site frequency spectra were consistent with purifying selection on replacement and intron sites. When averaged across all loci we found no evidence for decay of linkage disequilibrium across 750 bp, consistent with the low estimates of the scaled recombination parameter, rho = 0.0092. *Compared with P. tremula, a well studied congener with a similar distribution, P. balsamifera has low diversity and low effective recombination, both of which indicate a lower effective population size in P. balsamifera. Patterns of diversity and linkage indicate that there is considerable variation in population genomic patterns among poplar species and unlike P. tremula, association mapping techniques in balsam poplar should consider sampling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at well-spaced intervals.

  1. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  2. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  3. From balsamic to healthy: traditional balsamic vinegar melanoidins inhibit lipid peroxidation during simulated gastric digestion of meat.

    PubMed

    Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Conte, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In this work traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) melanoidins were characterized for chemical composition and antioxidant activity and their anti-peroxidative effect during an in vitro gastric digestion of turkey meat was studied. The most important constituents of TBV melanoidins were carbohydrates (51% w/w) of which glucose (35% w/w) and fructose (10% w/w) are the main representatives, hydroxymethylfurfural (7.2% w/w), phenolic groups (4.6% w/w) and proteins (1.2% w/w). The antioxidant capacity of melanoidins was studied, measuring lipid hydroperoxides and secondary lipoxidation products formed during in vitro gastric digestion of turkey meat. The most important mechanisms in their antioxidant activity resulted radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating activities. Pepsin inhibiting ability has been excluded. TBV melanoidins were also able to bind heme under gastric conditions potentially preventing its absorption and prooxidant and cytotoxic effects. Our results support the idea that TBV melanoidins may have a role in oxidative damage prevention. Fe(2+)-chelating and heme-binding activities as well as mechanisms of antioxidant activity of TBV melanoidins were also compared with coffee, barley coffee and dark beer melanoidins.

  4. [Poisoning caused by the cutaneous application of camphorated balsam ointment in a nursing infant].

    PubMed

    Calvelli, M M; Pesenti, P; Ronconi, G F

    1987-01-01

    We describe a case of camphor and balsamic oil poisoning observed in a 1-month-old infant. Because of toxic effects of camphor and volatile oils on central nervous system, these compounds show no therapeutical usefullness in children. PMID:3697334

  5. Neutralization and buffering capacity of leaves of sugar maple, largetooth aspen, paper birch and balsam fir.

    PubMed

    Liu, G E; Côté, B

    1993-01-01

    We compared the acidity, the external acid neutralizing capacity and the buffering capacity of leaves of four commercially important tree species, largetooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), at two sites of contrasting soil fertility in southern Quebec. External acid neutralizing capacity (ENC) of leaves was determined by measuring the change in pH induced by soaking fresh leaves in an acidic solution (pH 4.0) for two hours. The ENC was highest for largetooth aspen (14.3 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)), and lowest for sugar maple and balsam fir (< 5 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)). The buffering capacity index (BCI) was determined by measuring the amount of acid necessary to produce a change of 5 micro equiv H(+) in the leaf homogenate. The BCI ranged from 883 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for largetooth aspen to less than 105 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for sugar maple and balsam fir. Leaves of sugar maple and balsam fir had a lower internal pH and a higher percentage of ENC over BCI than paper birch and largetooth aspen. Overall, ENC was correlated with the concentration of all leaf nutrients except Ca, and BCI was correlated with Mg, N and Ca. The site effect was relatively unimportant for all variables.

  6. Dynamics of the volatile defense of winter "dormant" balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Clausen, Thomas P; Chen, Janice; Bryant, John P; Provenza, Frederick D; Villalba, Juan

    2010-05-01

    6-Hydroxycylohex-2-en-1-one (6-HCH) has been reported as a major chemical defense of the winter-dormant internodes of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) against feeding by herbivores such as the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). We report that the concentration of 6-HCH in the fall internodes is triggered by a single hard frost, and then undergoes an exponential decline through volatilization over the winter that results in barely detectable quantities by early spring. We conclude that the role of 6-HCH in the defense of mature balsam poplar is more complex than simply acting as a toxin. Rather, 6-HCH's role as a defensive agent must evolve over the course of the winter from being a co-toxin to a cue for a conditioned flavor aversion (CFA) to finally having no role by late spring.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru) in papaw ointment causing cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Stephanie; Tam, Mei Mui; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2011-08-01

    Two patients presented with cheilitis and perioral dermatitis. Patch testing revealed positive reactions to both Myroxylon pereirae (MP; formerly known as Balsam of Peru) and Lucas Papaw Ointment (LPO; Lucas Papaw Remedies, Bisbane, Qld, Australia). MP was not listed as an ingredient in LPO, however the manufacturer confirmed that a small amount of MP was present in LPO and we believe this to be the cause of the patients' dermatitis. PMID:21834822

  8. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pinu, Farhana R.; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G.

    2016-01-01

    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  9. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  10. Risk and resilience in lesbian and gay couples: comment on Solomon, Rothblum, and Balsam (2004).

    PubMed

    Green, Robert-Jay

    2004-06-01

    S. E. Solomon, E. D. Rothblum, and K. F. Balsam's (2004) article provides excellent descriptive and comparative data about the first cohort of same-sex couples seeking civil unions in Vermont. In this comment, the author sets their findings in a culture-specific theoretical context. This framework emphasizes three external risk factors faced by lesbian and gay couples in American society and the negative internal consequences when partners are unable to cope with these external challenges successfully. Forming a civil union can be viewed as an outgrowth of successful coping with these risk factors--a sign of individual, couple, and family resilience in the face of adversity.

  11. Lead isotopes reveal different sources of lead in balsamic and other vinegars.

    PubMed

    Ndung'u, Kuria; Hibdon, Sharon; Véron, Alain; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-06-15

    Fifty-eight brands of balsamic vinegars were analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) to test the findings of a previous study indicating relatively high levels of lead contamination in some of those vinegars--more than two thirds (70%) of them exceeded California's State Maximum Level (34 μg/L) based on consumption rates ≥0.5 μg Pb per day. The lead isotopic fingerprints of all those vinegars with high lead concentrations were then found to be primarily anthropogenic. This isotopic analysis unquestionably reveals multiple contamination sources including atmospheric pollutant Pb and an unidentified contamination source, likely occurring after grape harvest. Organically grown grape vinegars display the same Pb content and isotopic signatures as other vinegars. This implies that pesticides might not be a significant source of pollutant Pb in vinegars. A significant post-harvest contamination would be inherited from chemicals added during production and/or material used during transport, processing or storage of these vinegars. This is consistent with the highest Pb levels being found in aged vinegars (112±112 μg/L) in contrast to other vinegars (41.6±28.9 μg/L) suggesting contamination during storage. It is, therefore, projected that lead levels in most vinegars, especially aged balsamic and wine vinegars, will decrease with improvements in their manufacture and storage processes consequential to recent concerns of elevated levels of lead in some vinegars.

  12. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    PubMed

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane. PMID:27342227

  13. Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru)--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Turić, Petra; Lipozencić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Kulisić, Sandra Marinović

    2011-03-01

    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substances contained in the fragrance mix: cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). The most frequent allergens were isoeugenol 57.9% (91/157), eugenol 55.4% (87/157), cinnamyl alcohol 34.4% (54/157) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) 24.2% (38/157). There were 62 patients (39.5%) who exhibited an allergic reaction to both the fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). The results prove the importance of avoiding allergens in daily life, especially in industrial and cosmetic products. In order to prevent ACD, better cooperation between industry and dermatologists is needed.

  14. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    PubMed

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  15. Root hydraulic properties and growth of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) mycorrhizal with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae.

    PubMed

    Siemens, J Aurea; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2008-10-01

    The effects of an E-strain fungus (Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Hebeloma crustuliniforme) on growth and water relations of balsam poplar were examined and compared in the present study. Balsam poplar roots inoculated with W. mikolae var. mikolae (Wm) exhibited structures consistent with ectendomycorrhizal (EEM) associations, including a mantle surrounding the outside of the root and an extensive Hartig net that was located between cortical cells and extended to the vascular cylinder. Roots colonized with H. crustuliniforme (Hc) developed a mantle layer, indicative of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association, around the outer part of the root, but no distinct Hartig net was present. Wm-colonized balsam poplar also showed increased shoot growth, stomatal conductance (g(s)), and root volumes compared with non-inoculated and Hc-inoculated plants. However, Hc-inoculated plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity (L(pr)) compared with non-inoculated plants and Wm-inoculated plants. These results suggest that L(pr) was not a growth-limiting factor in balsam poplar and that hyphal penetration of the root cortex in itself may have little influence on root hydraulic properties.

  16. Genetic variation among lake states balsam poplar populations is associated with geographic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Riemenschneider, D.E.; McMahon, B.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Variation among populations of balsam poplar from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan (the Lake States) in tree height, phenology, and sylleptic branching was associated with geographic origin based on bivariate correlation, canonical correlation, principal component, and cluster analyses. Ninety percent of the joint variation in five traits was explained by two principal components, the first associated with late season growth and tree height, the second associated with number of sylleptic branches. Populations were delineated into northwestern, central, and southeastern clusters based on principal component one and two coordinates using Ward's minimum variance method. Populations from the southeastern cluster grew taller, produced more late season leaves, and set bud later than populations from the northwestern and central clusters. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Dahl, Wivecke; Debiton, Eric; Pichette, André; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-05-01

    The antitumor activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was evaluated against several solid tumor cell lines including MCF-7, PC-3, A-549, DLD-1, M4BEU and CT-26. Balsam fir oil was found to be active against all the solid tumor cell lines tested, with GI 50 values ranging between 0.76 and 1.7 mg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS and the cytotoxicity of each oil constituent was determined. Balsam fir oil is essentially constituted of monoterpenes tau; 96 %) and some sesquiterpenes. All the compounds tested were inactive (tau; 250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (GI50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. We also tested the cytotoxicity of caryophyllene oxide, which proved inactive, and gamma-caryophyllene which was found to be active against all solid tumor cell lines tested. We evaluated the effects of balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene on the cellular glutathione (GSH) content and on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cellular GSH content and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil. PMID:12802719

  18. Effects of dilute acid pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis monomer and oligomer sugar yields for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jill R; Morinelly, Juan E; Gossen, Kelsey R; Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J; Shonnard, David R

    2010-04-01

    The effects of dilute acid hydrolysis conditions were investigated on total sugar (glucose and xylose) yields after enzymatic hydrolysis with additional analyses on glucose and xylose monomer and oligomer yields from the individual hydrolysis steps for aspen (a hardwood), balsam (a softwood), and switchgrass (a herbaceous energy crop). The results of this study, in the form of measured versus theoretical yields and a severity analysis, show that for aspen and balsam, high dilute acid hydrolysis xylose yields were obtainable at all acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 wt.%) and temperatures (150-175 degrees C) studied as long as reaction time was optimized. Switchgrass shows a relatively stronger dependence on dilute acid hydrolysis acid concentration due to its higher neutralizing mineral content. Maximum total sugar (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) yields post-enzymatic hydrolysis for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass, were 88.3%, 21.2%, and 97.6%, respectively. In general, highest yields of total sugars (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) were achieved at combined severity parameter values (log CS) between 2.20 and 2.40 for the biomass species studied.

  19. Boreal peatland margins as repository sites of long-term natural disturbances of balsam fir/spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Martin; Filion, Louise; Robert, Élisabeth C.

    2009-05-01

    A multidisciplinary, high-resolution paleoecological study (Lepidoptera and plant remains, macroscopic charcoal, pollen) was conducted on a 4000-yr peat monolith extracted from the margin of an ombrotrophic peatland on Anticosti Island (Gulf of St. Lawrence, eastern Canada) to reconstruct the long-term natural disturbances (insect outbreaks, forest fires) of a balsam fir/spruce forest. We hypothesized that an activity of insect defoliators (spruce budworm, hemlock looper) was the main disturbance factor of conifer forests during the Late Holocene. The earliest remains of spruce budworm and hemlock looper were found ca. 3220 and 2350 cal yr BP, respectively. Peaks of insect head capsules occurred from ca. 1640 to ca. 625 cal yr BP. Low balsam fir pollen concentrations during this period suggest a lengthy episode (˜ 1000 yr) of high insect activity, resulting in extensive fir dieback and mortality. The long-term dynamics of the pristine balsam fir/spruce forests were mainly governed by the activity of insect defoliators. The limited extent and possibly the low occurrence of forest fires in the maritime environment of Anticosti Island allowed the development of mature coniferous stands propitious for insect infestations. Insect head capsules appeared to be a useful and effective tool for establishing insect presence and activity during the Holocene.

  20. Propolis allergy (IV). Studies with further sensitizers from propolis and constituents common to propolis, poplar buds and balsam of Peru.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Evers, P; Stüwe, H T; König, W A; Wollenweber, E

    1992-01-01

    26 different compounds have been investigated experimentally for their sensitizing capacity in guinea pigs. 19 of these occur in propolis as well as in poplar bud exudates, and 14 of them are also found in balsam of Peru. 4 caffeates and benzyl isoferulate were found to be strong sensitizers. 7 compounds were moderate, and 13 compounds showed only weak sensitizing potency. Methyl cinnamate was negative. Patch tests in 11 propolis-sensitive patients once more revealed 3-methyl-2-butenyl caffeate and phenylethyl caffeate as the major sensitizers. In addition to the 8 compounds already known to occur in propolis as well as in balsam of Peru, we detected 5 further substances that both materials have in common. Among these, benzyl isoferulate is considered a noteworthy sensitizer. Coniferyl benzoate, which was shown to be a moderate sensitizer, is present in fresh samples of balsam of Peru, while in propolis it has been detected only once so far. The flavonoid aglycones occurring in poplar bud exudates, and hence also in propolis, are weak sensitizers which play only a minor role in propolis hypersensitivity.

  1. [The virtue of that precious balsam...: approach to Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Munoz, F; Garcia-Garcia, P; Alamo, C

    2007-01-01

    The most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, Don Quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late Renaissance society usually address. This masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, Alonso Quijano. Also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms and other pharmacy preparations) have been frequent. We have tackled Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the therapeutical cures used during the Cervantine time for the treatment of insane and mentally disturbed people (sedatives like opium, laxatives like hellebore, tonics, irritants and surgical techniques like bloodlettings and ) and we analyze the limited and unspecific therapies, mainly of herbal origin (balms, purgatives and emetics), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, rhubarb root (Rumex alpinus), seeds of spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), main ingredient of Aparicio's oil, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous balsam of Fierabras, should be highlighted. We have also examined the possible scientific influences which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the works of Juan Huarte de San Juan The examination of men's wits and the one of Andres Laguna Dioscorides' materia medica.

  2. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps. PMID:21624997

  3. Patch testing with fine fragrances: comparison with fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and a fragrance series.

    PubMed

    Trattner, A; David, M

    2003-12-01

    High frequencies of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients have been reported in recent years. Only approximately 70-80% are detected by fragrance allergens in the standard patch test series. This investigation compares the patch test reactions to fine fragrances with reactions to fragrance mix (FM), balsam of Peru (BP) (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and a fragrance series. 641 consecutive patients with eczema were patch tested with the European standard series and with selected fine fragrances. Those who were positive to 1 of the fine fragrances or the FM or BP were also tested with the fragrance series. 95 (14.8%) patients were found to have a positive patch test reaction to FM or BP; 41 (6.4%) had positive results to fragrance no. 1 and 29 (4.5%) to no. 2. 9 (9.5% of the 95 positive patients) had a positive reaction to fine fragrances and a negative reaction to all other fragrance allergens in the standard series. These findings indicate that testing with fine fragrances can add to our evaluation of fragrance-sensitive patients.

  4. Molecular size and molecular size distribution affecting traditional balsamic vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Pasquale Massimiliano; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-08-27

    A first attempt at a semiquantitative study of molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) in cooked grape must and traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) with increasing well-defined age was performed by high-performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using dual detection, that is, differential refractive index (DRI) and absorbance (UV-vis) based detectors. With this aim, MW and MWD, including number- and weight-average MW and polydispersity, were determined with respect to a secondary standard and then analyzed. All investigated vinegar samples were recognized as compositionally and structurally heterogeneous blends of copolymers (melanoidins) spreading over a wide range of molecular sizes: the relative MW ranged from 2 to >2000 kDa. The extent of the polymerization reactions was in agreement with the TBV browning kinetics. MWD parameters varied asymptotically toward either upper or lower limits during aging, reflecting a nonequilibrium status of the balance between polymerization and depolymerization reactions in TBV. MWD parameters were proposed as potential aging markers of TBV. PMID:18656930

  5. Host Genotype Shapes the Foliar Fungal Microbiome of Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera)

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O’Hara, Robert B.; Olson, Matthew S.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction. PMID:23326555

  6. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps.

  7. Timing of photoperiodic competency causes phenological mismatch in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Song, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenology is expected to be sensitive to climate warming. In boreal trees, spring flush is primarily temperature driven, whereas height growth cessation and autumn leaf senescence are predominantly controlled by photoperiod. Cuttings of 525 genotypes from the full range of balsam poplar were planted into two common gardens (Vancouver and Indian Head, Canada) at similar latitudes, but with differing winter temperatures and growing seasons. There was clinal variation in spring and, particularly, summer and fall phenology. Bud flush and, despite milder climate, bud set and leaf drop were earlier at Vancouver than at Indian Head by 44, 28 and 7 d, respectively. Although newly flushed growth is insensitive to photoperiod, many genotypes at both sites became competent before the summer solstice. At Vancouver, high-latitude genotypes set dormant terminal buds in mid-spring. Most other genotypes grew until midsummer or set bud temporarily and then experienced a second flush. In both gardens and in a growth chamber experiment, earlier bud set was associated with reduced height growth and higher root/shoot ratios. Shoots attained competency ~5 weeks after flushing, which would normally prevent dormancy induction before the solstice, but may be insufficient if spring advances by more than a few weeks.

  8. Genomic diversity, population structure, and migration following rapid range expansion in the Balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Olson, Matthew S; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Rapid range expansions can cause pervasive changes in the genetic diversity and structure of populations. The postglacial history of the Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera, involved the colonization of most of northern North America, an area largely covered by continental ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. To characterize how this expansion shaped genomic diversity within and among populations, we developed 412 SNP markers that we assayed for a range-wide sample of 474 individuals sampled from 34 populations. We complemented the SNP data set with DNA sequence data from 11 nuclear loci from 94 individuals, and used coalescent analyses to estimate historical population size, demographic growth, and patterns of migration. Bayesian clustering identified three geographically separated demes found in the Northern, Central, and Eastern portions of the species' range. These demes varied significantly in nucleotide diversity, the abundance of private polymorphisms, and population substructure. Most measures supported the Central deme as descended from the primary refuge of diversity. Both SNPs and sequence data suggested recent population growth, and coalescent analyses of historical migration suggested a massive expansion from the Centre to the North and East. Collectively, these data demonstrate the strong influence that range expansions exert on genomic diversity, both within local populations and across the range. Our results suggest that an in-depth knowledge of nucleotide diversity following expansion requires sampling within multiple populations, and highlight the utility of combining insights from different data types in population genomic studies.

  9. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.

  10. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  11. Local adaptation in the flowering-time gene network of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the signature and targets of local adaptation is an increasingly important goal in empirical population genetics. Using data from 443 balsam poplar Populus balsamifera trees sampled from 31 populations, we tested for evidence of geographically variable selection shaping diversity at 27 homologues of the Arabidopsis flowering-time network. These genes are implicated in the control of seasonal phenology, an important determinant of fitness. Using 335 candidate and 412 reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we tested for evidence of local adaptation by searching for elevated population differentiation using F(ST)-based outlier analyses implemented in BayeScan or a Hierarchical Model in Arelquin and by testing for significant associations between allele frequency and environmental variables using BAYENV. A total of 46 SNPs from 14 candidate genes had signatures of local adaptation-either significantly greater population differentiation or significant covariance with one or more environmental variable relative to reference SNP distributions. Only 11 SNPs from two genes exhibited both elevated population differentiation and covariance with one or more environmental variables. Several genes including the abscisic acid gene ABI1B and the circadian clock genes ELF3 and GI5 harbored a large number of SNPs with signatures of local adaptation-with SNPs in GI5 strongly covarying with both latitude and precipitation and SNPs in ABI1B strongly covarying with temperature. In contrast to several other systems, we find little evidence that photoreceptors, including phytochromes, play an important role in local adaptation. Our results additionally show that detecting local adaptation is sensitive to the analytical approaches used and that model-based significance thresholds should be viewed with caution.

  12. Effects of soil moisture manipulations on fine root dynamics in a mature balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill.) forest.

    PubMed

    Olesinski, Jakub; Lavigne, Michael B; Krasowski, Marek J

    2011-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that moisture stress affects fine root dynamics during and after the stress. To this end, we investigated the effects of soil moisture on annual and seasonal fine root production and mortality over 4 years in a mature balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill.) stand using a minirhizotron and soil coring. Droughting and irrigating treatments were imposed for 17 weeks during the third year of the study, and post-treatment recovery was measured during the fourth year. Monthly fine root production was often reduced by low soil water content (SWC) during July-September in the pre-treatment years and by imposed drought. Irrigation resulted in higher summer fine root production than in pre-treatment years. In the recovery year, increased fine root production was observed in the previously droughted plots despite low SWC in August and September. Droughting decreased year-end fine root biomass in the treatment year, but biomass returned to pre-treatment levels during the recovery year. Droughting and irrigating did not affect foliage production during the treatment and recovery years. Our results suggest that for balsam fir, establishment and maintenance of a functional balance between foliage and fine root biomass, with respect to moisture supply and demand, can depend on fine root dynamics occurring over more than one growing season. In addition, our findings provided insights into tree growth responses to interannual variation in moisture supply.

