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Sample records for balsams

  1. Balsam boughs: an important Minnesota resource

    Treesearch

    Mark Hansen; Keith Jacobson

    2005-01-01

    Minnesota is a leader in the production of holiday wreaths and greenery, and one of the reasons for its lead is the State's large resource of balsam fir. Boughs harvested from balsam are used in almost all of the wreaths manufactured. This brochure answers several questions about harvesting balsam fir to help bough harvesters get ready for the coming season.

  2. Silvical characteristics of balsam fir (Abies balsamea)

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1959-01-01

    Balsam fir takes its name from the Latin word for balm. Some people know the tree as the Balm-of-Gilead fir. It has also been called the blister fir, because of the bark blisters that yield Canada balsam, a resin that is used for, among other things, mounting microscope slides. The needles of balsam fir have a spicy aroma that Donald Culross Peattie has called "...

  3. Thinning balsam fir thickets with soil sterilants

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    Under certain conditions that we do not yet fully understand, balsam fir has a tendency to form dense thickets that cause stagnation of growth. This condition is common throughout the spruce-fir region, and it presents the landowner with one of his most perplexing management problems. A typical thicket averaging 15 feet tall may contain 5,000 to 10,000 stems per acre (...

  4. HOW to Identify and Manage Needlecast Diseases on Balsam Fir

    Treesearch

    Mike Albers; Jana Albers; Jane Cummings Carlson; Linda Haugen; Nancy Wenner

    1996-01-01

    Needlecast diseases are common in balsam fir stands and Christmas tree plantations in the northeastern and north central United States and in southern Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Three different needlecast fungi, Lirula nervata, Lirula mirabilis and Isthmiella faullii, cause similar disease symptoms on balsam fir. These diseases may affect other firs planted in...

  5. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  6. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  7. Manager's handbook for balsam fir in the North Central States.

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1986-01-01

    Presents the resource manager with a key to the recommended practices for managing balsam fir stands, especially for timber. Discusses control of growth , establishment, composition, and damaging agents; also discusses managing for boughs and Christmas trees, wildlife habitat, esthetics, water. Includes information on estimating yield and growth.

  8. Timing of aerial surveys for the balsam woolly aphid

    Treesearch

    W.J. Buckhorn; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1957-01-01

    An outbreak of the balsam woolly aphid (Chermes piceae Ratz.) is damaging and killing Pacific silver fir, subalpine fir, and grand fir extensively in western Washington and Oregon. It is most serious in southern Washington where an outbreak on Pacific silver fir was discovered in 1954. Since effective methods for controlling this insect under...

  9. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam.

    PubMed

    Vangala, Manogna Rl; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, R V

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P < 0.0205), enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin - transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin - polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections.

  10. Foliage weight distribution in the upper crown of balsam fir

    Treesearch

    Steven Kleinschmidt; Gordon L. Bakersville; Dale S. Solomon

    1980-01-01

    A model was developed to predict the weight of foliage at each age on a branch for a given whorl from undefoliated balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The normal weight of foliage by age classes can be compared to the weight of foliage remaining on a branch to estimate recent, annual defoliation by spruce budworm (Choristoneura...

  11. The balsam woolly aphid problem in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Norman E. Johnson; Kenneth H. Wright

    1957-01-01

    A European insect, commonly called the balsam woolly aphid or chermes, is damaging and killing true fir (Abies) in western Oregon and Washington. Some 350,000 acres are known to be infested. Tree killing has reached the point where concerted action is needed. Major salvage plans are being developed by private, state, and federal forest managers to...

  12. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to balsam twig aphid

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1989-01-01

    Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the central Sierra Nevada in California. Bud phenology was observed to explore...

  13. Altitudinal variation in growth, bud break and susceptibility to balsam twig aphid damage of balsam fir from 6 Vermont seed sources

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson; Paul G. Schaberg

    1992-01-01

    Differences in 10-year heights, 4-year growth from 1987 through 1990, relative timing of budbreak and damage by the balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) among balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) from 6 Vermont seed sources originating from different elevations were examined. Height differences among seed sources were...

  14. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti.

  15. Balsam Fir Dominant Species Under Rethinned Northern White-Cedar

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1972-01-01

    A 20-year thinning study in a Wisconsin swamp stand of middle-aged northern white-cedar indicates that advance tree reproduction and shrubs grow little under after a second thinning to less than 150 square feet of basal area per acre. Balsam fir will probably dominate this undergrowth, particularly if the area is used heavily by snowshoe hare or white-tailed deer....

  16. Field keys to predators of the balsam woolly aphid in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman

    1970-01-01

    These keys will be useful for field identification of immature insect, adult mite, and slug predators of the balsam woolly aphid. The keys include, in addition to native predators, the larvae of three species introduced to North Carolina.

  17. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)].

    PubMed

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  18. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Robertson, Amanda L; Takebayashi, Naoki; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William R; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-04-01

    *Current perceptions that poplars have high levels of nucleotide variation, large effective population sizes, and rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium are based primarily on studies from one poplar species, Populus tremula. *We analysed 590 gene fragments (average length 565 bp) from each of 15 individuals from different populations from throughout the range of Populus balsamifera. *Nucleotide diversity (theta(total) = 0.0028, pi = 0.0027) was low compared with other trees and model agricultural systems. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and site frequency spectra were consistent with purifying selection on replacement and intron sites. When averaged across all loci we found no evidence for decay of linkage disequilibrium across 750 bp, consistent with the low estimates of the scaled recombination parameter, rho = 0.0092. *Compared with P. tremula, a well studied congener with a similar distribution, P. balsamifera has low diversity and low effective recombination, both of which indicate a lower effective population size in P. balsamifera. Patterns of diversity and linkage indicate that there is considerable variation in population genomic patterns among poplar species and unlike P. tremula, association mapping techniques in balsam poplar should consider sampling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at well-spaced intervals.

  19. Yeasts associated to Traditional Balsamic Vinegar: ecological and technological features.

    PubMed

    Solieri, L; Giudici, P

    2008-06-30

    Traditional Balsamic Vinegar (TBV) is an Italian homemade vinegar made with cooked grape must through a three-step process: conversion of sugars to ethanol by naturally occurring yeasts; oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria (AAB); and, finally, at least 12-years ageing. The cooked must is a selective and stressful medium for yeasts growth, due to its high sugar content and low pH values. Recent studies have shown that a large number of yeast species are involved in the fermentation, among them there are Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces pseudorouxii, Zygosaccharomyces mellis, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces lentus, Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Candida lactis-condensi, Candida stellata, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, the TBV-associated yeast population could be even more complex and many other slow-growing or poorly cultivable species might contribute to cooked must fermentation. In this review the main TBV yeast species are described, pointing out their role in TBV production and their influence on final product quality. Finally, both future developments in TBV yeast community studies (culture-independent and metagenomic techniques) and technological advances in TBV making (use of starter culture) are discussed.

  20. Zygosaccharomyces sapae sp. nov., isolated from Italian traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Chand Dakal, Tikam; Giudici, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates were recovered from two traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) samples collected in the provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy. Microsatellite-primed-PCR (MSP-PCR) was used to de-replicate the isolate collection into two representative strains, ABT301(T) and ABT601. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene indicated that these strains represented a distinct species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces, closely related to Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces mellis. Physiological and morphological tests supported the recognition of a novel taxon of halotolerant, osmotolerant, non-psychrotolerant and maltose-fermentation-negative yeasts showing a chain or star-shaped pattern of budding cells, which remained attached to each other. Morphological observations offered evidence of ascospore formation. A novel species, Zygosaccharomyces sapae sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains, with strain ABT301(T) (= CBS 12607(T) = MUCL 54092(T)) as the type strain. Based on D1/D2 domain phylogenetic analysis, the novel strains shared the highest sequence similarity (100 %) with Zygosaccharomyces sp. strain NCYC 3042, previously isolated from sugar [James, S. A., Bond, C. J., Stratford, M. & Roberts, I. N. (2005). FEMS Yeast Res 5, 747-755]. However, based on phylogenetic (internal transcribed spacers, ITS), PCR fingerprinting and physiological analyses, marked differences were observed between the novel species and strain NCYC 3042, and these results are discussed in more detail.

  1. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  2. From balsamic to healthy: traditional balsamic vinegar melanoidins inhibit lipid peroxidation during simulated gastric digestion of meat.

    PubMed

    Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Conte, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In this work traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) melanoidins were characterized for chemical composition and antioxidant activity and their anti-peroxidative effect during an in vitro gastric digestion of turkey meat was studied. The most important constituents of TBV melanoidins were carbohydrates (51% w/w) of which glucose (35% w/w) and fructose (10% w/w) are the main representatives, hydroxymethylfurfural (7.2% w/w), phenolic groups (4.6% w/w) and proteins (1.2% w/w). The antioxidant capacity of melanoidins was studied, measuring lipid hydroperoxides and secondary lipoxidation products formed during in vitro gastric digestion of turkey meat. The most important mechanisms in their antioxidant activity resulted radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating activities. Pepsin inhibiting ability has been excluded. TBV melanoidins were also able to bind heme under gastric conditions potentially preventing its absorption and prooxidant and cytotoxic effects. Our results support the idea that TBV melanoidins may have a role in oxidative damage prevention. Fe(2+)-chelating and heme-binding activities as well as mechanisms of antioxidant activity of TBV melanoidins were also compared with coffee, barley coffee and dark beer melanoidins.

  3. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used as an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam... gram delivered to the wound site contains 0.1 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 72.5 milligrams of...

  4. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used as an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam... gram delivered to the wound site contains 0.1 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 72.5 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used as an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam... gram delivered to the wound site contains 0.1 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 72.5 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used as an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam... gram delivered to the wound site contains 0.1 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 72.5 milligrams of...

  7. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  8. Distribution of Redwood Caused by the Balsam Woolly Aphid in Fraser Fir of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman

    1970-01-01

    Examination of 5-foot sections of felled Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., trees infested or killed by the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), revealed that the height of the first annual ring of aphid-caused redwood increased as the height of the trees increased. The number of red rings varied from two in a...

  9. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: A comparison of seedlings from 12 fir species

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; John Frampton; Fred Hain

    2012-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) (BWA), first reported on Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret, on Mount Mitchell in 1955 (Amman 1966, Boyce 1955), is a major pest in Christmas tree plantations and in native stands. Nearly all Fraser fir Christmas trees produced in North Carolina...

  10. Using Digital Terrain Modeling to Predict Ecological Types in the Balsam Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Odom; W. Henry McNab

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between overstory composition and topographic conditions were studied in high-elevation (>1300 meters) forests in the Balsam Mountains of western North Carolina to determine whether models could be developed to predict the occurrence of number vegetative communities in relation to topographic variables (elevation, landscape position, surface geometry,...

  11. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Treesearch

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  12. Foliar nutrient concentrations in balsam fir as affected by soil drainage and methods of slash disposal

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1979-01-01

    Foliar nutrient concentrations in young balsam fir growing on strip clearcuts were assessed in relation to soil drainage and three methods of slash disposal. Concentrations of N, K, and Mn were higher for trees growing on well-drained soils than for trees growing on poorly drained soils. Mo concentrations were higher on poorly drained soils and all other measured...

  13. Laboratory Screening and Field Bioassays of Insecticides for Controlling the Balsam Woolly Adelgid in Southen Appalachia

    Treesearch

    F.L. Hastings; P.J. Barry; I.R. Ragenovich

    1979-01-01

    Two concentrations of 13 insecticides and 3 fatty acids were screened in the laboratory against the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratz.)). Efficacy was judged on the percentage of dead adults and the number of living crawlers 24 hours after application. The top candidate materials, including lindane, were field bioassayed. Permethrin (Pounce or Ambush),...

  14. Release of Predators of the Balsam Woolly Aphid in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Charles F. Speers

    1964-01-01

    The balsam woolly aphid, Chermes piceae Ratz. (Homoptera: Chermidae), was accidentally introduced into North America from Europe about 1900 (Balch 1952). The aphid is now a serious pest of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh)Poir., in the Southern Appalachians. Since its discovery in Northo-1957 (Speers 1958), the aphid has killed thousands of trees annually. Fraser fir...

  15. Status of Imported and Native Predators of the Balsam Woolly Aphid on Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gerhard F. Fedde

    1972-01-01

    On the Mt. Mitchell area during the summer of 1968, 20 stands of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., infested by the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), were examined for native and previously imported predators of the aphid. Laricobius erichsonii Bosenhauer (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) was...

  16. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Treesearch

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  17. Adelgid host interactions with special reference to the balsam woolly adelgid in North America

    Treesearch

    F. P. Hain; R. G. Hollingsworth; F. H. Arthur; F. Sanchez; R. K. Ross

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: 1) to provide a general overview of adelgid biology and the various host relationships; 2) to review the current knowledge of the interactions of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (an introduced pest), and its North American hosts; 3) to report on the most recent research involving the interactions of this...

  18. Foliar nutrient status of young red spruce and balsam fir in a fertilized stand

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; L. O. Safford; Russell D. Briggs

    1980-01-01

    Average dry weight and nutrient levels in current foliage from red spruce and balsam fir seedlings and saplings in the understory of a 25-year old aspen and birch stand were observed 3 years after N, P, and lime treatments were applied. Elemental concentrations were plotted as a function of needle weight and quantity of element per needle. This allows interpretation of...

  19. Consumer perception of balsamic vinegar: A cross-cultural study between Korea and Italy.

    PubMed

    Torri, Luisa; Jeon, Seon-Young; Piochi, Maria; Morini, Gabriella; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined. Descriptive analysis was performed to verify the attitude of the consumers in product description. The results obtained from two groups of consumers in Korea and Italy revealed a higher description attitude of the Italians (higher number of total elicited attributes, of attributes in common with the trained panel, of attributes shared with the vocabulary reported in literature, of significant specific positive product-attribute associations). Italian subjects generated various descriptors associated with the European gastronomic culture (aromatic herbs, fortified wine, dried figs, Indian fig, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese), whereas Korean consumers used more terms related to the Asian food culture (red ginseng, Chinese medicine, Japanese apricot, teriyaki sauce, persimmon vinegar, balloon flower roots). Moreover, cultural differences of food matching were also observed: the Italians would pair the balsamic vinegars mainly with vegetables, fruits and cheese, while Koreans would combine the balsamic vinegars preferably with bread, vegetables and meat. In conclusion, familiarity resulted the main factors for cross-cultural differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: early results from 12 fir species

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; Fred Hain; John. Frampton

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees produced in North Carolina need to be treated one or more times during their 5- to 10-year rotation to prevent or lessen damage caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). These pesticide applications result in an annual cost to the industry...

  1. Infestation Trends of Balsam Woolly Aphid in an Abies Alba Plantation in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Gerhard F. Fedde

    1971-01-01

    Infestations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), on European silver fir trees in a plantation were observed over a 7-year period. Infestations were usually light, but occasionally increased to heavy. Heavy infestations declined within 1 or 2 years without killing the trees or causing them apparent damage.

  2. The clonal root system of balsam poplar in upland sites of Quebec and Alberta.

    PubMed

    Adonsou, Kokouvi E; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine; Thomas, Barb R; Isabel, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Balsam poplar seeds are short-lived and require moist seedbeds soon after they are released to germinate. In addition to sexual reproduction, balsam poplar stands can regenerate clonally by root suckering. The origin of stands will in turn affect their genetic structure and root system architecture, which are poorly understood for upland forest stands. Three stands were hydraulically excavated in Quebec (moist) and Alberta (dry) to determine the origin of trees and to characterize root systems with respect to presence of parental roots and root grafts connections. Clones were identified using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), and all stems, roots and root grafts were aged using dendrochronology techniques. All 82 excavated trees were of sucker origin, and four of the six stands contained a single clone. Parental root connections were found between 22% and 25% of excavated trees, and 53% and 48% of trees were linked with a root graft between the same or different clones, in Alberta and Quebec, respectively. Mean distance between trees connected by parental root was significantly lower than the distance between unconnected trees (0.47 ± 0.25 m vs. 3.14 ± 0.15 m and 1.55 ± 0.27 m vs. 4.25 ± 0.13 m) in Alberta and in Quebec, respectively. The excavations also revealed many dead stumps with live roots, maintained through root connections with live trees. This research highlights that balsam poplar growing in upland stands is a clonal species that can maintain relatively high genotypic diversity, with frequent root connections between trees at maturity. Maintaining an extensive root system through root connections increases the chances of a clone surviving when the above ground tree is dead and may also enhance the resilience of balsam poplar stands after disturbance.

  3. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pinu, Farhana R.; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G.

    2016-01-01

    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  4. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  5. Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru)--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Turić, Petra; Lipozencić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Kulisić, Sandra Marinović

    2011-03-01

    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substances contained in the fragrance mix: cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). The most frequent allergens were isoeugenol 57.9% (91/157), eugenol 55.4% (87/157), cinnamyl alcohol 34.4% (54/157) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) 24.2% (38/157). There were 62 patients (39.5%) who exhibited an allergic reaction to both the fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). The results prove the importance of avoiding allergens in daily life, especially in industrial and cosmetic products. In order to prevent ACD, better cooperation between industry and dermatologists is needed.

  6. The Minnesota approach to non-timber forest product marketing: the balsam bough industry and other examples

    Treesearch

    John. Krantz

    2001-01-01

    Minnesota is a leading state in the production of holiday wreaths. It is estimated that the companies producing wreaths in Minnesota have total sales exceeding $20 million and growing. Wreaths are sold in all states in the U.S., mainly by non-profit groups for fundraising. The boughs harvested from the balsam fir (Abies balsamea) are used in 98...

  7. Assessment of balsam woolly adelgid damage to eastern Washington and Oregon subalpine fir (Project WC-F-07-01)

    Treesearch

    Lia H. Spiegel; Kristen Chadwick; Connie Mehmel

    2013-01-01

    Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae) is an exotic, aphid-like sucking insect originally from Europe that feeds only on Abies species. North American species are particularly susceptible, with the apparently most susceptible being subalpine (A. lasiocarpa), Frasier (A. fraseri), and...

  8. Root hydraulic properties and growth of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) mycorrhizal with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae.

    PubMed

    Siemens, J Aurea; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2008-10-01

    The effects of an E-strain fungus (Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Hebeloma crustuliniforme) on growth and water relations of balsam poplar were examined and compared in the present study. Balsam poplar roots inoculated with W. mikolae var. mikolae (Wm) exhibited structures consistent with ectendomycorrhizal (EEM) associations, including a mantle surrounding the outside of the root and an extensive Hartig net that was located between cortical cells and extended to the vascular cylinder. Roots colonized with H. crustuliniforme (Hc) developed a mantle layer, indicative of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association, around the outer part of the root, but no distinct Hartig net was present. Wm-colonized balsam poplar also showed increased shoot growth, stomatal conductance (g(s)), and root volumes compared with non-inoculated and Hc-inoculated plants. However, Hc-inoculated plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity (L(pr)) compared with non-inoculated plants and Wm-inoculated plants. These results suggest that L(pr) was not a growth-limiting factor in balsam poplar and that hyphal penetration of the root cortex in itself may have little influence on root hydraulic properties.

  9. Survival and growth of northern white-cedar and balsam fir seedlings in riparian management zones in northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Palik; Brooke K. Haworth; Andrew J. David; Randall K. Kolka

    2015-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea.) are co-occurring species in riparian forests of the western Great Lakes region. Throughout much of the region, northern white-cedar has been experiencing population declines due to herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)....

  10. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Boyce; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Paula F. Murakami

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) nutrition on the foliar physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in northern New England, USA. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA), spruce and fir saplings were sampled from control, Al-, and Ca-supplemented...

  11. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Roger; Quiring, Dan T.; Lucarotti, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV) within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study) and peak (laboratory study) phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) foliage), NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups) to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e), respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage), NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae. PMID:26466722

  12. Boreal peatland margins as repository sites of long-term natural disturbances of balsam fir/spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Martin; Filion, Louise; Robert, Élisabeth C.

    2009-05-01

    A multidisciplinary, high-resolution paleoecological study (Lepidoptera and plant remains, macroscopic charcoal, pollen) was conducted on a 4000-yr peat monolith extracted from the margin of an ombrotrophic peatland on Anticosti Island (Gulf of St. Lawrence, eastern Canada) to reconstruct the long-term natural disturbances (insect outbreaks, forest fires) of a balsam fir/spruce forest. We hypothesized that an activity of insect defoliators (spruce budworm, hemlock looper) was the main disturbance factor of conifer forests during the Late Holocene. The earliest remains of spruce budworm and hemlock looper were found ca. 3220 and 2350 cal yr BP, respectively. Peaks of insect head capsules occurred from ca. 1640 to ca. 625 cal yr BP. Low balsam fir pollen concentrations during this period suggest a lengthy episode (˜ 1000 yr) of high insect activity, resulting in extensive fir dieback and mortality. The long-term dynamics of the pristine balsam fir/spruce forests were mainly governed by the activity of insect defoliators. The limited extent and possibly the low occurrence of forest fires in the maritime environment of Anticosti Island allowed the development of mature coniferous stands propitious for insect infestations. Insect head capsules appeared to be a useful and effective tool for establishing insect presence and activity during the Holocene.

  13. Effects of dilute acid pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis monomer and oligomer sugar yields for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jill R; Morinelly, Juan E; Gossen, Kelsey R; Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J; Shonnard, David R

    2010-04-01

    The effects of dilute acid hydrolysis conditions were investigated on total sugar (glucose and xylose) yields after enzymatic hydrolysis with additional analyses on glucose and xylose monomer and oligomer yields from the individual hydrolysis steps for aspen (a hardwood), balsam (a softwood), and switchgrass (a herbaceous energy crop). The results of this study, in the form of measured versus theoretical yields and a severity analysis, show that for aspen and balsam, high dilute acid hydrolysis xylose yields were obtainable at all acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 wt.%) and temperatures (150-175 degrees C) studied as long as reaction time was optimized. Switchgrass shows a relatively stronger dependence on dilute acid hydrolysis acid concentration due to its higher neutralizing mineral content. Maximum total sugar (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) yields post-enzymatic hydrolysis for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass, were 88.3%, 21.2%, and 97.6%, respectively. In general, highest yields of total sugars (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) were achieved at combined severity parameter values (log CS) between 2.20 and 2.40 for the biomass species studied.

  14. Balsamin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Balsam apple Momordica balsamina.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderdeep; Yadav, Santosh K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Gupta, R C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Batra, Janendra K; Puri, Munish

    2012-08-01

    Plant seeds, a rich source of proteins, are considered important for their application as functional ingredients in a food system. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), balsamin was purified from the seeds of Balsam apple, Momordica balsamina. Balsamin was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose and gel filtration on superdex-75. It has a molecular weight of 28 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis. Balsamin inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-based cell free translation assay with an IC(50) of 90.6 ng ml(-1). It has RNA N-glycosidase activity and releases a 400-base long fragment termed the Endo fragment from 28S rRNA in the same manner as does saporin-6 from Saponaria officinalis. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the first 12 amino acids of balsamin revealed that it shares 83% similarity with type I RIP α-MMC from Momordica charantia and 50% similarity with β-MMC (from Momordica charantia), bryodin I (from Bryonia dioica) and luffin a (from Luffa cylindrica). Balsamin was further characterized by mass spectrometry. CD spectroscopic studies indicate that secondary structure of balsamin contains helix (23.5%), β-strand (24.6%), turn (20%) and random coil (31.9%). Thus RIPs activity expressed in vegetables like Momordica sp. advocates its usage in diet.

  15. Genomic diversity, population structure, and migration following rapid range expansion in the Balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Olson, Matthew S; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Rapid range expansions can cause pervasive changes in the genetic diversity and structure of populations. The postglacial history of the Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera, involved the colonization of most of northern North America, an area largely covered by continental ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. To characterize how this expansion shaped genomic diversity within and among populations, we developed 412 SNP markers that we assayed for a range-wide sample of 474 individuals sampled from 34 populations. We complemented the SNP data set with DNA sequence data from 11 nuclear loci from 94 individuals, and used coalescent analyses to estimate historical population size, demographic growth, and patterns of migration. Bayesian clustering identified three geographically separated demes found in the Northern, Central, and Eastern portions of the species' range. These demes varied significantly in nucleotide diversity, the abundance of private polymorphisms, and population substructure. Most measures supported the Central deme as descended from the primary refuge of diversity. Both SNPs and sequence data suggested recent population growth, and coalescent analyses of historical migration suggested a massive expansion from the Centre to the North and East. Collectively, these data demonstrate the strong influence that range expansions exert on genomic diversity, both within local populations and across the range. Our results suggest that an in-depth knowledge of nucleotide diversity following expansion requires sampling within multiple populations, and highlight the utility of combining insights from different data types in population genomic studies.

  16. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.

  17. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps.

  18. [The virtue of that precious balsam...: approach to Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Munoz, F; Garcia-Garcia, P; Alamo, C

    2007-01-01

    The most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, Don Quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late Renaissance society usually address. This masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, Alonso Quijano. Also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms and other pharmacy preparations) have been frequent. We have tackled Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the therapeutical cures used during the Cervantine time for the treatment of insane and mentally disturbed people (sedatives like opium, laxatives like hellebore, tonics, irritants and surgical techniques like bloodlettings and ) and we analyze the limited and unspecific therapies, mainly of herbal origin (balms, purgatives and emetics), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, rhubarb root (Rumex alpinus), seeds of spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), main ingredient of Aparicio's oil, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous balsam of Fierabras, should be highlighted. We have also examined the possible scientific influences which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the works of Juan Huarte de San Juan The examination of men's wits and the one of Andres Laguna Dioscorides' materia medica.

  19. Molecular size and molecular size distribution affecting traditional balsamic vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Pasquale Massimiliano; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-08-27

    A first attempt at a semiquantitative study of molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) in cooked grape must and traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) with increasing well-defined age was performed by high-performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using dual detection, that is, differential refractive index (DRI) and absorbance (UV-vis) based detectors. With this aim, MW and MWD, including number- and weight-average MW and polydispersity, were determined with respect to a secondary standard and then analyzed. All investigated vinegar samples were recognized as compositionally and structurally heterogeneous blends of copolymers (melanoidins) spreading over a wide range of molecular sizes: the relative MW ranged from 2 to >2000 kDa. The extent of the polymerization reactions was in agreement with the TBV browning kinetics. MWD parameters varied asymptotically toward either upper or lower limits during aging, reflecting a nonequilibrium status of the balance between polymerization and depolymerization reactions in TBV. MWD parameters were proposed as potential aging markers of TBV.