  13. Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

  14. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  15. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  16. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to evaluate acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    De Vero, Luciana; Gala, Elisabetta; Gullo, Maria; Solieri, Lisa; Landi, Sara; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious micro-organisms to isolate and cultivate despite of the great number of growth media available. Moreover, conventional techniques used to study AAB populations are time consuming and not completely reliable. In this study, we tested the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electophoresis (PCR-DGGE) as a rapid and cost effective method for the screening of AAB in traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV). DGGE analysis was applied to 19 AAB strains isolated by agar plating from three different samples of TBV. DGGE was also used for the analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA extracted directly from the TBV samples. A tentative species identification was achieved comparing the PCR-DGGE patterns of the isolated strains and the TBV samples to those of 15 AAB reference strains. The results support that DGGE is functional to monitor vinegar's AAB population. PMID:16943087

  17. Reproductive potential of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Bergeron, Yves; Asselin, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co-dominants in mixedwood forests) and black spruce (dominant in coniferous forests) were studied to explain the location of the ecotone between the two forest types in the boreal zone of Quebec. Four sites were selected along a latitudinal gradient crossing the ecotone. Cone crop, number of seeds per cone, percentage filled seeds, and percentage germination were measured for each species. Balsam fir and white spruce cone crops were significantly lower in the coniferous than in the mixedwood forest, while black spruce had greater crop constancy and regularity between both forest types. Mast years were more frequent for black spruce than for balsam fir in both forest types (mast year data not available for white spruce). The number of seeds per cone was more related to cone size than to forest type for all species. Black spruce produced more filled seeds in the coniferous forest than balsam fir or white spruce. The sum of growing degree-days and the maximum temperature of the warmest month (both for the year prior to cone production) significantly affected balsam fir cone production. The climate-related northward decrease in reproductive potential of balsam fir and white spruce could partly explain the position of the northern limit of the mixedwood forest. This could change drastically, however, as the ongoing climate warming might cancel this competitive advantage of black spruce.

  18. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  19. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  20. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae. PMID:22620984

  1. The potential influence of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the ecohydromorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Phil) Greenwood, Philip; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to repeated speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been empirically proven during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain

  2. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  4. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis. PMID:27311112

  5. Whole plastome sequencing reveals deep plastid divergence and cytonuclear discordance between closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Daisie I; Hefer, Charles A; Kolosova, Natalia; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2014-11-01

    As molecular phylogenetic analyses incorporate ever-greater numbers of loci, cases of cytonuclear discordance - the phenomenon in which nuclear gene trees deviate significantly from organellar gene trees - are being reported more frequently. Plant examples of topological discordance, caused by recent hybridization between extant species, are well known. However, examples of branch-length discordance are less reported in plants relative to animals. We use a combination of de novo assembly and reference-based mapping using short-read shotgun sequences to construct a robust phylogeny of the plastome for multiple individuals of all the common Populus species in North America. We demonstrate a case of strikingly high plastome divergence, in contrast to little nuclear genome divergence, in two closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and Populus trichocarpa (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa). Previous studies with nuclear loci indicate that the two species (or subspecies) diverged since the late Pleistocene, whereas their plastomes indicate deep divergence, dating to at least the Pliocene (6-7 Myr ago). Our finding is in marked contrast to the estimated Pleistocene divergence of the nuclear genomes, previously calculated at 75 000 yr ago, suggesting plastid capture from a 'ghost lineage' of a now-extinct North American poplar. PMID:25078531

  6. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis.

  7. Whole plastome sequencing reveals deep plastid divergence and cytonuclear discordance between closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Daisie I; Hefer, Charles A; Kolosova, Natalia; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2014-11-01

    As molecular phylogenetic analyses incorporate ever-greater numbers of loci, cases of cytonuclear discordance - the phenomenon in which nuclear gene trees deviate significantly from organellar gene trees - are being reported more frequently. Plant examples of topological discordance, caused by recent hybridization between extant species, are well known. However, examples of branch-length discordance are less reported in plants relative to animals. We use a combination of de novo assembly and reference-based mapping using short-read shotgun sequences to construct a robust phylogeny of the plastome for multiple individuals of all the common Populus species in North America. We demonstrate a case of strikingly high plastome divergence, in contrast to little nuclear genome divergence, in two closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and Populus trichocarpa (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa). Previous studies with nuclear loci indicate that the two species (or subspecies) diverged since the late Pleistocene, whereas their plastomes indicate deep divergence, dating to at least the Pliocene (6-7 Myr ago). Our finding is in marked contrast to the estimated Pleistocene divergence of the nuclear genomes, previously calculated at 75 000 yr ago, suggesting plastid capture from a 'ghost lineage' of a now-extinct North American poplar.

  8. Enhanced assimilation rate and water use efficiency with latitude through increased photosynthetic capacity and internal conductance in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Drewes, Eric C; Schroeder, William R

    2009-12-01

    In outdoor common gardens, high latitude populations of deciduous tree species often display higher assimilation rates (A) than low latitude populations, but they accomplish less height. To test whether trends in A reflect adaptation to growing season length or, alternatively, are garden growth artefacts, we examined variation in height increment and ecophysiological traits in a range-wide collection of Populus balsamifera L. populations from 21 provenances, during unconstrained growth in a greenhouse. Rooted cuttings, maintained without resource limitation under 21 h photoperiod for 90 d, displayed increasing height growth, A, leaf mass per area and leaf N per area with latitude whereas stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed no pattern. Water-use efficiency as indicated by both gas exchange and delta(13)C increased with latitude, whereas photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency decreased. Differences in delta(13)C were less than expected based on A/g(s), suggesting coextensive variation in internal conductance (g(m)). Analysis of A-C(i) curves on a subset of populations showed that high latitude genotypes had greater g(m) than low-latitude genotypes. We conclude that higher peak rates of height growth in high latitude genotypes of balsam poplar are supported by higher A, achieved partly through higher g(m), to help compensate for a shorter growing season.

  9. Less Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow for More Signatures of Glacial Lineages: Congruent Evidence from Balsam Fir cpDNA and mtDNA for Multiple Refugia in Eastern and Central North America

    PubMed Central

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed. PMID:25849816

  10. Three years of increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Houle, D.; Côté, B.; Duchesne, L.; Morin, H.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly, by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected to (i) experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C) and earlier snowmelt (2-3 weeks) as well as (ii) increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3). Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion exchange membranes (PRS™-probes) and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3) or ammonium (NH4) availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion exchange membranes, except for an average 54% increase in the forest floor available NH4. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an eight-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  11. Increased soil temperature and atmospheric N deposition have no effect on the N status and growth of a mature balsam fir forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Houle, D.; Côté, B.; Duchesne, L.; Morin, H.

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major growth-limiting factor in boreal forest ecosystems. Increases of temperature and atmospheric N deposition are expected to affect forest growth directly and indirectly by increasing N availability due to higher rates of N mineralization. In order to understand the potential impacts of these changes, a mature balsam fir stand in Québec, Canada, was subjected during three consecutive growing seasons (2009-2011) to (i) experimentally increased soil temperature (4 °C) and earlier snowmelt (2-3 weeks) as well as (ii) increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (3 × current N concentrations using 15NH4-15NO3). Soil inorganic N was measured using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes) and standard soil extractions. Dendrometers were used to monitor the variations in diameter growth and needles were analyzed annually for N to assess the nutritional response of trees. Results from the second (2010) and third (2011) year of treatment are reported. After three years of treatment, there was no significant increase in soil nitrate (NO3) or ammonium (NH4) availability either in the organic or in the mineral soil as measured with standard soil extractions. Similar results were obtained with ion-exchange membranes, except for NH4 in the forest floor, which increased by an average of 54% over the two years. No effect of treatments were observed on needle N or diameter growth, but an 8-day earlier peak in diameter growth was measured in heated plots in 2010. We attributed the limited effects of our treatments to the acute soil competition for available N at the site. As a result, the projected modifications of the forest N cycle and concomitant increased forest growth due to an earlier snowmelt, increased soil temperature and N deposition should be considered with caution in similar cold N-poor ecosystems.

  12. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  13. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  14. The potential influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the hydro-geomorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Greenwood, P.; Fister, W.

    2014-12-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. It favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been shown during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain sediment and associated contaminants during their passage from terrestrial

  15. Physiological integration of connected balsam poplar ramets.

    PubMed

    Adonsou, Kokouvi Emmanuel; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine

    2016-07-01

    Clonal integration between ramets can be an ecological advantage of clonal plant species in environments where resources are patchily distributed. We investigated physiological integration among Populus balsamifera L. ramets under drought stress in order to demonstrate water sharing between connected ramets. Pairs of connected ramets were grown in separate pots in the greenhouse where half of ramets had the parental root connection severed and half were left intact. Drought stress was applied to one ramet, and growth, specific leaf area (SLA), net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) were measured after an 8-week growing period. Droughted ramets connected to watered ramets were able to maintain high gas exchange activity and water potential, similar to watered ramets. Leaf water potential and SLA results showed that the root connection was more beneficial for proximal compared with distal ramets. The parental root connection also allowed droughted ramets to discriminate more against (13)C compared with severed ramets. In conclusion, this study shows compelling evidence of physiological integration of connected P. balsamifera ramets through water sharing. PMID:26843209

  16. Physiological integration of connected balsam poplar ramets.

    PubMed

    Adonsou, Kokouvi Emmanuel; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine

    2016-07-01

    Clonal integration between ramets can be an ecological advantage of clonal plant species in environments where resources are patchily distributed. We investigated physiological integration among Populus balsamifera L. ramets under drought stress in order to demonstrate water sharing between connected ramets. Pairs of connected ramets were grown in separate pots in the greenhouse where half of ramets had the parental root connection severed and half were left intact. Drought stress was applied to one ramet, and growth, specific leaf area (SLA), net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) were measured after an 8-week growing period. Droughted ramets connected to watered ramets were able to maintain high gas exchange activity and water potential, similar to watered ramets. Leaf water potential and SLA results showed that the root connection was more beneficial for proximal compared with distal ramets. The parental root connection also allowed droughted ramets to discriminate more against (13)C compared with severed ramets. In conclusion, this study shows compelling evidence of physiological integration of connected P. balsamifera ramets through water sharing.

  17. Balsam Meadow development of the Big Creek Project, FERC. No. 67, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) on the construction of a 200 MW hydroelectric plant in Fresno County, California describes the effects of a 60-acre reservoir, 120-foot-high dam, a mile-long diversion tunnel, and other structures associated with power generation and distribution. The utility would benefit from the additional capacity, while the area would have new employment opportunities during the construction period and nearly one million dollars in new property tax revenue. Negative impacts include the loss of 80 acres of land, 97 acres of wildlife habitat, the diversion of lake water, and the loss of cultural and historical sites. Legal mandates for the EIS are the DOE Organization Act of 1977, Federal Power Act of 1920, and National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  18. Cloud droplet deposition in subalpine balsam fir forests: hydrological and chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Lovett, G M; Reiners, W A; Olson, R K

    1982-12-24

    Subalpine forests of the northern Appalachians are subject to significant deposition of water and chemicals via cloud droplet impaction. This deposition has been estimated by a method linking micrometeorological measures of turbulent transfer, a detailed representation of canopy structure, and experimentally derived capture efficiencies. Water inputs from clouds are about 46 percent, and chemical inputs range from 150 to 430 percent of the bulk precipitation.

  19. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

    PubMed

    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents.

  20. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

    PubMed

    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents. PMID:27436809

  1. Stable isotope ratio analysis for verifying the authenticity of balsamic and wine vinegar.

    PubMed

    Perini, M; Paolini, M; Simoni, M; Bontempo, L; Vrhovsek, U; Sacco, M; Thomas, F; Jamin, E; Hermann, A; Camin, F

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and ¹³C/¹²C in ethanol and acetic acid and of ¹⁸O/¹⁶O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the ¹³C/¹²C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM.

  2. Stable isotope ratio analysis for verifying the authenticity of balsamic and wine vinegar.

    PubMed

    Perini, M; Paolini, M; Simoni, M; Bontempo, L; Vrhovsek, U; Sacco, M; Thomas, F; Jamin, E; Hermann, A; Camin, F

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, we investigate whether the analysis of stable isotope ratios D/H and ¹³C/¹²C in ethanol and acetic acid and of ¹⁸O/¹⁶O in water can be applied to the ingredients of "aceto balsamico di Modena IGP" (ABM) to evaluate their authenticity. We found that impurities in the extraction solution do not affect the ¹³C/¹²C of acetic acid and the D/H values of acetic acid are not affected under a composite NMR experiment. The standard deviation of repeatability and standard deviation of reproducibility are comparable in wine vinegar and ABM and generally lower than those quoted in the official methods. This means that the validation parameters quoted in the official methods can also be applied to the ingredients of ABM. In addition, we found no changes in the isotopic values from wine to vinegar and to ABM, and from the original must to the ABM must, providing experimental evidence that reference data from wine databanks can also be used to evaluate the authenticity of vinegar and ABM. PMID:25080186

  3. How does drought tolerance compare between two improved hybrids of balsam poplar and an unimproved native species?

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Maurel, Marion; Desrochers, Annie; Larocque, Guy R

    2011-03-01

    Poplars are one of the woody plants that are very sensitive to water stress, which may reduce the productivity of fast-growing plantations. Poplars can exhibit several drought tolerance strategies that may impact productivity differently. Trees from two improved hybrids, Populus balsamifera × Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray (clone B × T) and P. balsamifera × Populus maximowiczii A. Henry (clone B × M), having P. balsamifera L. as a parent and trees from native and unimproved P. balsamifera were subjected to a 1-month drying cycle in a growth chamber and then rewatered. The unimproved and native B clone maintained higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than the hybrids, and high photosynthetic activity and transpiration, even when soil water content was nearly zero. As a result, both instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE(i)) and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) indicated that this clone was less affected by drought than both hybrids at maximal drought stress. However, this clone shed its leaves when the drought threshold was exceeded, which implied a greater loss of productivity. The B × M hybrid showed a relatively conservative response to water stress, with the greatest decrease in transpiring versus absorbing surface (total leaf area to root biomass ratio). This clone was also the only one to develop new leaves after rewatering, and its total biomass production was not significantly decreased by drought. Among the two hybrids, clone B × T was the most vigorous, with the greatest transpiration (E(i)) and net CO(2) assimilation (A) rates, allowing for high biomass production. However, it had a more risky strategy under drought conditions by keeping its stomata open and high E(i) rates under moderate drought, resulting in a lower recovery rate after rewatering. The opposite drought response strategies of the two hybrids were reflected by clone B × T having lower WUE(i) values than clone B × M at maximal drought, with a very low Ψ(min) value of -3.2 MPa, despite closed stomata and stopped photosynthetic activity. Positive linear relationships between A and g(s) for the three hybrids indicated strong stomatal control of photosynthesis. Moreover, the three poplar clones showed anisohydric behaviour for stomatal control and their use under long-term drought should be of interest, especially the B × M clone.

  4. Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood).

    PubMed

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Hefer, Charles A; Christe, Camille; Corea, Oliver; Lexer, Christian; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species Populus balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored the patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and admixed individuals from wild populations. Local ancestry analysis in admixed P. trichocarpa revealed a telomeric region in chromosome 15 with P. balsamifera ancestry, containing several candidate genes for local adaptation. Genomic analyses revealed signals of selection in certain genes in this region (e.g. PRR5, COMT1), and functional analyses based on gene expression variation and correlations with adaptive phenotypes suggest distinct functions of the introgressed alleles. In contrast, a block of genes in chromosome 12 paralogous to the introgressed region showed no signs of introgression or signatures of selection. We hypothesize that the introgressed region in chromosome 15 has introduced modular or cassette-like variation into P. trichocarpa. These linked adaptive mutations are associated with a block of genes in chromosome 15 that appear to have undergone neo- or subfunctionalization relative to paralogs in a duplicated region on chromosome 12 that show no signatures of adaptive variation. The association between P. balsamifera introgressed alleles with the expression of adaptive traits in P. trichocarpa supports the hypothesis that this is a case of adaptive introgression in an ecologically important foundation species.

  5. Bitter Melon

    MedlinePlus

    African Cucumber, Ampalaya, Balsam Pear, Balsam-Apple, Balsambirne, Balsamo, Bitter Apple, Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Bittergurke, Carilla Fruit, Carilla Gourd, Cerasee, Chinli-Chih, Cundeamor, Fructus Mormordicae Grosvenori, Karavella, Kathilla, ...

  6. Environmental dermatitis. Contact dermatitis from perfumes in soap.

    PubMed

    Burry, J N

    Perfumes in soaps cause nondescript patterns of contact dermatitis. Patch testing with balsam of Peru and a fragrance mixture can confirm a sensitivity to a perfume. The use of additive-free soaps determines its clinical relevance.

  7. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  10. Diet-boosting Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... over nonfat yogurt Fruit smoothie with nonfat yogurt Citrus salad with walnuts Watermelon salad with balsamic vinegar ... rice and pinto beans White bean salad with lemon and avocado Veggie burgers

  11. Contact hypersensitivity to some perfume materials.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J C

    1975-08-01

    Some recent publications concerning perfume contact sensitivity are briefly reviewed. Japanese workers have identified some perfume sensitizers and have devised an allergen replacement system. Costus absolute of perfumery has been found to sensitize guinea-pig and man; sesquiterpene lactones are responsible for cross-sensitivity with some other plant products. Balsam of Peru is a useful screen for perfume sensitivity; terpenoids of balsams require study.

  12. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    PubMed

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  13. Sensitivity to perfumes and preservatives in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kintziou, H; Papaioannou, G; Rallis, M

    1990-06-01

    Synopsis Patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested for sensitivity to perfumes (perfume mixture, balsam of Peru) and to preservatives (formaldehyde). The percentages of sensitivity in Greek patients with contact dermatitis were 8.1% for the perfume mixture, 3.7% for the balsam of Peru and 2.3% for formaldehyde. It is notable that 1.4% of the patients demonstrated simultaneous sensitivity to the perfume mixture and to balsam of Peru, while no case of simultaneous sensitivity occurred for formaldehyde and the two other compounds. Factors such as sex, age, occupation and anatomic site of the appearance of dermatitis in patients were taken into account and related to the percentages of sensitivity. Comparing with the literature we have concluded that the frequency of appearance of sensitivity by Greek patients is not significantly different from the average observed for patients in Northern or Southern Europe.

  14. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  15. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    PubMed

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  16. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  17. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  18. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  19. How to test for fragrance allergy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. Fragrance allergy detection is best accomplished by testing with the fragrance mixture, balsam of Peru, and either jasmine synthetic or absolute. It would be desirable to have common fragrance allergens listed on cosmetic labels so that patients could avoid the allergens to which they are allergic.

  20. Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-07-30

    Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation. PMID:17824144

  1. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  2. 78 FR 13695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Chambers of the City of Moses Lake, 401 S. Balsam, Moses Lake, Washington 98837. Discussion will focus on... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council AGENCY.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Washington Resource Advisory...

  3. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... the City of Moses Lake, 401 S. Balsam, Moses Lake, Washington 98837. Before including your address... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... a meeting of the Eastern Washington Resource Advisory Council. The meeting on March 21, 2013,...

  4. Stomatal factors and vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation in poplars.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Thomas, Barb R; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between the vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, and leaf and stem water potential were examined in six hybrid poplar (P38P38, Walker, Okanese, Northwest, Assiniboine and Berlin) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones. Stem xylem cavitation resistance was examined with the Cavitron technique in well-watered plants grown in the greenhouse. To investigate stomatal responses to drought, plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering for 5 (mild drought) and 7 (severe drought) days and to stress recovery by rewatering severely stressed plants for 30 min and 2 days. The clones varied in stomatal sensitivity to drought and vulnerability to stem xylem cavitation. P38P38 reduced stomatal conductance in response to mild stress while the balsam poplar clone maintained high leaf stomatal conductance under more severe drought stress conditions. Differences between the severely stressed clones were also observed in leaf water potentials with no or relatively small decreases in Assiniboine, P38P38, Okanese and Walker. Vulnerability to drought-induced stem xylem embolism revealed that balsam poplar and Northwest clones reached loss of conductivity at lower stem water potentials compared with the remaining clones. There was a strong link between stem xylem resistance to cavitation and stomatal responsiveness to drought stress in balsam poplar and P38P38. However, the differences in stomatal responsiveness to mild drought suggest that other drought-resistant strategies may also play a key role in some clones of poplars exposed to drought stress.

  5. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  6. History of the spruce-fir forest in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) were present by 13,700 years B.C.E. in the Catskills Mountains of southeastern New York State. These conifers were, and still are, largely confined to the eastern and far western portions of the region. A gap in the distribution exists between these populations. Both species are absent from the intervening East Branch Delaware River watershed. No red spruce macrofossils were found in this watershed, suggesting that this conifer never colonized the gap postglacially. Rare macrofossils of balsam fir were found in only three of the 24 peatlands in this watershed, the conifer having disappeared between 11,300 and 8,200 years B.C.E.

  7. Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish diet.

    PubMed

    Pastoriza, Silvia; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2014-12-01

    Most foods included within the western diet are subjected to heat processing. During such treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place, generating brown polymers known as melanoidins. Melanoidins could have health beneficial properties such as chemopreventive, antimicrobial or antioxidant capacity. Here we have established the content of melanoidins in thermally processed foods consumed regularly in the Spanish diet (chocolate, sweet wine, balsamic vinegar, beer, bread, breakfast cereals and biscuits) and their antioxidant capacity by different in vitro methodologies (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, ORAC, HOSC). The mean intake of melanoidins is 12.2g/person/day within the Spanish diet, bread, pilsner beer and biscuits being the foods that contributed most. The most antioxidant melanoidins were those from coffee, followed by balsamic vinegar and sweet wine. Finally, the average intake of antioxidant capacity coming from melanoidins was 717 μmol Trolox/day, melanoidins from coffee, biscuits, pilsner beer and chocolate being those which possessed more antioxidant capacity.

  8. Use of on-site mycorrhizal inoculum for plant establishment on abandoned mined lands. Final report, 31 May 1988-31 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, D.J.; Carling, D.E.

    1990-04-27

    Natural vegetation succession on abandoned coal-mined lands does not provide sufficient plant cover to control soil erosion in the short term. Soil inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi from an adjacent undisturbed area was used to inoculate balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings to improve plant growth. Soil inoculum contains the species of mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to the area as well as other beneficial organisms. An initial survey of mycorrhizal fungi in soils was conducted to determine the existing levels of mycorrhizal infection on native and disturbed soils. Four experiments were implemented to determine (1) fertilizer and mycorrhizal effects, (2) effects of successional stage of inoculum source, (3) effects of nitrogen sources in conjunction with mycorrhizae, and (4) the combinations of microsites, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae needed to establish vegetation on a steep slope. Soil-borne inoculum improved the growth of balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings over the 2-yr period.

  9. Restriction map and polymorphisms of nuclear ribosomal genes of Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Stoehr, M U; Singh, R S

    1993-06-01

    Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones from five populations, which were collected along a transect from northern Wisconsin to the northern tree line, were evaluated for polymorphisms in nuclear ribosomal DNA. For this purpose, a restriction map was constructed using four six-cutter enzymes in single and double digests of genomic DNA. After electrophoretic separation on agarose gels and Southern transfer, blots were hybridized to non-radioactively labeled heterologous rDNA probes of soybean. Among populations, variation was detected in the length of the intergenic spacer between the tandem repeats of the coding regions and in the degree of methylation of one restriction enzyme recognition site. Based on a comparison of the derived restriction map of balsam poplar and other poplars, high homology was evident in the rDNA coding regions among species, whereas the intergenic spacer varied slightly in both length and number of restriction sites.

  10. Contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Wanscher, B

    1976-04-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis due to the natural product propolis (bee glue) are reported. They presented perioral eczema and stomatitis which were recalcitrant until propolis was considered as the cause. Patch tests with propolis preparations were positive in both patients, and, furthermore, in the second patient the lesions relapsed after provocation tests. European standard patch test including balsam of Peru were negative. The complexity of propolis, its supposed anti-inflammatory effect due to flavonoids, and the sensitizing agents originating mainly from the poplar trees are discussed together with the cross-sensitization to balsam of Peru. Contact dermatitis due to propolis should be considered in unexplained eczemas, mainly perioral but also in other areas, as propolis preparations are available also as ointments and cosmetic creams.

  11. Propolis allergy. (III). Sensitization studies with minor constituents.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Wollenweber, E

    1988-10-01

    87% of the propolis product "LB-1", originally reported to be 1,1-dimethyl-allyl caffeic acid ester, was shown by GC/MS analysis to consist of 3 isomeric pentenyl caffeates, 63% of which are 1,1-dimethylallyl caffeate. These pentenyl caffeates proved to be the major sensitizers of propolis and of poplar bud secretion in our previous study. In addition, 3 further minor allergens have now been investigated. Experimental sensitization indicates that phenylethyl caffeate is as strong a sensitizer as the major allergen "LB-1", while benzyl salicylate is a moderate sensitizer. Benzyl cinnamate plays only a subordinate role. At least 3 further esters of caffeic acid or cinnamic acid remain to be studied. Interestingly, relationships between propolis and balsam of Peru were found. 8 compounds are common to both materials. Thus "cross-reactions" or concomitant reactions in propolis-sensitive individuals to balsam of Peru are explainable.

  12. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  13. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  14. Contact sensitivity to flavourings and perfumes in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abifadel, R; Mortureux, P; Perromat, M; Ducombs, G; Taieb, A

    1992-07-01

    16 children with atopic dermatitis and 4 nonatopics were skin tested with flavourings and perfumes. Immediate reactions to balsam of Peru and fragrance-mix were found in 9 atopics, and none among nonatopics. An irritant is more probable than an immunologic mechanism. Allergen solutions should probably be assayed at a lower concentration in atopic patients. This study points to a possible aggravating factor from perfumes and flavourings ingested, inhaled, or used as cosmetics.

  15. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  16. How to instruct patients sensitive to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1989-10-01

    Patients who are sensitive to fragrances should either use fragrance-free cosmetics or undergo a repeat open application test to the cosmetic or perfume to determine sensitivity. Unusual reactions include systemic contact dermatitis due to balsam of Peru, benzyl alcohol, and menthol. Some responses involve pigmented eruptions due to phototoxic or photoallergic agents in perfumes and incense. Other reactions include consort dermatitis and reactions to toothpastes, gum and perfumes in paper products, sanitary napkins, ostomy pastes, and detergents.

  17. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position. PMID:16995632

  18. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components. PMID:3233955

  19. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  20. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  1. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  2. A New Severity Rating System for Evaluating and Predicting the Impacts of a Nonnative Invasive Forest Insect on Two Pacific Northwest Fir Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinkevich, K.; Progar, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) is a nonnative invasive forest insect introduced from Europe to North America around 1900. The insect established and spread in the northeast, infesting and causing mortality of balsam fir and has since established infestations in all true firs in eastern and western North America. There are several indicators of the presence and severity of BWA, and mortality can occur rapidly or trees may persist for many decades depending on the type and intensity of infestation. Severity ratings to describe damage have largely been based on a system developed for balsam fir in Newfoundland. Modifications to this system, also developed in eastern North America, used similar characteristics, but reduced the number of classes using qualitative damage assessments. Quantitative rating systems have been developed in the western United States, however much of the research in the Pacific Northwest is based on long-term monitoring studies that describe damage patterns for host species and quantify mortality rates. Results are inconsistent geographically and between tree species, and do not incorporate stand-specific information with individual tree ratings. This emphasizes the need for a species-specific, stand-level rating system, particularly in the west where the insect is expanding its range into novel habitat, likely as a result of climatic changes. We developed a new, more comprehensive rating system for grand fir and subalpine fir in the northwest US that combines all the symptoms of BWA-related tree damage with stand-level information about species composition and structure. Our scale identifies differences between each species and quantitatively differentiates between damage classes, identifying the symptoms defining each class. This rating system allows for more efficient classification of stand-level risk for BWA and will be used to develop a predictive risk model that identifies factors that can assist land managers with damage mitigation

  3. Comparative nucleotide diversity across North American and European populus species.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Guy, Robert D; Jansson, Stefan; Silim, Salim N; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2012-06-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms in two North American balsam poplars (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and P. balsamifera L.; section Tacamahaca), and one Eurasian aspen (P. tremula L.; section Populus) were compared using nine loci involved in defense, stress response, photoperiodism, freezing tolerance, and housekeeping. Nucleotide diversity varied among species and was highest for P. tremula (θ(w) = 0.005, π(T) = 0.007) as compared to P. balsamifera (θ(w) = 0.004, π(T) = 0.005) or P. trichocarpa (θ(w) = 0.002, π(T) = 0.003). Across species, the defense and the stress response loci accounted for the majority of the observed level of nucleotide diversity. In general, the studied loci did not deviate from neutral expectation either at the individual locus (non-significant normalized Fay and Wu's H) or at the multi-locus level (non-significant HKA test). Using molecular clock analysis, section Tacamahaca probably shared a common ancestor with section Populus approximately 4.5 million year ago. Divergence between the two closely related balsam poplars was about 0.8 million years ago, a pattern consistent with an isolation-with-migration (IM) model. As expected, P. tremula showed a five-fold higher substitution rate (2 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year) compared to the North American species (0.4 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year), probably reflecting its complex demographic history. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) varied among species with a more rapid decay in the North American species (<400 bp) in comparison to P. tremula (≫400 bp). The similarities in nucleotide diversity pattern and LD decay of the two balsam poplar species likely reflects the recent time of their divergence.

  4. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  5. Are opera-house artistes afflicted with contact allergy to colophony and cosmetics?

    PubMed

    Färm, G; Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C

    1995-05-01

    The frequencies of cosmetics intolerance and contact allergy to colophony were investigated among 116 singers and dancers and 16 make-up artists. Participants were interviewed, examined and patch tested with a standard series and materials from the opera house. Common skin lesions were found in 1/3 of participants and more than 50% had a history of intolerance to cosmetics. Colophony gave positive patch test reactions in only 3 subjects. The prevalence of positive patch test reactions to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru was about the same as among dermatitis patients generally. Contact allergy to colophony did not seem to be a problem regarding cosmetics.

  6. The Scandinavian multicenter photopatch study. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Wennersten, G; Thune, P; Brodthagen, H; Jansen, C; Rystedt, I

    1984-05-01

    The Scandinavian photopatch test procedure has been applied to 745 patients with suspected photodermatoses during the years 1980-1981. Our experience has been encouraging with the recording of several relevant reactions. A total of 132 positive photocontact reactions and 120 ordinary contact reactions were seen. Photocontact reactions to musk ambrette (19 cases) and PABA (19 cases) were surprisingly frequent. The next most common photocontact reactions were to promethazine (24), chlorpromazine (22 cases) and fentichlor (12). Ordinary contact reactions were observed to balsam of Peru (30), PABA (23), lichen mix (21), wood mix (14) and to perfume mix (10).

  7. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to contact allergens in psoriasis. A clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Heule, F; Tahapary, G J; Bello, C R; van Joost, T

    1998-02-01

    The possibility for patch testing procedures to detect contact allergy was examined in 85 hospitalized patients with forms of psoriasis. Exclusion criteria were active lesions on the back, the use of strong topical corticosteroids, methotrexate, cyclosporin and UV therapy. After screening, a group of 47 patients with different forms of psoriasis were selected for patch testing. Personal history, including topical treatment, occupation and domestic circumstances, were reasons to extend the standard series of allergens. Tars, nickel sulfate, perfume and balsam of Peru scored high. The overall positive rate was 68%. This is higher than that observed in earlier studies. The unexpected results are discussed in the light of the possible mechanism of action.

  8. Erratum.

    PubMed

    1983-04-22

    In the report "Cloud droplet deposition in subalpine balsam fir forests: Hydrological and chemical inputs" by G. M. Lovett et al. (24 Dec., p. 1303), two errors appeared in Table 2 on page 1304. The cloud deposition of SO(4)(2-), incorrectly reported as 275.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), should have been 137.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1). The percentage of the sum contributed by clouds, reported as 81 for SO(4)(2-), should have been 68.

  9. Gynandromorphs in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María E; Barreto, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Gynandromorphs of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (2), Cx. pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin (1) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (2) are described. Two individuals of the latter species were reared in the laboratory, while the remaining three specimens were wild-caught with different traps in rural areas in Valle del Cauca department, southwestern Colombia. All of the individuals were mounted on microscopic slides with Canada balsam. From each mosquito, main morphological characteristics are described and illustrated. Due to the paucity of information about this subject, these findings as well as other relevant cases are discussed.

  10. Field and airborne spectral characterization of suspected damage in red spruce (picea rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Williams, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing to monitor forest damage due to acid deposition is investigated. Spectral and water measurements and aircraft radiance data of red spruce and balsam fir, collected in Camels Hump Mountain and Ripton, Vermont between August 13-20, 1984, are analyzed to evaluate the damage levels of the trees. Variations in reflectance features and canopy moisture content are studied. It is observed that damage correlates with elevation (greater damage at higher elevations); xylem water column tension is greater at higher damage sites; and a 'blue shift' is indicated in the spectral data at high damage sites.

  11. Roy Schafer: a narrative.

    PubMed

    Michels, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the papers given at the Schafer Symposium in October 2012 by the following six presenters: Henry Schwartz, Richard Fritsch, Rosemary Balsam, Lucy LaFarge, Michael Feldman, and Jay Greenberg. He also highlights some important ongoing themes in Schafer's writing, including theory-about which Schafer takes a unique position-history, and ideas from other disciplines. Schafer prefers continuing explorations over arriving at conclusions, the author notes, and believes that students should remain faithful to their mentors' thinking-until it is time for them to move beyond it. PMID:23457101

  12. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

  13. [Propolis-induced contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Schuler, T M; Frosch, P J

    1988-03-01

    Six patients with contact dermatitis to propolis are reported (3 women, 3 men; mean age 57 years). All three men had eczema on their hands and had acquired their sensitization in the course of bee keeping. The women had been sensitized by propolis contained in ointments of various kinds. Upon patch testing all six patients reacted to propolis and four also to Peruvian balsam. While ten flavonoids were test-negative, a cinnamic acid ester (1.1-dimethylallyl-3',4'-dihydroxy cinnamic acid ester) isolated both from propolis and from poplar buds was positive in two out of three patients; this may be the major allergen.

  14. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  15. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  16. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems.

  17. Bifunctional cis-abienol synthase from Abies balsamea discovered by transcriptome sequencing and its implications for diterpenoid fragrance production.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production.

  18. The influence of shaving method on perfume allergy.

    PubMed

    Edman, B

    1994-11-01

    Among men, the most frequent contact allergens are perfumes (fragrance mix and balsam of Peru). Considering that the main cause of nickel allergy is ear-piercing, shaving with a razor blade might be the cause of perfume contact allergy, by creating small wounds that increase the penetration of applied perfume substances derived from soaps, shaving foams and after-shave lotions. 19 males with contact allergy to fragrance mix and/or to balsam of Peru were interviewed about their shaving habits by letter. 17 responded (89%), of whom 12 (71%) had been using razor blades continuously for a period of at least 1 year. At our clinic, the frequency of razor blade usage was found to be 45% in patch tested men without perfume contact allergy. When comparing the frequencies of razor blade usage among patch tested men with and without perfume contact allergy, there was a statistically significant over-representation (p = 0.047) among those with perfume allergy. The risk of perfume allergy when using razor blades was found to be 2.9 (odds ratio).

  19. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

  20. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  1. Retraction of "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research".

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    The Editors of Tissue Engineering are officially retracting the published article entitled "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research," by Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Mueller-Stahl K, Boublik J, Ruhparwar A, Mertsching H, Balsam L, Robbins R, Haverich A. Tissue Eng 2003 Jun;9(3):517–523. This article is being retracted due to the discovery of multiple publications of identical data in the following three journals: Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Boublik J, Theodorou P, Martin U, Ruhparwar A, Fischer S, Eschenhagen T, Kubis HP, Kraft T, Leyh R, Haverich A. In vitro engineering of heart muscle: artificial myocardial tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Jul;124(1):63–69. Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Boublik J, Mueller-Stahl K, Leyh R, Fischer S, Haverich A. A novel bioartificial myocardial tissue and its prospective use in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Aug;22(2):238–243. Kofidis T, Balsam L, de Bruin J, Robbins RC. Distinct cell-to-fiber junctions are critical for the establishment of cardiotypical phenotype in a 3D bioartificial environment. Med Eng Phys 2004 Mar;26(2):157–163. Tissue Engineering is committed to the highest standards of scientific content and integrity, and does not tolerate such improprieties.

  2. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  3. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  4. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  5. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  6. Lignin composition in cambial tissues of poplar.

    PubMed

    Christiernin, M

    2006-01-01

    The cambial tissues of a Populus balsamifera, Balsam poplar clone were studied during a growth season. The Klason and acid-soluble lignin contents were determined as well as the carbohydrate monomer distribution and the protein content. Both the phloem and the xylem sides of the cambial region were examined. The samples were analyzed by thioacidolysis and structures of dimeric products were determined by mass spectrometry after desulphuration. Chemical analysis of samples during the growth season was combined with microscopy of embedded specimens that showed the state of cell differentiation at the time of sampling. In spring and early summer, growth is very rapid and the intention was to collect tissue in which exclusively the middle lamella/primary cell wall had begun to lignify. The Klason lignin, protein content and carbohydrate monomer distribution showed that all the specimens from the cambial tissues sampled during a growth season contained predominantly middle lamella and primary walls; except for the developing xylem sampled in August where the carbohydrate composition showed that secondary walls were present. Thioacidolysis showed that the lignin from the cambial tissues had more condensed structures than the lignin from the reference balsam poplar clone wood. More guaiacyl than syringyl units were detected and mass spectrometry showed that the cambial tissues contained more lignin structures with end-groups than the reference sample. These results suggest that lignification in the cambial layer and early developing xylem may take place predominantly in a bulk fashion during the summer.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  8. Trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry for the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1850-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2005-01-01

    Historical trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry of the Wolf River were examined for a 6-mile reach that flows through the southern part of the Menominee Indian Reservation and the northern part of Shawano County, Wis. Trends were examined in the context of effects from dams, climate, and land-cover change. Annual flood peaks and mean monthly flow for the Wolf River were examined for 1907-96 and compared to mean annual and mean monthly precipitation. Analysis of trends in sedimentation (from before about 1850 through 1999) involved collection of cores and elevation data along nine valley transects spanning the Wolf River channel, flood plain, and backwater and impounded areas; radioisotope analyses of impounded sediment cores; and analysis of General Land Office Survey Notes (1853-91). Trends in sediment chemistry were examined by analyzing samples from an impoundment core for minor and trace elements. Annual flood peaks for the Wolf River decreased during 1907-49 but increased during 1950-96, most likely reflecting general changes in upper-atmospheric circulation patterns from more zonal before 1950 to more meridional after 1950. The decrease in flood peaks during 1907-49 may also, in part, be due to forest regrowth. Mean monthly streamflow during 1912-96 increased for the months of February and March but decreased for June and July, suggesting that spring snowmelt occurs earlier in the season than it did in the past. Decreases in early summer flows may be a reflection earlier spring snowmelt and large rainstorms in early spring rather than early summer. These trends also may reflect upper-atmospheric circulation patterns. The Balsam Row Dam impoundment contains up to 10 feet of organic-rich silty clay and has lost much of its storage capacity. Fine sediment has accumulated for 1.8 miles upstream from the Balsam Row Dam. Historical average linear and mass sedimentation rates in the Balsam Row impoundment were 0.09 feet per year and 1

  9. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* < d, intake is regulated by the rate at which the herbivore encounters new plants. Alterations to plant geometry due to past browsing could change the rate at which herbivores encounter and process bites of plant tissue, modify d* relative to d, and thus change intake rates and the distribution of mechanisms regulating it across landscapes. We measured changes in the geometry of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) saplings along gradients of moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* < d for aspen and balsam fir. Therefore, travel velocity and food processing

  10. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  11. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  12. Cognitive influences on health symptoms from acute chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Dalton, P

    1999-11-01

    Symptom reports, perceived adverse health effects, and public health concerns are increasingly precipitated by the perception of chemical odors. This study examined the interaction between health cognitions, odor perception, and symptom reports. A group of 180 healthy men and women were exposed to 1 of 3 ambient odors, normatively rated as healthful (methyl salicylate, or wintergreen), harmful (butanol or alcohol), and ambiguous (isobomyl acetate, or balsam), after receiving 1 of 3 odorant characterizations (harmful, healthful, and neutral). Individuals given a harmful bias reported significantly more health symptoms following exposure and more intense odor and irritation during exposure than did those given a neutral or healthful bias. The overall pattern of results suggests that many of the health-related effects of exposure to odorants are mediated not by a direct agency of odors but by cognitive variables, such as mental models of the relationship between environmental odors and health.

  13. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected.

  14. Conditioned suppression tests of the context-blocking hypothesis: testing in the absence of the preconditioned context.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J J; Bombace, J C; Shurtleff, D; Vigorito, M

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that use rats in a conditioned suppression situation. The experiments, designed to remove confounds that have complicated interpretations of prior research, tested the context-blocking hypothesis, the proposition that static apparatus cues or conditioning contexts can block conditioning to discrete conditioned stimuli (CSs). Experiment 1, like previous work, tested for conditioning to the target CS in the same context that had been preconditioned and in which target conditioning had occurred; the experiment demonstrated a context-blocking like effect. Experiment 2 tested for conditioning not only in the preconditioned context but also in a nonpreconditioned context. Evidence for context blocking appeared similar in the two test situations. This suggests that conditioned contexts block the acquisition of associative strength by discrete CSs at the time of target conditioning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and not through performance factors at the time of testing (e.g., Gibbon & Balsam, 1981).

  15. A collateral effect of reward predicted by matching theory.

    PubMed

    Mace, F C; McCurdy, B; Quigley, E A

    1990-01-01

    Matching theory describes a process by which organisms distribute their behavior between two or more concurrent schedules of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1961). In an attempt to determine the generality of matching theory to applied settings, 2 students receiving special education were provided with academic response alternatives. Using a combined simultaneous treatments design and reversal design, unequal ratio schedules of reinforcement were varied across two academic responses. Findings indicated that both subjects allocated higher rates of responses to the richer schedule of reinforcement, although only one responded exclusively to the richer schedule. The present results lend support to a postulation that positive reinforcement may have undesirable collateral effects that are predicted by matching theory (Balsam & Bondy, 1983).

  16. Characterization of fresh and aged natural ingredients used in historical ointments by molecular spectroscopic techniques: IR, Raman and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, L; Riedo, C; Baraldi, C; Nevin, A; Gamberini, M C; D'Andrea, C; Chiantore, O; Goidanich, S; Toniolo, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural organic materials used to prepare pharmaceutical mixtures including ointments and balsams have been characterized by a combined non-destructive spectroscopic analytical approach. Three classes of materials which include vegetable oils (olive, almond and palm tree), gums (Arabic and Tragacanth) and beeswax are considered in this study according to their widespread use reported in ancient recipes. Micro-FTIR, micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies have been applied to fresh and mildly thermally aged samples. Vibrational characterization of these organic compounds is reported together with tabulated frequencies, highlighting all spectral features and changes in spectra which occur following artificial aging. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be particularly useful for the assessment of changes in oils after aging; spectral difference between Tragacanth and Arabic gum could be due to variations in origin and processing of raw materials. Analysis of these materials using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques provided important analytical information which could be used to guide further study.

  17. Long-term trend in patch test reactions: a 32-year statistical overview (1970-2002), part II.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Emilie; MacPherson, Cora; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis remains an important problem worldwide. The objective of this study was to analyze patch test positivity trends of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Publications from 1970 to 2002 were reviewed and re-analyzed. Statistical significance was determined with a Cochran-Armitage trend test. We observed a significant increase in positive reactions with carbamates, balsam of Peru, thimerosal, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, and methyldibromoglutaronitrile. The rates of positive reactions to Dimethylol dimethyl (DMDM) hydantoin, diazolidinyl urea, and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone remained unchanged. We showed a significant decrease in positive reactions for all other allergens. These data provide challenges in public health--for industry, government, and medicine--to decrease the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis. However, the complexities of evaluating a 32-year analysis are numerous, so the data should be interpreted with caution and within the context of this work.

  18. Immediate contact reactions to fragrance mix constituents and Myroxylon pereirae resin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Matsumoto, Y; Dlova, N; Ostlere, L S; Goldsmith, P C; Rycroft, R J G; Basketter, D A; White, I R; Banerjee, P; McFadden, J P

    2004-07-01

    We have studied patients who have positive-patch test reactions to fragrance-allergic screening substances fragrance mix (FM) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) for immediate contact reactions to the standard FM, the constituents of the FM and Myroxylon pereirae resin. In the fragrance-positive subjects (n = 60), there were positive immediate contact reactions to Myroxylon pereirae resin in 56.6% and to FM in 11.6%. In a control group (n = 50) of eczematous, patch test-negative patients there were positive immediate reactions to Myroxylon pereirae resin in 58.0% subjects and to FM in 12.0%. The absence of a significant difference between the fragrance-allergic group and control group is in keeping with a non-immunological basis for the majority of the immediate reactions seen.