  20. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  1. Local adaptation in the flowering-time gene network of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the signature and targets of local adaptation is an increasingly important goal in empirical population genetics. Using data from 443 balsam poplar Populus balsamifera trees sampled from 31 populations, we tested for evidence of geographically variable selection shaping diversity at 27 homologues of the Arabidopsis flowering-time network. These genes are implicated in the control of seasonal phenology, an important determinant of fitness. Using 335 candidate and 412 reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we tested for evidence of local adaptation by searching for elevated population differentiation using F(ST)-based outlier analyses implemented in BayeScan or a Hierarchical Model in Arelquin and by testing for significant associations between allele frequency and environmental variables using BAYENV. A total of 46 SNPs from 14 candidate genes had signatures of local adaptation-either significantly greater population differentiation or significant covariance with one or more environmental variable relative to reference SNP distributions. Only 11 SNPs from two genes exhibited both elevated population differentiation and covariance with one or more environmental variables. Several genes including the abscisic acid gene ABI1B and the circadian clock genes ELF3 and GI5 harbored a large number of SNPs with signatures of local adaptation-with SNPs in GI5 strongly covarying with both latitude and precipitation and SNPs in ABI1B strongly covarying with temperature. In contrast to several other systems, we find little evidence that photoreceptors, including phytochromes, play an important role in local adaptation. Our results additionally show that detecting local adaptation is sensitive to the analytical approaches used and that model-based significance thresholds should be viewed with caution.

  2. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41-60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61-80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  3. A new putative Zygosaccharomyces yeast species isolated from traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Cassanelli, Stefano; Giudici, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    The taxonomic status and species number of the genus Zygosaccharomyces have rapidly changed in the last years. In this study, two new osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces strains isolated from traditional balsamic vinegar, viz. ABT301 and ABT601, were investigated to elucidate their taxonomic relationships with Zygosaccharomyces rouxii species. A multi-gene sequence approach was employed, including regions of the rDNA repeat [5.8S, two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 26S D1/D2 domain], COX2 mitochondrial gene and two nuclear genes (SOD2 and HIS3). Cloning and sequence analysis of 5.8S-ITS rDNA revealed that these strains bear an unusual polymorphism for this region. Three highly divergent 5.8S-ITS sequences were detected, one identical to Z. rouxii, the other two showing some relatedness to Z. mellis. Sequence and gene number polymorphism was also observed for the protein-encoding nuclear genes SOD2 and HIS3, as two copies for each gene different from those found in Z. rouxii were detected. Analysis of the D1/D2 26S domain showed that ABT301 and ABT601 have only one type of D1/D2 sequence statistically different from that of Z. rouxii. The findings obtained in this work suggest that the genomic background of strains ABT301 and ABT601 is different from the other Zygosaccharomyces species. We speculated that they could belong to a new putative species related to Z. rouxii. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  5. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  6. The flight periodicity, attack patterns, and life history of Dryocoetes confusus Swaine (Coleoptera: Curculionida: Scolytinae), the western balsam bark beetle, in north central Colorado

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2009-01-01

    Dryocoetes confusus Swaine, the western balsam bark beetle, is an important bark beetle associated with Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir) in western North America. Little information is available on the life cycle and ecology of this insect in Colorado. In this study in north central Colorado, we examined its...

  7. Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on stem form, volume, and branch characteristics of red spruce and balsam fir crop trees

    Treesearch

    Aaron Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; Leah M. Phillips

    2009-01-01

    The effects of precommercial thinning (PCT) on stem dimensions, form, volume, and branch attributes of red spruce [Picea rubens Sarg.] and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] crop trees were assessed 25 years after treatment in an even-aged northern conifer stand. Treatments were a uniform 2.4 x 2.4-m spacing and a control (no...

  8. Balsam-pear-like rutile/anatase core/shell titania nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Yao, Jin-Cheng; Gu, Yi-Jie; Sun, Tulai; Tian, He; Zhou, Qi-Lai; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-09-08

    In this work, a solution combustion followed by dissolution in hydrogen peroxide is adopted to achieve a precursor for decorating anatase TiO2 nanosheets along single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods, which achieves balsam-pear-like core/shell nanorod arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting. The photocurrent of the rutile/anatase nanorods is about 1.4 times and 20.7 times that of the rutile nanorods and the anatase nanosheets at 0.8 V vs SCE, respectively. The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance is attributed to the novel nanoarchitecture, which can simultaneously offer high surface area, enhanced light-harvesting, rutile/anatase junction for charge carrier separation and conductive pathway for charge carrier collection. The photoanode design can also give hints to other functional materials. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Using a castor oil-balsam of Peru-trypsin ointment to assist in healing skin graft donor sites.

    PubMed

    Carson, Stanley N; Wiggins, Christopher; Overall, Karen; Herbert, Jackie

    2003-06-01

    Skin graft donor sites are partial-thickness wounds that are commonly managed with gauze-type dressings. As such, they often cause more pain and difficulty in healing than the graft-recipient site. A retrospective study was conducted to ascertain the effects of using a castor oil-balsam of Peru-trypsin containing ointment on skin graft donor sites in 36 consecutive patients (16 female, 20 male). All donor sites were epithelialized after 11 days (range 6 to 11 days, mean 8 days) and no wound complications were observed. Given these healing results and product ease of use, this particular formulation has become the facilities' current treatment of choice and further study is indicated and warranted.

  10. Reproductive potential of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Bergeron, Yves; Asselin, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co-dominants in mixedwood forests) and black spruce (dominant in coniferous forests) were studied to explain the location of the ecotone between the two forest types in the boreal zone of Quebec. Four sites were selected along a latitudinal gradient crossing the ecotone. Cone crop, number of seeds per cone, percentage filled seeds, and percentage germination were measured for each species. Balsam fir and white spruce cone crops were significantly lower in the coniferous than in the mixedwood forest, while black spruce had greater crop constancy and regularity between both forest types. Mast years were more frequent for black spruce than for balsam fir in both forest types (mast year data not available for white spruce). The number of seeds per cone was more related to cone size than to forest type for all species. Black spruce produced more filled seeds in the coniferous forest than balsam fir or white spruce. The sum of growing degree-days and the maximum temperature of the warmest month (both for the year prior to cone production) significantly affected balsam fir cone production. The climate-related northward decrease in reproductive potential of balsam fir and white spruce could partly explain the position of the northern limit of the mixedwood forest. This could change drastically, however, as the ongoing climate warming might cancel this competitive advantage of black spruce.

  11. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Geographic biotype and host-associated local adaptation in a polyphagous species, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) feeding on balsam fir on Anticosti Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hébert, C; Berthiaume, R; Bauce, E; Brodeur, J

    2006-12-01

    The debate about mechanisms underlying the evolution of host specialization by herbivorous insects remains open. Natural selection may act locally and lead to different patterns of geographic variation in life history traits of polyphagous herbivores. The hypothesis of genetically-based trade-offs in offspring performance on different hosts has been proposed but this has rarely been demonstrated. Under laboratory conditions, the biological performance of two populations of the hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée), a highly polyphagous lepidopteran, was compared when reared on three different tree host species: balsam fir, eastern hemlock and sugar maple. One population originated from Anticosti Island, Québec, Canada, where the insect has evolved without having access to two of the three tree species tested, the other being from the mainland where all tree species are present. When reared on balsam fir foliage, which was naturally available to each population, larvae from Anticosti Island underwent four instars compared with five for the mainland population, indicating the existence of geographic biotypes in L. fiscellaria. When reared on the foliage of non-naturally available host trees, larvae from Anticosti Island had a higher incidence of supernumerary instars. This is a unique example where local adaptation to environmental conditions of an insect herbivore is expressed through a differential number of larval instars. Moreover, the Anticosti Island population showed a higher growth related index on the host available to both populations indicating that a fitness trade-off was the evolutionary process underlying the local adaptation of this population on balsam fir.

  13. A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n∼100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n∼25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

  14. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America.

    PubMed

    Hrinkevich, Kathryn H; Progar, Robert A; Shaw, David C

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  15. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  16. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  17. What difference does a civil union make? Changing public policies and the experiences of same-sex couples: comment on Solomon, Rothblum, and Balsam (2004).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charlotte J

    2004-06-01

    When Vermont became the first state in the United States to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples, it marked an important milestone in lesbian and gay Americans' struggle for equal rights. Against this background, S. E. Solomon, E. D. Rothblum, and K. F. Balsam's (2004) study, the first to examine experiences of same-sex couples who have undertaken civil unions, is a significant effort. The study provides valuable data about these couples, yet much remains to be learned. Further study of the impact of changing legal landscapes on experiences of same-sex couples and their families has the potential to add significantly to knowledge about contemporary family lives.

  18. The potential influence of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the ecohydromorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Phil) Greenwood, Philip; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to repeated speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been empirically proven during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain

  19. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrastructure of feeding tubes and interconnected endoplasmic reticulum in root-knot nematode-induced giant cells in rose balsam.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Nao; Koga, Hironori

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the three-dimensional ultrastructure of feeding tubes and the surrounding region in giant cells induced in rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina L.) roots by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, using osmium maceration coupled with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In the roots of 35-day-old galled rose balsam plants, adult nematodes induced the formation of giant cells containing feeding tubes and numerous organelles, including tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cisternal ER, and mitochondria. The feeding tubes were surrounded by fine tubular structures (20-50 nm in diameter), which were in turn surrounded by tubular ER (approximately 120 nm in diameter). The termini of the fine tubular structures appeared to be connected to the surface of the feeding tubes, suggesting that the fine tubular structures were continuous with narrow channels in the feeding tubes. The tubular ER arose from cisternal ER. Large bundles of tubular ER were present near the feeding tube, in the centers of the giant cells, and in the peripheral regions of the giant cells, such as cell wall ingrowths, while smaller bundles of tubular ER formed networks in the giant cells. These observations suggest that tubular ER functions as vascular bundles in giant cells, facilitating the transport of nutrients. We identified capsule-shaped structures (30 μm in diameter) in the giant cells that consisted of smooth, repeatedly branched ER tubules wrapped in several layers of cisternal ER. We propose that lipids and steroids are synthesized at the smooth branched ER and stored in these capsules until needed by the nematode.

  1. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots.

  2. Importance of needle age and shoot structure on canopy net photosynthesis of balsam fir (Abies balsamea): a spatially inexplicit modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernier, P Y; Raulier, F; Stenberg, P; Ung, C H

    2001-08-01

    We have developed a spatially inexplicit model of canopy photosynthesis for balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) that accounts for key processes of light-shoot interaction including irradiance interception by the shoot, spatial aggregation of shoots into branches and crowns, the differential propagation of diffuse and direct light within the canopy, and an ideal representation of penumbra. Also accounted for in the model are the effects of the average radiative climate and shoot age on needle retention, light interception, and photosynthetic capacity. We used reduced versions of this model to quantify the effects of simplifying canopy representation on modeled canopy net photosynthesis. Simplifications explored were the omission of direct beam transformation into penumbral light and the use of different constant shoot properties throughout the canopy. The model was parameterized for a relatively dense balsam fir stand (leaf area index of 5.8) north of Québec City, Canada, and run using hourly meteorological data obtained at the site. The overall performance of the complete model was satisfactory, with maximum values of canopy net photosynthesis of 23 micromol (m(2) ground)(-1) s(-1) (83 mmol m(-2) h(-1)), and a near-saturation of the canopy at a photosynthetically active radiation photon flux density of about 750 micromol m(-2) s(-1) (2.7 mol m(-2) h(-1)). The omission of penumbral effects through the use of unattenuated direct (beam) radiation at all layers of the canopy, as used for broad-leaved species, reduced canopy net photosynthesis by 3.7%. Analysis of the results show that the small impact of penumbra on canopy net photosynthesis stems from the high proportion of diffuse radiation (73%) estimated from our meteorological data set; single-hour results under clear sky conditions approach theoretical bias values of about 30%. Use of mean shoot photosynthetic, light capture and light transmission properties throughout the canopy biased canopy net

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  4. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  5. Enhanced assimilation rate and water use efficiency with latitude through increased photosynthetic capacity and internal conductance in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Drewes, Eric C; Schroeder, William R

    2009-12-01

    In outdoor common gardens, high latitude populations of deciduous tree species often display higher assimilation rates (A) than low latitude populations, but they accomplish less height. To test whether trends in A reflect adaptation to growing season length or, alternatively, are garden growth artefacts, we examined variation in height increment and ecophysiological traits in a range-wide collection of Populus balsamifera L. populations from 21 provenances, during unconstrained growth in a greenhouse. Rooted cuttings, maintained without resource limitation under 21 h photoperiod for 90 d, displayed increasing height growth, A, leaf mass per area and leaf N per area with latitude whereas stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed no pattern. Water-use efficiency as indicated by both gas exchange and delta(13)C increased with latitude, whereas photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency decreased. Differences in delta(13)C were less than expected based on A/g(s), suggesting coextensive variation in internal conductance (g(m)). Analysis of A-C(i) curves on a subset of populations showed that high latitude genotypes had greater g(m) than low-latitude genotypes. We conclude that higher peak rates of height growth in high latitude genotypes of balsam poplar are supported by higher A, achieved partly through higher g(m), to help compensate for a shorter growing season.

  6. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Less Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow for More Signatures of Glacial Lineages: Congruent Evidence from Balsam Fir cpDNA and mtDNA for Multiple Refugia in Eastern and Central North America

    PubMed Central

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed. PMID:25849816

  8. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    PubMed

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  9. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  10. The potential influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the hydro-geomorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Greenwood, P.; Fister, W.

    2014-12-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. It favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been shown during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain sediment and associated contaminants during their passage from terrestrial

  11. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  12. Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Active Duty Military (BALSAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    Mahle, AFRL/HEPB, 937-904-9496, deirdre.mahle@wpafb.af.mil j. Eugene Z. Oddone , Director, Helath Services Research and Development, 919-286-6936...Eugene Z. Oddone acting as the principal investigator. Dr. Oddone will obtain consent for ALS Registry cases from individuals who served during...the 1990-1991 Gulf War era. Dr. Oddone will Fedex the SSNs of those consenting ALS Registry cases to Dr. Wells via a password protected diskette

  13. Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Active Duty Military (BALSAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    testing and serial testing scenarios. If the biomarkers are viewed as indicators of disease process, a serial testing approach will improve our...disease, we would wish to minimize false negatives. A parallel testing approach to the biomarkers will allow us to maximize sensitivity and rule-out...Cincinnati, all remaining samples at the end of the study will we be decontaminated by bleaching followed by autoclave sterilization then discarded

  14. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply directly to the wound site. (2) Indications for use. As an aid in the treatment of external wounds and assists healing by facilitating the removal...

  15. Botanical and Commercial Range of Balsam Fir In the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Paul O. Rudolf

    1966-01-01

    Accurate maps showing the distribution of important tree species are valuable to foresters, botanists, wildlife specialists, land managers, and others. Although the general natural ranges for our principal tree species have been well known for some time, new information continues to develop. Commercial ranges, hoever, have not previously been mapped precisely, and...

  16. How damage to balsam fir develops after a spruce budworm epidemic

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. McLintock

    1955-01-01

    From 1948 to 1952 a light to medium spruce budworm infestation occurred in the spruce-fir forests of northern Maine. During this period both the degree of infestation and the acreage affected fluctuated considerably, but the population remained below the damage level. In 1953 there was a general reduction in budworm population in all portions of northern Maine except a...

  17. Genetic evidence for predominantly hydrochoric gene flow in the invasive riparian plant Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)

    PubMed Central

    Love, Heather M.; Maggs, Christine A.; Murray, Tomás E.; Provan, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Riparian systems are prone to invasion by alien plant species. The spread of invasive riparian plants may be facilitated by hydrochory, the transport of seeds by water, but while ecological studies have highlighted the possible role of upstream source populations in the establishment and persistence of stands of invasive riparian plant species, population genetic studies have as yet not fully addressed the potential role of hydrochoric dispersal in such systems. Methods A population genetics approach based on a replicated bifurcate sampling design is used to test hypotheses consistent with patterns of unidirectional, linear gene flow expected under hydrochoric dispersal of the invasive riparian plant Impatiens glandulifera in two contrasting river systems. Key results A significant increase in levels of genetic diversity downstream was observed, consistent with the accumulation of propagules from upstream source populations, and strong evidence was found for organization of this diversity between different tributaries, reflecting the dendritic organization of the river systems studied. Conclusions These findings indicate that hydrochory, rather than anthropogenic dispersal, is primarily responsible for the spread of I. glandulifera in these river systems, and this is relevant to potential approaches to the control of invasive riparian plant species. PMID:24169594

  18. Natural resins and balsams from an eighteenth-century pharmaceutical collection analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steigenberger, Gundel; Herm, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Historical nomenclature has not always been unequivocally associated with the botanical origin of natural resins. The availability of natural resins has changed throughout the centuries and so have their trade names. Furthermore, adulterations and lack of knowledge have led to variations in the composition of the products traded under the same name. This investigation aims at a new understanding of the interrelation between the historical and modern terms for natural resins. Different Pinaceae and Pistacia resins, mastic, sandarac, copaiba balm and burgundy pitch from Vigani's Cabinet, a 300-year-old pharmaceutical collection owned by Queens' College, Cambridge (UK) were investigated. Related reference materials from modern collections were analysed together with natural resins derived from reliable botanical sources. The analytical method was gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with and without derivatisation with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide. This technique provided detailed molecular compositions of the studied materials, which in turn led to particular data profiles of the materials. Marker molecules of Copaifera, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae and Pistacia resins were identified. By comparing the GC-MS data profiles to the reference samples, a clearer picture of the connection between nomenclature and botanical origin was obtained. With the aid of the marker molecules and data profiles, it was then possible to clarify the nomenclature of the aged resins sampled from Vigani's Cabinet.

  19. How does drought tolerance compare between two improved hybrids of balsam poplar and an unimproved native species?

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Maurel, Marion; Desrochers, Annie; Larocque, Guy R

    2011-03-01

    Poplars are one of the woody plants that are very sensitive to water stress, which may reduce the productivity of fast-growing plantations. Poplars can exhibit several drought tolerance strategies that may impact productivity differently. Trees from two improved hybrids, Populus balsamifera × Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray (clone B × T) and P. balsamifera × Populus maximowiczii A. Henry (clone B × M), having P. balsamifera L. as a parent and trees from native and unimproved P. balsamifera were subjected to a 1-month drying cycle in a growth chamber and then rewatered. The unimproved and native B clone maintained higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than the hybrids, and high photosynthetic activity and transpiration, even when soil water content was nearly zero. As a result, both instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE(i)) and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) indicated that this clone was less affected by drought than both hybrids at maximal drought stress. However, this clone shed its leaves when the drought threshold was exceeded, which implied a greater loss of productivity. The B × M hybrid showed a relatively conservative response to water stress, with the greatest decrease in transpiring versus absorbing surface (total leaf area to root biomass ratio). This clone was also the only one to develop new leaves after rewatering, and its total biomass production was not significantly decreased by drought. Among the two hybrids, clone B × T was the most vigorous, with the greatest transpiration (E(i)) and net CO(2) assimilation (A) rates, allowing for high biomass production. However, it had a more risky strategy under drought conditions by keeping its stomata open and high E(i) rates under moderate drought, resulting in a lower recovery rate after rewatering. The opposite drought response strategies of the two hybrids were reflected by clone B × T having lower WUE(i) values than clone B × M at maximal drought, with a very low Ψ(min) value of -3.2 MPa, despite closed stomata and stopped photosynthetic activity. Positive linear relationships between A and g(s) for the three hybrids indicated strong stomatal control of photosynthesis. Moreover, the three poplar clones showed anisohydric behaviour for stomatal control and their use under long-term drought should be of interest, especially the B × M clone.

  20. Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood).

    PubMed

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Hefer, Charles A; Christe, Camille; Corea, Oliver; Lexer, Christian; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species Populus balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored the patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and admixed individuals from wild populations. Local ancestry analysis in admixed P. trichocarpa revealed a telomeric region in chromosome 15 with P. balsamifera ancestry, containing several candidate genes for local adaptation. Genomic analyses revealed signals of selection in certain genes in this region (e.g. PRR5, COMT1), and functional analyses based on gene expression variation and correlations with adaptive phenotypes suggest distinct functions of the introgressed alleles. In contrast, a block of genes in chromosome 12 paralogous to the introgressed region showed no signs of introgression or signatures of selection. We hypothesize that the introgressed region in chromosome 15 has introduced modular or cassette-like variation into P. trichocarpa. These linked adaptive mutations are associated with a block of genes in chromosome 15 that appear to have undergone neo- or subfunctionalization relative to paralogs in a duplicated region on chromosome 12 that show no signatures of adaptive variation. The association between P. balsamifera introgressed alleles with the expression of adaptive traits in P. trichocarpa supports the hypothesis that this is a case of adaptive introgression in an ecologically important foundation species.

  1. Regulation of liver cell glucose homeostasis by dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid and squalene isolated from balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) a plant of the Eastern James Bay Cree traditional pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-09-01

    In our previous study, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., a plant used in Cree traditional medicine, had a strong effect on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in liver cells. This study aimed to isolate and identify its active constituents using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach as well as to elucidate their mechanism(s) of action. The effect of the crude extract and its constituents was evaluated on the activity of Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase) and Glycogen Synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of three kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). Three compounds, abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and squalene, were isolated from the most active fraction in the bioassays (hexane). The compounds were able to decrease the activity of G6Pase and to stimulate GS. Their effect on G6Pase activity involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation with significant correlations between insulin-dependent and -independent pathways and the bioassay. In addition, the compounds were able to stimulate GS through GSK-3 phosphorylation with a significant correlation between the signaling pathway and the bioassay. Dehydroabietic acid stood out for its strongest effect in all the experiments close to that of the crude extract. These compounds may have potential applications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 1. North Area and Facilities at Hill Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-12

    vetch , balsam root, and yarrow. This area is being invaded by low sagebrush and big sagebrush. To the southeast, the Foothill Range has medium-textured...wheatgrass, Indian ricegrass, sweet vetch , balsam root, and yarrow. This range is also being invaded by Ho’ogeton and cheatgrass. The third soil type is in...spiked vheatgrass, nature blue, needle and thread grass, western wheatgrass, sweet vetch , balsam root, and yarrow. This area has pockets of big sagebrush

  3. Small mammal habitat associations in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Dana P. Snyder; Barbara J. Hill

    1991-01-01

    Small mammal distribution was examined in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types in northern New England: northern hardwoods, red maple, balsam fir, and red spruce-balsam fir. During 1980 and 1981, eight stands on the White Mountain National Forest, NH, were sampled with four trap types (three sizes of snap traps and one pit-fall) for 16 000 trap-...

  4. Relationships between prefire composition, fire impact, and postfire legacies in the boreal forest of Eastern Canada

    Treesearch

    Alain Leduc; Yves Bergeron; Sylvie Gauthier

    2007-01-01

    Canadian mixedwood forests have a high compositional and structural diversity. It includes both hardwood (aspen, balsam poplar, and white birch) and softwood (balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce, larch, and white cedar) species that can form pure stands or mixed stands. This heterogeneity results in a variety of vertical structural strata that can potentially...

  5. Previsual detection of two conifer-infesting adelgid species in North American forest

    Treesearch

    Stephen Cook; Karen Humes; Ryan Hruska; Christopher Williams; Grant Fraley

    2010-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae, and hemlock woolly adelgid, A. tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), are invasive pests of coniferous forests in both the Eastern and Western United States. Balsam woolly adelgid is capable of attacking and killing native North American firs, with Fraser fir (Abies fraseri...

  6. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds

    Treesearch

    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  7. Agriculture: Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about environmental requirements relating to timber tracts, tree farms, forest nurseries, and related activities, such as reforestation services and the gathering of gums, barks, balsam needles, and other forest products.

  8. Energy Values of Nine Populus Clones

    Treesearch

    Terry F. Strong

    1980-01-01

    Compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compares calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  9. Summary of green weights and volumes for five tree species in Michigan.

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Winsauer; Helmuth M. Steinhilb

    1980-01-01

    Presents and summarizes the green weights and volumes of trees, boles and residue for sugar maple, white spruce, aspen, balsam fir and red pine in Northern Michigan. Equations, tables and graphs are included for each of the five species.

  10. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus guinguefolia Common Gourd Cucurbita foetidissima Henb it Lamium amleicaue Maximillian Sunflower Helianthus maximilani...campestris Mustang Grape Vitis candicans Balsam Gourd Ibervilica lindheimeri. False Dandelion Pyrrhopappus multicauliS Prairie Bur Krameria lancenlata

  11. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ... and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice wine, balsamic, and others). For the most ...

  12. Percent crown cover tables for applying the shelterwood system in New England

    Treesearch

    W. B. Leak; C. H. Tubbs

    1983-01-01

    Provides tables for estimating residual percent crown cover, using a 10-factor prism, of three species groups: (1) sugar and red maples, yellow and paper birches; (2) white ash, white pine, red spruce, balsam fir, and hemlock; and (3) beech.

  13. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. Influence of acid deposition on regeneration dynamics along a disturbance intensity gradient

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Michael A. Jenkins; Shibu. Jose

    2010-01-01

    Now considered one of the most threatened vegetation communities in North America, spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have been devastated by the combined impacts of the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae, BWA) and chronic acid deposition.

  16. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    PubMed

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  17. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  18. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    PubMed

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  19. Some observations on age relationships in spruce-fir regeneration

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the ages of seedlings of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L) Mill.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) 15 years after the first harvest of a two-cut shelterwood operation revealed that very few potential crop-tree seedlings in the sample occurred as advance...