  19. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    PubMed

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances.

  1. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Patrick D.; Malheiros, Antonio F.; Vasquez, Narda D.; Chavez, Milton D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4%) for staining with Gomori's trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality. PMID:26464924

  2. Scratch-chamber tests in food handler dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A

    1987-01-01

    Foods were tested by the scratch-chamber and open application techniques in 80 hand dermatitis patients, 55 of whom were food handlers. Both immediate and delayed reactions were seen. Most immediate scratch-chamber test reactions were provoked by vegetables and spices in patients with birch pollen allergy, and most delayed reactions from spices in patients with allergy to balsam of Peru, and from onion and leek. The evaluation of allergic and irritant reactions was difficult. Positive open application tests were seen in about 75% of patients with immediate or delayed scratch-chamber reactions. Immediate reactions from vegetables, fish and meat, and delayed reactions from orange and lemon peel and onion showed the best clinical relevance. Wet work, surface active agents and other irritant factors were considered the main causes, and food allergies as contributory factors only in food handler hand dermatitis. PMID:2949931

  3. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.J.; Guerin, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  4. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Toreti, Viviane Cristina; Sato, Helia Harumi; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Park, Yong Kun

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis. PMID:23737843

  5. [The first report of Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) were examined for ectoparasites. They were investigated macroscopically for lice. Then, they were placed into a plastic box and propoxur applied to their whole bodies. The ectoparasites which fell to the bottom of the box were collected and preserved in a vial with 70% of alcohol. No ectoparasite was observed on one nightjar while eleven lice specimens were collected from the other. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% of KOH until they were transparent. The lice were mounted on slides using by Canada balsam and dried in an incubater. They were examined under the light microscope and identified as Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). This is the first time the genus Mulcticola and the species M. hypoleucus has been reported from the nightjars in Turkey.

  6. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.

  7. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey.

  8. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  9. Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analyses. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.S.; Leak, W.B.

    1994-07-20

    With field measurements of migration patterns, we used two complementary approaches to examine tree-species movement after a documented increase in temperature. The advancing-front theory was used to examine age trends over distance and elevation for both a mountain site in New Hampshire and a regional comparison across the State of Maine. Well-defined stationary fronts were identified for red spruce (Picea rubens) and beech (Fagus grandifolia), while a catastrophic front was depicted for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and a constant slow-moving advancing front was exhibited by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The regional analysis, in Maine, indicated that white pine (Pinus strobus) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) decreased significantly in average latitude and elevation over a 24-year period. The potential ranges of the major species in terms of elevation and regional position appear stable.

  10. Biodiversity elements vulnerable to climate change in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion (Ulster, Delaware, Sullivan, and Greene Counties, New York State).

    PubMed

    Adams, Morton S; Parisio, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to affect biodiversity elements in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion of New York State with effects that are difficult to predict. The present communication details the species and communities of greatest conservation concern in this portion of the state and makes recommendations for monitoring the most pressing climate change-biodiversity vulnerabilities. Specifically, we present sites for monitoring representative old-growth and successional stands of red spruce/balsam fir and northern hardwood matrix forests, cliff communities, ice cave talus communities, and both minerotrophic inland poor fen and ombrotrophic perched peatlands. The proposed monitoring protocols vary among the various sites, but all are quantitative and are designed to document patterns of change. PMID:25098491

  11. [Standard epicutaneous testing: 5-year results and their effects on future examinations].

    PubMed

    Jarisch, R; Sandor, I

    1978-07-01

    1385 patients were subjected to patch tests in the last years. The most important contact allergens in these seris were found to be rubber, nickel, chromate. Compositions of patch tests series varies with regard to the individual substances included: allergens with low sensitizing potency (methol, resorcin, methylsalicylate (!), hexachlorophene, iodochlorhydrooxychinoline) are gradually replaced by others of more recent importance, e.g. mercury (Merfen). Some allergens give better results when tested in higher concentration (balsams of peru, parabens, colophony and wool fat alcohols). Our findings correspond widely with the recommendations of the ICDRG (International Contact Dermatitis Research Group). Therapeutic possibilities are limited; topical application of corticosteroids may be taken as routine regimen. Bufexamac (Parfenac) has been proposed for this purpose, recently. Protective creams (like ion exchange ointments) are of limited use due to the necessity of repeated application.

  12. Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances.

    PubMed

    Thune, P O; Solberg, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with verified light sensitivity to both UVB and UVA wavebands showed allergic reactions to various lichen plants (Parmelia spp., Hypogymnia spp., Pseuodovernia spp., Cladonia spp., Platismatia spp., Physcia spp., Umbilicaria spp. and Cetraria spp.). Among the aromatic lichen compounds, atranorin was observed to be the most frequently involved allergen but also several other isolated lichen acids were immunologically active: d-usnic, evernic, stictic, fumarprotocetraric, lobaric, salazinic, diffractaic and physodic/physodalic acid. Several patients showed allergy to other plant substances from other sources such as seven different species from the Compositae family, alantolactone, balsam of Peru, colophony and wood tars. Sensitivity to known photosensitizers was observed in four patients. Aromatic lichen acids are UV-absorbing substances and several are evidently able to photosensitive human skin. PMID:7398280

  13. Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances.

    PubMed

    Thune, P O; Solberg, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with verified light sensitivity to both UVB and UVA wavebands showed allergic reactions to various lichen plants (Parmelia spp., Hypogymnia spp., Pseudovernia spp., Cladonia spp., Platismatia spp., Physcia spp., Umbilicaria spp. and Cetraria spp.). Among the aromatic lichen compounds, atranorin was observed to be the most frequently involved allergen, but also several other isolated lichen acids were immunologically active: d-usnic, evernic, stictic, fumarprotocetraric, lobaric, salazinic, diffractaic and physodic/physodalic acid. Several patients showed allergy to other plant substances from other sources such as seven different species from the Compositae family, alantolactone, balsam of Peru, colophony and wood tars. Sensitivity to known photosensitizers was observed in four patients. Aromatic lichen acids are UV-absorbing substances and several are evidently able to photosensitize human skin. PMID:7398259

  14. The essential oil of Populus balsamifera buds: its chemical composition and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Piochon-Gauthier, Marianne; Legault, Jean; Sylvestre, Muriel; Pichette, André

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of Populus balsamifera essential oils obtained from spring buds, fall buds, and young leaves were determined by GC and GC-MS analyses. The major constituent, (+)-alpha-bisabolol, a rare sesquiterpene, was isolated from spring oil using reverse-phase preparative HPLC. The cytotoxic activity of balsam poplar oils and isolated (+)-alpha-bisabolol was assessed in vitro against human lung carcinoma (A549) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cell lines. Essential oils were cytotoxic with IC50 ranging from 35 to 50 microg/mL. (+)-alpha-Bisabolol exhibited pronounced activity (IC50 14 microg/mL) against both cancer cell lines. It also exhibited interesting cytotoxic activity (IC50 23 microg/mL) against human glioma (U251), higher than the one observed for (-)-alpha-bisabolol (IC50 34 microg/mL), which is known for its apoptosis-inducing effect against glioma cells.

  15. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part II: bioassay-guided identification of actives salicortin and oregonin.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Muhammad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Hervé, Jessica; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-10-01

    Among modern day metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and novel therapeutic support strategies are urgently needed. Adipocytes are interesting targets in this context. Using ethnobotanical and bioassay screening techniques, we have identified two Boreal Forest plants used by the James Bay Cree that potently inhibit adipogenesis, namely ALNUS INCANA ssp. RUGOSA (Speckled Alder) and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA (Balsam Poplar). The mode of action of this inhibitory activity was reported in a companion paper. The current study report the results of a classical bioassay-guided fractionation approach aimed at identifying the active principles responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis, as measured using triglyceride accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model cell line. The glycosides oregonin and salicortin were isolated and identified as the respective active principles for ALNUS INCANA and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA. These compounds thus offer promise as novel agents to mitigate the incidence or the progression of obesity.

  16. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey. PMID:20101585

  17. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  18. Systemic contact dermatitis in children: how an avoidance diet can make a difference.

    PubMed

    Matiz, Catalina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is an under-recognized skin reaction that occurs secondary to systemic (oral, intravenous, intramuscular, inhaled, or subcutaneous) exposure to a hapten in a previously sensitized individual. Medicaments are the most common cause of SCD in the adult population, but other chemicals like nickel, cobalt, balsam of Peru, and formaldehyde have been implicated as well. Few reports in children exist to date. Dietary restriction has shown to be of some benefit in managing some adult patients. We present a case series of 8 pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD from the contact dermatology clinic, who showed marked improvement of their dermatitis after adequate dietary avoidance. We review common presentations of chemicals causing SCD in children and potential dietary modifications.

  19. Use of terpenoids as natural flavouring compounds in food industry.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Aprea, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids represent the oldest known biomolecules, having been recovered from sediments as old as 2.5 billion years. Among plant secondary metabolites, they are the most abundant and diverse class of natural compounds. The diversity of terpenoids is probably a reflection of their many biological activities in nature, which has made them a widely used resource for traditional and modern human exploitation. They are usually the main constituents of essential oils of most plants offering a wide variety of pleasant scents from flowery to fruity, to woody or balsamic notes. For this reason terpenoids constitute a very important class of compounds for flavour and fragrance industries, in fact, in the US alone, the demand is forecast to grow 3.7 percent per year to $5.3 billion in 2012. The recent patents on production and extraction of terpenoids commonly used as natural flavouring compounds in food industries are reviewed in the present manuscript.

  20. A collateral effect of reward predicted by matching theory.

    PubMed Central

    Mace, F C; McCurdy, B; Quigley, E A

    1990-01-01

    Matching theory describes a process by which organisms distribute their behavior between two or more concurrent schedules of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1961). In an attempt to determine the generality of matching theory to applied settings, 2 students receiving special education were provided with academic response alternatives. Using a combined simultaneous treatments design and reversal design, unequal ratio schedules of reinforcement were varied across two academic responses. Findings indicated that both subjects allocated higher rates of responses to the richer schedule of reinforcement, although only one responded exclusively to the richer schedule. The present results lend support to a postulation that positive reinforcement may have undesirable collateral effects that are predicted by matching theory (Balsam & Bondy, 1983). PMID:2373655

  1. Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances.

    PubMed

    Thune, P O; Solberg, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with verified light sensitivity to both UVB and UVA wavebands showed allergic reactions to various lichen plants (Parmelia spp., Hypogymnia spp., Pseuodovernia spp., Cladonia spp., Platismatia spp., Physcia spp., Umbilicaria spp. and Cetraria spp.). Among the aromatic lichen compounds, atranorin was observed to be the most frequently involved allergen but also several other isolated lichen acids were immunologically active: d-usnic, evernic, stictic, fumarprotocetraric, lobaric, salazinic, diffractaic and physodic/physodalic acid. Several patients showed allergy to other plant substances from other sources such as seven different species from the Compositae family, alantolactone, balsam of Peru, colophony and wood tars. Sensitivity to known photosensitizers was observed in four patients. Aromatic lichen acids are UV-absorbing substances and several are evidently able to photosensitive human skin.

  2. Biodiversity elements vulnerable to climate change in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion (Ulster, Delaware, Sullivan, and Greene Counties, New York State).

    PubMed

    Adams, Morton S; Parisio, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to affect biodiversity elements in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion of New York State with effects that are difficult to predict. The present communication details the species and communities of greatest conservation concern in this portion of the state and makes recommendations for monitoring the most pressing climate change-biodiversity vulnerabilities. Specifically, we present sites for monitoring representative old-growth and successional stands of red spruce/balsam fir and northern hardwood matrix forests, cliff communities, ice cave talus communities, and both minerotrophic inland poor fen and ombrotrophic perched peatlands. The proposed monitoring protocols vary among the various sites, but all are quantitative and are designed to document patterns of change.

  3. Try it, you'll like it: the influence of expectation, consumption, and revelation on preferences for beer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Leonard; Frederick, Shane; Ariely, Dan

    2006-12-01

    Patrons of a pub evaluated regular beer and "MIT brew" (regular beer plus a few drops of balsamic vinegar) in one of three conditions. One group tasted the samples blind (the secret ingredient was never disclosed). A second group was informed of the contents before tasting. A third group learned of the secret ingredient immediately after tasting, but prior to indicating their preference. Not surprisingly, preference for the MIT brew was higher in the blind condition than in either of the two disclosure conditions. However, the timing of the information mattered substantially. Disclosure of the secret ingredient significantly reduced preference only when the disclosure preceded tasting, suggesting that disclosure affected preferences by influencing the experience itself, rather than by acting as an independent negative input or by modifying retrospective interpretation of the experience.

  4. Kinetic characterization for dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of timber varieties and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Yat, Shu Chiang; Berger, Alan; Shonnard, David R

    2008-06-01

    Hydrolysis of four timber species (aspen, balsam fir, basswood, and red maple) and switchgrass was studied using dilute sulfuric acid at 50 g dry biomass/L under similar conditions previously described as acid pretreatment. The primary goal was to obtain detailed kinetic data of xylose formation and degradation from a match between a first order reaction model and the experimental data at various final reactor temperatures (160-190 degrees C), sulfuric acid concentrations (0.25-1.0% w/v), and particle sizes (28-10/20 mesh) in a glass-lined 1L well-mixed batch reactor. Reaction rates for the generation of xylose from hemicellulose and the generation of furfural from xylose were strongly dependent on both temperature and acid concentration. However, no effect was observed for the particle sizes studied. Oligomer sugars, representing incomplete products of hydrolysis, were observed early in the reaction period for all sugars (xylose, glucose, arabinose, mannose, and galactose), but were reduced to low concentrations at later times (higher hemicellulose conversions). Maximum yields for xylose ranged from 70% (balsam) to 94% (switchgrass), for glucose from 10.6% to 13.6%, and for other minor sugars from 8.6% to 58.9%. Xylose formation activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the timber species and switchgrass were in a range of 49-180 kJ/mol and from 7.5 x 10(4) to 2.6 x 10(20)min(-1), respectively. In addition, for xylose degradation, the activation energies and the pre-exponential factors ranged from 130 to 170 kJ/mol and from 6.8 x 10(13) to 3.7 x 10(17)min(-1), respectively. There was a near linear dependence on acid concentration observed for xylose degradation. Our results suggest that mixtures of biomass species may be processed together and still achieve high yields for all species. PMID:17904838

  5. Relationship between genotype and soil environment during colonization of poplar roots by mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Karliński, Leszek; Rudawska, Maria; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, Barbara; Leski, Tomasz

    2010-06-01

    Poplars are among the few tree genera that can develop both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) associations; however, variable ratios of ECM/AM in dual mycorrhizal colonizations were observed in the roots of a variety of poplar species and hybrids. The objective of our study was to analyze the effect of internal and external factors on growth and dual AM and ECM colonization of poplar roots in three 12-15-year-old common gardens in Poland. We also analyzed the abundance of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes in the poplar roots. The Populus clones comprised black poplars (Populus deltoides and P. deltoides x Populus nigra), balsam poplars (Populus maximowiczii x Populus trichocarpa), and a hybrid of black and balsam poplars (P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa). Of the three sites that we studied, one was located in the vicinity of a copper smelter, where soil was contaminated with copper and lead. Poplar root tip abundance, mycorrhizal colonization, and soil fungi biomass were lower at this heavily polluted site. The total mycorrhizal colonization and the ratio of ECM and AM colonization differed among the study sites and according to soil depth. The influence of Populus genotype was significantly pronounced only within the individual study sites. The contribution of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes differed among the poplar clones and was higher at the polluted site than at the sites free of pollution. Our results indicate that poplar fine root abundance and AM and ECM symbiosis are influenced by environmental conditions. Further studies of different site conditions are required to characterize the utility of poplars for purposes such as the phytoremediation of polluted sites. PMID:19921284

  6. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  7. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    PubMed

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure. PMID:25721370

  8. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca.

  9. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.

  10. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  11. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  12. Bluejoint Is an Effective Bio-Barrier Species on Mine Covers.

    PubMed

    Kamorina, Galina; Tremblay, Francine; Bussière, Bruno; Smirnova, Evgeniya; Thiffault, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    Covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) are used to prevent acid mine drainage from mine wastes in the short term. However, the long-term efficiency of CCBE can be affected by trees because their roots may reduce the ability of covers to limit oxygen migration and also physically damage the CCBE. Two plant species that are native to boreal Canada, bluejoint () and sheep laurel (, were selected as bio-barrier species (BBS) to test if they reduce the growth and root system architecture of trees established on mine covers (balsam poplar [], willow [ spp], and black spruce []). The experiment was established in 2008 on a mine tailings impoundment located in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass. Coarse roots were excavated from the plots and digitized in three dimensions. Compared with the control (no BBS), bluejoint strongly decreased tree height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and radial extension, total root length and volume, and number of second- and third-order tree roots. Height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and volume, and number of second-order roots of balsam poplar increased with sheep laurel compared with control conditions, whereas willow showed no response to this treatment. Most characteristics of black spruce (except root-to-shoot ratio and number of second-order roots) improved in the presence of sheep laurel compared with the control. Thus, bluejoint was a more efficient BBS than sheep laurel. Bio-barriers comprised of bluejoint can be used as a countermeasure for controlling tree invasion of CCBE.

  13. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    PubMed

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure.

  14. Nitrogen Leaching During a Deciduous-to-Coniferous Successional Transition in Alaska's Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, R.; Jones, J.; Boone, R.

    2002-12-01

    We measured lysimeter nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations in order to assess the potential for nitrogen leaching over the course of a plant primary successional sequence in the boreal forest. Our study sites were floodplain stands of balsam poplar and white spruce in interior Alaska. These stand types encompass a major successional transition during which there is a decline in soil nitrogen cycling, plant primary productivity and soil temperatures. Soil water was collected weekly during the summers of 2000 and 2001 from lysimeters installed in the organic-mineral interface (~12 cm) and in deeper mineral soil (~40cm) of each stands type. NH4 levels were generally below detection limits (<10 ppb) throughout the course of the study with the NO3 concentrations accounting for the vast majority of inorganic N. Soil water NO3 concentrations in white spruce were significantly higher at 40 cm depth (0.572 mg NO3-N/L) than at 12 cm depth (0.129mg NO3-N/L) and were also significantly higher than the 40 cm depth in balsam poplar (0.198 mg NO3-N/L). DON concentrations decreased with depth in both stand types. Our results suggest that N leaching losses (as NO3) increase over primary succession from a deciduous- to a coniferous-dominated community. We speculate that NO3 losses in white spruce stands may be higher as assimilation by soil micro flora is retarded due to a reduction in soil temperature and available carbon.

  15. Relationship between genotype and soil environment during colonization of poplar roots by mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Karliński, Leszek; Rudawska, Maria; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, Barbara; Leski, Tomasz

    2010-06-01

    Poplars are among the few tree genera that can develop both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) associations; however, variable ratios of ECM/AM in dual mycorrhizal colonizations were observed in the roots of a variety of poplar species and hybrids. The objective of our study was to analyze the effect of internal and external factors on growth and dual AM and ECM colonization of poplar roots in three 12-15-year-old common gardens in Poland. We also analyzed the abundance of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes in the poplar roots. The Populus clones comprised black poplars (Populus deltoides and P. deltoides x Populus nigra), balsam poplars (Populus maximowiczii x Populus trichocarpa), and a hybrid of black and balsam poplars (P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa). Of the three sites that we studied, one was located in the vicinity of a copper smelter, where soil was contaminated with copper and lead. Poplar root tip abundance, mycorrhizal colonization, and soil fungi biomass were lower at this heavily polluted site. The total mycorrhizal colonization and the ratio of ECM and AM colonization differed among the study sites and according to soil depth. The influence of Populus genotype was significantly pronounced only within the individual study sites. The contribution of nonmycorrhizal fungal endophytes differed among the poplar clones and was higher at the polluted site than at the sites free of pollution. Our results indicate that poplar fine root abundance and AM and ECM symbiosis are influenced by environmental conditions. Further studies of different site conditions are required to characterize the utility of poplars for purposes such as the phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  16. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  17. Characterizing canopy nonrandomness with a multiband vegetation imager (MVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C. J.; Norman, J. M.; Murdock, L. M.; Gower, S. T.