  20. Characterizing forest vegetation of the Tanana Valley: what can forest inventory and analysis deliver?

    Treesearch

    Bethany Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation profile data were collected as part of a forest inventory project in the Tanana Valley in interior Alaska, providing a means of characterizing the forest vegetation. The black spruce forest type was most common, followed by Alaska paper birch, and white spruce, quaking aspen, and balsam poplar. For individual tree species, black spruce was recorded on 68...

  1. Spruce-fir forest changes during a 30-year nitrogen saturation experiment

    Treesearch

    Steven G. McNulty; Johnny L. Boggs; John D. Aber; Lindsey E. Rustad

    2017-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a high elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) – balsam fir (Abies balsamea) forest on Mount Ascutney Vermont, USA in 1988 to test the nitrogen (N) saturation hypothesis, and to better understand the mechanisms causing forest decline at the time. The study established replicate control, lowand high dose nitrogen addition plots (i...

  2. Biological growth functions describe published site index curves for Lake States timber species.

    Treesearch

    Allen L. Lundgren; William A. Dolid

    1970-01-01

    Two biological growth functions, an exponential-monomolecular function and a simple monomolecular function, have been fit to published site index curves for 11 Lake States tree species: red, jack, and white pine, balsam fir, white and black spruce, tamarack, white-cedar, aspen, red oak, and paper birch. Both functions closely fit all published curves except those for...

  3. Fraser fir stand structure in the Black Mountains of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Rachael H. McManamay; Lynn M. Resle; James B. Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, naturally occurring populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh.] Poir) have experienced devastating mortality rates due to attack by the exotic insect, balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). The decline in Fraser fir is particularly concerning because its natural geographic...

  4. Decaying wood and tree regeneration in the Acadian Forest of Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Jamie K. Weaver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of management history on the availability of decayed downed wood and the use of downed wood as a regeneration substrate in mixed-species stands in the Acadian Forest of Maine. Regeneration of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was...

  5. Woody tissue analysis using an element ratio technique (DRIS)

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; L.F. Ohmann; D.F. Grigal

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) was used to describe the variation of 12 elements in woody tree tissue and balsam fir (Abies balsamae (L.) Mill.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), red pine (Pinus resinosa alt.), and aspen (

  6. Proceedings of the ninth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, August 22-23, 1969.

    Treesearch

    USDA

    1970-01-01

    Presents nine papers concerning recent research in forest genetics, physiology, and allied fields. Species discussed include Scotch pine, red pine, jack pine, white pine, larch, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, yellow birch, sugar maple, red oak, American elm, and aspen.

  7. Coarse woody debris in a southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Treesearch

    Anita Rose; N.S. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Spruce-fir forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains receive high atmospheric nitrogen inputs and have high nitrate levels in soil solution and streamwater. High levels of excess nitrogen have been associated with reduced tree vigor. Additionally, the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratz.) has killed the...

  8. Coarse woody debris in a Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose; N.S. Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Spruce-fir forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains receive high atmospheric nitrogen inputs and have high nitrate levels in soil solution and streamwater. High levels of excess nitrogen have been associated with reduced tree vigor. Additionally, the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratz.) has killed the majority of endemic Fraser fir [

  9. Regionally averaged diameter growth in New England forests

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Smith; James W. Hornbeck; C. Anthony Federer; Paul J., Jr. Krusic; Paul J. Krusic

    1990-01-01

    A regional sample of tree-ring measurements was used to determine average annual growth in trees of 10 major species in New England. There have been extended periods of decreasing growth rates in red spruce since about 1960 and in balsam fir since about 1965. The other eight species, which included sugar maple and white pine, showed constant or increasing growth rates...

  10. Bioecology of the conifer swift moth, Korscheltellus gracilis, a root feeder associated with spruce-fir decline

    Treesearch

    William E. Wallner; David L. Wagner; Bruce L. Parker; Donald L. Tobi

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades, the decline of red spruce, Picea rubens Sargent, and balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L), at high elevations (900-1200 m) in eastern North America has evoked concern about the effects of anthropogenic deposition upon terrestrial ecosystems. In many high-elevation forests across New England, as many as 50...

  11. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  12. Accuracy assessments and areal estimates using two-phase stratified random sampling, cluster plots, and the multivariate composite estimator

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2000-01-01

    Consider the following example of an accuracy assessment. Landsat data are used to build a thematic map of land cover for a multicounty region. The map classifier (e.g., a supervised classification algorithm) assigns each pixel into one category of land cover. The classification system includes 12 different types of forest and land cover: black spruce, balsam fir,...

  13. Spruce budworm returns to the northeast

    Treesearch

    Lloyd Irland; William H. McWilliams

    2014-01-01

    Spruce and balsam fir supply a wealth of timber and other benefits across the northern tier of the Northeastern United States. This article is the second of a two-part series that provides an update on spruce and fir for the four Northem Forest states (Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont) using the latest Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) results (2012). Part...

  14. The Evolution of USDA Forest Service Experimental Forest Research on Northern Conifers in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    The degraded stand pictured in this 1955 USDA Forest Service photograph from Maine was dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), red maple (Acer rubrum), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Stands such as these were typical of second-growth, lowland...

  15. Stability of nuclear DNA content among divergent and isolated populations of Fraser fir

    Treesearch

    L.D. Auckland; J.S. Johnston; H.J. Price; F.E. Bridgwater

    2001-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic species consisting of six major disjunct populations in the Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A. Nuclear DNA content was measured with laser flow cytometry to determine if genome size differences could be detected among the disjunct populations of Fraser fir and its close relatives, balsam fir

  16. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  17. Site-index comparisons for tree species in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1971-01-01

    Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.

  18. Forest change in high-elevation forests of Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina: re-census and analysis of data collected over 40 years

    Treesearch

    Laura Lusk; Matt Mutel; Elaine S. Walker; Foster. Levy

    2010-01-01

    The Black Mountain range of western North Carolina supports some of the most extensive but threatened high-elevation forests in the southern Appalachians. Of particular note, the insect pathogen, balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg), has been present on Mt. Mitchell for more than 50 years. In anticipation of potential changes in forest...

  19. Ten-year performance of treated northeastern softwoods in aboveground and ground-contact exposures

    Treesearch

    Douglas M. Crawford; Rodney C. De Groot; Lee R. Gjovik

    The commercial value of several softwood species of the northeastern United States could be increased if these woods could be treated to meet existing American Wood Preserversa Association (AWPA) Standards and used in durable structures. We evaluated the long-term durability of incised and unincised white pine, red pine, eastern spruce, balsam fir, and eastern hemlock...

  20. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  1. Effects of moisture limitation on tree growth in upland and floodplain forest ecosystems in interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    John. Yarie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of summer throughfall on the growth of trees, at upland and floodplain locations, in the vicinity of Fairbanks, Alaska. Corrugated clear plastic covers were installed under the canopy of floodplain balsam poplar/white spruce stands and upland hardwood/white spruce stands to control soil moisture recharge as a result...

  2. Microevolution of the photosynthetic temperature optimum in relation to the elevational complex gradient

    Treesearch

    John H. Fryer; F. Thomas Ledig

    1972-01-01

    Balsam fir seedlings were grown under uniform conditions from seed collected along an elevational gradient in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Photosynthetic temperature optimum of the seedlings decreased with increasing elevation of the seed source. The change in temperature optimum with elevation was similar to the adiabatic lapse rate, suggesting a precise...

  3. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  4. Population densities of northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in degraded boreal forests of the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Timothy C. Milling; Matthew P. Rowe; Bennie L. Cockerel; Timothy A. Dellinger; Johnny B. Gailes; Christopher E. Hill

    1997-01-01

    A disjunct population of the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) breeds in the montane spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. These forests are listed as the second most endangered ecosystem in the United States, having suffered from logging and massive fir die-off from the exotic balsam woolly adelgid. We used audio...

  5. Treatability of underutilized northeastern species with CCA and alternative wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Opportunities for use of northeastern species such as balsam fir, eastern spruce, eastern hemlock, and red maple could be improved if these species could be adequately penetrated with preservatives and subsequently shown to be durable in outdoor exposures. In this study, specimens cut from lumber of northeastern species were pressure-treated with either chromated...

  6. Putting community data to work: some understory plants indicate red spruce regeneration habitat

    Treesearch

    Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette; Malcolm L. Hunter

    1999-01-01

    When harvested, red spruce (Picea rubens) at low elevations is vulnerable to temporary displacement by balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and hardwoods. If indicator plants can be found by which to assess spruce regeneration habitat, then biota dependent on red spruce dominance could benefit. Associations between spruce seedlings (0.1-0.5...

  7. Helicopter Propwash Dislodges Few Spruce Budworms

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Mark W. Houseweart; Mark W. Houseweart

    1986-01-01

    Propwash treatments from a low-flying Bell 47-G2 helicopter dislodged few spruce budworm larvae and pupae from host balsam-fir trees. After propwash treatments, both larval-pupal densities on branch samples and in drop-tray collections near the ground were not significantly different between treated and control plots. Significantly more larvae were found in the lower...

  8. Influence of soil site class on growth and decay of northern white-cedar and two associates in Maine

    Treesearch

    P.V. Hofmeyer; R.S. Seymour; L.S. Kenefic

    2009-01-01

    Basal area growth of outwardly sound northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) was compared with that of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) across site and light exposure class gradients on 60 sites throughout northern Maine. Once adjusted for sapwood area,...

  9. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  10. Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-07-30

    Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation.

  11. Evaluation of tree risk in the spruce - fir region of the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. McLintock

    1948-01-01

    In attempting to find possible means of combating recurrent epidemics of the spruce budworm in the Northeast, research has shown that forest management has considerable promise. Reduction in the proportion of balsam fir to spruce and attainment of the highest possible proportion of rapidly growing trees are expected to result in a less severe outbreak and a higher...

  12. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  13. The Dynamics of Two Hybrid Zones in Appalachian Salamanders of the Genus Plethodon

    Treesearch

    Nelson G. Hairston; R. Haven Wiley; Charles K. Smith; Kenneth A. Kneidel

    1992-01-01

    Two zones of intergradation between populations of Plethodon have been studied for 18 and 20 years, respectively. The data consist of systematic scores of colors, made at least twice annually. Near Heintooga Overlook in the Balsam Mountains (Great Smoky Mountains National Park), the salamanders' cheeks are gray. Proceeding north toward the...

  14. Breeding for resistance to adelgids in Abies fraseri, Tsuga canadensis, and T. caroliniana

    Treesearch

    Ben Smith; Fred Hain; John Frampton

    2012-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (BWA; Adelges piceae) and hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) have had a tremendous impact on native ecosystems with Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière), and Carolina hemlock (T....

  15. Central Radar System, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-09

    maintained mosaics of open prairies, sedge meadows, shrub thickets, and groves of small trees. Shrub species include pussy -willow, hazel-nut...balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa). Shrub species common in the region include pussy willow (Salix discolor

  16. Hemlock Looper

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Northern Area State & Private Forestry and Region 8

    1992-01-01

    The hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria is a defoliating insect native to North America. It occurs in the eastern United States from Maine to Georgia and west to Wisconsin. The larvae can be extremely destructive to hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce. During an outbreak it will also feed on many other species including: larch, red and black spruce, cedar, jack pine...

  17. History of the spruce-fir forest in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) were present by 13,700 years B.C.E. in the Catskills Mountains of southeastern New York State. These conifers were, and still are, largely confined to the eastern and far western portions of the region. A gap in the distribution exists between these populations. Both species are absent from the intervening East Branch Delaware River watershed. No red spruce macrofossils were found in this watershed, suggesting that this conifer never colonized the gap postglacially. Rare macrofossils of balsam fir were found in only three of the 24 peatlands in this watershed, the conifer having disappeared between 11,300 and 8,200 years B.C.E. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Compilation of 1982 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    induced. Any study which investigates the effects of one factor, such as an ELF electromagnetic field, on plant and animal populations must also take into...detection of environment-related shifts in mycorrhizal fungus populations . In additon, the concentration of mycorrhizae near the soil surface (Lyr and...ectomycorrhizal fungus population is a further reason for studying paper birch and balsam fir. Mycorrhizae Sampling - Root weight is the most commonly

  19. Environmental Assessment for Upgrades to Target and Road Facilities in the Oklahoma Range, Fort Greely, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Singapore Air Force, Japanese Defense Forces, and other national forces...blackpoll warbler . Sensitive species include Osprey and Trumpeter Swan (Alaska Army Lands Withdrawal Renewal. Final EIS 1998). 21 OKLAHOMA RANGE...communities. Mixtures of balsam poplar, quaking aspen and white spruce dominate this community. A closed needle leaf forest consisting of stands of white

  20. Stomatal factors and vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation in poplars.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Thomas, Barb R; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between the vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, and leaf and stem water potential were examined in six hybrid poplar (P38P38, Walker, Okanese, Northwest, Assiniboine and Berlin) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones. Stem xylem cavitation resistance was examined with the Cavitron technique in well-watered plants grown in the greenhouse. To investigate stomatal responses to drought, plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering for 5 (mild drought) and 7 (severe drought) days and to stress recovery by rewatering severely stressed plants for 30 min and 2 days. The clones varied in stomatal sensitivity to drought and vulnerability to stem xylem cavitation. P38P38 reduced stomatal conductance in response to mild stress while the balsam poplar clone maintained high leaf stomatal conductance under more severe drought stress conditions. Differences between the severely stressed clones were also observed in leaf water potentials with no or relatively small decreases in Assiniboine, P38P38, Okanese and Walker. Vulnerability to drought-induced stem xylem embolism revealed that balsam poplar and Northwest clones reached loss of conductivity at lower stem water potentials compared with the remaining clones. There was a strong link between stem xylem resistance to cavitation and stomatal responsiveness to drought stress in balsam poplar and P38P38. However, the differences in stomatal responsiveness to mild drought suggest that other drought-resistant strategies may also play a key role in some clones of poplars exposed to drought stress. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  1. Silvics of grand fir

    Treesearch

    Marvin W. Foiles

    1959-01-01

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) is one of the two balsam firs found in the northern Rocky Mountain region and one of seven in the Pacific Northwest. Except in the southern part of its range, where it is often confused with white fir (Abies concolor), it is distinguished from other firs in its range by its needles, which are distinctly two-ranked. Grand fir differs...

  2. How to instruct patients sensitive to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1989-10-01

    Patients who are sensitive to fragrances should either use fragrance-free cosmetics or undergo a repeat open application test to the cosmetic or perfume to determine sensitivity. Unusual reactions include systemic contact dermatitis due to balsam of Peru, benzyl alcohol, and menthol. Some responses involve pigmented eruptions due to phototoxic or photoallergic agents in perfumes and incense. Other reactions include consort dermatitis and reactions to toothpastes, gum and perfumes in paper products, sanitary napkins, ostomy pastes, and detergents.

  3. [Coccus species affecting Coffea arabica in Brazil (Coccoideae: Coccidae) and the redescription of two species].

    PubMed

    de Willink, Maria C Granara; Pirovani, Victor D; Ferreira, Paulo S F

    2010-01-01

    Five Coccus on Coffea arabica from the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais were studied. Females were prepared and mounted in Canada balsam. Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca and Coccus lizeri (Fonseca) were redescribed and Coccus alpinus De Lotto, Coccus celatus De Lotto and Coccus viridis (Green) were characterized. A key to species and illustration of all of them are included. Coccus alpinus and C. celatus are new records for Brazil and the Neotropical Region.

  4. Division and Brigade Stationing System: Installation Data Book.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    retard the mobility of men and military vehicles. Some common problems are: the close spacing of trees; fallen trees; rocky hummocks ; boulders; bogs; and...ts:pruce-balsam, poplar-quaking aspen, and tamarack intermixed with muske&6 heath bog O communities, and sedge hummocks . Upland areas typicallyaqupport a...generally between 3 and 15 percent, slopes are N greater than 30 percent in deeply-dissected stream valleys and in scattered areas of hummocks and

  5. Engagement in the Caribbean: The United States Coast Guard Role in International Training and Security Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Southern Command TRADEWINDS Exercise scheduled for March-April 98. The unit selected was USCGC BRAMBLE in Port Huron, MI, a Balsam class buoy tender...Its area of responsibility extends from the NC-SC border to South America. 19 foot patrol boat. On 01 December 1997, BRAMBLE got underway for what...sustaining force. The Caribbean While the Coast Guard was engaged in Haiti, USCGC BRAMBLE completed their deployment and forwarded a full report on

  6. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  7. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  8. Possible Role of Plant Allelochemical in Clearance of Bacteria from the Gut of Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Pang, Anthony S D

    2010-04-09

    Field results, using Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin in controlling spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana, are far less satisfactory than those from the laboratoriesThe role of septicemia has also been shown to be important in mortality. However its relationship with insect diet has not been studied. Insect gut juice from spruce budworm fed on balsam foliage inhibited bacterial growth. Such activity has not been observed in the gut juice from insects fed on artificial diet. Moreover, when bacteria were given to the insects orally, and the insects then fed on balsam foliage overnight, little or no bacterial colonies could be detected in their gut juices in the tryptic soy agar plates. Such bacterial growth inhibition activity could also be found in the water extract of balsam foliage, and was suggested to be due to tannins. This result explains the role of allelochemicals affecting septicemia in spruce budworms, and hence the efficacy, when using Bacillus thuringinesis delta-endotoxin as a biologic control agent.

  9. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  10. Comparative nucleotide diversity across North American and European populus species.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Guy, Robert D; Jansson, Stefan; Silim, Salim N; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2012-06-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms in two North American balsam poplars (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and P. balsamifera L.; section Tacamahaca), and one Eurasian aspen (P. tremula L.; section Populus) were compared using nine loci involved in defense, stress response, photoperiodism, freezing tolerance, and housekeeping. Nucleotide diversity varied among species and was highest for P. tremula (θ(w) = 0.005, π(T) = 0.007) as compared to P. balsamifera (θ(w) = 0.004, π(T) = 0.005) or P. trichocarpa (θ(w) = 0.002, π(T) = 0.003). Across species, the defense and the stress response loci accounted for the majority of the observed level of nucleotide diversity. In general, the studied loci did not deviate from neutral expectation either at the individual locus (non-significant normalized Fay and Wu's H) or at the multi-locus level (non-significant HKA test). Using molecular clock analysis, section Tacamahaca probably shared a common ancestor with section Populus approximately 4.5 million year ago. Divergence between the two closely related balsam poplars was about 0.8 million years ago, a pattern consistent with an isolation-with-migration (IM) model. As expected, P. tremula showed a five-fold higher substitution rate (2 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year) compared to the North American species (0.4 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year), probably reflecting its complex demographic history. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) varied among species with a more rapid decay in the North American species (<400 bp) in comparison to P. tremula (≫400 bp). The similarities in nucleotide diversity pattern and LD decay of the two balsam poplar species likely reflects the recent time of their divergence.

  11. A New Severity Rating System for Evaluating and Predicting the Impacts of a Nonnative Invasive Forest Insect on Two Pacific Northwest Fir Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinkevich, K.; Progar, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) is a nonnative invasive forest insect introduced from Europe to North America around 1900. The insect established and spread in the northeast, infesting and causing mortality of balsam fir and has since established infestations in all true firs in eastern and western North America. There are several indicators of the presence and severity of BWA, and mortality can occur rapidly or trees may persist for many decades depending on the type and intensity of infestation. Severity ratings to describe damage have largely been based on a system developed for balsam fir in Newfoundland. Modifications to this system, also developed in eastern North America, used similar characteristics, but reduced the number of classes using qualitative damage assessments. Quantitative rating systems have been developed in the western United States, however much of the research in the Pacific Northwest is based on long-term monitoring studies that describe damage patterns for host species and quantify mortality rates. Results are inconsistent geographically and between tree species, and do not incorporate stand-specific information with individual tree ratings. This emphasizes the need for a species-specific, stand-level rating system, particularly in the west where the insect is expanding its range into novel habitat, likely as a result of climatic changes. We developed a new, more comprehensive rating system for grand fir and subalpine fir in the northwest US that combines all the symptoms of BWA-related tree damage with stand-level information about species composition and structure. Our scale identifies differences between each species and quantitatively differentiates between damage classes, identifying the symptoms defining each class. This rating system allows for more efficient classification of stand-level risk for BWA and will be used to develop a predictive risk model that identifies factors that can assist land managers with damage mitigation

  12. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  13. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  14. Comparison of Olivine Grain Growth during Dynamic Recrystallization, Post-deformational Annealing, and Static Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speciale, P. A.; Behr, W. M.; Hirth, G.; Tokle, L.

    2016-12-01

    Strain localization is associated with dynamic recrystallization in shear zones. However, whether localization persists to form long-lived plate boundaries is debated because of the possible counteracting effects of grain growth. We deformed Balsam Gap dunite, a natural olivine aggregate, under axial compression to examine the relative contributions of strain energy and surface energy in facilitating grain boundary migration (GBM) and grain growth. Experiments were conducted at 1100-1200°C, 10-4-10-5 s-1, and 1300 MPa confining pressure. Samples that were allowed to recover after deformation show abundant evidence of surface energy-driven GBM, but average grain size does not increase significantly compared to that in samples quenched prior to annealing. In contrast, samples that continued to deform at a reduced strain rate (for the same time as the annealed samples) show both strain energy- and surface energy-driven GBM, and an increased grain size. These observations suggest that growth is enhanced by continued deformation at low stress. More sluggish grain growth in deformed samples that annealed under static conditions may result from continued recrystallization during stress relaxation, grain boundary pinning by accessory chromite, or melt along grain boundaries and at triple junctions. To facilitate comparison of our results to published grain growth laws for olivine, we also conducted a hydrostatic grain growth experiment on 10-20 μm powders of Balsam Gap dunite and San Carlos olivine separated by a Pt disc and annealed for 24 hours at 1100°C. A similar experiment was run at 1000°C for 10 minutes to constrain the initial grain size before annealing. Both powdered materials exhibit grain growth after 24 hours. However, although they had the same starting grain size, the annealed San Carlos olivine is slightly coarser than the annealed Balsam Gap dunite, which suggests that grain growth is inhibited in the dunite.

  15. [Chewing lice species (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) found on blackbirds (Turdus merula): new records from Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Dinçer, Sükran

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to detect the chewing lice species on the blackbirds shot (Turdus merula) in Yeşilyurt village, Çanakkale Four Blackbirds (Turdus merula) shot by a hunter were examined for lice in Yeşilyurt village, Çanakkale. The lice specimens collected on the Blackbirds were preserved in alcohol 70%, transparented in KOH 10% and mounted on the slides in Canada balsam. The lice specimens were identified as Ricinus elongatus (Olfers, 1816) and Brueelia merulensis (Denny, 1842) on microscopical examination. In this study, R. elongatus and B. merulensis are recorded for the first time in Turkey.

  16. Contact dermatitis in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Husain, S L

    1977-12-01

    Since 1970, more than 4,500 patients have been patch tested at the Contact Dermatitis Investigation Unit in Glasgow. The results of 1,312 patients patch tested to the 20 test substances as described by the ICDRG (Fregert et al. 1969) are presented. The data on frequency of the most common allergens observed are presented. The most common allergens observed are nickel, chromium, cobalt, neomycin, colophony, wool alcohols, balsam of Peru and rubber. The less common allergens are benzocaine, parabens, formaldehyde and turpentine.

  17. Field and airborne spectral characterization of suspected damage in red spruce (picea rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Williams, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing to monitor forest damage due to acid deposition is investigated. Spectral and water measurements and aircraft radiance data of red spruce and balsam fir, collected in Camels Hump Mountain and Ripton, Vermont between August 13-20, 1984, are analyzed to evaluate the damage levels of the trees. Variations in reflectance features and canopy moisture content are studied. It is observed that damage correlates with elevation (greater damage at higher elevations); xylem water column tension is greater at higher damage sites; and a 'blue shift' is indicated in the spectral data at high damage sites.

  18. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  19. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  20. The Trematode Parasites of Lophius piscatorius (Angler Fish) from the Aegean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Yahya

    2017-03-01

    There is no study on the trematode parasites of Lophius piscatorius. The aim of this study is to address the lack of knowledge about the parasites of angler fish from the coasts of Turkish seas. Frozen individuals of L. piscatorius from the coasts of Izmir were brought to Ataturk University, and their visceral organs were parasitologically investigated. Parasites were fixed with AFA (Acetic acid-Formaline-Alcohol) fixative and permanently mounted with Canada balsam. Two digenean species were recorded: Prosorhynchoides gracilescens (Bucephalidae), which is commonly found in L. piscatorius, and Aphallus tubarium (Cryptogonimidae), which is rarely harbored in L. piscatorius. Both species comprise the newly discovered parasite fauna of Turkey.

  1. Field and airborne spectral characterization of suspected damage in red spruce (picea rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Williams, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing to monitor forest damage due to acid deposition is investigated. Spectral and water measurements and aircraft radiance data of red spruce and balsam fir, collected in Camels Hump Mountain and Ripton, Vermont between August 13-20, 1984, are analyzed to evaluate the damage levels of the trees. Variations in reflectance features and canopy moisture content are studied. It is observed that damage correlates with elevation (greater damage at higher elevations); xylem water column tension is greater at higher damage sites; and a 'blue shift' is indicated in the spectral data at high damage sites.

  2. An early glimpse at western medicine in Jerusalem 1700-1840: the case of the Jews and the Franciscans' medical activity.

    PubMed

    Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2005-12-01

    During the Mamluk and Ottoman periods, the monks of the Franciscan Order were the only representatives of the Catholic Church in Jerusalem and they provided medical treatment for Christians. This article looks at the activities of the Franciscans, in particular in their pharmacy, which was associated with the production of Jerusalem balsam, famous both in the East and in Europe. It compares these activities with those of Jewish physicians in Jerusalem and looks at the relationships between the two groups and their effects on medical development in the Levant.

  3. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  4. Roy Schafer: a narrative.

    PubMed

    Michels, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the papers given at the Schafer Symposium in October 2012 by the following six presenters: Henry Schwartz, Richard Fritsch, Rosemary Balsam, Lucy LaFarge, Michael Feldman, and Jay Greenberg. He also highlights some important ongoing themes in Schafer's writing, including theory-about which Schafer takes a unique position-history, and ideas from other disciplines. Schafer prefers continuing explorations over arriving at conclusions, the author notes, and believes that students should remain faithful to their mentors' thinking-until it is time for them to move beyond it. © 2013 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  5. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

  6. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity.

  7. Developmental polymorphism in a Newfoundland population of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Hébert, Christian; Brodeur, Jacques

    2007-08-01

    The hemlock looper [Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée)], a widespread and highly polyphagous Geometridae, is considered one of the most economically important defoliators of North American coniferous forests. Variations in the number of larval instars between geographic populations of this species have been previously reported in the literature. However, whether such developmental polymorphism occurs within a given population is unknown. In this study, we report the presence of both four and five larval instar individuals within a population of hemlock looper in Newfoundland when reared on balsam fir. For both sexes, the majority of individuals reared on balsam fir shoots went through four larval instars, but more than one third of the females (35.3%) went through five larval instars. Females with four larval instars developed faster and had smaller pupal weight than females with five larval instars. However, a growth-related index (weight gain per unit of time) was similar for the two ecotypes (four or five larval instars). No significant difference was observed between the two ecotypes in terms of reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size). We also found significant differences in life history traits between males and females. Results indicate that developmental polymorphism, in this case, the variation in the number of larval instars, might provide some adaptive attributes that allowed exploitation of a broader ecological niche.

  8. Peptic digestion of beef myofibrils is modified by prior marination

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nash; Welham, Simon J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preparatory steps such as seasoning, marination, and cooking may induce changes in meat which affects the ability of the stomach to adequately digest it. This may result in peptide chains reaching the colon intact where resident bacteria ferment them resulting in the formation of putative carcinogenic phenolic by-products. Objective In this study, we set out to determine whether peptic digestion of beef myofibrils was influenced by prior marination. Design Cubes of sirloin stewing steak were marinated in balsamic vinegar or left untreated at 4°C overnight. Samples were oven cooked and myofibrils were extracted. Myofibrils were subject to proteolytic digestion with pepsin and digestion products analysed spectrophotometrically and with gel electrophoresis. Results Both marination in balsamic vinegar and cooking significantly reduced the yield of myofibrils from shop-purchased beef (P<0.05). Digestion progressed in all samples as a function of time (P<0.01), varying depending on prior treatment. Marination induced resistance to the digestive effect of pepsin during the early to mid-phase of digestion, and we identified a protein band of ∼150 kDa which was protected from peptic digestion in samples which had been marinated and cooked, but not in any other groups. Conclusions Pre-treatment of meat prior to cooking may influence specific peptides such that they become more resistant to the digestive actions of pepsin. PMID:23715440

  9. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  10. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  11. [Contact allergies in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V

    2015-09-01

    The percentage of seniors (> 65 years of age) in the general population continues to rise. Their sensitization profile may be influenced by lifelong work-related and nonwork-related exposures and comorbidities requiring local or systemic treatment. Recent analysis of the IVDK (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology) cohort concerning the most frequently recognized contact allergens in the age group above 65 (2009-2013: N = 14,841) revealed significant differences compared to the age group up to 65 years of age. The top 10 contact allergens recognized in individuals older than 65 years were the following: fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru), nickel (II) sulfate, fragrance mix II, colophony, propolis, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, tert-butylhydroquinone. Sensitization to nickel was significantly less frequent, while sensitizations to fragrance mix and Balsam of Peru were significantly more frequent than in the age group up to 65 years of age. The percentage of patients with leg dermatitis was 25.9 % in the age group above 65 (versus 5.8 % in the age group up to 65 years of age). The analysis of the subgroup over 65 years of age with and without ulcer/stasis dermatitis/chronic venous insufficiency displayed remarkable differences in sensitization frequencies against ingredients of topical ointments (lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, and tert-butylhydroquinone). If these comorbidities exist, patch testing of the topical ointment series parallel to the standard series is worthwhile.

  12. Source and identity of compounds in a thermomechanical pulp mill effluent inducing hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activity in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, P.H.; Kovacs, T.G.; O`Connor, B.I.; Voss, R.H.

    1997-11-01

    The source and identity of two mixed-function oxygenase (MFO)-inducing substances present in the primary-treated effluent of a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill producing newsprint was determined. The source was pinpointed by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to various process effluents sampled throughout the mill. Exposure concentrations were based on the flow of these process streams in relation to the final effluent flow. Contaminated TMP steam condensates were identified as the major process source of MFO-inducing substances. Using conventional extraction and fractionation procedures, an MFO-inducing fraction was isolated. The major gas chromatographic peaks in this fraction were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as juvabione, dehydrojuvabione, and manool, all naturally occurring extractives in balsam fix (Abies balsamea). These substances were extracted and isolated from balsam fir and TMP condensates. Trout exposed to juvabione and dehydrojuvabione responded by exhibiting significant hepatic MFO inductions. No MFO induction was observed for manool. Secondary treatment in an activated sludge system effectively eliminated the MFO-inducing potential of the combined mill effluent consistent with a corresponding 90% reduction of both juvabione and dehydrojuvabione.

  13. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  14. The influence of shaving method on perfume allergy.

    PubMed

    Edman, B

    1994-11-01

    Among men, the most frequent contact allergens are perfumes (fragrance mix and balsam of Peru). Considering that the main cause of nickel allergy is ear-piercing, shaving with a razor blade might be the cause of perfume contact allergy, by creating small wounds that increase the penetration of applied perfume substances derived from soaps, shaving foams and after-shave lotions. 19 males with contact allergy to fragrance mix and/or to balsam of Peru were interviewed about their shaving habits by letter. 17 responded (89%), of whom 12 (71%) had been using razor blades continuously for a period of at least 1 year. At our clinic, the frequency of razor blade usage was found to be 45% in patch tested men without perfume contact allergy. When comparing the frequencies of razor blade usage among patch tested men with and without perfume contact allergy, there was a statistically significant over-representation (p = 0.047) among those with perfume allergy. The risk of perfume allergy when using razor blades was found to be 2.9 (odds ratio).

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  17. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  18. Determination of blood flow to study the penetration of benzyl nicotinate topically applied in different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, U.; Erdmenger, U.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2006-05-01

    The penetration kinetics of topically applied drugs affecting the cutaneous blood flow can be studied by measuring the biological response to the drug using laser Doppler flowmetry noninvasively. In the present study, the kinetics of vasodilation caused by benzyl nicotinate topically applied in two different vehicles was studied by measuring the blood flows of the superficial dermal plexus and the larger deeper capillaries. The drug was topically applied in a balsam and a gel, respectively, on the flexor forearm of 6 male volunteers. Both blood flows measured were correlated with the time. The maximal value ( y max), the time to reach half of this value ( t rise), and the corresponding period Δ t were determined. Significantly increased blood flows were measured in the application areas after treatment with both emulsions. No significant differences were observed for any of the parameters comparing the blood flow after application of the gel with that of the treatment using the balsam. These results indicate similar penetration kinetics and pathways of the drug into the skin independent of the vehicle.

  19. Trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry for the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1850-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2005-01-01

    Historical trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry of the Wolf River were examined for a 6-mile reach that flows through the southern part of the Menominee Indian Reservation and the northern part of Shawano County, Wis. Trends were examined in the context of effects from dams, climate, and land-cover change. Annual flood peaks and mean monthly flow for the Wolf River were examined for 1907-96 and compared to mean annual and mean monthly precipitation. Analysis of trends in sedimentation (from before about 1850 through 1999) involved collection of cores and elevation data along nine valley transects spanning the Wolf River channel, flood plain, and backwater and impounded areas; radioisotope analyses of impounded sediment cores; and analysis of General Land Office Survey Notes (1853-91). Trends in sediment chemistry were examined by analyzing samples from an impoundment core for minor and trace elements. Annual flood peaks for the Wolf River decreased during 1907-49 but increased during 1950-96, most likely reflecting general changes in upper-atmospheric circulation patterns from more zonal before 1950 to more meridional after 1950. The decrease in flood peaks during 1907-49 may also, in part, be due to forest regrowth. Mean monthly streamflow during 1912-96 increased for the months of February and March but decreased for June and July, suggesting that spring snowmelt occurs earlier in the season than it did in the past. Decreases in early summer flows may be a reflection earlier spring snowmelt and large rainstorms in early spring rather than early summer. These trends also may reflect upper-atmospheric circulation patterns. The Balsam Row Dam impoundment contains up to 10 feet of organic-rich silty clay and has lost much of its storage capacity. Fine sediment has accumulated for 1.8 miles upstream from the Balsam Row Dam. Historical average linear and mass sedimentation rates in the Balsam Row impoundment were 0.09 feet per year and 1

  20. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  1. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* < d, intake is regulated by the rate at which the herbivore encounters new plants. Alterations to plant geometry due to past browsing could change the rate at which herbivores encounter and process bites of plant tissue, modify d* relative to d, and thus change intake rates and the distribution of mechanisms regulating it across landscapes. We measured changes in the geometry of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) saplings along gradients of moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* < d for aspen and balsam fir. Therefore, travel velocity and food processing

  2. Terrestrial acidification and ecosystem services: effects of acid rain on bunnies, baseball, and Christmas trees

    DOE PAGES

    Irvine, Irina C.; Greaver, Tara; Phelan, Jennifer; ...

    2017-06-22

    Often termed “acid rain,” combined nitrogen and sulfur deposition can directly and indirectly impact the condition and health of forest ecosystems. Researchers use critical loads (CLs) to describe response thresholds, and recent studies on acid-sensitive biological indicators show that forests continue to be at risk from terrestrial acidification. However, rarely are impacts translated into changes in “ecosystem services” that impact human well-being. Further, the relevance of this research to the general public is seldom communicated in terms that can motivate action to protect valuable resources. To understand how changes in biological indicators affect human well-being, we used the STEPS (Stressor–Ecologicalmore » Production function–final ecosystem Services) Framework to quantitatively and qualitatively link CL exceedances to ecosystem service impacts. We specified the cause-and-effect ecological processes linking changes in biological indicators to final ecosystem services. The Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System (FEGS-CS) was used within the STEPS Framework to classify the ecosystem component and the beneficiary class that uses or values the component. We analyzed two acid-sensitive tree species, balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and white ash (Fraxinus americana), that are common in northeastern USA. These well-known species provide habitat for animals and popular forest products that are relatable to a broad audience. We identified 160 chains with 10 classes of human beneficiaries for balsam fir and white ash combined, concluding that there are resources at risk that the public may value. Two stories resulting from these explorations into the cascading effects of acid rain on terrestrial resources are ideal for effective science communication: the relationship between (1) balsam fir as a popular Christmas tree and habitat for the snowshoe hare, a favorite of wildlife viewers, and (2) white ash because it is used for half of all

  3. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Toreti, Viviane Cristina; Sato, Helia Harumi; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Park, Yong Kun

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis. PMID:23737843

  4. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.J.; Guerin, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  5. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  6. Cross-reactions in patch testing and photopatch testing with ketoprofen, thiaprophenic acid, and cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, P; Bigardi, A; Legori, A; Valsecchi, R; Picardo, M

    1996-12-01

    In the last 7 years, we have studied 123 patients with allergic reactions to topical arylpropionic anti-inflammatory drugs. We have investigated the rate of sensitization and the irritant potential of one of them, ketoprofen, and its cross-reactivity with such other derivatives as ibuproxam, ibuprofen, naproxen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, and thiaprofenic acid. Sensitization was single in most cases, and ketoprofen was the drug most often involved. The combination most frequently found was ketoprofen plus ibuproxam. The most frequent cross-reactions were to fragrance mix, especially cinnamic aldehyde and balsam of Peru, both contact and photocontact sensitizers. Because there is a ketonic group in the molecule of ketoprofen and cinnamic aldehyde and after conversion of thiaprofenic acid, this could be the trigger for this particular allergy and cross-reactivity.

  7. Use of terpenoids as natural flavouring compounds in food industry.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Aprea, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids represent the oldest known biomolecules, having been recovered from sediments as old as 2.5 billion years. Among plant secondary metabolites, they are the most abundant and diverse class of natural compounds. The diversity of terpenoids is probably a reflection of their many biological activities in nature, which has made them a widely used resource for traditional and modern human exploitation. They are usually the main constituents of essential oils of most plants offering a wide variety of pleasant scents from flowery to fruity, to woody or balsamic notes. For this reason terpenoids constitute a very important class of compounds for flavour and fragrance industries, in fact, in the US alone, the demand is forecast to grow 3.7 percent per year to $5.3 billion in 2012. The recent patents on production and extraction of terpenoids commonly used as natural flavouring compounds in food industries are reviewed in the present manuscript.

  8. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  9. Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analyses. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.S.; Leak, W.B.

    1994-07-20

    With field measurements of migration patterns, we used two complementary approaches to examine tree-species movement after a documented increase in temperature. The advancing-front theory was used to examine age trends over distance and elevation for both a mountain site in New Hampshire and a regional comparison across the State of Maine. Well-defined stationary fronts were identified for red spruce (Picea rubens) and beech (Fagus grandifolia), while a catastrophic front was depicted for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and a constant slow-moving advancing front was exhibited by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The regional analysis, in Maine, indicated that white pine (Pinus strobus) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) decreased significantly in average latitude and elevation over a 24-year period. The potential ranges of the major species in terms of elevation and regional position appear stable.

  10. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros), a new host for Tricholipeurus balanicus (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Trichodectidae).

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Marniche, Faiza; Milla, Amel; Benbelcacem, Houria

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to provide information on Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck 1938) detected on slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros) (Cuvier 1842). Four slender-horned gazelles kept in the El Hamma Zoological Garden in Algeria were examined for lice in April 2015. Three of the four gazelles were infested with lice; of 37 lice collected from the infested animals, 14 were females, 16 were males, and 7 were nymphs. Lice were mainly found on the back and hind legs of the gazelles. The lice were collected by a forceps, preserved in 70% alcohol, and cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h. Thereafter, they were rinsed in distilled water, transferred to 70% and 99% alcohol, mounted on slides in Canada balsam, examined under a binocular microscope, and identified as Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck, 1938). To the best of our knowledge, T. balanicus on G. leptoceros has been reported for the first time.

  12. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  13. Processing anthracene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujhelyi, S.

    1981-11-01

    A mechanical-chemical process for cutting anthracene crystals is described. A thread, soaked in toluene, dissolves a thin layer away from the material. The crystal is fixed to a metal platform placed between the two spools which wind the thread. The thread is not allowed to tighten as it crosses the crystal. For polishing, the slices are bonded with a gelatin solution onto a plexiglass disk, and rubbed with fine silk wetted with toluene. When one side is done the disk is immersed in water (room temperature) and soaks until the crystal can be removed, and the other side can be done. If the crystal splits in two, it can be rejoined using Canada balsam.

  14. Mode of coniferous wood decay by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa as elucidated by FTIR and ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sonam; Jeremic, Dragica; Goacher, Robyn E; Master, Emma R

    2012-06-01

    The softwood degrading white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, was investigated for its ability to degrade two coniferous woods: balsam fir and lodgepole pine. P. carnosa grew similarly on these wood species, and like the hardwood-degrading white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, P. carnosa demonstrated selective degradation of lignin, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lignin degradation across cell walls of decayed pine samples was also evaluated by ToF-SIMS and was shown to be uniform. This study illustrates softwood lignin utilization by a white-rot fungus and reveals the industrial potential of the lignocellulolytic activity elicited by this fungus.

  15. Contact sensitization in patients with lower extremity dermatitis in the South Moravian region, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Necas, M; Dastychová, E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization in patients with lower extremity dermatitis. Between the years 2001 and 2007, the authors investigated 462 patients (mean age 49.1 years, 196 men and 266 women) with the eczema/dermatitis localized on their lower extremities, including feet. The patients were investigated with epicutaneous tests of the European Standard Series and also with other special patch tests. The most frequent allergens were balsam of Peru, 44/462 (9.5%); wool alcohols, 41/462 (8.9%); nickel sulphate, 39/462 (8.4%); propolis, 35/462 (7.6%); fragrance mix, 34 (7.4%) and colophony, 29/462 (6.3%). In patients with lower extremity dermatitis the frequency of contact sensitization is still high, and therefore investigation with epicutaneous tests should belong to the routine dermatological diagnostic procedure in these patients.

  16. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Patrick D.; Malheiros, Antonio F.; Vasquez, Narda D.; Chavez, Milton D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4%) for staining with Gomori's trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality. PMID:26464924

  17. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  18. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens.

  19. [The first case of Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) on a sea snake (Natrix tessellata, Laurente 1768) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to increase information about Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) detected on the sea snake (Natrix tessellata). The mite individuals collected from the cage of a sea snake were brought to our laboratory by the owner of the snake. They werepreserved in 70% alcohol, and then the mites were mounted on slides in Canada balsam, after making them transparent in lacto phenol for a few days. They were identified to species in respect of their morphological characters under the light microscope. A total of nine mite individuals were collected from the cage of a sea snake, and all of them were identified as Ophionyssus natricis as the result of microscopical examination. Ophionyssus natricis was recorded from the sea snake for the first time in Turkey. knowledge about this mite is provided in this paper.

  20. Sensitizing and irritating properties of star anise oil.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1976-12-01

    Star anise oil in 2 and 1% concentrations produced active sensitization in 5% of test subjects, and positive patch tests in 36 and 34%, respectively, of consecutive patients with dermatitis. A comparison of the results of tests with balsams and other essential oils showed that star anise oil does not give cross-reactions and pseudo cross-sensitivity. Patients positive to this oil are frequently positive to anethole and to other constituents of this oil: alpha-pinene, limonene and safrole. In tests with star anise oil it is noteworthy that a 1% concentration is strongly irritant, and 0.5% reveals sensitivity in only one fifth of the actively sensitized subjects. It is possible that the cause of false negative patch tests might be similar in the case of some other allergens.

  1. [The first report of Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) were examined for ectoparasites. They were investigated macroscopically for lice. Then, they were placed into a plastic box and propoxur applied to their whole bodies. The ectoparasites which fell to the bottom of the box were collected and preserved in a vial with 70% of alcohol. No ectoparasite was observed on one nightjar while eleven lice specimens were collected from the other. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% of KOH until they were transparent. The lice were mounted on slides using by Canada balsam and dried in an incubater. They were examined under the light microscope and identified as Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). This is the first time the genus Mulcticola and the species M. hypoleucus has been reported from the nightjars in Turkey.

  2. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey.

  3. Biodiversity elements vulnerable to climate change in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion (Ulster, Delaware, Sullivan, and Greene Counties, New York State).

    PubMed

    Adams, Morton S; Parisio, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to affect biodiversity elements in the Catskill High Peaks subecoregion of New York State with effects that are difficult to predict. The present communication details the species and communities of greatest conservation concern in this portion of the state and makes recommendations for monitoring the most pressing climate change-biodiversity vulnerabilities. Specifically, we present sites for monitoring representative old-growth and successional stands of red spruce/balsam fir and northern hardwood matrix forests, cliff communities, ice cave talus communities, and both minerotrophic inland poor fen and ombrotrophic perched peatlands. The proposed monitoring protocols vary among the various sites, but all are quantitative and are designed to document patterns of change.

  4. Development of a Double Glass Mounting Method Using Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) and its Evaluation for Permanent Mounting of Small Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    ZAHABIUN, Farzaneh; SADJJADI, Seyed Mahmoud; ESFANDIARI, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this problem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and compared with classic method. Methods: A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method using Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in different dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with different magnification during the evaluation time. Results: The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and comparable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic structures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method. Conclusion: Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method. PMID:26811729

  5. Systemic contact dermatitis in children: how an avoidance diet can make a difference.

    PubMed

    Matiz, Catalina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is an under-recognized skin reaction that occurs secondary to systemic (oral, intravenous, intramuscular, inhaled, or subcutaneous) exposure to a hapten in a previously sensitized individual. Medicaments are the most common cause of SCD in the adult population, but other chemicals like nickel, cobalt, balsam of Peru, and formaldehyde have been implicated as well. Few reports in children exist to date. Dietary restriction has shown to be of some benefit in managing some adult patients. We present a case series of 8 pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD from the contact dermatology clinic, who showed marked improvement of their dermatitis after adequate dietary avoidance. We review common presentations of chemicals causing SCD in children and potential dietary modifications.

  6. Whole-Cell Biocatalytic Synthesis of Cinnamyl Acetate with a Novel Esterase from the DNA Library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Secundo, Francesco; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2017-02-28

    Cinnamyl acetate has a wide application in the flavor and fragrance industry because of its sweet, balsamic, and floral odor. Up to now, lipases have been mainly used in enzyme-mediated synthesis of cinnamyl acetate, whereas esterases are used in only a few cases. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes is often a disadvantage, which leads to increases of the production costs. In this paper, a genomic DNA library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus was constructed, and a novel esterase (EstK1) was identified. After expression in Escherichia coli, the whole-cell catalyst of EstK1 displayed high transesterification activity to produce cinnamyl acetate in nonaqueous systems. Furthermore, under optimal conditions (vinyl acetate as acyl donor, isooctane as solvent, molar ratio 1:4, temperature 40 °C), the conversion ratio of cinnamyl alcohol could be up to 94.1% at 1 h, and it reached an even higher level (97.1%) at 2 h.

  7. Try it, you'll like it: the influence of expectation, consumption, and revelation on preferences for beer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Leonard; Frederick, Shane; Ariely, Dan

    2006-12-01

    Patrons of a pub evaluated regular beer and "MIT brew" (regular beer plus a few drops of balsamic vinegar) in one of three conditions. One group tasted the samples blind (the secret ingredient was never disclosed). A second group was informed of the contents before tasting. A third group learned of the secret ingredient immediately after tasting, but prior to indicating their preference. Not surprisingly, preference for the MIT brew was higher in the blind condition than in either of the two disclosure conditions. However, the timing of the information mattered substantially. Disclosure of the secret ingredient significantly reduced preference only when the disclosure preceded tasting, suggesting that disclosure affected preferences by influencing the experience itself, rather than by acting as an independent negative input or by modifying retrospective interpretation of the experience.

  8. Comparative study of IQ-ultra and Finn Chambers test methodologies in detecting 10 common standard allergens that cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Joseph; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Patch testing is routinely used in contact dermatitis clinics because it is the gold standard for the evaluation of potential allergic contact dermatitis. The study was undertaken to evaluate possible differences in reactivity between the Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch-testing methodologies. Patients were patch-tested simultaneously with the Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch tests. Ten standard allergens set by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group were used for both techniques. Both patch tests had a significant agreement in detecting all of the allergens. An "almost perfect agreement" was noted for ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, quaternium-15, mercapto mix, black rubber mix, balsam of Peru, and nickel sulfate; "substantial agreement" for formaldehyde, bisphenol A epoxy resin, and 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin; and "moderate agreement" for potassium dichromate. The Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch tests had a good agreement in the detection of the 10 standard allergens that were tested.

  9. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  10. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.

  11. Insufficient Chilling Effects Vary among Boreal Tree Species and Chilling Duration

    PubMed Central

    Man, Rongzhou; Lu, Pengxin; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient chilling resulting from rising winter temperatures associated with climate warming has been an area of particular interest in boreal and temperate regions where a period of cool temperatures in fall and winter is required to break plant dormancy. In this study, we examined the budburst and growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) seedlings subjected to typical northern Ontario, Canada, spring conditions in climate chambers after different exposures to natural chilling. Results indicate that chilling requirements (cumulative weighted chilling hours) differed substantially among the seven species, ranging from 300 to 500 h for spruce seedlings to more than 1100 h for trembling aspen and lodgepole pine. Only spruce seedlings had fulfilled their chilling requirements before December 31, whereas the other species continued chilling well into March and April. Species with lower chilling requirements needed more heat accumulation for budburst and vice versa. Insufficient chilling delayed budburst but only extremely restricted chilling hours (<400) resulted in abnormal budburst and growth, including reduced needle and shoot expansion, early budburst in lower crowns, and erratic budburst on lower stems and roots. Effects, however, depended on both the species’ chilling requirements and the chilling–heat relationship. Among the seven tree species examined, trembling aspen is most likely to be affected by reduced chilling accumulation possible under future climate scenarios, followed by balsam poplar, white birch, lodgepole pine, and jack pine. Black and white spruce are least likely to be affected by changes in chilling hours. PMID:28861091

  12. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  13. Bluejoint Is an Effective Bio-Barrier Species on Mine Covers.

    PubMed

    Kamorina, Galina; Tremblay, Francine; Bussière, Bruno; Smirnova, Evgeniya; Thiffault, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    Covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) are used to prevent acid mine drainage from mine wastes in the short term. However, the long-term efficiency of CCBE can be affected by trees because their roots may reduce the ability of covers to limit oxygen migration and also physically damage the CCBE. Two plant species that are native to boreal Canada, bluejoint () and sheep laurel (, were selected as bio-barrier species (BBS) to test if they reduce the growth and root system architecture of trees established on mine covers (balsam poplar [], willow [ spp], and black spruce []). The experiment was established in 2008 on a mine tailings impoundment located in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass. Coarse roots were excavated from the plots and digitized in three dimensions. Compared with the control (no BBS), bluejoint strongly decreased tree height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and radial extension, total root length and volume, and number of second- and third-order tree roots. Height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and volume, and number of second-order roots of balsam poplar increased with sheep laurel compared with control conditions, whereas willow showed no response to this treatment. Most characteristics of black spruce (except root-to-shoot ratio and number of second-order roots) improved in the presence of sheep laurel compared with the control. Thus, bluejoint was a more efficient BBS than sheep laurel. Bio-barriers comprised of bluejoint can be used as a countermeasure for controlling tree invasion of CCBE.

  14. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca.

  15. Axillary pH and influence of deodorants.

    PubMed

    Stenzaly-Achtert, S.; Schölermann, A.; Schreiber, J.; Diec, K. H.; Rippke, F.; Bielfeldt, S.