    1997-12-01

    A new method for measuring plant canopy nonrandomness and other architectural components has been developed using a 16 bit (65535 gray scale levels) charged-coupled device (CCD) camera that captures images of plant canopies in two wavelength bands. This complete system is referred to as a multiband vegetation imager (MVI). The use of two wavelength bands (visible (VIS) 400-620 nm and near infrared (NIR) 720-950 nm) permits identification of sunlit and shaded foliage, sunlit and shaded branch area, clouds, and blue sky based on the camera's resolution, and the varying spectral properties that scene components have in the two wavelength bands. This approach is different from other canopy imaging methods (such as fish-eye photography) because it emphasizes measuring the fraction of an image occupied by various scene components (branches, shaded leaves, sunlit leaves) under different sky conditions rather than simply the canopy gap fraction under uniform sky conditions. The MVI has been used during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) to estimate architectural characteristics of each canopy. The leaf area index (LAI), sunlit LAI, and degree of nonrandomness within a canopy are architectural properties that have been measured with the MVI. Using a crown-based Monte Carlo model for nonrandom canopies, nonrandomness factors are calculated from MVI data using two approaches (gap fraction and gap-size distribution theories) to correct total and sunlit LAI estimates from indirect methods that assume random foliage distributions. Canopy nonrandomness factors obtained from analyzing the gap-size distribution in a Monte Carlo model are shown to be a function of path length (angle) through the canopy (Ωe(θ)); thus we suggest that LAI-2000 indirect measurements of LAI be adjusted with the value of Ωe(θ) at θ=35° because this is the mean angle at which the canopy gap fraction is measured by the

  18. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    SciTech Connect

    Nirjana, Marlene Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  19. Element mobility and partitioning along a soil acidity gradient in central Ontario forests, Canada.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A

    2008-10-01

    The potential environmental risk posed by metals in forest soils is typically evaluated by modeling metal mobility using soil-solution partitioning coefficients (K(d)), although such information is generally restricted to a few well-studied metals. Soil-solution partitioning coefficients were determined for 17 mineral elements (Al, As, Be, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl, U and V) in A-horizon (0-5 cm) soil at 46 forested sites that border the Precambrian Shield in central Ontario, where soil pH(aq) varied from 3.9 to 8.1. Sites were dominated by mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) or white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Log K(d) values for all elements could be predicted by empirical linear regression with soil pH (r(2) = 0.17-0.77) independent of forest type, although this relationship was greatly affected by positive relationships between acid-extractable metal concentration and pH(aq) for 13 of the 17 elements. Elements that exhibited strong or moderate (r(2) > 0.29; p < 0.001) relationships with soil pH(aq) in soil water extracts include Al, Ba, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Rb, Tl, V (negative) and Ca (positive). Elemental partitioning in mineral soil was independent of forest type; tree species differed in their response to chemical differences in mineral soil. For example, Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in foliage of sugar maple and white birch significantly increased with increasing soil acidity, whereas Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in balsam fir and white pine foliage exhibited no response to soil pH(aq). While K(d) values can provide useful information on the potential mobility and bioavailability of mineral elements in forest soils, care must be used when interpreting the relative contribution of solid and aqueous phases to this relationship and the differing responses of vegetation in elemental cycling in forests must also be considered. PMID:18058024

  20. Mapping of taiga forest units using AIRSAR data and/or optical data, and retrieval of forest parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cynthia; Way, Jobea; Viereck, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    A maximum a posteriori Bayesian classifier for multifrequency polarimetric SAR data is used to perform a supervised classification of forest types in the floodplains of Alaska. The image classes include white spruce, balsam poplar, black spruce, alder, non-forests, and open water. The authors investigate the effect on classification accuracy of changing environmental conditions, and of frequency and polarization of the signal. The highest classification accuracy (86 percent correctly classified forest pixels, and 91 percent overall) is obtained combining L- and C-band frequencies fully polarimetric on a date where the forest is just recovering from flooding. The forest map compares favorably with a vegetation map assembled from digitized aerial photos which took five years for completion, and address the state of the forest in 1978, ignoring subsequent fires, changes in the course of the river, clear-cutting of trees, and tree growth. HV-polarization is the most useful polarization at L- and C-band for classification. C-band VV (ERS-1 mode) and L-band HH (J-ERS-1 mode) alone or combined yield unsatisfactory classification accuracies. Additional data acquired in the winter season during thawed and frozen days yield classification accuracies respectively 20 percent and 30 percent lower due to a greater confusion between conifers and deciduous trees. Data acquired at the peak of flooding in May 1991 also yield classification accuracies 10 percent lower because of dominant trunk-ground interactions which mask out finer differences in radar backscatter between tree species. Combination of several of these dates does not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, panchromatic optical data acquired by SPOT in the summer season of 1991 are used to classify the same area. The classification accuracy (78 percent for the forest types and 90 percent if open water is included) is lower than that obtained with AIRSAR although conifers and deciduous trees are better

  1. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  2. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  3. Pulmonary effects of simultaneous exposures to MDI formaldehyde and wood dust on workers in an oriented strand board plant.

    PubMed

    Herbert, F A; Hessel, P A; Melenka, L S; Yoshida, K; Nakaza, M

    1995-04-01

    A study was undertaken in a plant producing oriented strand board (OSB) from aspen and balsam wood, bonded by methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and phenol formaldehyde. A group of 127 production workers in the plant was compared to 165 oil workers from the same geographic area. Measurements of MDI ranged from 6 to 33 micrograms/m3 (0.001-0.003 ppm), of respirable dust ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/m3, and of formaldehyde were 0.05 ppm or less. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was significantly lower among the OSB workers compared to the oil workers, and this was more pronounced for ex-smokers and current smokers. A number of respiratory symptoms suggestive of airway reactivity were significantly more common among the OSB workers. It was known that changes to reduce worker exposure had been made in the plant before the study, and it is unclear whether the health effects documented were the result of these low levels or if previous, probably higher levels were responsible.

  4. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies.

  5. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species.

  6. Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

    PubMed

    Lazo, R F; Hidalgo, E; Lazo, J E; Bermeo, A; Llaguno, M; Murillo, J; Teixeira, V P

    1999-03-01

    Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular. PMID:10466969

  7. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided.

  8. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology. PMID:26377874

  9. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  10. Inhibition of insect glutathione S-transferase (GST) by conifer extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Arnason, John T; Liu, Rui; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Waye, Andrew; Liu, Suqi; Saleem, Ammar; Cáceres, Luis A; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Insecticide synergists biochemically inhibit insect metabolic enzyme activity and are used both to increase the effectiveness of insecticides and as a diagnostic tool for resistance mechanisms. Considerable attention has been focused on identifying new synergists from phytochemicals with recognized biological activities, specifically enzyme inhibition. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), and tamarack larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch) have been used by native Canadians as traditional medicine, specifically for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties based on enzyme inhibitory activity. To identify the potential allelochemicals with synergistic activity, ethanol crude extracts and methanol/water fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic column and tested for in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition activity using insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) midgut and fat-body homogenate. The fractions showing similar activity were combined and analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A lignan, (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate, was identified from P. mariana cone extracts, and L. laricina and A. balsamea bark extracts. A flavonoid, taxifolin, was identified from P. mariana and P. banksiana cone extracts and L. laricina bark extracts. Both compounds inhibit GST activity with taxifolin showing greater activity compared to (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate and the standard GST inhibitor, diethyl maleate. The results suggested that these compounds can be considered as potential new insecticide synergists. PMID:25270601

  11. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    PubMed

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  12. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  13. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  14. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections.

  15. (abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

    1993-01-01

    Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

  16. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities. PMID:26929112

  17. HTO and OBT concentrations in a wetland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.; Yankovich, T.

    2008-07-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations in the non-human biota inhabiting Duke Swamp were measured during the 2005 growing season. Samples of surface water, soil, plants, precipitation, wild animals and air moisture were collected from 2005 May to October at five locations in the swamp and analyzed for their tritium content. HTO concentrations in air moisture decreased with height since the tritium source is in the ground. Soil HTO concentrations were not closely related to the concentrations in nearby surface water and the HTO concentration in balsam fir needles showed no clear pattern with height. HTO concentrations in moss, grass and alder leaves decreased in September, which is the time when metabolic activity is reduced. OBT concentrations in a given compartment showed less variation than the HTO concentrations in that compartment. The OBT/HTO ratio was approximately one for soil and less than one for plants, with the exception of lichen. The OBT/HTO ratio in most wild animals was also less than one, but increased to more than 2.0 for mice. Although the tritium concentrations varied substantially in space and time in Duke Swamp, the fact that OBT/HTO <1 for most compartments suggests that equilibrium conditions hold locally. (authors)

  18. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species. PMID:26305901

  19. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

  20. Multicentre study of fragrance allergy in Hungary. Immediate and late type reactions.

    PubMed

    Temesvári, Erzsébet; Németh, Ilona; Baló-Banga, Mátyás J; Husz, Sándor; Kohánka, Valéria; Somos, Zsuzsa; Judák, Rita; Remenyik, E V A; Szegedi, Andrea; Nebenführer, László; Mészáros, Csilla; Horváth, Attila

    2002-06-01

    The authors followed the frequency of fragrance contact sensitization in Hungary in a multicentre study in the years 1998 and 1999. A total of 3,604 patients were tested with fragrance mix (FM), and positive reactions were observed in 294 (8.2%). In 160 FM hypersensitive patients, the study was continued with patch testing of the mix constituents (cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, isoeugenol, oak moss absolute). Of the patients tested, 70.6% produced positive reactions to the constituents. FM contact sensitization was mainly observed in female patients (74.4%). The incidence of contact urticaria in FM hypersensitive patients was 6.1%. Simultaneous patch test trials of other environmental contact allergens, in both early and late evaluations, mainly confirmed hypersensitivity reactions to balsams. Female dominance of hypersensitivity reactions observed during testing the individual components of the mix was striking (82.4%). In positive skin reactions, cinnamic alcohol, isoeugenol and oak moss provoked skin symptoms most frequently. We also tested the 104 patients who produced negative reactions to FM with the constituent individual allergens, with 11.9% positive incidence. The clinical symptoms of the patients were above all manifest in the form of contact eczema, located on the hands, face, eyelids and axillae. With this study, the authors, members of the Hungarian Contact Dermatitis Research Group, call attention to one of the most frequent allergens in the environment.

  1. Wood tars allergy, cross-sensitization and coal tar.

    PubMed

    Roesyanto, I D; van den Akker, T W; van Joost, T W

    1990-02-01

    In a population of 1883 patients tested for allergic contact dermatitis (1985-1988), a prevalence of 5.4% (103 cases) was seen for wood tars (ICDRG allergen, 12% pet.) sensitization. In this group (n = 103), retrospectively, a combined allergy was seen to wood tars and fragrance mix in 43% and to wood tars and balsam of Peru in 31%. A combined allergy to wood tars and coal tar was seen in 19 patients (18.5%): 14 to liquor carbonis detergens (LCD), 8 to lianthral and 3 to both LCD and lianthral. Within the group with wood tars allergy (n = 103), a minority (n = 37) had a history of atopic dermatitis. Comparison of the test results in atopic and non-atopic subgroups (within the group of 103) revealed a higher incidence of combined wood tars-fragrance mix allergy in the atopic group (n = 37). In this group, a lower incidence of combined wood tars-coal tar sensitization was seen in comparison with the non-atopic group (n = 66). The authors believe that combined "wood tars-coal tar" allergy could be the consequence of cross-sensitization rather than due to long-term previous topical treatment with tar derivatives. The high % of cross-allergy between wood tars and fragrance mix emphasizes the role of wood tars as an important indicator allergen in perfume allergy.

  2. Patch test reactions to cosmetic allergens in 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 in Finland--a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, T; Rantanen, T; Alanko, K; Harvima, R J; Jolanki, R; Kalimo, K; Lahti, A; Lammintausta, K; Lauerma, A I; Laukkanen, A; Luukkaala, T; Riekki, R; Turjanmaa, K; Varjonen, E; Vuorela, A-M

    2005-07-01

    Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P < 0.001) and from 0.5% to 1.4% (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas the most prominent decreases were found with methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone and chlorhexidine diglugonate from 2.4% to 1.3% (P < 0.001) and from 1.2% to 0.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. The level of patch test sensitivity to methyldibromo glutaronitrile increased, although not significantly, from 1.0% to 1.5%. An increasing tendency was also found with hair dye chemicals 4-aminophenol and toluene-2,5-diamine or toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate from 1.3% to 3.8% and from 1.4% to 5.2%, respectively, while such a tendency was not found among permanent wave chemicals. The sensitivity level of fragrance mix remained the same (6% - 7%). We conclude that surveys revealing the state of sensitivity to cosmetic chemicals should be performed periodically in different countries.

  3. Do positive nickel reactions increase nonspecific patch test reactivity?

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, K; Kalimo, K

    1987-03-01

    The patch test reaction pattern in nickel-positive and -negative female patients was compared. Cobalt allergy was found in 24.8% of the positive patients. However, the occurrence of allergy to other common agents, i.e., neomycin, perfume mix, balsam of Peru and bacitracin, did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Even in patients allergic to nickel and cobalt simultaneously, the frequencies were comparable. Chromate and PPDA allergy was significantly commoner in nickel sensitive patients (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01). Erythematous or follicular reactions were seen most often to wood tars, propylene glycol, formaldehyde, cobalt, chromate and perfume mix. Reactions to propylene glycol and perfume mix were as frequent in both groups, whereas formaldehyde, cobalt and chromate caused reactions more often in nickel-positive patients (p less than 0.05) and wood tars in negatives (p less than 0.05). Follicular reactions developed especially in patients who were positive to nickel and cobalt. The total number of non-specific reactions was not overpresented in nickel sensitive patients, despite their multiple patch test reactivity.

  4. The Scandinavian multicenter photopatch study 1980-1985: final report.

    PubMed

    Thune, P; Jansén, C; Wennersten, G; Rystedt, I; Brodthagen, H; McFadden, N

    1988-12-01

    At 16 different dermatology clinics in Scandinavia from 1980-1985, photopatch testing was performed on 1993 patients with suspected photodermatosis. The collective results are presented in this article. The most common cause of sun-related dermatosis was polymorphic light eruption (PLE) (38%), while secondary aggravation of pre-existing skin diseases was established in 16% of the patient group. Photocontact dermatitis (11%) and contact dermatitis (10%) were responsible for 274 and 369 positive test reactions (respectively) on photopatch testing using the SPDRG standard series. Musk ambrette and para-aminobenzoic acid were the leading photosensitizers, while perfume mixture, balsam of Peru and lichen mixture were the most frequent causes of contact sensitivity. The principal photoallergens and contact allergens in the PLE, persistent light reaction and actinic reticuloid groups are discussed, together with the problems, risks and possible mechanisms of induction of photosensitization in these patients. The incidence, causes and diagnostic and therapeutic implications of secondary sunscreen sensitivity in these groups are also addressed.

  5. Patch testing in children, adults, and the elderly: influence of age and sex on sensitization patterns.

    PubMed

    Wöhrl, Stefan; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Focke, Margarete; Götz, Manfred; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2003-01-01

    Patch testing was done on 2776 consecutive patients (76.5% female) with a locally revised standard series of 34 contact allergens and the results analyzed for age- and gender-specific differences. At least one positive epicutaneous test reaction occurred in 48.9% of patients. Nickel (20.9%), ethylmercuric chloride (13.2%), thimerosal (11.8%), fragrance mix (9.3%), metallic mercury (8.9%), palladium (5.8%), balsam of Peru (3.8%), copper (3.7%), cobalt (3.3%), and chromium (2.3%) were the 10 most important sensitizers. The following tested allergens with sensitization rates of more than 1% were not part of the usual standard series: ethylmercuric chloride, metallic mercury, copper, propolis (1.3%), propylene glycol (1.0%). Reactions to nickel, cobalt, and palladium, but not to chromium, were significantly more abundant in females (p < 0.002, chi-squared test). The overall sensitization rate was highest in children less than 10 years old (62%) and decreased steadily, to be lowest among patients more than 70 years old (34.9%). The rate of positive reactions to nickel and thimerosal decreased with age, while fragrance mix and metallic mercury stayed at the same level through all age groups.

  6. [Contact allergy for perfume ingredients in cosmetics and toilet articles].

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C

    1997-03-22

    Fragrance materials are not only present in products primarily used for their scent such as perfume, eau de toilette, deodorant and aftershave, but also in cosmetics, toiletries, household products and industrial materials. Of the general population, approximately one percent are allergic to fragrance materials, men nearly as frequent as women. Of patients consulting the dermatologist because of dermatitis, 6-11% have a positive patch test to the fragrance mix. Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually consists of erythema and desquamation, often localized in the neck, behind the ears, in the arm-pits or around the eyes. It can worsen pre-existing dermatoses such as hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, perianal dermatitis or vulvar dermatitis. The diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances is made by epicutaneous tests with the European standard series (including some markers for fragrance sensitivity: the fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and colophony) and the patient's own contact materials. A positive patch test reaction must be followed by evaluation of its relevance. Advice to the patient is directed towards avoidance of fragranced products, if possible, and explanation of how use tests can identify fragranced products which can be used without ill effects.

  7. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential.

    PubMed

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  8. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.T.; Siccama, T.G.; Johnson, A.H.; Breisch, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two stands in the spruce-fir forests of Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks, originally sampled from 1964-66, were resurveyed in 1982. From 10-25 Bitterlich points were used in each stand in 1982 to obtain an estimate of basal area per hectare. Data were summarized for low elevation (<900m) and high elevation (> or = 900m) forests. Red spruce declined by 40-60% in basal area for the low elevation forests and by 60-70% above 900m. Balsam fir decreased by 35% at high elevations, due to natural disturbance in several of the stands, but was unchanged when only undisturbed stands were considered. The decline of red spruce accounted for about three quarters of the total decrease in basal area for both the high- and low-elevation forests. Spruce seedling frequency for the high-elevation sample decreased by 80%, but was unchanged below 900m. The pattern of spruce decline in the Adirondacks is similar to findings for New England. The cause of the decline is speculative at the time.

  9. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections. PMID:27413297

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by gum rosin and wood rosin in Tako-no-Suidashi ointment.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Daisuke; Sowa, Junko; Tsuruta, Kyoko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2011-10-01

    Tako-no-Suidashi ointment (TSO) is an old Japanese over-the-counter drug, used for the drainage of infectious pustular disease, such as furuncles, carbuncles and infectious atheroma, although whether it works well or not is unknown. The ingredients of the TSO compound commonly include rapeseed oil, gum rosin, wood rosin, Japanese wax, paraffin, petrolatum, copper sulfate, Peru balsam, acetic acid, salicylic acid and trace amounts of Guinea green B. We report a case of contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old Japanese woman caused by TSO. The patient presented to our hospital with pruritic erythema on her left cheek. In order to remove a subcutaneous tumor, she had applied TSO 4 days prior to presentation. Clinical examination showed a well-demarcated exudative erythematous macule with yellowish crusts and scales on her left cheek. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to TSO (++), gum rosin (++) and wood rosin (++) at 72 h. As TSO includes highly allergenic material, caution should be made in applying this topical therapy.

  11. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies. PMID:25320494

  12. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. PMID:26920559

  13. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry.

  14. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  15. Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.

  16. AmeriFlux CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.. Site Description - Amiro_et_al_2006, AFM/136:...The 1989 burn site (F89) was northeast of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, with the humancaused fire covering 13,500 ha. Parts of the area had been logged prior to the fire, and slash residues would have been burned in some locations. Parts of the area were aerially seeded with jack pine seeds in the winter of 1990. The present tree canopy was composed of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), jack pine, trembling aspen, and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and prior to the fire, the stand consisted of these same species aswell asblack spruce.Deadsnags of black spruce and jack pinewere still standing, althoughmost had fallen over and formed a leaningmix of dry, dead tree boles. The understory vegetation consisted mostly of black spruce saplings, saplings of the tree overstory species, bearberry, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), and reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.).

  17. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record☆

    PubMed Central

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo). PMID:24533339

  18. Does nutrition-related stress carry over to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) progeny?

    PubMed

    Carisey, N; Bauce, E

    2002-04-01

    Three different patterns of feeding of sixth-instar spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens were simulated in the laboratory. Larvae were fed artificial diets whose nitrogen and total soluble sugar contents varied according to levels similar to those found in three types of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Miller foliage (current-year foliage from middle and lower crown sections and one-year-old foliage). The biological performance of offspring was studied according to the nutrition of their parents. Although food quality had no impact on pupal weight of female parents and individual mean egg weight, progeny fitness was influenced by parental nutrition. Old foliage simulated diet, poor in nitrogen, clearly affected the early larval development of progeny, especially the percent of egg hatch and first-instar survival. Lower crown current-year foliage simulated diet, with low total soluble sugar content, reduced the first-instar survival of the progeny. However, the selective pressure exerted by low food qualities on the parental generation and on the early stages of their progenies resulted in C. fumiferana populations having higher tolerance to starvation and higher survival after the diapause period. These results highlighted the potentially direct and indirect effects of C. fumiferana parental nutrition on the next generation. The patterns of feeding of parental generations would appear to affect the quality and size of subsequent populations through several selections on the different life-history stages of both generations. PMID:12020367

  19. Two Herbivore-Induced Cytochrome P450 Enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 Catalyze the Formation of Volatile Aldoximes Involved in Poplar Defense[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Irmisch, Sandra; Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Boeckler, G. Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom. PMID:24220631

  20. Determination of 4-Methylimidazole and 2-Acetyl-4()- tetrahydroxybutylimidazole in Caramel Color and Processed Foods by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Rang; Kim, Su Un; Shin, Young; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Me; Kim, Jung Hun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the quick HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous separation of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydrox-ybuthylimidazole (THI) and 4-(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in alkaline medium was used for caramel color and processed foods in Korea. After a simple sample pretreatment, 51 4-MI-labeled samples were positive for 4-MI and 2 also contained THI. The concentration of 4-MI was 260.5 ~ 24,499.3 μg/kg in caramel color, less than LOD ~ 1,712.5 μg/kg in sauce, 1,242.3, 5,972.2 μg/kg in balsamic vinegar, 2,118.3 ~ 5,802.4 μg/kg in complex seasoning, 82.7 ~ 5,110.6 μg/kg in curry, and 29.9 ~ 464.4 μg/kg in soft drinks. The recovery rate of 4-MI was 97.1 ~ 111.0% in sauce and 81.9 ~ 110.0% in powder and that of THI was 83.6 ~ 106.4% in sauce and 61.2 ~ 99.4% in powder. Our results concluded a safe amount of 4-MI and THI compared to the limit of Korea additive code but the processed foods do not have a limit of caramel color and 4-MI in Korea. Therefore, research and monitoring of 4-MI and THI is needed for processed foods in Korea. PMID:24551828

  1. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  2. A large herbivore triggers alternative successional trajectories in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Bert; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2013-12-01

    Alternative successional trajectories (AST) may result in multiple climax states within an ecosystem when disturbances affect colonization history. In the boreal forest, ungulates have been proposed to drive AST because, under herbivore pressure, preferred species may go extinct and apparent competition may benefit browsing-resistant species. Over a 15-year period following logging, we tested whether deer herbivory altered plant species composition and whether the competitive advantage of resistant species was maintained following herbivore removal. We compared exclosures built immediately after logging with delayed exclosures built eight years later on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. Although the palatable tree Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and some palatable herbs recovered in delayed exclosures, we observed legacies in both tree and herb cover. Woody regeneration in delayed exclosures was dominated by Picea glauca (white spruce), and Poaceae (grasses) were abundant in the field layer. Given that only early-successional species recovered, whereas late-successional broadleaf species and Abies balsamea (balsam fir) remained rare, succession may follow an AST after a limited browsing period during early succession. PMID:24597230

  3. Two herbivore-induced cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 catalyze the formation of volatile aldoximes involved in poplar defense.