    2000-05-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In moist intertriginous regions, such as the armpit, the pH value is physiologically higher than in other skin regions. The regulation of the axillary pH-value was examined in an open study with 48 subjects in three groups with n=16 each. METHODS: In the first 10 days (run-in) the subjects received a standard treatment in the axilla with shaving, cleansing and application of a pH-neutral deodorant. This was followed by a 5 day treatment period with the three test products (pH5 Eucerin(R) Deodorant Roll-on, Deodorant Balsam Spray, Deodorant Cream). The study was concluded by a wash-out period with procedures identical to the run-in phase. The pH was measured with a calibrated pH-meter. RESULTS: A significant pH reduction was shown during the treatment period when compared to the run-in phase. The Deodorant Roll-on induced a reduction of the mean pH values from 6.1 to 5.3, the Deodorant Balsam Spray from 6.5 to 5.7 and the Deodorant Cream from 6.2 to 5.3. During the wash-out period all pH values returned to baseline. CONCLUSION: All of the deodorants tested demonstrated a significant reduction in axillary pH. There is evidence that a high skin pH promotes the growth of several microorganisms that produce malodor. Therefore, the regulation of pH may contribute to the deodorant efficacy of the test products.

  16. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  17. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    PubMed

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure.

  18. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    SciTech Connect

    Nirjana, Marlene Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  19. Safety evaluation of styrax liquidus from the viewpoint of genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Reis, Rengin; Helvacioglu, Sinem; Sipahi, Hande; Guzelmeric, Etil; Acar, Ebru Turkoz; Cicek, Gamze; Yesilada, Erdem; Aydin, Ahmet

    2016-12-24

    Styrax liquidus is a resinous exudate (balsam) obtained from the wounded trunk of the Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (Hamamelidaceae). Styrax has been used for treatment of various ailments in Turkish folk medicine such as skin problems, peptic ulcers, nocturnal enuresis, parasitic infections, antiseptic or as expectorant. In spite of frequent use of styrax in Turkish folk medicine as well as once as a stabilizer in perfumery industry, negative reports have been noticed by the international authority for restriction its use based on some limited evidences from an in vitro study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of styrax and its ethanolic extract using in vivo and in vitro assays, as well as an antimutagenic assay and also to determine its phenolic constituents with chromatographic analysis. In vitro mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of styrax and its ethanolic extract were evaluated by Ames test performed on Salmonella TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation (10- 30,000µg/plate). The genotoxicity was also studied in vivo by chromosomal aberrations assay on bone marrow of Balb C mice with different its concentrations (500-2000mg/kg body weight). Cytotoxicity has been evaluated by the MTT assay using L929 cell line. Its phenolic constituents were determined by HPLC analysis. Genotoxicological investigations of styrax or its ethanolic extract showed that none of the tested concentrations induced a significant increase in the revertant number of TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation, indicating no mutagenicity to the tested strains. Also results indicated that up to 2000mg/kg body weight, styrax is not genotoxic in mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test in vivo. In cytotoxicity study, the IC50 values of styrax and its ethanolic extract were found to be 50.22±1.80 and 59.69±11.77µg/mL, respectively. Among the studied reference standards the major phenolic acids in

  20. Mapping of taiga forest units using AIRSAR data and/or optical data, and retrieval of forest parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cynthia; Way, Jobea; Viereck, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    A maximum a posteriori Bayesian classifier for multifrequency polarimetric SAR data is used to perform a supervised classification of forest types in the floodplains of Alaska. The image classes include white spruce, balsam poplar, black spruce, alder, non-forests, and open water. The authors investigate the effect on classification accuracy of changing environmental conditions, and of frequency and polarization of the signal. The highest classification accuracy (86 percent correctly classified forest pixels, and 91 percent overall) is obtained combining L- and C-band frequencies fully polarimetric on a date where the forest is just recovering from flooding. The forest map compares favorably with a vegetation map assembled from digitized aerial photos which took five years for completion, and address the state of the forest in 1978, ignoring subsequent fires, changes in the course of the river, clear-cutting of trees, and tree growth. HV-polarization is the most useful polarization at L- and C-band for classification. C-band VV (ERS-1 mode) and L-band HH (J-ERS-1 mode) alone or combined yield unsatisfactory classification accuracies. Additional data acquired in the winter season during thawed and frozen days yield classification accuracies respectively 20 percent and 30 percent lower due to a greater confusion between conifers and deciduous trees. Data acquired at the peak of flooding in May 1991 also yield classification accuracies 10 percent lower because of dominant trunk-ground interactions which mask out finer differences in radar backscatter between tree species. Combination of several of these dates does not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, panchromatic optical data acquired by SPOT in the summer season of 1991 are used to classify the same area. The classification accuracy (78 percent for the forest types and 90 percent if open water is included) is lower than that obtained with AIRSAR although conifers and deciduous trees are better

  1. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  2. Mapping of taiga forest units using AIRSAR data and/or optical data, and retrieval of forest parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cynthia; Way, Jobea; Viereck, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    A maximum a posteriori Bayesian classifier for multifrequency polarimetric SAR data is used to perform a supervised classification of forest types in the floodplains of Alaska. The image classes include white spruce, balsam poplar, black spruce, alder, non-forests, and open water. The authors investigate the effect on classification accuracy of changing environmental conditions, and of frequency and polarization of the signal. The highest classification accuracy (86 percent correctly classified forest pixels, and 91 percent overall) is obtained combining L- and C-band frequencies fully polarimetric on a date where the forest is just recovering from flooding. The forest map compares favorably with a vegetation map assembled from digitized aerial photos which took five years for completion, and address the state of the forest in 1978, ignoring subsequent fires, changes in the course of the river, clear-cutting of trees, and tree growth. HV-polarization is the most useful polarization at L- and C-band for classification. C-band VV (ERS-1 mode) and L-band HH (J-ERS-1 mode) alone or combined yield unsatisfactory classification accuracies. Additional data acquired in the winter season during thawed and frozen days yield classification accuracies respectively 20 percent and 30 percent lower due to a greater confusion between conifers and deciduous trees. Data acquired at the peak of flooding in May 1991 also yield classification accuracies 10 percent lower because of dominant trunk-ground interactions which mask out finer differences in radar backscatter between tree species. Combination of several of these dates does not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, panchromatic optical data acquired by SPOT in the summer season of 1991 are used to classify the same area. The classification accuracy (78 percent for the forest types and 90 percent if open water is included) is lower than that obtained with AIRSAR although conifers and deciduous trees are better

  3. Element mobility and partitioning along a soil acidity gradient in central Ontario forests, Canada.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A

    2008-10-01

    The potential environmental risk posed by metals in forest soils is typically evaluated by modeling metal mobility using soil-solution partitioning coefficients (K(d)), although such information is generally restricted to a few well-studied metals. Soil-solution partitioning coefficients were determined for 17 mineral elements (Al, As, Be, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl, U and V) in A-horizon (0-5 cm) soil at 46 forested sites that border the Precambrian Shield in central Ontario, where soil pH(aq) varied from 3.9 to 8.1. Sites were dominated by mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) or white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Log K(d) values for all elements could be predicted by empirical linear regression with soil pH (r(2) = 0.17-0.77) independent of forest type, although this relationship was greatly affected by positive relationships between acid-extractable metal concentration and pH(aq) for 13 of the 17 elements. Elements that exhibited strong or moderate (r(2) > 0.29; p < 0.001) relationships with soil pH(aq) in soil water extracts include Al, Ba, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Rb, Tl, V (negative) and Ca (positive). Elemental partitioning in mineral soil was independent of forest type; tree species differed in their response to chemical differences in mineral soil. For example, Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in foliage of sugar maple and white birch significantly increased with increasing soil acidity, whereas Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in balsam fir and white pine foliage exhibited no response to soil pH(aq). While K(d) values can provide useful information on the potential mobility and bioavailability of mineral elements in forest soils, care must be used when interpreting the relative contribution of solid and aqueous phases to this relationship and the differing responses of vegetation in elemental cycling in forests must also be considered.

  4. Quantile-Quantile Plots:. AN Approach for the Inter-Species Comparison of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, Kaspar; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Wanke, Dierk; Berendzen, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory non-coding DNA is important to drive gene transcription and thereby influence mRNA and consequently protein abundance. Therefore, biologists and bioinformation scientists aim to extract meaningful information from these sequence regions, in particular upstream regulation regions called promoters, and conclude on regulatory sequence function. While some approaches have been successful for single genes or a single genome, it is an open question whether information on promoter function can readily be transferred between different species. Thus, it is useful for biologists to know more about the general structure and composition of promoters including the occurrence of cisregulatory DNA-elements (CREs) to be able to compare promoter architecture between organisms. To approach this task, we utilized the fully sequenced genomes of the plant model organisms: mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa), Sorghum bicolor and rice (Oryza sativa). For the interspecies comparison we made use of quantile-quantile (QQ)-plots of the variances of hexanucleotides or known functional CREs of core-promoter regions. Here, we suggest that the differences in promoter architecture correlate with the sizes of the intergenic space, i.e. regions, in which the promoters are located. In contrast, analysis of CREs is hampered by the general lack of well characterized transcription factor-CRE-relationships.

  5. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  6. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.T.; Siccama, T.G.; Johnson, A.H.; Breisch, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two stands in the spruce-fir forests of Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks, originally sampled from 1964-66, were resurveyed in 1982. From 10-25 Bitterlich points were used in each stand in 1982 to obtain an estimate of basal area per hectare. Data were summarized for low elevation (<900m) and high elevation (> or = 900m) forests. Red spruce declined by 40-60% in basal area for the low elevation forests and by 60-70% above 900m. Balsam fir decreased by 35% at high elevations, due to natural disturbance in several of the stands, but was unchanged when only undisturbed stands were considered. The decline of red spruce accounted for about three quarters of the total decrease in basal area for both the high- and low-elevation forests. Spruce seedling frequency for the high-elevation sample decreased by 80%, but was unchanged below 900m. The pattern of spruce decline in the Adirondacks is similar to findings for New England. The cause of the decline is speculative at the time.

  7. Contact sensitization of older patients in an academic department in Naples, Italy.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Contact allergy develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Exposure patterns change over time because of many factors (sex, age, occupation, fashion trends, official regulations), and the delayed hypersensitivity response depends significantly on the age of the subject. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of contact sensitization in older patients (older than 65 years) referred to our allergologic clinic. All patients were patch-tested with the standard series of the Societè Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica, Professionale e Ambientale, and 32 patients were also tested with additional series. Of 117 examined subjects, 48 (41%) developed at least one positive reaction whereas 22 of 117 (19%) showed more than one sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis was detected in 13% of our sample. The five most frequent allergens were nickel sulfate (13.7%), potassium dichromate (11.1%), cobalt chloride (7.7%), para-phenylenediamine (5.2%), and balsam of Peru (4.3%). These findings suggest an age-dependent decline of overall positive patch-test reactions but a higher sensitization rate to some allergens.

  8. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  9. Female exhibitionism: identification, competition and camaraderie.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. The current spectrum of contact sensitization in patients with chronic leg ulcers or stasis dermatitis - new data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK).

    PubMed

    Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia; Geier, Johannes; Mahler, Vera

    2017-09-01

    Patients with lower leg dermatitis, chronic venous insufficiency or chronic leg ulcers have a high prevalence of contact sensitization. To identify the current spectrum of contact allergens in these patients. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology on 5264 patients with the above diagnoses from the years 2003 to 2014 (study group) were compared with data on 4881 corresponding patients from 1994 to 2003 (historical control group) and with a current control group without these diagnoses (n = 55 510). Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed less frequently in the study group than in the historical control group (25.9% versus 16.9%; p < 0.001), and contact sensitization to most allergens had declined. The allergen spectrum, however, was largely unchanged. Important allergens are Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) (14.8% positive reactions), fragrance mix I (11.4%), lanolin alcohol (7.8%), colophonium (6.6%), neomycin sulfate (5.0%), cetearyl alcohol (4.4%), oil of turpentine (3.1%), and paraben mix (2.6%). Patch testing with additional series showed sensitization to Amerchol L-101 (9.7%), tert-butyl hydroquinone (8.7%), framycetin sulfate (5.0%), and gentamicin sulfate (3.1%). Topical preparations for treating the above-mentioned conditions should not contain fragrances, Myroxylon pereirae, and colophonium. The special allergen spectrum has to be considered in patch testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology.

  12. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Silvestre, Juan F; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Data of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. The 'basic markers' were tested on 51 477 [fragrance mix II (FM II)] to 57 123 [Myroxylon pereirae, balsam of Peru] patients, and yielded positive reactions as follows: fragrance mix I 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae 5.4%, FM II 3.8%, colophonium 2.6%, and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde 1.7%, with some regional differences. Prevalences with TRUE Test(®) allergens were lower. Additional fragrances were tested on 3643 (trimethylbenzenepropanol) to 14 071 (oil of turpentine) patients, and yielded between 2.6% (Cananga odorata) and 0.7% (trimethylbenzenepropanol) positive reactions. Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genetic evidence for three discrete taxa of Melampsora (Pucciniales) affecting willows (Salix spp.) in New York State.

    PubMed

    Kenaley, Shawn C; Smart, Lawrence B; Hudler, George W

    2014-08-01

    Rust fungi in the genus Melampsora (Pucciniales) are the most important pathogens of shrub willows (Salix spp.) cultivated for biomass in New York State and temperate regions worldwide. The taxonomy and species identification of these fungi historically have been problematic as they are morphologically indistinguishable on willow and often have complex life histories. Melampsora of Salix in North America, therefore, have been circumscribed to the collective species Melampsora epitea Thüm. and further delineated to formae speciales by aecial host. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data was obtained from 75 collections/isolates of Melampsora in NY State affecting either native and cultivated Salix spp. or suspected alternate hosts. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian (BI) analyses were conducted on three data partitions (individual and concatenated): complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences for all collections. Analyses of the ITS and concatenated ITS-LSU sequences revealed that Melampsora on native and cultivated willows in NY State consisted of three phylogenetically delineable taxa (phylotaxa); monophyly for each phylotaxon was strongly supported by ML, MP, and BI credibility values. Phylotaxa were also delimited phylogenetically by aecial host: Alpine currant (Ribes alpinum), eastern larch (Larix laricina), or balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of insect glutathione S-transferase (GST) by conifer extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Arnason, John T; Liu, Rui; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Waye, Andrew; Liu, Suqi; Saleem, Ammar; Cáceres, Luis A; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Insecticide synergists biochemically inhibit insect metabolic enzyme activity and are used both to increase the effectiveness of insecticides and as a diagnostic tool for resistance mechanisms. Considerable attention has been focused on identifying new synergists from phytochemicals with recognized biological activities, specifically enzyme inhibition. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), and tamarack larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch) have been used by native Canadians as traditional medicine, specifically for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties based on enzyme inhibitory activity. To identify the potential allelochemicals with synergistic activity, ethanol crude extracts and methanol/water fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic column and tested for in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition activity using insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) midgut and fat-body homogenate. The fractions showing similar activity were combined and analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A lignan, (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate, was identified from P. mariana cone extracts, and L. laricina and A. balsamea bark extracts. A flavonoid, taxifolin, was identified from P. mariana and P. banksiana cone extracts and L. laricina bark extracts. Both compounds inhibit GST activity with taxifolin showing greater activity compared to (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate and the standard GST inhibitor, diethyl maleate. The results suggested that these compounds can be considered as potential new insecticide synergists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. "The herbs that have the property of healing...,": the phytotherapy in Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; García-García, Pilar

    2006-07-19

    Don Quixote, the most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, represents a documentary source widely used among those specialists who intend to deepen in the knowledge of the late Renaissance society. In this sense, Don Quixote has been also studied from a medical perspective, including a general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms, poultices, syrups and other pharmacy preparations). We have tackled Don Quixote from the phytotherapeutic and ethnopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the medicinal plants used during the Cervantine time for the treatment de multiples diseases (sedatives like opium, laxatives and emetics like hellebore, tonics and irritants) and we analyze the specific herbal therapies (balms, purgatives and emetics, ointments and poultices), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, the rhubarb root (Rheum spp. or Rumex spp.) should be highlighted, as well as the seeds of gopher spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous Balsam of Fierabras. Also, we have examined the possible scientific influences, which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the work of Andrés Laguna (Dioscorides' Materia Medica).

  16. [The most frequent allergens in allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oppel, T; Schnuch, A

    2006-07-14

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis is high. Patch testing is the standard procedure to detect contact sensitivity. More than 3000 allergens are known, today. On the basis of the data of this study the top allergens are presented. The retrospective analysis is based on the patch test results collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology in 2004. Data of 9948 patients (6175 female und 3773 male) referred for the evaluation of suspected contact allergy were analysed to determine the frequency of sensitization to the 10 most common contact allergens. The top ten allergens were nickel sulphate (frequency of sensitization standardized for sex and age 17.2 %), fragrance mix (7.2 %), balsam of Peru (6.7 %), cobalt chloride (6.5 %), potassium dichromate (5.3 %), colophony (4.6 %), lanolin alcohol (4.3 %), p-phenylenediamine (4.2 %), ammoniated mercury (3.5 %) und methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (3.4 %) in 2004. Even after healing of the skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis, it must be considered that sensitization persists indefinitely. Therefore, patients have to be informed exactly about their relevant contact allergens to ensure complete avoidance. To do so, physicians need a detailed knowledge of the most common contact allergens which are discussed in this paper.

  17. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies.

  18. Habitat classification: A comparison using avian species and guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraaf, Richard M.; Chadwick, Nan L.

    1984-11-01

    Results of breeding bird censuses in 1979 and 1980 were used to compare the relationships of both species and guilds to forest habitats in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Several age classes of 11 forest cover types were studied: northern hard-woods ( Fagus-Betula-Acer), spruce ( Picea), spruce-fir ( Picea-Abies), birth ( Betula), swamp hardwoods ( Acer-Pinus-Tsuga), pine ( Pinus strobus and P. resinosa), balsam fir ( Abies), aspen ( Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata), northern red oak ( Quercus), oak-pine ( Quercus-Pinus), and hemlock ( Tsuga). All types were even-aged; only northern hardwoods had an additional uneven-aged condition. Forest cover types were also pooled to consider generalized habitats: hardwoods, mixed forest, or softwoods. Results of ordinations based on censuses of 74 bird species indicate that foraging guilds are more related to general cover types than are nesting substrate guilds, but bird species reflect habitat differences to a greater degree than do either guild scheme. Also, considerable overlap occurs in bird species distribution between hardwoods and mixed forests; softwoods show little overlap with other types. Discriminant function and classification analyses revealed that bird species composition can be used to correctly classify general forest habitats more accurately (83.8%) than either foraging (63.2%) or nesting substrate guilds (58.4%). These results indicate that, of the habitats studied, avian species compositions are more characteristic than are foraging or nesting substrate guild composition, which tend to be similar across forest habitats.

  19. Seedling ontogeny and environmental plasticity in two co-occurring shade-tolerant conifers and implications for environment-population interactions.

    PubMed

    Day, Michael E; Zazzaro, Sarah; Perkins, L Brian

    2014-01-01

    Seedling success is determined by evolved strategies of intrinsic genetic programming and plasticity that are regulated by extrinsic pathways. We tested the relative importance of these mechanisms in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea Lin.), which share understory regeneration niches in northeastern North America. Although its reproductive effort is adequate, spruce has decreased in abundance, in relation to fir, in seedling and sapling populations, even in forests that have a predominance of spruce in the overstory. To understand the factors that regulate this phenomenon and their implications for tree populations, we compared intrinsic and plastic regulation of first- and second-year seedlings under steady understory irradiance levels and in response to increases in light environment. Both species exhibited interactions of ontogenetic patterns and plasticity in first- and second-year seedlings. Physiologically, spruce had higher photosynthetic capacity, allocation to photoprotective xanthophylls, and greater plasticity in response to light treatments. Although both species demonstrated an inability to plastically increase photosynthetic capacity in the short term, spruce benefited from greater allocation to foliage under increased irradiance. Fir showed a conservative strategy in root-shoot allocation that may better equip seedlings to withstand drought adaptations and attributes associated with greater shade tolerance. These attributes likely contribute to the relative success of fir seedlings in the current climate. By contrast, they indicate that spruce would be a superior competitor in cooler, moister climates, which suggests that future forest composition will be largely determined by an interaction of disturbance and moisture regimes.

  20. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential.

    PubMed

    Laureysens, I; De Temmerman, L; Hastir, T; Van Gysel, M; Ceulemans, R

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha(-1) of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha(-1) for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha(-1) for Zn over two years.

  1. HTO and OBT concentrations in a wetland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.; Yankovich, T.

    2008-07-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations in the non-human biota inhabiting Duke Swamp were measured during the 2005 growing season. Samples of surface water, soil, plants, precipitation, wild animals and air moisture were collected from 2005 May to October at five locations in the swamp and analyzed for their tritium content. HTO concentrations in air moisture decreased with height since the tritium source is in the ground. Soil HTO concentrations were not closely related to the concentrations in nearby surface water and the HTO concentration in balsam fir needles showed no clear pattern with height. HTO concentrations in moss, grass and alder leaves decreased in September, which is the time when metabolic activity is reduced. OBT concentrations in a given compartment showed less variation than the HTO concentrations in that compartment. The OBT/HTO ratio was approximately one for soil and less than one for plants, with the exception of lichen. The OBT/HTO ratio in most wild animals was also less than one, but increased to more than 2.0 for mice. Although the tritium concentrations varied substantially in space and time in Duke Swamp, the fact that OBT/HTO <1 for most compartments suggests that equilibrium conditions hold locally. (authors)

  2. Two Herbivore-Induced Cytochrome P450 Enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 Catalyze the Formation of Volatile Aldoximes Involved in Poplar Defense[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Irmisch, Sandra; Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Boeckler, G. Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom. PMID:24220631

  3. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections.

  4. AmeriFlux CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.. Site Description - Amiro_et_al_2006, AFM/136:...The 1989 burn site (F89) was northeast of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, with the humancaused fire covering 13,500 ha. Parts of the area had been logged prior to the fire, and slash residues would have been burned in some locations. Parts of the area were aerially seeded with jack pine seeds in the winter of 1990. The present tree canopy was composed of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), jack pine, trembling aspen, and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and prior to the fire, the stand consisted of these same species aswell asblack spruce.Deadsnags of black spruce and jack pinewere still standing, althoughmost had fallen over and formed a leaningmix of dry, dead tree boles. The understory vegetation consisted mostly of black spruce saplings, saplings of the tree overstory species, bearberry, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), and reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.).

  5. Drying rates of wood chips during compression drying

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Haygreen, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Compression drying is basically a process of forcing the free water in wood to move under high hydrostatic pressure through a solid structure. Fundamental information regarding the time- dependent characteristic of compression drying is necessary to develop efficient commercial processes. The purpose of this study is to provide an initial evaluation of the effect of some factors - pressure, wood density, and particle (chip) size - on free water extraction. Five species - aspen, balsam fir, jack pine, red maple, and red oak - were tested in this study. For each species both typical pulp size chips and particles from hammermilled chips were used. Drying rates were determined under constant ram face pressures at 500 psi, 1000 psi, 1500 psi, and 2000 psi, respectively. The concept of drying rate is one of the important factors in dealing with compression drying, especially in designing dewatering pressure cycles. The most efficient compression drying is achieved during the first two minutes. Drying rates are negligible after 3 to 4 minutes of constant pressure in the 500 to 2000 psi range. The analysis of variance for species shows highly significant differences in final moisture contents. Size of chips had a significant effect on final moisture contents. Compressed density of hammermilled chips is slightly higher than that of unrefined chips. High density chips require higher pressure to initiate effective drying rates. 8 references.

  6. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-09-01

    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patch test reactions to cosmetic allergens in 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 in Finland--a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, T; Rantanen, T; Alanko, K; Harvima, R J; Jolanki, R; Kalimo, K; Lahti, A; Lammintausta, K; Lauerma, A I; Laukkanen, A; Luukkaala, T; Riekki, R; Turjanmaa, K; Varjonen, E; Vuorela, A-M

    2005-07-01

    Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P < 0.001) and from 0.5% to 1.4% (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas the most prominent decreases were found with methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone and chlorhexidine diglugonate from 2.4% to 1.3% (P < 0.001) and from 1.2% to 0.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. The level of patch test sensitivity to methyldibromo glutaronitrile increased, although not significantly, from 1.0% to 1.5%. An increasing tendency was also found with hair dye chemicals 4-aminophenol and toluene-2,5-diamine or toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate from 1.3% to 3.8% and from 1.4% to 5.2%, respectively, while such a tendency was not found among permanent wave chemicals. The sensitivity level of fragrance mix remained the same (6% - 7%). We conclude that surveys revealing the state of sensitivity to cosmetic chemicals should be performed periodically in different countries.

  10. Relative spatial distributions and habitat use patterns of sympatric moose and white-tailed deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, M.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Kozie, K.D.; Olexa, E.M.; Lawrence, R.L.; Route, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the distribution and home range characteristics of moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Pellet count transects revealed low densities of moose and higher densities of white-tailed deer, and provided evidence of partial spatial segregation between moose and white-tailed deer possibly due to habitat heterogeneity. There was limited interspecific overlap in the relatively large annual home ranges of radio-collared moose and white-tailed deer. Both moose and white-tailed deer exhibited significant selection for spruce (Picea spp.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) vegetation types at the home range scale. White-tailed deer significantly selected a 12-20 m canopy height over all others while moose significantly selected 5-11 m and 21-30 m canopy heights over the 12-20 m canopy height. Moose significantly selected open/discontinuous canopy cover and white-tailed deer selected both closed/continuous and open/discontinuous canopy covers over dispersed/ sparse canopy cover. Differential habitat selection between moose and white-tailed deer at Voyageurs National Park might be related to the differences between these species' abilities to cope with a northern mid-continental climate. Spatial segregation between moose and white-tailed deer at Voyageurs National Park may allow moose to persist despite the presence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in white-tailed deer.

  11. Determination of 4-Methylimidazole and 2-Acetyl-4(5)- tetrahydroxybutylimidazole in Caramel Color and Processed Foods by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Rang; Kim, Su Un; Shin, Young; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Me; Kim, Jung Hun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the quick HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous separation of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydrox-ybuthylimidazole (THI) and 4-(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in alkaline medium was used for caramel color and processed foods in Korea. After a simple sample pretreatment, 51 4-MI-labeled samples were positive for 4-MI and 2 also contained THI. The concentration of 4-MI was 260.5 ~ 24,499.3 μg/kg in caramel color, less than LOD ~ 1,712.5 μg/kg in sauce, 1,242.3, 5,972.2 μg/kg in balsamic vinegar, 2,118.3 ~ 5,802.4 μg/kg in complex seasoning, 82.7 ~ 5,110.6 μg/kg in curry, and 29.9 ~ 464.4 μg/kg in soft drinks. The recovery rate of 4-MI was 97.1 ~ 111.0% in sauce and 81.9 ~ 110.0% in powder and that of THI was 83.6 ~ 106.4% in sauce and 61.2 ~ 99.4% in powder. Our results concluded a safe amount of 4-MI and THI compared to the limit of Korea additive code but the processed foods do not have a limit of caramel color and 4-MI in Korea. Therefore, research and monitoring of 4-MI and THI is needed for processed foods in Korea. PMID:24551828

  12. Holocene Vegetation Dynamics of Anticosti Island, Québec, and Consequences of Remoteness on Ecological Succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Martin; Filion, Louise

    2001-07-01

    The postglacial vegetation history of Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, was reconstructed from pollen analysis of three sites, providing the first paleoecological data for the island. The earliest plant communities (8550-7770 14C yr B.P.; 9500-8500 cal yr B.P.) were characterized by a high representation of green alder (Alnus crispa), indicating an open environment with sparse spruce (Picea). Between 7770 and 3700 14C yr B.P. (8500-4000 cal yr B.P.), the island was colonized by mixed deciduous and coniferous forests dominated by paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and spruce. A major increase in the abundance of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) occurred ca. 3700 14C yr B.P. (4000 cal yr B.P.), indicating development of the closed fir-spruce forests as they exist today. The island's remoteness from continental seed plant sources influenced plant colonization, afforestation, and ecological succession. The Gulf of St. Lawrence slowed plant migration, and tree species had to spread from the Gaspé Peninsula. Repeated drops in fir pollen percentages during the last 4,000 years may reflect the activity of defoliating insects.

  13. Identification of diterpenes in canvas painting varnishes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with combined derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Osete-Cortina, L; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Mateo-Castro, R; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F

    2004-01-23

    A derivatisation method that combines the formation of ethyl esters from the carboxylic groups and trimethylsilyl ethers from hydroxyl groups of the components of diterpenic resins is presented in this paper. This methodology involves two experimental steps: (1) formation of ethyl esters using ethyl chloroformate; and (2) the esterified compounds are lead to react with trimethylsilylimidazole to form the corresponding trimethylsilyl ethers. The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of performing simultaneously the analysis of amino acids from proteins, fatty acids from drying oils, and diterpenic compounds from natural resins usually found in works of art. This methodology is of considerable interest due to the requirements of minimum sampling that usually involves the analysis of works of art. A chemometric study has been developed to adjust the optimal working conditions of the proposed derivatisation method in which chromatographic peak areas of the larixyl acetate derivative and the abietic acid derivative referred to n-hexadecane as internal standard have been compared. Samples of Venetian turpentine naturally aged have been used in this study. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed derivatisation method has been tested on other diterpenic resins and pigments commonly used in fine arts such as Strasbourg turpentine, Canada balsam, colophony, copper resinate and a sample from a Renaissance Altarpiece.

  14. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record☆

    PubMed Central

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo). PMID:24533339

  15. Pulmonary effects of simultaneous exposures to MDI formaldehyde and wood dust on workers in an oriented strand board plant.

    PubMed

    Herbert, F A; Hessel, P A; Melenka, L S; Yoshida, K; Nakaza, M

    1995-04-01

    A study was undertaken in a plant producing oriented strand board (OSB) from aspen and balsam wood, bonded by methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and phenol formaldehyde. A group of 127 production workers in the plant was compared to 165 oil workers from the same geographic area. Measurements of MDI ranged from 6 to 33 micrograms/m3 (0.001-0.003 ppm), of respirable dust ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/m3, and of formaldehyde were 0.05 ppm or less. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was significantly lower among the OSB workers compared to the oil workers, and this was more pronounced for ex-smokers and current smokers. A number of respiratory symptoms suggestive of airway reactivity were significantly more common among the OSB workers. It was known that changes to reduce worker exposure had been made in the plant before the study, and it is unclear whether the health effects documented were the result of these low levels or if previous, probably higher levels were responsible.

  16. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  17. Occurrence of the lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar

    2003-03-01

    To determine the natural crustacean host, the Paragonimus species, and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals. The laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs, Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35 to approximately 328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages. A total of 11 worms, 5 mature, 5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae, worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  18. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. © Crown copyright 2016.

  19. Late glacial and early Holocene Landscapes in northern New England and adjacent areas of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. B.; Jacobson, G. L.

    1985-05-01

    The landscapes of northern New England and adjacent areas of Canada changed greatly between 14,000 and 9000 yr B.P.: deglaciation occurred, sea levels and shorelines shifted, and a vegetational transition from tundra to closed forest took place. Data from 51 14C-dated sites from a range of elevations were used to map ice and sea positions, physiognomic vegetational zones, and the spread of individual tree taxa in the region. A continuum of tundra-woodland-forest passed northeastward and northward without major hesitation or reversal. An increased rate of progression from 11,000 to 10,000 yr B.P. suggests a more rapid warming than in the prior 2000-3000 yr. Elevational gradients controlled the patterns of deglaciation and vegetational change. The earliest spread of tree taxa was via the lowlands of southern Vermont and New Hampshire, and along a coastal corridor in Maine. Only after 12,000 yr B.P. did the taxa spread northward through the rest of the area. Different tree species entered the southern part of the area at different times and continued their spread at different rates. The approximate order of arrival follows: poplars (13,000-12,000 yr B.P. in the south), spruces, paper birch, and jack pine, followed by balsam fir and larch, and possibly ironwood, ash, and elm, and somewhat later by oak, maple, white pine, and finally hemlock (10,000-9000 yr B.P. in the south).

  20. Involvement of allelopathy in inhibition of understory growth in red pine forests.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2017-07-12

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forests are characterized by sparse understory vegetation although sunlight intensity on the forest floor is sufficient for undergrowth. The possible involvement of pine allelopathy in the establishment of the sparse understory vegetation was investigated. The soil of the red pine forest floor had growth inhibitory activity on six test plant species including Lolium multiflorum, which was observed at the edge of the forest but not in the forest. Two growth inhibitory substances were isolated from the soil and characterized to be 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid. Those compounds are probably formed by degradation process of resin acids. Resin acids are produced by pine and delivered into the soil under the pine trees through balsam and defoliation. Threshold concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid for the growth inhibition of L. multiflorum were 30 and 10μM, respectively. The concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the soil were 312 and 397μM, respectively, which are sufficient concentrations to cause the growth inhibition because of the threshold. These results suggest that those compounds are able to work as allelopathic agents and may prevent from the invasion of herbaceous plants into the forests by inhibiting their growth. Therefore, allelopathy of red pine may be involved in the formation of the sparse understory vegetation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Does nutrition-related stress carry over to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) progeny?

    PubMed

    Carisey, N; Bauce, E

    2002-04-01

    Three different patterns of feeding of sixth-instar spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens were simulated in the laboratory. Larvae were fed artificial diets whose nitrogen and total soluble sugar contents varied according to levels similar to those found in three types of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Miller foliage (current-year foliage from middle and lower crown sections and one-year-old foliage). The biological performance of offspring was studied according to the nutrition of their parents. Although food quality had no impact on pupal weight of female parents and individual mean egg weight, progeny fitness was influenced by parental nutrition. Old foliage simulated diet, poor in nitrogen, clearly affected the early larval development of progeny, especially the percent of egg hatch and first-instar survival. Lower crown current-year foliage simulated diet, with low total soluble sugar content, reduced the first-instar survival of the progeny. However, the selective pressure exerted by low food qualities on the parental generation and on the early stages of their progenies resulted in C. fumiferana populations having higher tolerance to starvation and higher survival after the diapause period. These results highlighted the potentially direct and indirect effects of C. fumiferana parental nutrition on the next generation. The patterns of feeding of parental generations would appear to affect the quality and size of subsequent populations through several selections on the different life-history stages of both generations.

  2. Developmental expression and stress induction of glutathione S-transferase in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Feng; Davey; S D Pang A; Ladd; Retnakaran; Tomkins; Zheng; Palli

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and stress-induced expression of Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase (CfGST) mRNA and protein were examined using Northern blots and Western blots. High levels of CfGST mRNA and protein were detected in 1st instar larvae and diapausing 2nd instar larvae. Expression of CfGST gradually decreased during larval development from 3rd to 5th instar, after which the expression increased once again, reaching peak levels in 6th instar larvae. CfGST mRNA and protein were undetectable in the pupal stage. Exposure to low temperature did not induce an increase in CfGST expression. Feeding on balsam fir foliage resulted in an increase in the expression of CfGST as compared to larvae that fed on artificial diet. The bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt), the non-steroidal ecdysone analog, tebufenozide, and the synthetic pyrethroid, permethrin, induced the expression of CfGST mRNA in 5th instar larvae, whereas the chitin synthesis inhibitor, diflubenzuron, did not have any such effect. These results suggest that CfGST plays an important role in detoxifying various allelochemicals and insecticides in the spruce budworm. The developmental expression pattern strongly suggests that in addition to detoxification, CfGST might be involved in other functions.

  3. Operant and Pavlovian contributions to the ontogeny of pecking in ring doves.

    PubMed

    Balsam, P D; Graf, J S; Silver, R

    1992-09-01

    This series of experiments analyzes the role of learning in the development of pecking in ring dove squab. Experiment 1 showed that there is a high probability that parents will feed squab after a period of separation (Experiment 1). Such feedings may have been essential for producing the previous observation (Graf, Balsam, & Silver, 1985) that pecking develops normally if squab which have been separated from their parents are given a daily 20-min interaction with seed followed by an immediate return to their parents. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to seed followed by experimenter-provided feedings were sufficient for inducing adult pecking levels. Experiment 3 showed that general experience with conspecifics was not necessary for the development of pecking and that maturation alone could not account for the pecking observed in previous experiments. Experiment 4 showed that Pavlovian contingencies consisting of visual exposure to seed followed by feeding was sufficient to induce high levels of pecking. There did not appear to be an additional contribution of an operant contingency present when squab were allowed to both see and peck at seed prior to feedings in Experiment 5. However, squab must actually be given experience in handling and ingesting seeds before adult levels of pecking can be obtained. These results are discussed in terms of the developmental pathways whereby experience leads to adult behavior.

  4. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  5. Comparative use of Mindarus abietinus (Homoptera: Aphididae) by two coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the native Anatis mali and the exotic Harmonia axyridis, in a Christmas tree plantation.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Cloutier, Conrad

    2007-04-01

    The exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) recently expanded its range into eastern Canada and elsewhere in North America. We hypothesized that this coccinellid should be less well adapted to the prey Mindarus abietinus Koch. on balsam fir trees than the native coccinellid Anatis mali (Say), which evolved in close association with aphids on conifers in North America. We compared, under field conditions, prey use by both species by collecting data on their synchrony with M. abietinus, their prey searching and predation behaviors, life stage distribution in fir canopy, and their overall reproductive success in this system. The seasonal life cycle of A. mali was better synchronized with that of M. abietinus compared with that of H. axyridis. In spring, A. mali adults appeared nearly 2 wk earlier on trees than H. axyridis and were active predators of the aphid fundatrices. A. mali oviposition thus began before the aphid population started to grow, and its larvae were most active during peak aphid colonies. Behavioral observations showed that both adults and larvae of the native A. mali searched for prey more actively than those of H. axyridis. Distribution of life stages also showed that eggs and pupae had different distributions on trees and that the adult-to-adult net reproductive rate of A. mali was three times higher than that of H. axyridis. Thus, the native A. mali was better adapted than H. axyridis to prey on M. abietinus, possibly because it evolved for a much longer period of time with this prey in conifer habitats.

  6. Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities.

  8. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system. PMID:24967081

  9. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma.

  10. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P < 0.001) and among populations (F(ST) = 0.256, P < 0.001). These results suggest that geographic or taxonomic factors are important for understanding patterns of variation throughout the genus Populus. Our findings have the potential to aid in the design of sampling regimes for conservation and breeding stock and contribute to historical inferences regarding the factors that shaped the genetic diversity of boreal plant species.

  11. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  12. Sexual epigenetics: gender-specific methylation of a gene in the sex determining region of Populus balsamifera

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, Katharina; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Champigny, Marc; Mansfield, Shawn; Douglas, Carl; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Cronk, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    Methylation has frequently been implicated in gender determination in plants. The recent discovery of the sex determining region (SDR) of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, pinpointed 13 genes with differentiated X and Y copies. We tested these genes for differential methylation using whole methylome sequencing of xylem tissue of multiple individuals grown under field conditions in two common gardens. The only SDR gene to show a marked pattern of gender-specific methylation is PbRR9, a member of the two component response regulator (type-A) gene family, involved in cytokinin signalling. It is an ortholog of Arabidopsis genes ARR16 and ARR17. The strongest patterns of differential methylation (mostly male-biased) are found in the putative promoter and the first intron. The 4th intron is strongly methylated in both sexes and the 5th intron is unmethylated in both sexes. Using a statistical learning algorithm we find that it is possible accurately to assign trees to gender using genome-wide methylation patterns alone. The strongest predictor is the region coincident with PbRR9, showing that this gene stands out against all genes in the genome in having the strongest sex-specific methylation pattern. We propose the hypothesis that PbRR9 has a direct, epigenetically mediated, role in poplar sex determination. PMID:28345647

  13. Irreverent Soils: Nitrogen Dynamics In Taiga Forests During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielland, K.

    2003-12-01

    We measured annual net nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amino acid production in situ across a primary successional sequence in interior Alaska, USA. Net N mineralization rates during the growing season from green-up (late May) through freeze-up (late September) accounted for approximately 60% of the annual inorganic N flux, whereas the remaining N was released during the apparent dormant season. Nitrogen release during winter occurred primarily during October-January with only negligible N mineralization during early spring in stands of willow, alder, balsam poplar and white spruce. By contrast, black spruce stands also exhibited substantial mineralization after snow melt during early spring. The high rates of N mineralization in late autumn through early winter coincides with high turnover of fine root biomass in these stands, suggesting that labile substrate production, rather than temperature, is a major controlling factor over N release in these ecosystems. The results are consistent with the low temperature sensitivity of N mineralization previously documented for taiga soils, and demonstrate that measurements of soil processes restricted to the growing season may greatly underestimate annual flux rates of inorganic nitrogen in high-latitude ecosystems.

  14. Orientocreadium batrachoides Tubangui, 1931 (Orientocreadiidae): the only trematode parasite of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Clariidae) from the Asi River (Southern Turkey).

    PubMed

    Tepe, Yahya; Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Belk, Mark; Özgen, Remzi

    2013-01-01

    Some information is available about the parasite fauna and incidence for Clarias gariepinus in Turkey, but digenean parasites have received little attention. The purpose of the study is to contribute to the parasite fauna of Turkey. From 2007 to 2008, a total 63 Clarias gariepinus that were caught in the Asi River were purchased from the fish market in Hatay and brought on ice to the Parasitology Research Laboratory at Atatürk University. The fish were dissected. The obtained parasites were fixed with AFA, dyed with Mayer's Carmalum, and mounted with Canada Balsam. Forty-eight fish were infected with the Orientocreadium batrachoides. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.2% overall, and 100% in the largest size class of C. gariepinus. There was no significant correlation between fish size and number of parasites. Our sample of C. gariepinus from the Asi River exhibited high rates of incidence of O. batrachoides which is the first record from Turkey. It was detected that the specimens of O. batrachoides in Turkey are larger than previously reported samples. This is the first clearly documented report of O. batrachoides in teleost fish of Turkey.

  15. Digenean parasites of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Yahya; Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the digenean parasite fauna of Sarpa salpa (Sparidae) from the Mediterranean Sea. The fish samples from the coasts of Mersin-Anamur were brought to the Parasitology Research Laboratory of the Biology Department of Science Faculty of Atatürk University, dissected and investigated parasitologically. The parasites that were found in the visceral organs were fixed with A F A (Alcohol-Formalin-Acetic Acid). The dying process of the parasites was carried out with Mayer's Carmalum and mounted with Canada Balsam. Mesometra orbicularis (Rudolphi 1819) Lühe, 1901, Mesometra brachycoelia Lühe, 1901, Centroderma sp. (Stossich 1883) (Mesometridae) and Robphildollfusium fractum (Rudolphi 1819) Paggi et Orecchia, 1963 (Gyliauchenidae) were determined. Although these parasites were detected in Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) from different localities of the Mediterranean Sea, they have not been found in the fish of the coasts of Turkey so far. The mentioned 5 species of parasites are the first records for the parasite fauna of Turkey.

  16. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo).

  17. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  18. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper.

  19. The adaptive potential of Populus balsamifera L. to phenology requirements in a warmer global climate.

    PubMed

    Olson, Matthew S; Levsen, Nicholas; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Schroeder, William R; Keller, Stephen R; Tiffin, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The manner in which organisms adapt to climate change informs a broader understanding of the evolution of biodiversity as well as conservation and mitigation plans. We apply common garden and association mapping approaches to quantify genetic variance and identify loci affecting bud flush and bud set, traits that define a tree's season for height growth, in the boreal forest tree Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar). Using data from 478 genotypes grown in each of two common gardens, one near the southern edge and another near the northern edge of P. balsamifera's range, we found that broad-sense heritability for bud flush and bud set was generally high (H(2) > 0.5 in most cases), suggesting that abundant genetic variation exists for phenological response to changes in the length of the growing season. To identify the molecular genetic basis of this variation, we genotyped trees for 346 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 27 candidate genes for the CO/FT pathway in poplar. Mixed-model analyses of variance identified SNPs in 10 genes to be associated with variation in either bud flush or bud set. Multiple SNPs within FRIGIDA were associated with bud flush, whereas multiple SNPs in LEAFY and GIGANTEA 5 were associated with bud set. Although there was strong population structure in stem phenology, the geographic distribution of multilocus association SNP genotypes was widespread except at the most northern populations, indicating that geographic regions may harbour sufficient diversity in functional genes to facilitate adaption to future climatic conditions in many sites.

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  1. DNA recovery from microhymenoptera using six non-destructive methodologies with considerations for subsequent preparation of museum slides.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Suaste-Dzul, Alba P; Gallou, Adrien; Peña-Carrillo, Kenzy I

    2017-01-01

    Because of the tiny size of microhymenoptera, successful morphological identification typically requires specific mounting protocols that require time, skills, and experience. Molecular taxonomic identification is an alternative, but many DNA extraction protocols call for maceration of the whole specimen, which is not compatible with preserving museum vouchers. Thus, non-destructive DNA isolation methods are attractive alternatives for obtaining DNA without damaging sample individuals. However, their performance needs to be assessed in microhymenopterans. We evaluated six non-destructive methods: (A) DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit; (B) DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit, modified; (C) Protocol with CaCl2 buffer; (D) Protocol with CaCl2 buffer, modified; (E) HotSHOT; and (F) Direct PCR. The performance of each DNA extraction method was tested across several microhymenopteran species by attempting to amplify the mitochondrial gene COI from insect specimens of varying ages: 1 day, 4 months, 3 years, 12 years, and 23 years. Methods B and D allowed COI amplification in all insects, while methods A, C, and E were successful in DNA amplification from insects up to 12 years old. Method F, the fastest, was useful in insects up to 4 months old. Finally, we adapted permanent slide preparation in Canada balsam for every technique. The results reported allow for combining morphological and molecular methodologies for taxonomic studies.

  2. Determination of 4-Methylimidazole and 2-Acetyl-4()- tetrahydroxybutylimidazole in Caramel Color and Processed Foods by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Rang; Kim, Su Un; Shin, Young; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Me; Kim, Jung Hun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the quick HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous separation of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydrox-ybuthylimidazole (THI) and 4-(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in alkaline medium was used for caramel color and processed foods in Korea. After a simple sample pretreatment, 51 4-MI-labeled samples were positive for 4-MI and 2 also contained THI. The concentration of 4-MI was 260.5 ~ 24,499.3 μg/kg in caramel color, less than LOD ~ 1,712.5 μg/kg in sauce, 1,242.3, 5,972.2 μg/kg in balsamic vinegar, 2,118.3 ~ 5,802.4 μg/kg in complex seasoning, 82.7 ~ 5,110.6 μg/kg in curry, and 29.9 ~ 464.4 μg/kg in soft drinks. The recovery rate of 4-MI was 97.1 ~ 111.0% in sauce and 81.9 ~ 110.0% in powder and that of THI was 83.6 ~ 106.4% in sauce and 61.2 ~ 99.4% in powder. Our results concluded a safe amount of 4-MI and THI compared to the limit of Korea additive code but the processed foods do not have a limit of caramel color and 4-MI in Korea. Therefore, research and monitoring of 4-MI and THI is needed for processed foods in Korea.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) of the vulva arises as a primary condition or develops secondary to topical agents. We aimed to describe the incidence of ACD in patients presenting with vulvar symptoms and to identify the allergens of most importance. Using a database of the patch testing results from 3 geographically distinct sites, we identified patients tested to a gynecologic series between 2003 and 2010. Patients had patch testing to the standard European battery and a gynecologic series. Patch testing was in line with accepted universal methods: application on day 1, allergen removal and initial reading on day 3, and final reading on day 5. Ninety patients were included. Thirty-five (39%) had a relevant positive result. The 5 allergens with the highest number of cases with a relevant reaction were natural fragrance mix 2%, balsam of Peru, benzocaine 5%, fragrance mix 8%, and quaternium 15 1%. The most common gynecologic series allergen to cause a relevant reaction was terconazole. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent finding in patients presenting with vulvar symptoms. We identified a relevant positive result to patch testing in 39%. We found fragrances, medicaments, and preservatives to be of most relevance.

  4. Modeling spruce budworm population revisited: impact of physiological structure on outbreak control.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Naveen K; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of spruce budworm population is very important for the protection of spruce and balsam fir trees of North American forests, and a full understanding of the dynamics requires careful consideration of the individual physiological structures that is essential for outbreak control. A model as a delay differential equation is derived from structured population system, and is validated by comparing simulation results with real data from the Green River area of New Brunswick (Canada) and with the periodic outbreaks widely observed. Analysis of the equilibrium stability and examination of the amplitudes and frequencies of periodic oscillations are conducted, and the effect of budworm control strategies such as mature population control, immature population control and predation by birds are assessed. Analysis and simulation results suggest that killing only budworm larvae might not be enough for the long-term control of the budworm population. Since the time required for development during the inactive stage (from egg to second instar caterpillar) causes periodic outbreak, a strategy of reducing budworms in the inactive stage, such as removing egg biomass, should also be implemented for successful control.

  5. Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors.

    PubMed

    Testa, Rylan J; Michaels, Matthew S; Bliss, Whitney; Rogers, Megan L; Balsam, Kimberly F; Joiner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Research has revealed alarmingly high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. This study aims to analyze the role of factors from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015), the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010), and the potential integration of these factors, in explaining SI in this population. A convenience sample of 816 TGNC adults responded to measures of current SI, gender minority stressors, and IPTS factors. Path analysis was utilized to test 2 models. Model 1 evaluated the associations between external minority stressors and SI through internal minority stressors. Model 2 examined the relationships between internal minority stressors and SI through IPTS variables (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). All GMSR external stressors (rejection, nonaffirmation, victimization, and discrimination), internal stressors (internalized transphobia, negative expectations, and nondisclosure), and IPTS factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) were related to SI. Both models demonstrated good fit. Model 1 revealed that rejection, nonaffirmation, and victimization were related to SI through experiences of internalized transphobia and negative expectations. Model 2 indicated that internalized transphobia and negative expectations were associated with SI through IPTS factors. The models demonstrate pathways through which GMSR and IPTS constructs relate to one another and confer risk for SI among TGNC individuals. These pathways and several recently proposed constructs examined here provide promising directions for future research and clinical interventions in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  7. Harpin Hpa1 promotes flower development in Impatiens and Parochetus plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yilan; Li, Ping; Zhang, Chunling

    2016-12-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 has multiple beneficial effects in plants, promoting plant growth and development, increasing crop yield, and inducing plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. In these effects, the 10-40 residue fragment (Hpa110-42) isolated from the Hpa1 sequence is 1.3 to 7.5-fold more effective than the full length. This study extends the beneficial effects of Hpa1 and Hpa110-42 to flower development in three species of the garden balsam Impatiens and the garden scoparius Parochetus communis plant. The external application of Hpa1 or Hpa110-42 to the four ornamental plants had three effects, i.e., promoting flower growth, retarding senescence of fully expanded flowers, and increasing anthocyanin concentrations in those flowers and therefore improving their ornamental visages. Based on quantitative comparisons, Hpa110-42 was at least 17 and 42 % more effective than Hpa1 to increase anthocyanin concentrations and to promote the growth of flowers or delay their senescence. Our results suggest that Hpa1 and especially Hpa110-42 have a great potential of horticultural application to increase ornamental merits of the different garden plants.

  8. Insect-plant interactions: endocrine defences.

    PubMed

    Bowers, W S

    1984-01-01

    It is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. Plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. Plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. Only through research into the fundamentals of insect physiology and biochemistry are more subtle defensive mechanisms revealed, linked to the disruption of the insect endocrine system. A diverse number of chemical structures are found in plants, which interfere with hormone-mediated processes in insects. Examples include: mimics of the insect's juvenile hormones such as juvabione from the balsam fir and the juvocimenes from sweet basil, which lethally disrupt insect development, and the precocenes found in Ageratum species, which act as anti-juvenile hormonal agents. The latter appear to serve as 'suicide substrates', undergoing activation into cytotoxins when acted on by specialized enzymes resident in the insect endocrine gland (corpus allatum) that is responsible for juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Consideration of these plant defensive strategies, which have been reached through aeons of evolutionary experimentation, may assist the human race in its defences against its principal competitors for food, fibre and health.