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Boeckler, G Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-11-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom. PMID:24220631

  4. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2. A gene fragment with high similarity to CYP79D6/7 was recently shown to be upregulated in herbivore-damaged leaves of P. nigra. In the present study we report the cloning and characterization of this gene, designated as CYP79D6v4. Recombinant CYP79D6v4 was able to convert different amino acids into the corresponding aldoximes, which were also found in the volatile blend of P. nigra. Thus, CYP79D6v4 is most likely involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in black poplar. PMID:24390071

  5. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Takino, Masahiko; Yamashita, Satoru; Daishima, Shigeki; Heiden, Arnd C; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives - sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters - in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks has been developed using the stir-bar sorptive extraction technique then thermal desorption GC-MS analysis. The extraction conditions - pH, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and extraction time - were examined. d5-Benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid sec-butyl ester were added as surrogate internal standards to compensate for the effect of sample matrix and coexisting analytes on the sorptive extraction. The linearity of the method was good over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 microg mL(-1) for sorbic acid, 10-1000 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid, and 0.1-100 microg mL(-1) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9984. The limit of detection ranged from 0.015 to 3.3 microg mL(-1). The recoveries (95-105%) and precision (RSD: 0.86-6.0%) of the method were examined by analyzing a sparkling soft drink, white wine, red wine, balsamic vinegar, soy sauce, and quasi-drug drink samples fortified at the 5 to 50 microg mL(-1) level.

  6. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo).

  7. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  8. Insect-plant interactions: endocrine defences.

    PubMed

    Bowers, W S

    1984-01-01

    It is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. Plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. Plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. Only through research into the fundamentals of insect physiology and biochemistry are more subtle defensive mechanisms revealed, linked to the disruption of the insect endocrine system. A diverse number of chemical structures are found in plants, which interfere with hormone-mediated processes in insects. Examples include: mimics of the insect's juvenile hormones such as juvabione from the balsam fir and the juvocimenes from sweet basil, which lethally disrupt insect development, and the precocenes found in Ageratum species, which act as anti-juvenile hormonal agents. The latter appear to serve as 'suicide substrates', undergoing activation into cytotoxins when acted on by specialized enzymes resident in the insect endocrine gland (corpus allatum) that is responsible for juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Consideration of these plant defensive strategies, which have been reached through aeons of evolutionary experimentation, may assist the human race in its defences against its principal competitors for food, fibre and health.

  9. Genetic evidence for three discrete taxa of Melampsora (Pucciniales) affecting willows (Salix spp.) in New York State.

    PubMed

    Kenaley, Shawn C; Smart, Lawrence B; Hudler, George W

    2014-08-01

    Rust fungi in the genus Melampsora (Pucciniales) are the most important pathogens of shrub willows (Salix spp.) cultivated for biomass in New York State and temperate regions worldwide. The taxonomy and species identification of these fungi historically have been problematic as they are morphologically indistinguishable on willow and often have complex life histories. Melampsora of Salix in North America, therefore, have been circumscribed to the collective species Melampsora epitea Thüm. and further delineated to formae speciales by aecial host. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data was obtained from 75 collections/isolates of Melampsora in NY State affecting either native and cultivated Salix spp. or suspected alternate hosts. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian (BI) analyses were conducted on three data partitions (individual and concatenated): complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences for all collections. Analyses of the ITS and concatenated ITS-LSU sequences revealed that Melampsora on native and cultivated willows in NY State consisted of three phylogenetically delineable taxa (phylotaxa); monophyly for each phylotaxon was strongly supported by ML, MP, and BI credibility values. Phylotaxa were also delimited phylogenetically by aecial host: Alpine currant (Ribes alpinum), eastern larch (Larix laricina), or balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

  10. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  11. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry. PMID:25801172

  12. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

  13. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  14. AmeriFlux CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughey, Harry

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.. Site Description - Groundhog River (FCRN or CCP site "ON-OMW") is situated in a typical boreal mixedwood forest in northeastern Ontario (48.217 degrees north and 82.156 degrees west) about 80 km southwest of Timmins in Reeves Twp. near the Groundhog River. Rowe (1972) places the site in the Missinaibi-Cabonga Section of the Boreal Forest Region. In terms of ecoregion and ecozone, the site is in the Lake Timiskaming Lowlands of the Boreal Shield. The forest developed after high-grade logging in the 1930's. The average age in 2013 is estimated at beteen 75 and 80 years. The forest is dominated by five species characteristic of Ontario boreal mixedwoods: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The surficial geology is a lacustrine deposit of varved or massive clays, silts and silty sands. The soil is an orthic gleysol with a soil moisture regime classified as fresh to very fresh. Plonski (1974) rates it as a site class 1. The topography is simple and flat with an overall elevation of 340 m ASL.

  15. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  16. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Woodrow B.; Griggs, Carol B.; Miller, Norton G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Weddle, Thomas K.; Kilian, Taylor M.

    2011-05-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907 ± 31 to 11,650 ± 50 14C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520 + 95/-20 cal yr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850 ± 65 14C yr BP ( Mytilus edulis) and 12,800 ± 55 14C yr BP ( Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000 yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England.

  17. The adaptive potential of Populus balsamifera L. to phenology requirements in a warmer global climate.

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Levsen, Nicholas; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Schroeder, William R; Keller, Stephen R; Tiffin, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The manner in which organisms adapt to climate change informs a broader understanding of the evolution of biodiversity as well as conservation and mitigation plans. We apply common garden and association mapping approaches to quantify genetic variance and identify loci affecting bud flush and bud set, traits that define a tree's season for height growth, in the boreal forest tree Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar). Using data from 478 genotypes grown in each of two common gardens, one near the southern edge and another near the northern edge of P. balsamifera's range, we found that broad-sense heritability for bud flush and bud set was generally high (H(2) > 0.5 in most cases), suggesting that abundant genetic variation exists for phenological response to changes in the length of the growing season. To identify the molecular genetic basis of this variation, we genotyped trees for 346 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 27 candidate genes for the CO/FT pathway in poplar. Mixed-model analyses of variance identified SNPs in 10 genes to be associated with variation in either bud flush or bud set. Multiple SNPs within FRIGIDA were associated with bud flush, whereas multiple SNPs in LEAFY and GIGANTEA 5 were associated with bud set. Although there was strong population structure in stem phenology, the geographic distribution of multilocus association SNP genotypes was widespread except at the most northern populations, indicating that geographic regions may harbour sufficient diversity in functional genes to facilitate adaption to future climatic conditions in many sites.

  18. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2. A gene fragment with high similarity to CYP79D6/7 was recently shown to be upregulated in herbivore-damaged leaves of P. nigra. In the present study we report the cloning and characterization of this gene, designated as CYP79D6v4. Recombinant CYP79D6v4 was able to convert different amino acids into the corresponding aldoximes, which were also found in the volatile blend of P. nigra. Thus, CYP79D6v4 is most likely involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in black poplar.

  19. Phylogeny of Populus (Salicaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of chloroplast TRNT-TRNF region and nuclear rDNA.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Mona; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2004-09-01

    The species of the genus Populus, collectively known as poplars, are widely distributed over the northern hemisphere and well known for their ecological, economical, and evolutionary importance. The extensive interspecific hybridization and high morphological diversity in this group pose difficulties in identifying taxonomic units for comparative evolutionary studies and systematics. To understand the evolutionary relationships among poplars and to provide a framework for biosystematic classification, we reconstructed a phylogeny of the genus Populus based on nucleotide sequences of three noncoding regions of the chloroplast DNA (intron of trnL and intergenic regions of trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF) and ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear rDNA. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed polyphyletic relationships among species in the sections Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. Based on chloroplast DNA sequence data, P. nigra had a close affinity to species of section Populus, whereas nuclear DNA sequence data suggested a close relationship between P. nigra and species of the section Aigeiros, suggesting a possible hybrid origin for P. nigra. Similarly, the chloroplast DNA sequences of P. tristis and P. szechuanica were similar to that of the species of section Aigeiros, while the nuclear sequences revealed a close affinity to species of the section Tacamahaca, suggesting a hybrid origin for these two Asiatic balsam poplars. The incongruence between phylogenetic trees based on nuclear- and chloroplast-DNA sequence data suggests a reticulate evolution in the genus Populus.

  20. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P < 0.001) and among populations (F(ST) = 0.256, P < 0.001). These results suggest that geographic or taxonomic factors are important for understanding patterns of variation throughout the genus Populus. Our findings have the potential to aid in the design of sampling regimes for conservation and breeding stock and contribute to historical inferences regarding the factors that shaped the genetic diversity of boreal plant species.

  1. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part I: sites and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Hervé, Jessica; Muhamad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-09-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in most developed countries and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. In the course of a screening project of medicinal plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree of Canada and having potential for the treatment of diabetes, we have identified several products that inhibit adipogenesis, suggesting potential antiobesity activities. The inhibitory activity of two of these, the extract of the inner bark of the deciduous trees Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Speckled Alder) and Populus balsamifera L. (Balsam Poplar), was analyzed using the 3T3-L1 cell model of adipogenesis. Intracellular triglyceride accumulation, pre-adipocyte proliferation, and PPAR- γ activity were measured. Alnus incana extracts acted early in the differentiation process but did not affect clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes nor the morphological transformation from fibroblast-like to rounded fat-laden cells. Alnus incana extracts were found to act as partial agonists toward PPAR- γ activity. In contrast, Populus balsamifera extracts completely abrogated adipogenesis, severely limited clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes and generally maintained cells in an undifferentiated fibroblast-like morphology. Populus balsamifera extracts exerted antagonistic action against PPAR- γ activity. It is concluded that, through their actions on the adipocyte, these plant products may be useful for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  2. [Optimization model of spatial population structure: example of poplar moth laying eggs on leaves].

    PubMed

    Sekretenko, O P; Sukhovol'skiĭ, V G; Tarasova, O V

    2002-01-01

    The authors analyze spatial distribution and survival of populations of poplar moth Litchcolletis populifoliella Tr. on its feeding plant--balsam poplar Populus balsamifera. Imago of the moth glue its eggs on the leaves thus determining the future location of their offspring on the host plant. Spatial distribution of eggs on leaf surface and distribution of leaves according egg numbers are not random. On the short distance from each egg the average number of eggs is less, than it should be in case of random distribution. While this distance increases up to some particular value the occurrence of eggs is higher than random. Thus, the eggs of moth are located by groups on the leaf surface. Within each group eggs are situated not very close to each other, this allowing larvae to lower competition for common resource. It is suggested that on the same feeding plant individuals have different interactions: competition, caused by limited quantity of resource and cooperation that is necessary to resist leaf defensive (antibiosis) reaction.

  3. Quantile-Quantile Plots:. AN Approach for the Inter-Species Comparison of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, Kaspar; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Wanke, Dierk; Berendzen, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory non-coding DNA is important to drive gene transcription and thereby influence mRNA and consequently protein abundance. Therefore, biologists and bioinformation scientists aim to extract meaningful information from these sequence regions, in particular upstream regulation regions called promoters, and conclude on regulatory sequence function. While some approaches have been successful for single genes or a single genome, it is an open question whether information on promoter function can readily be transferred between different species. Thus, it is useful for biologists to know more about the general structure and composition of promoters including the occurrence of cisregulatory DNA-elements (CREs) to be able to compare promoter architecture between organisms. To approach this task, we utilized the fully sequenced genomes of the plant model organisms: mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa), Sorghum bicolor and rice (Oryza sativa). For the interspecies comparison we made use of quantile-quantile (QQ)-plots of the variances of hexanucleotides or known functional CREs of core-promoter regions. Here, we suggest that the differences in promoter architecture correlate with the sizes of the intergenic space, i.e. regions, in which the promoters are located. In contrast, analysis of CREs is hampered by the general lack of well characterized transcription factor-CRE-relationships.

  4. Differential Atmospheric Controls on Transpiration of Boreal Trees: A Potential Factor in Pre-mature Tree Mortality in Green-Tree Retention Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.

    2004-05-01

    Green-tree retention, a harvesting strategy that involves the preservation of isolated and interconnected patches of live trees within the boundaries of harvested areas, is assumed to emulate natural disturbance, while preserving forest canopy continuity for wildlife habitat, maintaining forest biodiversity, and many other landscape level objectives. Unfortunately, many of the retention trees die within a few years after harvesting, thus much of the desired function of these trees is lost. This research focuses on understanding the relationship between changes in micro-climate following harvesting and transpiration, potentially leading to drought-induced mortality of aspen, balsam poplar, white spruce, and white birch. Continuous measurements of whole-tree water use (sap flow) and micro-climate were taken before and after harvesting of two adjacent boreal mixedwood stands in west-central Alberta in the summer of 2003. Differences in micro-climate including radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind penetration into the canopy produced large differences in atmospheric moisture demand (PET) between partially harvested (green-tree retention) and undisturbed forest canopies. The variability in atmospheric conditions created large differences in sap flow velocity and transpiration rates among these four boreal species. Differential transpiration rates among species will be discussed in context of atmospheric controls on water use and drought tolerance of boreal trees with differing autecology and/or hydraulic architecture.

  5. Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability.

  6. Two herbivore-induced cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 catalyze the formation of volatile aldoximes involved in poplar defense.

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Boeckler, G Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-11-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom.

  7. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system.

  8. Chemical and functional characterization of Italian propolis obtained by different harvesting methods.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Giulia; Bertelli, Davide; Bortolotti, Laura; Plessi, Maria

    2012-03-21

    The composition and antioxidant activity of Italian poplar propolis obtained using three harvesting methods and extracted with different solvents were evaluated. Waxes, balsams, and resins contents were determined. Flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and total phenolics were also analyzed. To characterize the phenolic composition, the presence of 15 compounds was verified through HPLC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and reducing power assays. The ability of propolis to inhibit lipid oxidation was monitored by analyzing hydroperoxide and TBARS formation in lipids incorporated into an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. Acetone shows the highest extraction capacity. Wedge propolis has the highest concentration of active phenolic compounds (TP = 359.1 ± 16.3 GAEs/g; TFF = 5.83 ± 0.42%; TFD = 7.34 ± 1.8%) and seems to be the most promising for obtaining high-value propolis more suitable to prepare high-quality dietary supplements (TBARS = 0.012 ± 0.009 mmol std/g; RP = 0.77 ± 0.07 TEs/g).

  9. Diversity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Clintonia borealis from a mixed-wood boreal forest.

    PubMed

    DeBellis, Tonia; Widden, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in Clintonia borealis roots from a boreal mixed forests in northwestern Québec were investigated. Roots were sampled from 100 m2 plots whose overstory was dominated by either trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), or mixed white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). Part of the 18S ribosomal gene of the AMF was amplified and the resulting PCR products were cloned. Restriction analysis of the 576 resulting clones yielded 92 different restriction patterns which were then sequenced. Fifty-two sequences closely matched other Glomus sequences from Genbank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 different AMF sequence types, most of which clustered with other uncultured AM sequences from plant roots from various field sites. Compared with other AMF communities from comparable studies, richness and diversity were higher than observed in an arable field, but lower than seen in a tropical forest and a temperate wetland. The AMF communities from Clintonia roots under the different canopy types did not differ significantly and the dominant sequence type, which clustered with AM sequences from a variety of environments and hosts at distant geographical locations, represented 66.9% of all the clones analyzed.

  10. A squash preparation method for root meristem field studies.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, J G; Contreras-Burciaga, L

    1998-03-01

    We present a field method for squash preparation of root apical meristem that does not require dry ice for cell adhesion to a slide. The method is based on the use of a weak gelatin solution as a stabilizing agent to prevent cell loss. Alcian blue 8GX was used as a counterstain for better recognition of cell shapes. Root meristems of Sonoran Desert succulents were used to illustrate the method. Fixed root tips were stained by Feulgen and squashes were prepared in a 1:2 mixture of solution A (45% acetic acid) and solution B (3:1 mixture of 0.5% gelatin in water:0.02% of alcian blue 8GX in 45% acetic acid). After squashing, the material was lightly dried for 5-6 min, then dehydrated and mounted in Canada balsam. Our method permits observation of chromosomes, recognition of meristematic and nonmeristematic cells, and estimation of mitotic indices and thus recognition of growing, dormant, and dead roots. The method can be used for estimation of cell division cycle time by colchicine and other methods where squash preparation is required.

  11. Irreverent Soils: Nitrogen Dynamics In Taiga Forests During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielland, K.

    2003-12-01

    We measured annual net nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amino acid production in situ across a primary successional sequence in interior Alaska, USA. Net N mineralization rates during the growing season from green-up (late May) through freeze-up (late September) accounted for approximately 60% of the annual inorganic N flux, whereas the remaining N was released during the apparent dormant season. Nitrogen release during winter occurred primarily during October-January with only negligible N mineralization during early spring in stands of willow, alder, balsam poplar and white spruce. By contrast, black spruce stands also exhibited substantial mineralization after snow melt during early spring. The high rates of N mineralization in late autumn through early winter coincides with high turnover of fine root biomass in these stands, suggesting that labile substrate production, rather than temperature, is a major controlling factor over N release in these ecosystems. The results are consistent with the low temperature sensitivity of N mineralization previously documented for taiga soils, and demonstrate that measurements of soil processes restricted to the growing season may greatly underestimate annual flux rates of inorganic nitrogen in high-latitude ecosystems.

  12. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  13. Comparative use of Mindarus abietinus (Homoptera: Aphididae) by two coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the native Anatis mali and the exotic Harmonia axyridis, in a Christmas tree plantation.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Cloutier, Conrad

    2007-04-01

    The exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) recently expanded its range into eastern Canada and elsewhere in North America. We hypothesized that this coccinellid should be less well adapted to the prey Mindarus abietinus Koch. on balsam fir trees than the native coccinellid Anatis mali (Say), which evolved in close association with aphids on conifers in North America. We compared, under field conditions, prey use by both species by collecting data on their synchrony with M. abietinus, their prey searching and predation behaviors, life stage distribution in fir canopy, and their overall reproductive success in this system. The seasonal life cycle of A. mali was better synchronized with that of M. abietinus compared with that of H. axyridis. In spring, A. mali adults appeared nearly 2 wk earlier on trees than H. axyridis and were active predators of the aphid fundatrices. A. mali oviposition thus began before the aphid population started to grow, and its larvae were most active during peak aphid colonies. Behavioral observations showed that both adults and larvae of the native A. mali searched for prey more actively than those of H. axyridis. Distribution of life stages also showed that eggs and pupae had different distributions on trees and that the adult-to-adult net reproductive rate of A. mali was three times higher than that of H. axyridis. Thus, the native A. mali was better adapted than H. axyridis to prey on M. abietinus, possibly because it evolved for a much longer period of time with this prey in conifer habitats.

  14. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-01

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  15. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  16. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system. PMID:24967081

  17. Seasonal and annual changes in soil respiration in relation to soil temperature, water potential and trenching.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, M B; Foster, R J; Goodine, G

    2004-04-01

    Soil respiration (rs), soil temperature (Ts) and volumetric soil water content were measured in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) ecosystem from 1998 to 2001. Seasonal variation in root and microbial respiration, and covariation in abiotic factors confounded interpretation of the effects of Ts and soil water potential (Psis) on rs. To minimize the confounding effect of temperature, we analyzed the effect of Psis on rs during the summers of 1998-2000 when changes in Ts were slight. Soil respiration declined 25-50% in response to modest water stress (minimum Psis of -0.6 to -0.2 MPa), and between years, there was substantial variation in the relationship between rs and Psis. In the summer of 2000, 2-m2 plots were subjected to drought for 1 month and other plots were irrigated. The relationship between summertime rs and Psis in the experimental plots was similar to that estimated from the survey data obtained during the same summer. In late spring and early autumn of 2001, 2-m2 trenched and untrenched plots were subjected to drought or exposed to rainfall. It was dry in the early autumn and there was severe soil drying (Psis of -10 MPa in untrenched plots and -2 MPa in trenched plots). In spring, rs in untrenched plots responded more to modest water stress than rs in trenched plots, indicating that root respiration is more sensitive than microbial respiration to water stress at this time of year. The response to abiotic factors differed significantly between spring and autumn in untrenched plots but not in trenched plots, indicating that root activity was greater in early autumn than in late spring, and that roots acclimated to the sustained, severe water stress experienced before and during the autumn. PMID:14757581

  18. Recent Y chromosome divergence despite ancient origin of dioecy in poplars (Populus).

    PubMed

    Geraldes, A; Hefer, C A; Capron, A; Kolosova, N; Martinez-Nuñez, F; Soolanayakanahally, R Y; Stanton, B; Guy, R D; Mansfield, S D; Douglas, C J; Cronk, Q C B

    2015-07-01

    All species of the genus Populus (poplar, aspen) are dioecious, suggesting an ancient origin of this trait. Despite some empirical counter examples, theory suggests that nonrecombining sex-linked regions should quickly spread, eventually becoming heteromorphic chromosomes. In contrast, we show using whole-genome scans that the sex-associated region in Populus trichocarpa is small and much younger than the age of the genus. This indicates that sex determination is highly labile in poplar, consistent with recent evidence of 'turnover' of sex-determination regions in animals. We performed whole-genome resequencing of 52 P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood) and 34 Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) individuals of known sex. Genomewide association studies in these unstructured populations identified 650 SNPs significantly associated with sex. We estimate the size of the sex-linked region to be ~100 kbp. All SNPs significantly associated with sex were in strong linkage disequilibrium despite the fact that they were mapped to six different chromosomes (plus 3 unmapped scaffolds) in version 2.2 of the reference genome. We show that this is likely due to genome misassembly. The segregation pattern of sex-associated SNPs revealed this to be an XY sex-determining system. Estimated divergence times of X and Y haplotype sequences (6-7 Ma) are much more recent than the divergence of P. trichocarpa (poplar) and Populus tremuloides (aspen). Consistent with this, in P. tremuloides, we found no XY haplotype divergence within the P. trichocarpa sex-determining region. These two species therefore have a different genomic architecture of sex, suggestive of at least one turnover event in the recent past.

  19. Magruder Park Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  20. Genotypic variation in nitrogen isotope discrimination in Populus balsamifera L. clones grown with either nitrate or ammonium.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A; Guy, Robert D

    2016-08-20

    Intraspecific variability in nitrogen use has not been comprehensively assessed in a natural poplar species. Here, a nitrogen isotope mass balance approach was used to assess variability in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and allocation traits in 25 genotypes from five climatically dispersed provenances of Populus balsamifera L. grown hydroponically with either nitrate or ammonium. Balsam poplar was able to grow well with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Variation within provenances exceeded significant provenance level variation. Interestingly, genotypes with rapid growth on nitrate achieved similar growth with ammonium. In most cases, the root:shoot ratio was greater in plants grown with ammonium. However, there were genotypes where root:shoot ratio was lower for some genotypes grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. Tissue nitrogen concentration was greater in the leaves and stems but not the roots for plants grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. There was extensive genotypic variation in organ-level nitrogen isotope composition. Root nitrogen isotope discrimination was greater under nitrate than ammonium, but leaf nitrogen isotope discrimination was not significantly different between plants on different sources. This can indicate variation in partitioning of nitrogen assimilation, efflux/influx (E/I) and root or leaf assimilation rates. The proportion of nitrogen assimilated in roots was lower under nitrate than ammonium. E/I was lower for nitrate than ammonium. With the exception of E/I, genotype-level variations in nitrogen-use traits for nitrate were correlated with the same traits when grown with ammonium. Using the nitrogen isotope mass balance model, a high degree of genotypic variation in nitrogen use traits was identified at both the provenance and, more extensively, the genotypic level. PMID:27423015

  1. Interannual Variation in Stand Transpiration is Dependent Upon Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Burrows, S. N.; Ahl, D. E.; Samanta, S.