  9. Redescription and Lectotype Designation of Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus Cobb, 1913

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen A.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1981-01-01

    Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus is redescribed and illustrated from N. A. Cobb's original specimens collected in 1910. In 1955 M. W. Allen established a neotype from specimens collected near Cathedral City, California. Recently Cobb's original sketches, line drawings, and balsam slides were rediscovered and examined. The specimens collected by Cobb were compared with the neotype established by Allen and with other collections of nominal T. cylindricus. Differences in morphology of the Cathedral City (Allen) and Los Patos (Cobb) populations were observed. Collections of males and females from Cathedral City, California; Mosida, Utah; and Kings County, California; were similar to each other except for some variation in female tail shape. Females in Cobb's collection and in a collection from a beach near Ensenada, Mexico, were similar to each other but differed morphologically from other collections. We consider all collections to represent a range of variation within the species. A lectotype and an allolectotype were selected to establish the taxonomic base for the genus. A ruling has been requested from the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature on the disposition of the neotype. PMID:19300798

  10. (abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

    1993-01-01

    Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of RH-5992, an ecdysone agonist, in some forestry matrixes.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, K M; Zhu, J; Nott, R

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of RH-5992 (N'-t-butyl-N'-[3,5-dimethyl-benzoyl]-N- [-ethylbenzoyl]hydrazine) from various terrestrial and aquatic forestry matrixes and stream water. The processed soils, litter, oak foliage, sediment, aquatic plants, and fish were extracted with a mixture of acetone and water; balsam fir needles were extracted with acidified methanol solution; stream water was extracted with dichloromethane. Aliquots of crude extracts were solvent partitioned, concentrated, and cleaned up by using Florisil or Prepsep-NH2 columns. After fractional elution of the columns with hexane-ethyl acetate as the eluent, the eluates were analyzed on a liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode-array UV detector set at 236 nm, using an RP-8, 10 microns column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-dioxane-water. Fir needles required methanol in addition to the 3 solvents in the mobile phase mixture. Water samples did not require any column cleanup. Mean recoveries for the analyte ranged from 84 to 98%, with coefficients of variation from 5 to 10%. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.004 to 0.030 ppm and from 0.013 to 0.101 ppm, respectively, for various forestry matrixes. LOD and LOQ for natural waters were 0.050 and 0.166 ppb, respectively.

  12. Contact sensitization in patients with suspected cosmetic intolerance: results of the IVDK 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Dinkloh, A; Worm, M; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Wollenberg, A

    2015-06-01

    Ingredients of leave-on cosmetics and body care products may sensitize. However, not every case of cosmetic intolerance is due to contact sensitization. To describe the frequency of contact sensitization due to cosmetics in a large clinic population, and a possible particular allergen pattern. Retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 2006-2011. Of 69 487 patients tested, 'cosmetics, creams, sunscreens' was the only suspected allergen source category in 10 124 patients (14.6%). A final diagnosis 'allergic contact dermatitis' was stated in 2658 of these patients (26.3%).Compared to a control group, there were significantly more reactions to fragrance mixes I and II, balsam of Peru, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) and lanolin alcohols. No special pattern of fragrance sensitization could be identified. Among the preservatives, MI was by far the leading allergen, while sensitization to other widely used compounds like parabens or phenoxyethanol was rare. True allergic reactions to cosmetic ingredients are rarer than generally assumed. Limitation of exposure to MI in leave-on cosmetics and body care products is urgently needed. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.

    PubMed

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2012-07-18

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively.

  14. Chiral MEKC-LIF of amino acids in foods: analysis of vinegars.

    PubMed

    Carlavilla, Davinia; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Fanali, Salvatore; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2006-07-01

    The formation of D-amino acids (D-aa's) in many fermented foods depends, among other factors, on the particular fermentation conditions, the action and autolysis of the microorganisms involved. In this sense, the analysis of chiral amino acids is an interesting analytical strategy for food scientists, since these compounds can be used as bacterial markers and can help, e.g., to detect adulterations, microbiological contaminations, etc. In this work, a fast and sensitive method based on MEKC-LIF has been developed to analyze and quantitate L-amino acid (L-aa) and D-aa in vinegars. The chiral MEKC-LIF procedure uses 100 mM sodium tetraborate, 30 mM SDS, and 20 mM beta-CD at pH 9.7 as running buffer, obtaining a good separation of the main vinegar L-/D-aa previously derivatized with fluorescein isothiocianate. Namely, L/D proline, alanine, arginine, glutamic, and aspartic acid, plus the nonchiral amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid are separated in less than 20 min with high efficiency (up to 720,000 plates/m) and good sensitivity (LODs lower than 16.6 nM were achieved). Several D-aa's were detected and quantified in balsamic, sherry, white wine, and cider vinegars using this MEKC-LIF procedure, observing interesting differences in their L-aa and D-aa profiles and contents.

  15. The effectiveness of jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, the related cultivar I. balsamina and the component, lawsone in preventing post poison ivy exposure contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abrams Motz, Vicki; Bowers, Christopher P; Mull Young, Linda; Kinder, David H

    2012-08-30

    Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) is native to the Eastern and Midwestern US and Canada. Many Native American tribes used I. capensis and its close relatives to treat/prevent rash from plant sources particularly Toxicodendron radicans and Urtica dioica. I. balsamina (garden balsam) a native of China was used by the indigenous people of Asia for similar purposes. This study aims to validate ethnopharmacological use of jewelweed in poison ivy (PI) dermatitis prevention and to refute scientific papers denying this efficacy. Additionally, the content of lawsone, the purported effective agent in jewelweed preparations, was measured to see if its concentration correlated with jewelweed preparation efficacy. Poison ivy was brushed onto forearms of volunteers in 6 locations and exposed areas were treated with jewelweed extracts, fresh plant mashes, soaps made of plant extracts, water and Dawn® dish soap. Rash development was scored on a scale of 0-14. Jewelweed mash was effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis, supporting ethnobotanical use. However, jewelweed extracts were not effective; and soaps made of these extracts were effective but no more so than jewelweed-free soaps. Lawsone content varied with harvest season and did not appear to affect rash development. Jewelweed is an efficacious plant for preventing development of dermatitis following poison ivy contact, but soap is more effective. Lawsone content does not correlate with PI rash prevention. Perhaps saponins, the soapy component of jewelweed are the effective agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species on wild birds in Cappadocia region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    İncı, Abdullah; Dık, Bilal; Kıbar, Murat; Yildirim, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed on 70 injured wild birds belonging to 7 different species in the Cappadocia region between 2005 and 2009. All birds were inspected for ectoparasites and 29 of 70 (41.4%) birds were found to be infested by at least one chewing louse species. All lice were cleared in 10% KOH, mounted in Canada balsam on slides and identified under a light microscope. The lice were identified as Laemobothrion maximum, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva and Colpocephalum nanum from the long-legged buzzards (Buteo rufinus), as C. platystomus, L. maximum, D. fulva and C. nanum from the common buzzards (Buteo buteo), as D. fulva and Colpocephalum sp. from the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), as Colpocephalum milvi and L. maximum from the black kites (Milvus migrans), as Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl (Asio otus), as Comatomenapon elongatum from the great egret (Egretta alba) and as Colpocephalum zebra from the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). Honey buzzard was found as a new host for Degeeriella fulva and Colpocephalum sp. and these lice were recorded for the first time in this study. Colpocephalum milvi from the black kite and Comatomenapon elongatum from the great egret have been reported for the first time with this study in Turkey.

  17. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  18. Rational design of MnO2@MnO2 hierarchical nanomaterials and their catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bentian; Cheng, Gao; Ye, Wenjin; Zheng, Xiaoying; Liu, Hengfa; Sun, Ming; Yu, Lin; Zheng, Yuying; Cheng, Xiaoling

    2016-11-29

    Hierarchically structured materials have special properties and possess potential in applications in the catalytic and electrochemical fields. Herein, two kinds of hierarchical core-shell nanostructures, lavender-like α-MnO2@α-MnO2 and balsam pear-like α-MnO2@γ-MnO2, were prepared by a facile room-temperature method using α-MnO2 nanowires as a backbone under acidic and alkaline conditions, respectively. When being used as a catalyst for dimethyl ether combustion, α-MnO2@γ-MnO2 exhibited a better performance than α-MnO2@α-MnO2 (T10 = 171 vs. 196 °C; T90 = 220 vs. 258 °C, SV = 30, 000 mL g(-1) h(-1)). It is concluded that the larger surface area, higher reducibility/oxygen mobility, richer surface oxygen species, and the relatively smaller apparent activation energy are responsible for the superior performance of α-MnO2@γ-MnO2.

  19. Acoustic pressure wound therapy in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Raenell

    2008-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are localized skin injuries secondary to unrelieved pressure or friction. Patients with immobility issues are at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. In 2004, stricter federal regulations for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in institutional settings--eg, long-term care facilities--were introduced. Effective, low-cost treatments for pressure ulcers are needed; acoustic pressure wound therapy (APWT), a noncontact, low-frequency, therapeutic ultrasound system, is one option. A retrospective case series of six long-term care patients (two men and one woman, age range 61 to 92 years), each with one Stage II pressure ulcer, is presented. Acoustic pressure wound therapy was provided as an adjunct to standard treatment that included balsam of Peru/castor oil/trypsin ointment, hydrogel, hydrocolloid dressings, silver dressings, and offloading. Outcomes (days to healing) were determined through changes in wound dimensions. Study participants each received APWT for 3 to 4 minutes three to four times weekly. In four of the six wounds, the average number of days to healing was 22. One of the two remaining patients discontinued treatment at 95% healed; treatment for the sixth patient was ongoing due to hospitalization that delayed APWT. In a long-term care setting, APWT added to standard of care may accelerate healing of Stage II pressure ulcers.

  20. Comparison of pressure ulcer treatments in long-term care facilities: clinical outcomes and impact on cost.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Siva; Van Vleet, John; Strunk, Billy; Ross, Robert N; Gray, Mikel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared clinical outcomes and nursing labor costs associated with (a) balsam Peru, hydrogenated castor oil, and trypsin (BCT) ointment; (b) BCT + Other; and (c) Other treatments in 2014 wound episodes occurring in 861 patients (mean 2.34 wounds/patient). Treatment with BCT ointment or BCT + Other was associated with a higher healing rate (P < .05). No Stage 1 or 2 ulcer treated with BCT ointment progressed, compared with 13.8% treated with BCT + Other and 13.4% treated with Other. The reported mean duration of treatment and time to heal were shorter for ulcers treated with BCT ointment, but differences did not reach significance, possibly because of the variability in reported treatment times. Mean daily nursing labor costs were lower for treatment with BCT than Other ($50.8 vs $61.7, P < .05). These data suggest that treatment of Stage 1 or 2 ulcers with BCT may be associated with shorter treatment time and time to heal and a potential reduction in treatment-related nursing labor costs.

  1. Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.

  2. Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

    PubMed

    Lazo, R F; Hidalgo, E; Lazo, J E; Bermeo, A; Llaguno, M; Murillo, J; Teixeira, V P

    1999-03-01

    Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of essential oils of Tanacetum parthenium in different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, F; Chehregani, A; Amiri, H

    2011-09-01

    Tanacetum parthenium Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic perennial plant, widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. This species traditionally has been used in insecticides, cosmetics, balsams, dyes, medicines and preservatives. The essential oil of T. parthenium was obtained by hydrodistillation in three developmental stages and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the oils was investigated against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity against THP-1 cells using the Trypan blue assay. Twenty-nine components were identified in the essential oil; the highest amount was extracted at the flowering stage. The main component, in the flowering stage, was camphor (18.94%) and other major components were bornyl acetate (18.35%), camphene (13.74%), bornyl isovalerate (3.15%), borneol (10.93%), juniper camphor (6.23%) and β-eudesmol (2.65%). Minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil was evaluated from 4 µL mL(-1) against Staphylococcus subtilis to 38 µL mL(-1) against Entrobacter aerogenes. Toxicity assay showed that the oil has no significant toxicity at 5-15% v/v concentrations on THP-1 cells. This study demonstrates the occurrence of camphor/bornyl acetate chemotype of T. parthenium in western regions of Iran. The finding showed also the studied oils have relatively good antibacterial activity without significant toxicity, thus have great potentiality to be used as natural health product.

  4. Differential Atmospheric Controls on Transpiration of Boreal Trees: A Potential Factor in Pre-mature Tree Mortality in Green-Tree Retention Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.

    2004-05-01

    Green-tree retention, a harvesting strategy that involves the preservation of isolated and interconnected patches of live trees within the boundaries of harvested areas, is assumed to emulate natural disturbance, while preserving forest canopy continuity for wildlife habitat, maintaining forest biodiversity, and many other landscape level objectives. Unfortunately, many of the retention trees die within a few years after harvesting, thus much of the desired function of these trees is lost. This research focuses on understanding the relationship between changes in micro-climate following harvesting and transpiration, potentially leading to drought-induced mortality of aspen, balsam poplar, white spruce, and white birch. Continuous measurements of whole-tree water use (sap flow) and micro-climate were taken before and after harvesting of two adjacent boreal mixedwood stands in west-central Alberta in the summer of 2003. Differences in micro-climate including radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind penetration into the canopy produced large differences in atmospheric moisture demand (PET) between partially harvested (green-tree retention) and undisturbed forest canopies. The variability in atmospheric conditions created large differences in sap flow velocity and transpiration rates among these four boreal species. Differential transpiration rates among species will be discussed in context of atmospheric controls on water use and drought tolerance of boreal trees with differing autecology and/or hydraulic architecture.

  5. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-05

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  6. Major phenolic and volatile compounds and their influence on sensorial aspects in stem-contact fermentation winemaking of Primitivo red wines.

    PubMed

    Suriano, S; Alba, V; Di Gennaro, D; Basile, T; Tamborra, M; Tarricone, L

    2016-08-01

    In red winemaking de-stemming is crucial since the stems contain polymeric phenolic compounds responsible for the astringency of wine. Wine such as Primitivo has low phenolic constituents and tannins and stems affect aroma, taste body and olfactory characteristics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of presence of stems during fermentation on polyphenolic, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of wine. Primitivo grapes vinified in presence of different percentage of stems: 100 % de-stemmed (D100), 75 % de-stemmed (D75) and 50 % de-stemmed (D50). Results confirmed that the wines vinified in presence of stems were higher in tannins, flavans, to vanillin and proanthocyanidins, colour intensity with lower anthocyanins. The presence of stems during fermentation conferred more structure and flavour to wines. They facilitated must aeration thus promoting synthesis of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast. In particular, a higher content of hexan-1-ol, hex-3-en-1-ol and 2-phenyl ethanol in D50 and D75 gave the wines that suggest green grass, herb and floral. Wine from D75 seemed to be better than D50 in terms of volatile compounds as well as fruity, floral and balsamic components preserved, without any unpleasant taste of long chain fatty acids found in D50.

  7. (abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

    1993-01-01

    Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

  8. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry.

  9. Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Application Enhances Aromatic Compound Concentration in Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Yang; Li, Yi-Qing; Li, Teng; Yang, Hang-Yu; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Bo-Lin; Zhu, Bao-Qing

    2016-12-29

    A nitrogen deficiency always causes bog bilberry syrup wine to have a poor sensory feature. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen source addition on volatile compounds during bog bilberry syrup wine fermentation. The syrup was supplemented with 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/L dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP) before fermentation. Results showed that an increase of DAP amounts accelerated fermentation rate, increased alcohol content, and decreased sugar level. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were also enhanced with the increase of DAP amounts. A total of 91 volatile compounds were detected in the wine and their concentrations were significantly enhanced with the increase of DAP. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, levo-2,3-butanediol, 2-phenylethanol, meso-2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid exhibited a significant increase of their odor activity value (OAV) with the increase of DAP amounts. Bog bilberry syrup wine possessed fruity, fatty, and caramel flavors as its major aroma, whereas a balsamic note was the least present. The increase of DAP amounts significantly improved the global aroma attributes, thereby indicating that DAP supplementation could promote wine fermentation performance and enhance the sensory quality of bog bilberry syrup wine.

  10. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-07-08

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided.

  11. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  12. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species.

  13. AmeriFlux CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.

    DOE Data Explorer

    McCaughey, Harry [Queen's University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.. Site Description - Groundhog River (FCRN or CCP site "ON-OMW") is situated in a typical boreal mixedwood forest in northeastern Ontario (48.217 degrees north and 82.156 degrees west) about 80 km southwest of Timmins in Reeves Twp. near the Groundhog River. Rowe (1972) places the site in the Missinaibi-Cabonga Section of the Boreal Forest Region. In terms of ecoregion and ecozone, the site is in the Lake Timiskaming Lowlands of the Boreal Shield. The forest developed after high-grade logging in the 1930's. The average age in 2013 is estimated at beteen 75 and 80 years. The forest is dominated by five species characteristic of Ontario boreal mixedwoods: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The surficial geology is a lacustrine deposit of varved or massive clays, silts and silty sands. The soil is an orthic gleysol with a soil moisture regime classified as fresh to very fresh. Plonski (1974) rates it as a site class 1. The topography is simple and flat with an overall elevation of 340 m ASL.

  14. Aromatic resin characterisation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Raw and archaeological materials.

    PubMed

    Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2006-11-17

    An analytical procedure based on alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethyl-silylation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study the chemical composition of benzoe and storax resins, water-insoluble exudates of trees of the Styrax and Liquidambar genus. They are chemically characterised by having aromatic acids, alcohols and esters as their main components and are thus known as aromatic and/or balsamic resins. This analytical procedure allowed us to characterise the main components of the two resins and, even though cinnamic acid is the main component of both the resins, the presence of other characteristic aromatic compounds and triterpenes permitted us to distinguish between the two materials. All the compounds identified in benzoe resin were detected in an archaeological organic residue from an Egyptian ceramic censer (fifth to seventh centuries a.d.), thus proving that this resin was used as one of the components of the mixture of organic materials burned as incense. These results provide the first chemical evidence of the presence of benzoe resin in an archaeological material from Mediterranean area.

  15. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  16. Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Márcio D; Picanço, Marcelo C; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Barros, Emerson C; Campos, Mateus R

    2007-06-01

    This work aimed at identifying plant compounds with insecticidal activity against Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetaefolia L.), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), 'baleeira' herb (Cordia verbenaceae L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.) and billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.). Firstly, the insecticidal activities of hexane and ethanol plant extracts were evaluated against adults of R. dominica. Among them, only the hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticidal activity. The hexane extract of this plant species was therefore fractionated by silica gel column chromatography to isolate and purify its bioactive chemical constituents. Three compounds were identified using IR spectra, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMBC and NOE after gel chromatography: 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone and coumarin. The complete assignment of (13)C NMR to 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone was successfully made for the first time. 5,6,7,8,3'-Pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone did not show any insecticidal activity against the four insect species tested. 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-Heptamethoxyflavone showed low activity against D. hyalinata and R. dominica and was not toxic to M. domestica or P. americana. In contrast, coumarin showed insecticidal activity against all four insect pest species tested, with the following order of susceptibility: R. dominica < P. americana < D. hyalinata < M. domestica after 24 h exposure. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA): results with the European baseline series, 2013/14.

    PubMed

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A; Ballmer-Weber, B; Bauer, A; Belloni Fortina, A; Bircher, A; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Czarnecka-Operacz, M; Dugonik, A; Gallo, R; Giménez-Arnau, A; Johansen, J D; John, S M; Kieć-Świerczyńska, M; Kmecl, T; Kręcisz, B; Larese Filon, F; Mahler, V; Pesonen, M; Rustemeyer, T; Sadowska-Przytocka, A; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Schliemann, S; Schuttelaar, M L; Simon, D; Spiewak, R; Valiukevičienė, S; Weisshaar, E; White, I R; Wilkinson, S M

    2017-09-01

    Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes. To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy to the metals nickel, cobalt and chromium remained largely stable, at 18.1%, 5.9% and 3.2%, respectively, similar to mostly unchanged prevalence with fragrance mix I, II and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) at 7.3%, 3.8% and 5.3%, respectively. In the subgroup of departments diagnosing (mainly) patients with occupational contact dermatitis, the prevalence of work-related contact allergies such as epoxy resin or rubber additives was found to be increased, compared to general dermatology departments. Continuous surveillance of contact allergy based on network data offers the identification of time trends or persisting problems, and thus enables focussing in-depth research (subgroup analyses, exposure analysis) on areas where it is needed. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Recovery kinetics of photochemical efficiency in winter stressed conifers: the effects of growth light environment, extent of the season and species.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Evergreens undergo reductions in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during winter due to increases in sustained thermal energy dissipation. Upon removing winter stressed leaves to room temperature and low light, F(v)/F(m) recovers and can include both a rapid and a slow phase. The goal of this study was to determine whether the rapid component to recovery exists in winter stressed conifers at any point during the season in a seasonally extreme environment. Additional goals were to compare the effects of species, growth light environment and the extent of the winter season on recovery kinetics in conifers. Four species (sun and shade needle) were monitored during the winter of 2007/2008: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Taxus cuspidata and white spruce (Picea glauca). F(v)/F(m) was measured in the field, and then monitored indoors at room temperature and low light for 6 days. The results showed that all species showed a rapid component to recovery in early winter that disappeared later in the season in sun needles but was present in shade needles on most days monitored during winter. There were differences among species in the recovery kinetics across the season, with pine recovering the most slowly and spruce the most quickly. The results suggest an important role for the rapidly reversible form of energy dissipation in early winter, as well as important differences between species in their rate of recovery in late winter/early spring which may have implications for spring onset of photosynthesis.

  19. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

    2003-06-01

    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents.

  20. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture.

    PubMed

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R

    2004-01-01

    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  1. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Coulston, John W; Wear, David N

    2017-01-01

    The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and identified the indicator and dominant species associated with each. Cluster typologies in two levels of a hierarchy of forest assemblages, with 29 and 147 groups respectively, were supported by diagnostic criteria. Groups in these two levels of the hierarchy were labeled based on the top indicator species in each, and ranged widely in size. For example, in the 29-cluster typology, the sugar maple-red maple assemblage contained the largest number of plots (30,068), while the butternut-sweet birch and sourwood-scarlet oak assemblages were both smallest (6 plots each). We provide a case-study demonstration of the utility of the typology for informing forest climate change impact assessment. For five assemblages in the 29-cluster typology, we used existing projections of changes in importance value (IV) for the dominant species under one low and one high climate change scenario to assess impacts to the assemblages. Results ranged widely for each scenario by the end of the century, with each showing an average decrease in IV for dominant species in some assemblages, including the balsam fir-quaking aspen assemblage, and an average increase for others, like the green ash-American elm assemblage. Future work should assess adaptive capacity of these forest assemblages and investigate local population- and community-level dynamics in places where dominant species may be impacted. This typology will be ideal for monitoring, assessing, and projecting changes to forest communities within the emerging framework of macrosystems ecology, which emphasizes hierarchies and broad extents.

  2. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  3. Forest restoration in a mixed-ownership landscape under climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine; Scheller, Robert M; Mladenoff, David J; White, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    The extent to which current landscapes deviate from the historical range of natural variability (RNV) is a common means of defining and ranking regional conservation targets. However, climate-induced shifts in forest composition may render obsolete restoration strategies and conservation targets based on historic climate conditions and disturbance regimes. We used a spatially explicit forest ecosystem model, LANDIS-II, to simulate the interaction of climate change and forest management in northeastern Minnesota, USA. We assessed the relevance of restoration strategies and conservation targets based on the RNV in the context of future climate change. Three climate scenarios (no climate change, low emissions, and high emissions) were simulated with three forest management scenarios: no harvest, current management, and a restoration-based approach where harvest activity mimicked the frequency, severity, and size distribution of historic natural disturbance regimes. Under climate change there was a trend toward homogenization of forest conditions due to the widespread expansion of systems dominated by maple (Acer spp.). White spruce (Picea glauca), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were extirpated from the landscape irrespective of management activity; additional losses of black spruce (P. mariana), red pine (Pinus resinosa), and jack pine (P. banksiana) were projected in the high-emissions scenario. In the restoration management scenario, retention and conversion to white pine (P. strobus) restricted maple expansion. But, widespread forest loss in the restoration scenario under high-emissions projections illustrates the potential pitfalls of implementing an RNV management approach in a system that is not compositionally similar to the historic reference condition. Given the uncertainty associated with climate change, ensuring a diversity of species and conditions within forested landscapes may be the most effective means of ensuring the

  4. Cloud water and throughfall deposition of mercury and trace elements in a high elevation spruce-fir forest at Mt. Mansfield, Vermont.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sean T; Scherbatskoy, Timothy D; Malcolm, Elizabeth G; Keeler, Gerald J

    2003-08-01

    As part of the Lake Champlain Basin watershed study of mercury (Hg) and pollutant deposition, cloud water and cloud throughfall collections were conducted at the south summit (1204 m) of Mt. Mansfield, Vermont between August 1 and October 31, 1998, for multi-element chemical analysis. A passive Teflon string collector was deployed during non-precipitating events to sample cloud/fog water at timberline, while three sets of paired funnels collected cloud throughfall under the red spruce-balsam fir canopy. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Hg, major ions, and 10 trace elements. Ultra-clean sampling and analysis techniques were utilized throughout the study. Six events were sampled for cloud water alone and four events were sampled for both cloud water and cloud throughfall. Cloud throughfall chemistry showed substantial modification from incident cloud water. Much higher concentrations of Hg (2.3 x), base cations (Ca2+, K-, Mg2+; 3-18 x) and certain trace elements (Ni, Cu, Mn, Rb, Sr; 2-34 x) were observed in throughfall than in cloud water. These results confirm that cloud water can leach a wide variety of elements from tree foliage and wash off dry deposited elements. Cloud water deposited an average of 0.42 +/- 0.12 mm of water per hour. Estimated cloud water deposition of Hg was 7.4 microg m(-2) for the period August 1-October 31, approximately twice that deposited by rain during this period at a nearby low elevation Hg monitoring site. Our results indicate that cloud water and Hg deposition at Mt. Mansfield are likely to have considerable ecological effects.

  5. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented

  6. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species’ response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively. PMID:28207782

  7. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota.

  8. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  9. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p < 0.001). Yellow birch had especially high Hg in wood (2.5 ng g-1) (p < 0.001); the other species averaged 1.4 ng g-1. The Hg content of aboveground biomass, estimated from modeled tree biomass and species composition at each site, declined from the west to the east. Wood is important to Hg budgets in spite of low concentrations, because of its large mass. With the proper analytical methods, it is possible to estimate pools and fluxes of Hg in forest vegetation.

  10. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    PubMed

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  11. [Influence of manufacturing procedure on stability of Unguentum contra perniones preparations].

    PubMed

    Bosković, Mirjana; Toskić-Radojicić, Marija

    2005-04-01

    Application of various technological procedures for the manufacture of officinal preparation ointment against chilblains (Unguentum contra perniones) produce essential variations in the quality and stability of the final product. Changing the sequence of admixing active substances into the ointment base indicated the presence of incompatibility between the active substances, as well as between the active substances and the ointment base components. The aim was to examine the influence of various technological manufacturing procedures on quality and stability of the preparation. Changes in the samples of ointments and aqueous solutions of active substances were analysed microscopically. Microscopic analysis of hydrosoluble active substance solutions demonstrated destruction of ichthammol, induced by an acidic medium due to the dissolution of tannin and resorcinol, which is well known from the literature. It also demonstrated the destruction of tannin and resorcinol in aqueous solution, which had not been described in the literature. Application of the prescribed procedure for the manufacturing of ointment against chilblains, conceals the incompatibility reactions due to a slow dissolution of the tannin suspended in the officinal ointment base Unguentum cera lanae. Admixture of an ready-made aqueous solution of tannin caused an instant contact between ichthammol and the acidic medium, which caused the destruction or the complete absence of the formation of emulsion droplets. The problem of incompatibility reactions between lanolin alcohols in the ointment base and ichthammol and resorcinol, as well as the reaction between Peruvian balsam and sulfur from the ichthammol sulfate ion was observed. Numerous incompatibility reactions of ointment against chilblains, components indicated that it was necessary to introduce alterations in both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the preparation. Excipient preparation procedure, as well as the technological

  12. Changes in foliar spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence of four temperate species following branch cutting.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Berlyn, Graeme P

    2002-05-01

    Spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence are rapid non-invasive methods that can be used to quantify plant stress. Because variation in ambient light (e.g., diurnal patterns of solar radiation) may have a confounding effect on these measurements, branches are often excised in the field and then measured under controlled conditions in the laboratory. We studied four temperate tree species (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. (balsam fir), Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern. (paper birch), Picea rubens Sarg. (red spruce) and Sorbus americana Marsh. (mountain-ash)) to determine how quickly reflectance and fluorescence change following branch cutting. We hypothesized that conifer species, which have tough xeromorphic foliage, would exhibit changes more slowly than broadleaf species. Furthermore, we hypothesized that keeping broadleaf samples cool and moist would delay the onset of reflectance and fluorescence changes. In one set of experiments, we did not use any treatments to maintain the freshness of cut branches. During the first 12 h following cutting, changes in reflectance and fluorescence were slight for all species. Two or 3 days after branch cutting, the two conifers still showed only small changes in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and most reflectance indices, whereas paper birch and mountain-ash showed larger and more rapid declines in Fv/Fm and most reflectance indices. We attribute these declines to loss of water. As a consequence of xeromorphic leaf structure, the conifers were better able to minimize water loss than the two broadleaf species. In another experiment, paper birch that had been kept cool and moist after cutting showed only slight changes in fluorescence and reflectance, even after 3 days, indicating that with careful handling the time interval between collection and measurement of reflectance and fluorescence of many broadleaf specimens can be extended to several days. We conclude that measurements of

  13. Magruder Park Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  14. Longevity of strain localization associated with dynamic recrystallization of olivine in mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speciale, P. A.; Behr, W. M.; Hirth, G.; Tokle, L.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that cause strain localization in the lithosphere are fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics. The relationship between localization and grain size reduction by dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is ubiquitous in natural shear zones, but whether localization by DRX persists to high strains is debated because of the potential role of grain growth. If DRX is associated with surface energy-driven grain boundary migration (γGBM), for example, grains will grow after recrystallization and localization will be cyclical or temporary. At high stress, low temperature conditions, however, migration is theoretically predicted to be driven by strain energy (ρGBM). At these conditions, grain growth may be suppressed even in monophase aggregates, and localization will persist over geologic timescales. Here we examine the conditions at which DRX leads to permanent, as opposed to transient, localization by evaluating the role of grain growth in olivine aggregates. We deformed as-is Balsam Gap dunite in axial compression using a Griggs rig and molten salt cell. We conducted 12 experiments at 1100 and 1200°C, a strain rate of 10-5 s-1, and a confining pressure of 1300 MPa. After samples reached strains of ~30%, we relaxed the stress, either with the motor off or at a strain rate of 10-6 s-1, for specific time increments before quenching. We perform detailed microstructural analyses to identify the transition from ρGBM to γGBM at these experimental conditions. We predict the microstructure (at time t1) will reflect ρGBM, with negligible net grain growth. After strain energy has been substantially reduced (time t1+n), evidence of γGBM will be observed in the microstructure as 120° triple junctions and increased grain sizes. By isolating the conditions at which γGBM becomes more important than ρGBM, we can infer the grainsize-stress conditions under which DRX may promote permanent strain localization in the lithosphere.

  15. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  16. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  17. Water quality and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading, Red Cedar Lakes, Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Cedar Lakes consist of three mainstem lakes (Balsam, Hemlock and Red Cedar) on the Red Cedar River in Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin. These lakes are productive because of high phosphorus loading, and classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because of concerns that the water quality of these lakes was degrading, three cooperative studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 2003. As part of these studies, water quality in the lakes was documented in 1993?94, 1996?97, and 2000?01, and water and phosphorus budgets were constructed for water year 2001. Historical water-quality data indicated that the lakes have changed little since the late 1980s. A detailed phosphorus budget indicated that most of the 14,100 pounds of phosphorus input to the lakes during 2001 came from the upstream lakes, streams draining relatively undeveloped land upstream of Hemlock Lake, and ground water. Simulation results from two water-quality models (BATHTUB and WiLMS) indicated that about a 50-percent reduction in phosphorus loading from that measured in 2001 is required for all three lakes to be classified as mesotrophic; therefore, appreciable improvements in the water quality would require improvements in the water quality of the upstream lakes. Although the water quality of the lakes has not changed appreciably in recent years and major improvements in water quality are unlikely without major improvements to upstream lakes, continued efforts to protect the susceptible watershed are necessary to maintain the current level of water quality.

  18. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  19. Soil nitrogen accretion along a floodplain terrace chronosequence in northwest Alaska: Influence of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia canadensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhoades, C.; Binkley, D.; Oskarsson, H.; Stottlemyer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen enters terrestrial ecosystems through multiple pathways during primary succession. We measured accumulation of total soil nitrogen and changes in inorganic nitrogen (N) pools across a 300-y sequence of river terraces in northwest Alaska and assessed the contribution of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia canadensis. Our work compared 5 stages of floodplain succession, progressing from a sparsely vegetated silt cap to dense shrubby vegetation, balsam poplar-dominated (Populus balsamifera) and white spruce-dominated (Picea glauca) mixed forests, and old-growth white spruce forest. Total soil N (0-30 cm depth) increased throughout the age sequence, initially by 2.4 g N??m-2??y-1 during the first 120 y of terrace development, then by 1.6 g N??m-2??y-1 during the subsequent 2 centuries. Labile soil N, measured by anaerobic incubation, increased most rapidly during the first 85 y of terrace formation, then remained relatively constant during further terrace development. on recently formed terraces, Shepherdia shrubs enriched soil N pools several-fold compared to soil beneath Salix spp. shrubs or intercanopy sites. Total and labile soil N accretion was proportional to Shepherdia cover during the first century of terrace development, and mineral soil ?? 15N content indicated that newly formed river terrace receive substantial N through N-fixation. About half the 600 g total N??m-2 accumulated across the river terrace chronosequence occurred during the 120 y when S. canadensis was dominant. Sediment deposited by periodic flooding continued to add N to terrace soils after the decline in Shepherdia abundance and may have contributed 25% of the total N found in the floodplain terrace soils.

  20. The Study of a Liquid Droplet Falling Through Two Immiscible Layers of Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    In an exploratory experiment, we noticed the unusual behaviors of liquid droplets falling through layers of oil and water. A rectangular container was filled with an aqueous solution and a layer of oil. A dropper was used to control the size of the droplet. Water was mixed with Bromothymol Blue dye, a chemical indicator, to visualize the flow processes. Surface tension and the buoyancy of the oil layer between the liquid droplet and the water below caused the liquid droplet to be stopped at the interface. Over time, the support weakened and the droplet would fall quickly through the water. The first of two cases was a salt water solution with NaOH, and the second consisted of balsamic vinegar and NaOH. Once the salt water droplet touched the aqueous solution, it collapsed, sank and spread rapidly at the interface. The sinking motion dragged the spreading fluid back to its center and then down. For the second case, a trace amount of the droplet spread rapidly at the interface while the main portion of the droplet sank and then spontaneously exploded. The difference in behavior is mainly due to the surface tension of the droplet in water. The underlying mechanisms of the droplet's flow instability are from the effects of diffusion weakening the surface tension. Bianca Mesa is an undergraduate student in the Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Department at Florida Atlantic University. She is pursuing a B.S. degree in Ocean Engineering. In addition to her academic interests, she is also an avid sailor.

  1. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  2. Laboratory studies of feeding and oviposition preference, developmental performance, and survival of the predatory beetle, Sasajiscymnus tsugae on diets of the woolly adelgids, Adelges tsugae and Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Robert M; Monahan, John F; Hain, Fred P

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) as an alternate mass rearing host for the adelgid predator, Sasajiscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied in the laboratory. This predator is native to Japan and has been introduced to eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), forests throughout the eastern United States for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), also of Japanese origin. Feeding, oviposition, immature development, and adult long-term survival of S. tsugae were tested in a series of no choice (single-prey) and paired-choice experiments between the primary host prey, A. tsugae, and the alternate host prey, A. piceae. In paired-choice feeding tests, the predator did not discriminate between eggs of the two adelgid species, but in the no choice tests the predator did eat significantly more eggs of A. piceae than those of A. tsugae. S. tsugae accepted both test prey for oviposition and preferred to lay eggs on adelgid infested versus noninfested host plants. Overall oviposition rates were very low (< 1 egg per predator female) in the oviposition preference tests. Predator immature development rates did not differ between the two test prey, but only 60% of S. tsugae survived egg to adult development when fed A. piceae compared to 86% when fed A. tsugae. S. tsugae adult long-term survival was significantly influenced (positively and negatively) by prey type and the availability of a supplemental food source (diluted honey) when offered aestivating A. tsugae sistens nymphs or ovipositing aestivosistens A. piceae adults, but not when offered ovipositing A. tsugae sistens adults. These results suggest that the development of S. tsugae laboratory colonies reared on a diet consisting only of A. piceae may be possible, and that the biological control potential of the predator might be expanded to

  3. Effects of insecticide use on breeding birds in Christmas tree plantations in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, G; Desgranges, J L

    1995-10-01

    : This research, which was carried out in the spring of 1989 and 1990 in seven balsam fir (Abies balsamea) plantations in southeastern Quebec, examines potential deleterious effects of three insecticides (i.e. dimethoate, diazinon and insecticidal soap) on breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (n=87 nests) and Song Sparrows (Melospizsa melodia) (n=41 nests). Through analyses of blood serum cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) activity both prior to and the second day following applications of the two organophosphorus insecticides, we showed that adult American Robins, Song Sparrows and Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in the treated plantations were exposed to diazinon and dimethoate (p<0.05). Signs of exposure to diazinon (p<0.05) were also found in young American Robins. However, despite sharp reductions in blood ChE (and, in some cases, marked inhibition confirmed by 2-PAM reactivation), no cases of adult mortality were recorded following the treatments. Cases of complete or partial mortality were recorded in American Robin and Song Sparrow nests, even among control birds (non-exposed birds). No mortality was recorded for broods exposed to the insecticidal soap. Abandonment of nests and egg infertility were ruled out as possible causes of mortality. The cases of total mortality observed in American Robin and Song Sparrow broods exposed to dimethoate were similar to those recorded for control nests (18 and 25% compared to 14 and 21%, respectively). However, among American Robin and Song Sparrow nestlings exposed to diazinon, essentially twice as many cases of total mortality (31 and 38%, respectively) were recorded as for the control nests. It appears that American Robin eggs are sensitive to diazinon and dimethoate, particularly when spraying is carried out early in the incubation stage. In the case of the Song Sparrow, it is mainly the nestlings that succumb after diazinon is sprayed on them or when dimethoate applications are made during the

  4. Analysis of diterpenoic compounds in natural resins applied as binders in museum objects by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Anna; Kolivoska, Viliam; Kaml, Isabella; Baatz, Wolfgang; Kenndler, Ernst

    2007-07-20

    The exudates of conifers consist mainly of diterpenoic acids of the abietane and pimarane type (abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic, palustric, pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric and sandaracopimaric acid) and larixol acetate. These natural resins were used as adhesives, coatings, varnishes or plasticizers in artistic and historic works since ancient times. For the purpose of conservation and restoration and for art historic examination of such museum objects the identification of the binding media used is undoubtedly of paramount importance. In the present paper, the characterization of these resins based on the pattern of their diterpenoid constituents is carried out by capillary electrophoresis. For separation a background electrolyte which has been initially introduced for the analysis of chlorinated and natural resin acids in waste water was modified and the experimental conditions were adjusted in terms of resolution and analysis time. Separation was carried out in borate buffer at pH 9.25 (ionic strength 20 mmol L(-1)) with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin as additives to increase selectivity and enhance the solubility of the analytes. With this electrophoretic system the resin acids of interest and larixol acetate--all as anionic cyclodextrin complexes--were separated within 5 min and detected at 200, 250 and 270 nm with a diode array detector. The electrophoretic patterns served for the characterisation of the relevant diterpenoic resins, balsams and copals. Sample pre-treatment was limited to sonication in methanol at 55 degrees C for 30 min. This enables the identification of the resins in mixtures with other binders like plant gums, animal glues or drying oils, even when these media are present in excess. Colophony was identified as resinous constituent of a modelling mass for gilded frames originating from the 19th century.

  5. Resistance of two planarian species to UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kalafatić, Mirjana; Kovacević, Goran; Franjević, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effects of 20, 25 and 30 minute UV-irradiation periods lambda = 253.5 nm to two planarian species Dugesia tigrina (Gir.) and Polycelis felina (Daly.). In vivo, UV light effects have been reported to affect intracellular receptors and disrupt simple behaviour. The effects of UV-rays on mortality and behavior as well as morphological, cytological and histological changes in the two planarian species were assessed, and the course and the dynamics of regenerative processes were compared between them. Experimental populations of Dugesia tigrina and Polycelis felina species were maintained in laboratory conditions at room temperature. Mortality, behavioral and morphological changes were monitored daily by means of a light stereomicroscope. For cytological and histopathological analysis, planarians were fixed in Bouine fixative on the first, second, third, fifth and seventh day after exposure to UV-irradiation, respectively. They were embedded in paraffin, cut on a microtome, stained with toluidin blue and embedded in Canada-balsam. UV-rays caused mortality, behavioral, morphological, cytological and histological changes in each planarian species. In regeneration of damaged body parts reticular cells and neoblasts played the main role. Neoblasts as totipotent cells extremely increased in number in the area of damaged tissue, immediately after UV-exposure. Dugesia tigrina was more sensitive to UV-rays than Polycelis felina due to possession of less pigmented cells. The course of regeneration in both species was similar. Most individuals of both species regenerated in 5 to 12 days after UV-irradiation.

  6. Air-fluidized therapy in patients with suspected deep tissue injury: a case series.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lynda; McGarrah, Barbara; Barrett, Deborah; Stenson, Bethany; Turpin, Patricia G; Vangilder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of suspected deep tissue injuries from an initial purple bruise to a significant stage III or IV pressure ulcer may be rapid, even with optimal treatment. This case series describes our experience with air-fluidized therapy (AFT) placed upon discovery of suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI) in an acute care setting. Five patients with 10 sDTIs were placed on AFT within 12 hours of sDTI diagnosis and evaluated for an average of 9 days. Patients were included in the series if they met the height and weight range of the bed and presented with, or developed an sDTI. Standard wound care included the use of an ointment containing trypsin, Balsam of Peru, and castor oil (Vasolex; Stratus Pharmaceuticals Inc, Miami, Florida) applied directly to both intact skin and open areas comprising the sDTI. Patients were repositioned per standard hospital care. Although we were unable to prevent skin breakdown in every case, findings suggest that interventions resulted in a reduction in the magnitude of tissue loss, including prevention of stage III to IV pressure ulceration in all 5 patients. The cost of a 9-day length of stay on the AFT bed is estimated at less than $700 per patient, which is far less than the reported cost to treat a stage III/IV wound ($10,845 US per patient in 2009 dollars). Our experience described in these cases suggests that the use of AFT may be clinical and cost-effective for prevention of progression of sDTI in critically ill patients. Additional research in this area should be encouraged.

  7. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajneesh; Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Rattan, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials), Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact) and Group C (no topographic relationship). Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material) and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions). Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5%) patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7), palladium (5), potassium dichromate (3), balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2) and eugenol (1), cobalt chloride (1) and carvone (1). Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%), marked improvement in 7 (35%) and no improvement in 7 (35%) patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  8. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  9. A systematic approach to systemic contact dermatitis and symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): a closer look at these conditions and an approach to intertriginous eruptions.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Monika; Shear, Neil H

    2011-06-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is a condition that occurs when an individual sensitized to a contact allergen is exposed to that same allergen or a cross-reacting molecule through a systemic route. Systemic exposure to allergens can include transcutaneous, transmucosal, oral, intravenous, intramuscular, and inhalational routes. Baboon syndrome is perhaps the most recognizable form of systemic contact dermatitis, presenting with diffuse, well demarcated erythema of the buttocks, upper inner thighs, and axillae. Other forms of systemic contact dermatitis include dermatitis at sites of previous exposure to the allergen such as at a previous site of dermatitis or at sites of previous positive patch tests, dyshidrotic hand eczema, flexural dermatitis, exanthematous rash, erythroderma, and vasculitis-like lesions. The most common causes of systemic contact dermatitis consist of three groups of allergens: (i) metals including mercury, nickel, and gold; (ii) medications including aminoglycoside antibacterials, corticosteroids, and aminophylline; and (iii) plants and herbal products including the Compositae and Anacardiaceae plant families and Balsam of Peru. Baboon syndrome caused by systemic medications without a known history of previous cutaneous sensitization in the patient has been termed drug-related baboon syndrome (DRBS) or symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). Criteria for SDRIFE include exposure to systemic drug at first or repeated dose, erythema of the gluteal/perianal area and/or V-shaped erythema of the inguinal area, involvement of at least one other intertriginous localization, symmetry of affected areas, and absence of systemic toxicity. The most common causes are aminopenicillins, β-lactam antibacterials, and certain chemotherapeutic agents, though the list of etiologic agents continues to grow. Baboon syndrome and SDRIFE should be strongly considered in a patient presenting with a symmetric intertriginous eruption involving

  10. Synthesis of NiCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies for the removal of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yaxi; Li, Haizhen; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Cui, Guijia; Yan, Shiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the adsorption removal performance of NiCo2O4 as water purification adsorbents, magnetic materials NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were successfully synthesized by a facile method. NiCo2O4 with six different morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry. In this study, we mainly explored the effect of specific surface area, pore volume and pore size on the performance for the removal of methyl orange, and the adsorption capacity followed an order of (b) NiCo2O4 nanorods > (e) balsam-like NiCo2O4 > (f) rose-like NiCo2O4 > (d) NiCo2O4 nanoribbons > (a) NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructures > (c) dandelion-like NiCo2O4 spheres. The results indicated that NiCo2O4 nanorods exhibited better adsorption performance. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of NiCo2O4 nanorods were also discussed in depth by analyzing scale and surface characteristics. Besides, NiCo2O4 could be easily recovered from solution, which may avoid potential secondary pollution. Moreover, adsorption kinetics, the influence of pH and adsorption mechanism were comprehensively investigated. This finding indicated that NiCo2O4 were promising adsorbents for water purification.

  11. Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. ); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. ); Shi, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

  12. Interannual Variation in Stand Transpiration is Dependent Upon Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Burrows, S. N.; Ahl, D. E.; Samanta, S.

    2003-12-01

    In order to successfully predict transpirational water fluxes from forested watersheds, interannual variability in transpiration must be quantified and understood. In a heterogeneous forested landscape in northern Wisconsin, we quantified stand transpiration across four forest cover types representing more than 80 percent of the land area in order to 1) quantify differences in stand transpiration and leaf area over two years and 2) determine the mechanisms governing the changes in transpiration over two years. We measured sap flux in eight trees of each tree species in the four cover types. We found that in northern hardwoods, the leaf area of sugar maple increased between the two measurement years with transpiration per unit ground area increasing even more than could be explained by leaf area. In an aspen stand, tent caterpillars completely defoliated the stand for approximately a month until a new set of leaves flushed out. The new set of leaves resulted in a lower leaf area but the same transpiration per unit leaf area indicating there was no physiological compensation for the lower leaf area. At the same time, balsam fir growing underneath the aspen increased their transpiration rate in response to greater light penetration through the dominant aspen canopy Red pine had a thirty percent change in leaf area within a growing season due to multiple cohorts of leaves and transpiration followed this leaf area dynamic. In a forested wetland, white cedar transpiration was proportional to surface water depth between the two years. Despite the specific tree species' effects on stand transpiration, all species displayed a minimum water potential regulation resulting in a saturating response of transpiration to vapor pressure deficit that did not vary across the two years. This physiological set point will allow future water flux models to explain mechanistically interannual variability in transpiration of this and similar forests.

  13. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frédéric; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. © 2013.

  14. Recent Y chromosome divergence despite ancient origin of dioecy in poplars (Populus).

    PubMed

    Geraldes, A; Hefer, C A; Capron, A; Kolosova, N; Martinez-Nuñez, F; Soolanayakanahally, R Y; Stanton, B; Guy, R D; Mansfield, S D; Douglas, C J; Cronk, Q C B

    2015-07-01

    All species of the genus Populus (poplar, aspen) are dioecious, suggesting an ancient origin of this trait. Despite some empirical counter examples, theory suggests that nonrecombining sex-linked regions should quickly spread, eventually becoming heteromorphic chromosomes. In contrast, we show using whole-genome scans that the sex-associated region in Populus trichocarpa is small and much younger than the age of the genus. This indicates that sex determination is highly labile in poplar, consistent with recent evidence of 'turnover' of sex-determination regions in animals. We performed whole-genome resequencing of 52 P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood) and 34 Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) individuals of known sex. Genomewide association studies in these unstructured populations identified 650 SNPs significantly associated with sex. We estimate the size of the sex-linked region to be ~100 kbp. All SNPs significantly associated with sex were in strong linkage disequilibrium despite the fact that they were mapped to six different chromosomes (plus 3 unmapped scaffolds) in version 2.2 of the reference genome. We show that this is likely due to genome misassembly. The segregation pattern of sex-associated SNPs revealed this to be an XY sex-determining system. Estimated divergence times of X and Y haplotype sequences (6-7 Ma) are much more recent than the divergence of P. trichocarpa (poplar) and Populus tremuloides (aspen). Consistent with this, in P. tremuloides, we found no XY haplotype divergence within the P. trichocarpa sex-determining region. These two species therefore have a different genomic architecture of sex, suggestive of at least one turnover event in the recent past.

  15. Spectral analysis of coniferous foliage and possible links to soil chemistry: are spectral chlorophyll indices related to forest floor dissolved organic C and N?

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Jana; Seidl, Zdenek; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Rock, Barrett N; Alexander, Jess E; Malenovský, Zbynek; McDowell, William H

    2008-10-15

    Dissolved organic matter in soils can be predicted from forest floor C:N ratio, which in turn is related to foliar chemistry. Little is known about the linkages between foliar constituents such as chlorophylls, lignin, and cellulose and the concentrations of water-extractable forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Lignin and cellulose are not mobile in foliage and thus may be indicative of growing conditions during prior years, while chlorophylls respond more rapidly to the current physiological status of a tree and reflect nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to examine potential links among spectral foliar data, and the organic C and N of forest soils. Two coniferous species (red spruce and balsam fir) were studied in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA. Six trees of each species were sampled at 5 watersheds (2 in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 3 in the Bartlett Experimental Forest). We hypothesized that in a coniferous forest, chemistry of old foliage would better predict the chemical composition of the forest floor litter layer than younger foliage, which is the more physiologically active and the most likely to be captured by remote sensing of the canopy. Contrary to our expectations, chlorophyll concentration of young needles proved to be most tightly linked to soil properties, in particular water-extractable dissolved organic carbon. Spectral indices related to the chlorophyll content of needles could be used to predict variation in forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Strong correlations were found between optical spectral indices based on chlorophyll absorption and forest floor dissolved organic carbon, with higher foliage chlorophyll content corresponding to lower forest floor dissolved organic carbon. The mechanisms behind these correlations are uncertain and need further investigation. However, the direction of the linkage from soil to tree via nutrient

  16. Liquid Adhesive Contact Dermatitis After Bunionectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hood, Christopher R; Cornell, Rhonda S; Greenfield, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the skin adherents used in postoperative dressings are an uncommon but unfavorable complication that can result in poor wound healing, increased scarring, and surgical wound infections. This unexpected and unforeseen complication is not well documented in the current published data. We present the case of a 39-year-old female who had undergone a bunionectomy procedure and developed allergic contact dermatitis postoperatively. We discuss the clinical findings and treatments administered after application of a commonly used liquid skin adhesive applied intraoperatively. Through the use of topical and oral steroids and foot soaks in astringent solutions, over the course of several months, the patient's skin returned to the expected postoperative appearance. With the increased consciousness to minimize surgical scarring to improve cosmesis, one of these causes of the reaction might have been the liquid adhesive used in the surgical closure and dressing application. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the adhesive compound's chemical makeup and any potential cross-reactivity to help surgeons make an informed decision of whether to use a liquid adhesive. The various ingredients in liquid adhesives contain known allergen compounds that can cause a reaction, such as balsam of Peru and colophony or rosin, both of which are reviewed in our report. We also present a treatment algorithm developed from the compiled data in the case of a patient developing an allergic reaction. From our literature review and considering the percentage of incidence, if a surgeon desires to use a liquid adhesive product, Mastisol(®) should be chosen because of its lower reactivity and greater adhesive properties compared with the compound tincture of benzoin. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  18