    2003-12-01

    In order to successfully predict transpirational water fluxes from forested watersheds, interannual variability in transpiration must be quantified and understood. In a heterogeneous forested landscape in northern Wisconsin, we quantified stand transpiration across four forest cover types representing more than 80 percent of the land area in order to 1) quantify differences in stand transpiration and leaf area over two years and 2) determine the mechanisms governing the changes in transpiration over two years. We measured sap flux in eight trees of each tree species in the four cover types. We found that in northern hardwoods, the leaf area of sugar maple increased between the two measurement years with transpiration per unit ground area increasing even more than could be explained by leaf area. In an aspen stand, tent caterpillars completely defoliated the stand for approximately a month until a new set of leaves flushed out. The new set of leaves resulted in a lower leaf area but the same transpiration per unit leaf area indicating there was no physiological compensation for the lower leaf area. At the same time, balsam fir growing underneath the aspen increased their transpiration rate in response to greater light penetration through the dominant aspen canopy Red pine had a thirty percent change in leaf area within a growing season due to multiple cohorts of leaves and transpiration followed this leaf area dynamic. In a forested wetland, white cedar transpiration was proportional to surface water depth between the two years. Despite the specific tree species' effects on stand transpiration, all species displayed a minimum water potential regulation resulting in a saturating response of transpiration to vapor pressure deficit that did not vary across the two years. This physiological set point will allow future water flux models to explain mechanistically interannual variability in transpiration of this and similar forests.

  2. Spectral analysis of coniferous foliage and possible links to soil chemistry: are spectral chlorophyll indices related to forest floor dissolved organic C and N?

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Jana; Seidl, Zdenek; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Rock, Barrett N; Alexander, Jess E; Malenovský, Zbynek; McDowell, William H

    2008-10-15

    Dissolved organic matter in soils can be predicted from forest floor C:N ratio, which in turn is related to foliar chemistry. Little is known about the linkages between foliar constituents such as chlorophylls, lignin, and cellulose and the concentrations of water-extractable forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Lignin and cellulose are not mobile in foliage and thus may be indicative of growing conditions during prior years, while chlorophylls respond more rapidly to the current physiological status of a tree and reflect nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to examine potential links among spectral foliar data, and the organic C and N of forest soils. Two coniferous species (red spruce and balsam fir) were studied in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA. Six trees of each species were sampled at 5 watersheds (2 in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 3 in the Bartlett Experimental Forest). We hypothesized that in a coniferous forest, chemistry of old foliage would better predict the chemical composition of the forest floor litter layer than younger foliage, which is the more physiologically active and the most likely to be captured by remote sensing of the canopy. Contrary to our expectations, chlorophyll concentration of young needles proved to be most tightly linked to soil properties, in particular water-extractable dissolved organic carbon. Spectral indices related to the chlorophyll content of needles could be used to predict variation in forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Strong correlations were found between optical spectral indices based on chlorophyll absorption and forest floor dissolved organic carbon, with higher foliage chlorophyll content corresponding to lower forest floor dissolved organic carbon. The mechanisms behind these correlations are uncertain and need further investigation. However, the direction of the linkage from soil to tree via nutrient

  3. Forest productivity assessment using remote sensing and GIS-based tools: test case for eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Richard A.; Ung, C. H.; Bernier, P. Y.

    1997-12-01

    Monitoring net primary productivity (NPP) and assessing site potential at the landscape level are central issues for sustainable landscape management practice. One of the foundations of classical forestry is the computation of forest productivity at the stand level. This computation of growth potential is usually based on a site index derived from measurements of height and age taken on dominant trees. The site index thus integrates the effect of the three main components of forest productivity: vegetation characteristics, climatic environment and site properties. However useful, site index-based methods cannot discern which part of the overall productivity is due to any of these three components. With an increasing demand for ensuring the sustainability of our forest practices, and with the uncertainty engendered by the possibility of climatic change, we now need tools to quantify the intrinsic productivity of a site, and the effect of external factors on this productivity. The ECOLEAP (extended concentration to link ecophysiology and forest productivity) project address these concerns. The overall objective of the ECOLEAP project is to develop a knowledge base from which tools to predict and monitor forest productivity and health will be developed. More specifically, the project will focus on three specific aspects. The first is the measurement of net primary productivity (NPP) in major eastern forest ecosystems, and, within each ecosystem, across a climate or fertility gradient. The second is the determination of functional relationships between specific biophysical factors, related to site, climate and species composition, and ecosystem NPP. The third is to develop tools to predict and monitor the sustainable potential NPP of major forest ecosystems under natural and managed scenarios. The three major forest types under study in ECOLEAP are the sugar maple, balsam fir and black spruce forests.

  4. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

    2003-06-01

    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

  5. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  6. [Allergies in adults].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T; Heinrich, J; Böhler, E; Klemm, E; Merkl, J; Ruhdorfer, S; Weigl, L; Wessner, D; Wichmann, H E; Ring, J

    2005-08-01

    Only few epidemiological studies have assessed allergic diseases in adults. In a follow-up study of the MONICA survey S3 (1994/95), which was performed 1997-1999, a total of 1,537 persons were interviewed and tested by skin prick and patch test. Furthermore data of the MONICA survey (RAST, cholesterol, food diaries) could be used. Within survey S4 (1999/2001) a total of 4,261 subjects were interviewed concerning their personal history of atopic diseases and the corresponding history of their partners. In survey S3 the prevalence of allergic sensitisation was 20.5 % for persons without formal graduation from school and 48.1 % for those with a university degree. 20.8 % reported a hypersensitivity to food and about one quarter exhibited a positive reaction in skin prick test. Atopic eczema and hay fever increased over quartiles of HDL cholesterol. Similar, allergic sensitisation (RAST) increased over quartiles of uptake of unsaturated fatty acids in men. 40 % of those who were patch tested exhibited a positive reaction, with perfume mix, nickel, thimerosal and balsam of Peru being the most prominent allergens. Inhabitants of the City of Augsburg were sensitised more often (34.0 % overall, 23.9 % pollen) than inhabitants of villages with (29.4 %, 17.0 %). Full time farmers were sensitised less frequently (22.0 %, 8.4 %). In survey S4 the lifetime prevalence of atopic diseases diagnosed by doctors was 5.1 % for atopic eczema, 6.1 % for asthma and 13.7 % for hay fever. Subjects who lived together with a partner who suffered from hay fever were affected in 19.6 % whereas 13.1 % had hay fever when the partner was not affected. Future studies will offer an unique opportunity to analyse the incidence and remission of manifestations of atopy in adults.

  7. Adverse reactions to fragrances. A clinical review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Frosch, P J

    1997-02-01

    This article reviews side-effects of fragrance materials present in cosmetics with emphasis on clinical aspects: epidemiology, types of adverse reactions, clinical picture, diagnostic procedures, and the sensitizers. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of fragrance materials, the risk of side-effects is small. In absolute numbers, however, fragrance allergy is common, affecting approximately 1% of the general population. Although a detailed profile of patients sensitized to fragrances needs to be elucidated, common features of contact allergy are: axillary dermatitis, dermatitis of the face (including the eyelids) and neck, well-circumscribed patches in areas of "dabbing-on" perfumes (wrists, behind the ears) and (aggravation of) hand eczema. Depending on the degree of sensitivity, the severity of dermatitis may range from mild to severe with dissemination and even erythroderma. Airborne or "connubial" contact dermatitis should always be suspected. Other less frequent adverse reactions to fragrances are photocontact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions and pigmentary changes. The fragrance mix, although very useful for the detection of sensitive patients, both causes false-positive and false-negative reactions, and detects only 70% of perfume-allergic patients. Therefore, future research should be directed at increasing the sensitivity and the specificity of the mix. Relevance is said to be established in 50-65% of positive reactions, but accurate criteria are needed. Suggestions are made for large-scale investigation of several fragrances on the basis of literature data and frequency of use in cosmetics. The literature on adverse reactions to balsam of Peru (an indicator for fragrance sensitivity), essential oils (which currently appear to be used more in aromatherapy than in perfumery) and on fragrances used as flavours and spices in foods and beverages is not discussed in detail, but pertinent side-effects data are tabulated and relevant literature is

  8. Contact allergy to farnesol in 2021 consecutively patch tested patients. Results of the IVDK.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J

    2004-03-01

    Farnesol is one of the fragrances considered to be a significant contact allergen. Therefore, it was decided by the European Union to label products containing farnesol. Farnesol was tested [5% petrolatum (pet.)] together with the standard series between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2003 in 2021 consecutive patients, 1243 females and 778 males. Of these, 22 [1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-1.6%] had a positive reaction to farnesol. 147 (8.1%) of those 1825 tested to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 25% pet.) at the same time reacted positively, 143 (7.8%) of those 1823 tested to the fragrance mix (FM) (8% pet.) and 34 (1.9%) of 1831 tested to propolis (10% pet.). With regard to concomitant reactions in farnesol-positive patients, 5 of 22 reacted additionally to the FM [odds ratio (OR): 4.3; CI: 1.53-12.15] and 2 (of these 5) additionally to M. pereirae resin (OR: 1.27; CI: 0.29-5.54). The strongest association was seen to propolis (OR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4-27.7). Compared to those with negative reactions to farnesol, the group of patients allergic to farnesol was characterized by a higher proportion of young females and office workers, and the hand and the face were more often affected. In conclusion, farnesol is an important allergen. We recommend that farnesol should be included in a fragrance patch-test preparation and that its use should be regulated for consumer safety reasons. Furthermore, the extent of exposure to farnesol should be further studied.

  9. The Study of a Liquid Droplet Falling Through Two Immiscible Layers of Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    In an exploratory experiment, we noticed the unusual behaviors of liquid droplets falling through layers of oil and water. A rectangular container was filled with an aqueous solution and a layer of oil. A dropper was used to control the size of the droplet. Water was mixed with Bromothymol Blue dye, a chemical indicator, to visualize the flow processes. Surface tension and the buoyancy of the oil layer between the liquid droplet and the water below caused the liquid droplet to be stopped at the interface. Over time, the support weakened and the droplet would fall quickly through the water. The first of two cases was a salt water solution with NaOH, and the second consisted of balsamic vinegar and NaOH. Once the salt water droplet touched the aqueous solution, it collapsed, sank and spread rapidly at the interface. The sinking motion dragged the spreading fluid back to its center and then down. For the second case, a trace amount of the droplet spread rapidly at the interface while the main portion of the droplet sank and then spontaneously exploded. The difference in behavior is mainly due to the surface tension of the droplet in water. The underlying mechanisms of the droplet's flow instability are from the effects of diffusion weakening the surface tension. Bianca Mesa is an undergraduate student in the Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Department at Florida Atlantic University. She is pursuing a B.S. degree in Ocean Engineering. In addition to her academic interests, she is also an avid sailor.

  10. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture.

    PubMed

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R

    2004-01-01

    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  11. Transcriptomic Responses of the Softwood-Degrading White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete carnosa during Growth on Coniferous and Deciduous Wood ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doering, Matt; Canam, Thomas; Gong, Yunchen; Guttman, David S.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Master, Emma R.

    2011-01-01

    To identify enzymes that could be developed to reduce the recalcitrance of softwood resources, the transcriptomes of the softwood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa were evaluated after growth on lodgepole pine, white spruce, balsam fir, and sugar maple and compared to the transcriptome of P. carnosa after growth on liquid nutrient medium. One hundred fifty-two million paired-end reads were obtained, and 63% of these reads were mapped to 10,257 gene models from P. carnosa. Five-hundred thirty-three of these genes had transcripts that were at least four times more abundant during growth on at least one wood medium than on nutrient medium. The 30 transcripts that were on average over 100 times more abundant during growth on wood than on nutrient medium included 6 manganese peroxidases, 5 cellulases, 2 hemicellulases, a lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase, and a P450 monooxygenase. Notably, among the genes encoding putative cellulases, one encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 61 protein had the highest relative transcript abundance during growth on wood. Overall, transcripts predicted to encode lignin-degrading activities were more abundant than those predicted to encode carbohydrate-active enzymes. Transcripts predicted to encode three MnPs represented the most highly abundant transcripts in wood-grown cultivations compared to nutrient medium cultivations. Gene set enrichment analyses did not distinguish transcriptomes resulting from softwood and hardwood cultivations, suggesting that similar sets of enzyme activities are elicited by P. carnosa grown on different wood substrates, albeit to different expression levels. PMID:21441342

  12. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

    2003-06-01

    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents.

  13. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  14. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  15. Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. ); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. ); Shi, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

  16. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  17. Soil nitrogen accretion along a floodplain terrace chronosequence in northwest Alaska: Influence of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia canadensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhoades, C.; Binkley, D.; Oskarsson, H.; Stottlemyer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen enters terrestrial ecosystems through multiple pathways during primary succession. We measured accumulation of total soil nitrogen and changes in inorganic nitrogen (N) pools across a 300-y sequence of river terraces in northwest Alaska and assessed the contribution of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia canadensis. Our work compared 5 stages of floodplain succession, progressing from a sparsely vegetated silt cap to dense shrubby vegetation, balsam poplar-dominated (Populus balsamifera) and white spruce-dominated (Picea glauca) mixed forests, and old-growth white spruce forest. Total soil N (0-30 cm depth) increased throughout the age sequence, initially by 2.4 g N??m-2??y-1 during the first 120 y of terrace development, then by 1.6 g N??m-2??y-1 during the subsequent 2 centuries. Labile soil N, measured by anaerobic incubation, increased most rapidly during the first 85 y of terrace formation, then remained relatively constant during further terrace development. on recently formed terraces, Shepherdia shrubs enriched soil N pools several-fold compared to soil beneath Salix spp. shrubs or intercanopy sites. Total and labile soil N accretion was proportional to Shepherdia cover during the first century of terrace development, and mineral soil ?? 15N content indicated that newly formed river terrace receive substantial N through N-fixation. About half the 600 g total N??m-2 accumulated across the river terrace chronosequence occurred during the 120 y when S. canadensis was dominant. Sediment deposited by periodic flooding continued to add N to terrace soils after the decline in Shepherdia abundance and may have contributed 25% of the total N found in the floodplain terrace soils.

  18. A framework for modelling species-specific site quality index based on data generated from remote sensing imagery and a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Quazi Khalid

    This Thesis presents a framework for modelling species-specific site quality index (SQI) at a spatial resolution of 250 m by integrating biophysical variables of growing degree days (ODD), soil water content (SWC), and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in descriptions of potential tree growth. Development of ODD maps is based on processing and blending remotely-sensed data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Terra satellite and ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 satellite at spatial resolutions of 250 m and 28.5 m. Descriptions of SWC are based on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI) that relies on MODIS-based optical and thermal image products. PAR is estimated with an existing solar-radiation distribution model. SQI is defined as a function of species vital attributes and species environmental response to ODD, TVWI, and PAR. The methods are applied to a balsam fir [bF; Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] dominated region in northwest New Brunswick. Comparisons between SQI and field-based estimates of site index and enhanced vegetation index showed that about 66 and 88% of the values corresponding to a series of Forest Development Survey lines (691 in total) were within 16% of SQI values. On average 92.1% of high bF-content stands (> 50% composition) in the area fell on medium-to-very high SQI values (> 0.50). Based on these agreements, SQI can be perceived as a good predictor of potential tree-species growth in the selection of optimal sites for biomass and wood fibre production

  19. Improvement of silver impregnation technique (protargol) to obtain morphological features of protists ciliates, flagellates and opalinates.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Neto, I D

    2000-08-01

    The research on ciliates, flagelates and opalinates have been widespread by the utilization of techniques employing silver impregnation (protargol), modified by several authors. However, these are time consuming and its results are variable. The present work is a variant of the technique described by Tuffrau (1964, 1967) showing some adaptations made in our laboratory. The organisms can be preserved by different fixatives (alcoholic Bouin, Stieve's fluid, 2.5% glutaraldehyde and others) and then rinsed in destilled water followed by a fast clarification by 3% sodium hypochloride. If the organism is very sensitive to hypochloride, 4% sodium lauryl sulfate may be used and then washed 3 times in distilled water. The protista can be adhered to the glass slides with Mayer's glycerinated-albumin (1 glycerin vol. to 1 or 2 albumin vol.), diluted in water at a proportion of 1:10 Cv/v., or with 1% polylysine followed by fast washes with distilled water. After the slide preparation, they were covered with a layer of 0,8% Silver proteinate. Right after that, the slide has to be placed in a glass tray lined with moist tissue and covered to prevent the proteinate to dry. The tray was placed in a incubator at 40 degrees - 50 degrees C for 30 minutes. The slides are rinsed for 1 minute. with warm (35 degrees C) distilled water. The development of the material should be done with 0.4% hydroquinone with a maximum incubation time of 1 minute. It should be developed gradually, controlling the silver impregnation intensity by observation under optical microscope. Next, rinse in distilled water for 1 minute, and then, fix in 2,5% Sodium thiosulfate. Rinse the slide for two minutes before dehydrating it in an alcoholic serial 50-100 degrees. Finally rinse the slides in xylene. Mount the slides with Entellan MerckTM or Canada balsam.

  20. Longevity of strain localization associated with dynamic recrystallization of olivine in mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speciale, P. A.; Behr, W. M.; Hirth, G.; Tokle, L.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that cause strain localization in the lithosphere are fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics. The relationship between localization and grain size reduction by dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is ubiquitous in natural shear zones, but whether localization by DRX persists to high strains is debated because of the potential role of grain growth. If DRX is associated with surface energy-driven grain boundary migration (γGBM), for example, grains will grow after recrystallization and localization will be cyclical or temporary. At high stress, low temperature conditions, however, migration is theoretically predicted to be driven by strain energy (ρGBM). At these conditions, grain growth may be suppressed even in monophase aggregates, and localization will persist over geologic timescales. Here we examine the conditions at which DRX leads to permanent, as opposed to transient, localization by evaluating the role of grain growth in olivine aggregates. We deformed as-is Balsam Gap dunite in axial compression using a Griggs rig and molten salt cell. We conducted 12 experiments at 1100 and 1200°C, a strain rate of 10-5 s-1, and a confining pressure of 1300 MPa. After samples reached strains of ~30%, we relaxed the stress, either with the motor off or at a strain rate of 10-6 s-1, for specific time increments before quenching. We perform detailed microstructural analyses to identify the transition from ρGBM to γGBM at these experimental conditions. We predict the microstructure (at time t1) will reflect ρGBM, with negligible net grain growth. After strain energy has been substantially reduced (time t1+n), evidence of γGBM will be observed in the microstructure as 120° triple junctions and increased grain sizes. By isolating the conditions at which γGBM becomes more important than ρGBM, we can infer the grainsize-stress conditions under which DRX may promote permanent strain localization in the lithosphere.

  1. Native Venturia inopina sp. nov., specific to Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, George

    2003-01-01

    Venturia populina, first described on European Populus nigra, has been thought to be the only species of Venturia in Europe and North America to cause leaf and shoot blight of balsam poplars and cottonwoods in Populus sects. Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. The species of Venturia occurring on introduced P. nigra and native P. trichocarpa in the Pacific northwest were examined. Venturia populina was consistently found on P. nigra (i.e. the widespread P. nigra cv. 'italica') in the region, but V. inopina sp. nov. was present on native P. trichocarpa and its hybrids. There were neither examples of V. populina on P. trichocarpa and its hybrids nor of V. inopina on P. nigra cv. 'italica' (27 collections from 16 sites in Oregon, Washington, and Vancouver Island were made during 1995-2002). In an inoculation study, host-range separation was confirmed in that V. inopina caused sporulating leaf lesions on P. trichocarpa and its hybrids, but only non-sporulating lesions on P. nigra cv. 'italica'. These two species of Venturia can readily be distinguished by conidial septation; V. populina is primarily 2-septate, whereas V. inopina is primarily 1-septate. Growth rates on PDA at 15 degrees C, and ITS sequences (2.3% divergence) were also distinct in isolates of these congeners. Conidial shape was of more value in discriminant analysis than conidial length. Venturia inopina is homothallic, given the sexual fertility of cultures of single ascospores that were overwintered under ambient conditions. Its geographic range appears to be restricted even within the Pacific northwest, leaving open the possibility that still other undescribed, native species of Venturia occur elsewhere in North America on sects. Tacamahaca and Aigeiros.

  2. Relationships between stand composition and ectomycorrhizal community structure in boreal mixed-wood forests.

    PubMed

    DeBellis, T; Kernaghan, G; Bradley, R; Widden, P

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi under varying overstory tree compositions in the southern mixed-wood boreal forest of Quebec. Sampling took place at two locations of differing postfire ages and nine 100-m2 plots were sampled per location. The dominant overstory tree species in the plots were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) or white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.]. Mycorrhizae were analyzed using morphological as well as molecular methods, employing fungal-specific primers to amplify ribosomal DNA for subsequent cloning and sequencing. A total of 1800 mycorrhizal root tips collected from the 18 plots were morphologically classified into 26 morphotypes, with Cenococcum geophilum dominating (36% of root tips). A second set of root tips, selected from the same 18 samples on which the morphological analysis was based, were analyzed using molecular methods. From this analysis, 576 cloned polymerase chain reaction products were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and a total of 207 unique types were found. No one type dominated the system and 159 occurred only once. Sequence analysis of the types that occurred more than once revealed that Piloderma sp., Russula sp., Cortinarius sp., and Lactarius sp. were the most common mycorrhizae. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure revealed by the rDNA analysis differed from that observed using morphological methods. Canonical correspondence analyses of the sequenced restriction types and % overstory composition indicate that the distributions of ectomycorrhizal fungi are influenced by the relative proportions of host tree species. The distinct fungal assemblages found in the different plots supported by the different combinations of host tree species provides further support for the need to conserve stand diversity in the southern boreal forest.

  3. Overwintering hosts for the exotic leafroller parasitoid, Colpoclypeus florus: implications for habitat manipulation to augment biological control of leafrollers in pome fruits.

    PubMed

    Pfannenstiel, R S; Unruh, T R; Brunner, J F

    2010-01-01

    Thirty sites of managed and native habitats were surveyed for leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the apple producing region of central Washington State and northern Oregon from September through November 1997-2000 to discover species that supported overwintering by the parasitoid Colpoclypeus florus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). C. florus, a species introduced from Europe, requires medium to large host larvae late in autumn on which to overwinter, and few leafroller species display this biology. Over the four years, five potential C. florus hosts were collected, including: Ancylis comptana (Froelich), Xenotemna pallorana (Robinson), and Syndemis sp. (Tortricidae), Filatima sp. (Gelechiidae), and Caloptilia burgessiellia (Zeller) (Gracillariidae). Of these, A. comptana, Syndemis sp., and Filatima sp. have been confirmed as overwintering hosts for C. florus. During the four years, the Syndemis sp. was rare and observed at only one location feeding on redosier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (Cornales: Cornaceae) although, at this location, many of the larvae collected were parasitized by C. florus. Filatima sp. was common in the Yakima valley feeding on balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw (Malpighiales: Salicaceae) but was rarely parasitized. A. comptana, however, was collected at many locations in central Washington and was frequently found as an overwintering host for C. florus. A. comptana was found feeding on two Rosaceae: Wood's rose, Rosa woodsii Lindl., and strawberry, Fragaria ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Based on the number of host larvae collected, A. comptana appears to be the primary overwintering host for C. florus in Washington. Introduction of A. comptana populations to near-orchard habitats may facilitate biological control of leafrollers that are orchard pests.

  4. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  5. Genotypic variation in nitrogen isotope discrimination in Populus balsamifera L. clones grown with either nitrate or ammonium.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A; Guy, Robert D

    2016-08-20

    Intraspecific variability in nitrogen use has not been comprehensively assessed in a natural poplar species. Here, a nitrogen isotope mass balance approach was used to assess variability in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and allocation traits in 25 genotypes from five climatically dispersed provenances of Populus balsamifera L. grown hydroponically with either nitrate or ammonium. Balsam poplar was able to grow well with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Variation within provenances exceeded significant provenance level variation. Interestingly, genotypes with rapid growth on nitrate achieved similar growth with ammonium. In most cases, the root:shoot ratio was greater in plants grown with ammonium. However, there were genotypes where root:shoot ratio was lower for some genotypes grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. Tissue nitrogen concentration was greater in the leaves and stems but not the roots for plants grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. There was extensive genotypic variation in organ-level nitrogen isotope composition. Root nitrogen isotope discrimination was greater under nitrate than ammonium, but leaf nitrogen isotope discrimination was not significantly different between plants on different sources. This can indicate variation in partitioning of nitrogen assimilation, efflux/influx (E/I) and root or leaf assimilation rates. The proportion of nitrogen assimilated in roots was lower under nitrate than ammonium. E/I was lower for nitrate than ammonium. With the exception of E/I, genotype-level variations in nitrogen-use traits for nitrate were correlated with the same traits when grown with ammonium. Using the nitrogen isotope mass balance model, a high degree of genotypic variation in nitrogen use traits was identified at both the provenance and, more extensively, the genotypic level.

  6. Water quality and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading, Red Cedar Lakes, Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Cedar Lakes consist of three mainstem lakes (Balsam, Hemlock and Red Cedar) on the Red Cedar River in Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin. These lakes are productive because of high phosphorus loading, and classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because of concerns that the water quality of these lakes was degrading, three cooperative studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 2003. As part of these studies, water quality in the lakes was documented in 1993?94, 1996?97, and 2000?01, and water and phosphorus budgets were constructed for water year 2001. Historical water-quality data indicated that the lakes have changed little since the late 1980s. A detailed phosphorus budget indicated that most of the 14,100 pounds of phosphorus input to the lakes during 2001 came from the upstream lakes, streams draining relatively undeveloped land upstream of Hemlock Lake, and ground water. Simulation results from two water-quality models (BATHTUB and WiLMS) indicated that about a 50-percent reduction in phosphorus loading from that measured in 2001 is required for all three lakes to be classified as mesotrophic; therefore, appreciable improvements in the water quality would require improvements in the water quality of the upstream lakes. Although the water quality of the lakes has not changed appreciably in recent years and major improvements in water quality are unlikely without major improvements to upstream lakes, continued efforts to protect the susceptible watershed are necessary to maintain the current level of water quality.

  7. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  8. Gravimorphism in current-year shoots of Abies balsamea: involvement of compensatory growth, indole-3-acetic acid transport and compression wood formation.

    PubMed

    Little, C H A; Lavigne, M B

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the cause of gravimorphic growth inhibition in current-year shoots of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings displaced from their normal orientation in the gravitational field. Tilting the main stem of seedlings decreased shoot elongation, cambial growth as measured by tracheid production, and leaf dry weight of the terminal shoot and the lateral shoots on the lower side of the tilted stem. Removing either the terminal shoot or all lateral shoots induced compensatory growth in the remaining shoots, but did not reduce the inhibitory effect of tilting on shoot growth. Bending the apical part of a tilted main stem to restore it to the vertical did not fully reverse the inhibition of terminal shoot growth caused by stem tilting. Stem tilting inhibited cambial activity at the base of decapitated terminal shoots treated apically with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and decreased the basipetal transport of a [1-(14)C]-IAA pulse. Stem tilting also induced compression wood formation on the lower side of the tilted stem. Compression wood formation was associated with increases in cambial activity and stem respiration. Stem tilting did not affect either the net photosynthetic rate in 1-year-old leaves or the xylem water potential in current-year lateral shoots. These results support the hypothesis that gravimorphic growth inhibition in a current-year shoot on a tilted stem involves reductions in (1) the shoot's capacity to export IAA, and hence to mobilize photoassimilates, and (2) the supply of photoassimilates available for import by the shoot, as a result of increased cambial sink activity associated with compression wood formation outside that shoot. PMID:11960755

  9. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented

  10. Laboratory studies of feeding and oviposition preference, developmental performance, and survival of the predatory beetle, Sasajiscymnus tsugae on diets of the woolly adelgids, Adelges tsugae and Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Robert M; Monahan, John F; Hain, Fred P

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) as an alternate mass rearing host for the adelgid predator, Sasajiscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied in the laboratory. This predator is native to Japan and has been introduced to eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), forests throughout the eastern United States for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), also of Japanese origin. Feeding, oviposition, immature development, and adult long-term survival of S. tsugae were tested in a series of no choice (single-prey) and paired-choice experiments between the primary host prey, A. tsugae, and the alternate host prey, A. piceae. In paired-choice feeding tests, the predator did not discriminate between eggs of the two adelgid species, but in the no choice tests the predator did eat significantly more eggs of A. piceae than those of A. tsugae. S. tsugae accepted both test prey for oviposition and preferred to lay eggs on adelgid infested versus noninfested host plants. Overall oviposition rates were very low (< 1 egg per predator female) in the oviposition preference tests. Predator immature development rates did not differ between the two test prey, but only 60% of S. tsugae survived egg to adult development when fed A. piceae compared to 86% when fed A. tsugae. S. tsugae adult long-term survival was significantly influenced (positively and negatively) by prey type and the availability of a supplemental food source (diluted honey) when offered aestivating A. tsugae sistens nymphs or ovipositing aestivosistens A. piceae adults, but not when offered ovipositing A. tsugae sistens adults. These results suggest that the development of S. tsugae laboratory colonies reared on a diet consisting only of A. piceae may be possible, and that the biological control potential of the predator might be expanded to

  11. Effects of insecticide use on breeding birds in Christmas tree plantations in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, G; Desgranges, J L

    1995-10-01

    : This research, which was carried out in the spring of 1989 and 1990 in seven balsam fir (Abies balsamea) plantations in southeastern Quebec, examines potential deleterious effects of three insecticides (i.e. dimethoate, diazinon and insecticidal soap) on breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (n=87 nests) and Song Sparrows (Melospizsa melodia) (n=41 nests). Through analyses of blood serum cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) activity both prior to and the second day following applications of the two organophosphorus insecticides, we showed that adult American Robins, Song Sparrows and Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in the treated plantations were exposed to diazinon and dimethoate (p<0.05). Signs of exposure to diazinon (p<0.05) were also found in young American Robins. However, despite sharp reductions in blood ChE (and, in some cases, marked inhibition confirmed by 2-PAM reactivation), no cases of adult mortality were recorded following the treatments. Cases of complete or partial mortality were recorded in American Robin and Song Sparrow nests, even among control birds (non-exposed birds). No mortality was recorded for broods exposed to the insecticidal soap. Abandonment of nests and egg infertility were ruled out as possible causes of mortality. The cases of total mortality observed in American Robin and Song Sparrow broods exposed to dimethoate were similar to those recorded for control nests (18 and 25% compared to 14 and 21%, respectively). However, among American Robin and Song Sparrow nestlings exposed to diazinon, essentially twice as many cases of total mortality (31 and 38%, respectively) were recorded as for the control nests. It appears that American Robin eggs are sensitive to diazinon and dimethoate, particularly when spraying is carried out early in the incubation stage. In the case of the Song Sparrow, it is mainly the nestlings that succumb after diazinon is sprayed on them or when dimethoate applications are made during the

  12. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  13. Modeling the Emergent Impacts of Harvesting Acadian Forests over 100+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Plug, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Harvesting strategies and policies for Acadian forest in Nova Scotia, Canada, presently are set using Decision Support Models (DSMs) that aim to maximize the long-term (>100y) value of forests through decisions implemented over short time horizons (5-80 years). However, DSMs typically are aspatial, lack ecological processes and do not treat erosion, so the long-term (>100y) emergent impacts of the prescribed forestry decisions on erosion and vegetation in Acadian forests remain poorly known. To better understand these impacts, we created an equation-based model that simulates the evolution of a ≥4 km2 forest in time steps of 1 y and at a spatial resolution of 3 m2, the footprint of a single mature tree. The model combines 1) ecological processes of recruitment, competition, and mortality; 2) geomorphic processes of hillslope erosion; 3) anthropic processes of tree harvesting, replanting, and road construction under constraints imposed by regulations and cost/benefit ratio. The model uses digital elevation models, parameters (where available), and calibration (where measurements are not available) for conditions presently found in central Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The model is unique because it 1) deals with the impacts of harvesting on an Acadian forest; and 2) vegetation and erosion are coupled. The model was tested by comparing the species-specific biomass of long-term (40 y) forest plot data to simulated results. At the spatial scale of individual 1 ha plots, model predictions presently account for approximately 50% of observed biomass changes through time, but predictions are hampered by the effects of serendipitous "random" events such as single tree windfall. Harvesting increases the cumulative erosion over 3000 years by 240% when compared to an old growth forest and significantly suppresses the growth of Balsam Fir and Sugar Maple. We discuss further tests of the model, and how it might be used to investigate the long-term sustainability of the

  14. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  15. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  16. Using dendrochonology to crossdate year of death in trees: limitations with stressed trees in a diffuse mortality context. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angers, V. A.; Bergeron, Y.; Drapeau, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dendrochronological crossdating of dead trees is commonly used to reconstruct mortality patterns over time. This method assumes that the year of formation of the last growth ring corresponds to the year of the death of the tree. Trees experiencing important stress, such as defoliation, drought or senescence, may rely on very few resources to allocate to growth and may favour other vital physiological functions over growth. Even if the tree is still living, growth may thus be reduced or even supressed during a stressful event. When a tree dies following this event and that there is a lag between year of last ring production and year of actual death, crossdating underestimates the actual year of death. As ring formation is not uniform across the bole, growth may occur only in some parts of the tree and may be detectable only if multiple bole samples are analysed. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the growth patterns of dying trees influence estimation of year of death when crossdating. Our research questions were the following 1) Is there a difference (hereafter referred as 'lag') between the last year of growth ring formation in disc samples collected at different heights in dead trees? 2) If so, what is the range of magnitude of these lags? and 3) Is this magnitude range influenced by the causes of death? Sampled sites were located in northwestern Quebec (Canada), over an area overlapping the eastern mixedwood and coniferous boreal forests. Four tree species were examined: Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP). Trees that died following fire, self-thinning, defoliation and senescence were sampled. Two to three discs were collected on each dead tree (snags and logs) at different heights. Dendrochronological analyses were conducted to determine year of last growth ring production by crossdating. The more severe the disturbance, the

  17. The frequency of fragrance allergy in a patch-test population over a 17-year period.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D A; Wakelin, S H; Seed, P T; Holloway, D; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    2000-02-01

    Fragrances are widely encountered in our daily environment and are known to be a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We have reviewed our patch test data from 1980 to 1996 to establish whether the pattern of fragrance allergy has changed with time. During this period, 25,545 patients (10,450 male, 15,005 female) were patch tested with the European standard series. The mean annual frequency of positive reactions to the fragrance mix was 8.5% in females (range 6.1-10.9) and 6.7% in males (range 5.1-12.9). Females were 1.3 times more likely to be allergic to fragrance (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.17-1.41). Males with fragrance allergy were older than females by 5.6 years (mean age 48.2 vs. 42.6 years; P < 0.001, 95% CI 3.9-7.3). The incidence of a concomitant positive patch test to balsam of Peru in fragrance-sensitive patients showed wide variation, suggesting that it is not a reliable marker of fragrance allergy. There was a positive correlation between the isomers isoeugenol and eugenol. Oak moss remained the most common overall allergen throughout the study, positive in 38.3% of females and 35.6% of males who were tested to the constituents of the fragrance mix. During the period of the study the incidence of positive tests to oak moss increased by 5% yearly (P = 0.001, 95% CI 2.2-8.7). The frequency of allergic reactions to eugenol and geraniol remained relatively constant. Isoeugenol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde sensitivity increased and hydroxycitronellal showed a slow decline. There was a striking reduction in the frequency of sensitivity to cinnamic aldehyde (by 18% yearly; P < 0.001, 95% CI 14.3-21.0) and cinnamic alcohol (by 9% yearly; P < 0.001, 95% CI 5.2-12.9); these are now uncommon fragrance allergens. These data show temporal trends which may reflect the frequency of population exposure to individual fragrances.

  18. Contact allergy to fragrances: frequencies of sensitization from 1996 to 2002. Results of the IVDK*.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter J; Uter, Wolfgang

    2004-02-01

    Increasing frequencies of sensitization to the fragrance mix (FM) have been acknowledged as a serious problem for many years. It is well known that the single compounds (SCs) of the FM contribute differently to the FM patch rest reactions. In this study, we were interested in the time trends of the FM, the SCs, Myroxylon pereirae resin (MP; balsam of Peru) and oil of turpentine (OT) as possible further indicators of perfume allergy and analysed the data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology multicentre project from 1996 to 2002. During the study period (1996-2002), the FM [8% petrolatum (pet.)], MP (25% pet.) and OT (1% pet.) were tested in 59,298, 59,334 and 59,478 patients, respectively. SCs were tested in a selected group of patients, ranging from n = 1083 to n = 1924 per year. A significant increase in the proportions of patients with positive reactions to FM, MP and OT between 1996 and 1998 is noted, and a significant decline from 1999 to 2002 (Cochrane Armitage trend test, P < 0.0001). The highest frequency of sensitization to the FM was 13.1% in 1999, and the lowest 7.8% in 2002. The number of concomitant reactions to OT, a surrogate marker for terpenes, in FM-positive patients was significantly increased between 1997 and 1999. Reactions to SCs in FM-positive patients were observed in 29.9% (oak moss absolute) to 5.9% (geraniol). There was no time trend in reactions to SCs, although the relative share was increased for isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and geraniol in 1999. In summary, we report for the first time, a significant decline in sensitization to the FM, very probably due to a reduced exposure (less potent allergens used in fine fragrances, possibly less use of natural ingredient-based cosmetics and lowered use concentration of important fragrance allergens). The differences in ranking of SCs could stimulate (a) a redefinition of the FM and (b) a differentiated preventive and regulatory approach, with oak moss and

  19. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2013-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  20. Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.

    PubMed

    Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven tree species in northern Wisconsin over two years. These species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three species, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven species despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal

  1. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Scott; Webster, Craig G; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Webb, Susan E; Roberts, Pamela D; Stansly, Philip A; Turechek, William W

    2011-08-01

    A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest

  2. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  3. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more "big pines" (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between

  4. Interactive effects of nitrogen and water availabilities on gas exchange and whole-plant carbon allocation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, L.; Proe, M. F.; Cameron, A. D.

    1998-07-01

    Cuttings of balsam spire hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa var. Hastata Henry x Populus balsamifera var. Michauxii (Dode) Farwell) were grown in sand culture and irrigated every 2 (W) or 10 (w) days with a solution containing either 3.0 (N) or 0.5 (n) mol nitrogen m(-3) for 90 days. Trees in the WN (control) and wn treatments had stable leaf nitrogen concentrations averaging 19.4 and 8.4 mg g(-1), respectively, over the course of the experiment. Trees in the Wn and wN treatments had a similar leaf nitrogen concentration, which increased from 12.0 to 15.8 mg g(-1) during the experiment. By the final harvest, mean stomatal conductances of trees in the wN and wn treatments were less than those of trees in the Wn and WN treatments (1.8 versus 4.6 mm s(-1)). Compared to the WN treatment, biomass at the final harvest was reduced by 61, 72 and 75% in the Wn, wN and wn treatments, respectively. At the final harvest, WN trees had a mean total leaf area of 4750 +/- 380 cm(2) tree(-1) and carried 164 +/- 8 leaves tree(-1) with a specific leaf area of 181 +/- 16 cm(2) g(-1), whereas Wn trees had a smaller mean total leaf area (1310 +/- 30 cm(2) tree(-1)), because of the production of fewer leaves (41 +/- 6) with a smaller specific leaf area (154 +/- 2 cm(2) g(-1)). A greater proportion of biomass was allocated to roots in Wn trees than in WN trees, but component nitrogen concentrations adjusted such that there was no Wn treatment effect on nitrogen allocation. Compared with WN trees, rates of photosynthesis and respiration per unit weight of tissue of Wn trees decreased by 28 and 31%, respectively, but the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf nitrogen remained unaltered. The wN and Wn trees had similar leaf nitrogen concentrations; however, compared with the Wn treatment, the wN treatment decreased mean total leaf area (750 +/- 50 cm(2) tree(-1)), number of leaves per tree (29 +/- 2) and specific leaf area (140 +/- 6 cm(2) g(-1)), but increased the allocation of biomass and

  5. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  6. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  7. Combining near infrared spectra of feces and geostatistics to generate forage nutritional quality maps across landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Olivier, Jean; Bradley, Robert L; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-09-01

    An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and time consuming. Here, we are proposing a rapid and cost-effective forage quality monitoring tool that combines near infrared (NIR) spectra of fecal samples and easily obtained data on plant community composition. Our approach rests on the premise that NIR spectra of fecal samples collected within low population density exclosures reflect the optimal forage quality of a given landscape. Forage quality can thus be based on the Mahalanobis distance of fecal spectral scans across the landscape relative to fecal spectral scans inside exclosures (referred to as DISTEX). The Gi* spatial autocorrelation statistic can then be applied among neighboring DISTEX values to detect and map "hot spots" and "cold spots" of nutritional quality over the landscape. We tested our approach in a heterogeneous boreal landscape on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada), where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations over the landscape have ranged from 20 to 50 individuals/km2 for at least 80 years, resulting in a loss of most palatable and nutritious plant species. Our results suggest that hot spots of forage quality occur when old-growth balsam fir stands comprise >39.8% of 300 ha neighborhoods, whereas cold spots occur in laggs (i.e., transition zones from forest to peatland). In terms of ground-level indicator plant species, the presence of Canada bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) was highly correlated with hot spots, whereas tamarack (Larix laricina) was highly correlated with cold spots. Mean DISTEX values were positively and significantly correlated with the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents of feces. While our

  8. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  9. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  10. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  11. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  12. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  13. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  14. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Kayla

    . Forest floor fluxes of CO2 increased as the stand aged but its contribution to the ecosystem flux decreased with age. The primary environmental control on the aspen dominated ecosystem was photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The second control was soil moisture, which limited Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) on two occasions: July 2007 (mature aspen) and August 2009 (1 and 2 year old stands). In order to account for spatial variability of productivity between species, flux footprint analyses were paired with leaf level conductance measurements. Results indicated that aspen and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) were the main contributors to the ecosystem flux. Results also indicated that conductivity varied by species, slope aspect, and location on the slope. Ecosystem level fluxes were separated by wind direction and analyzed for different responses to PAR which revealed that low-lying areas were more reactive to low level PAR than upland areas.

  15. Ca isotope cycling in a forested ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, Chris; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2010-02-01

    Reports of large Ca isotope fractionations between trees and soils prompted this study of a Boreal forest ecosystem near La Ronge, Saskatchewan, to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The results on five tree species (black spruce, trembling aspen, white spruce, jack pine, balsam poplar) confirm that nutrient Ca uptake by plants favors the light isotopes, thus driving residual Ca in plant available soil pools towards enrichment in the heavy isotopes. Substantial within-tree fraction occurs in tissues formed along the transpiration stream, with low δ 44Ca values in fine roots (2 mm), intermediate values in stemwood, and high values in foliage. Separation factors between different plant tissues are similar between species, but the initial fractionation step in the tips of the fine roots is species specific, and/or sensitive to the local soil environment. Soil water δ 44Ca values appear to increase with depth to at least 35 cm below the top of the forest floor, which is close to the deepest level of fine roots. The heavy plant fractionated signature of Ca in the finely rooted upper soils filters downward where it is retained on ion exchange sites, leached into groundwater, and discharged into surface waters. The relationship between Ca uptake by tree fine roots and the pattern of δ 44Ca enrichment with soil depth was modeled for two Ca pools: the forest floor (litter) and the underlying (upper B) mineral soil. Six study plots were investigated along two hillside toposequences trending upwards from a first order stream. We used allometric equations describing the Ca distribution in boreal tree species to calculate weighted average δ 44Ca values for the stands in each plot and estimate Ca uptake rates. The δ 44Ca value of precipitation was measured, and soil weathering signatures deduced, by acid leaching of lower B mineral soils. Steady state equations were used to derive a set of model Ca fluxes and fractionation factors for each plot. The model reproduces

  16. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay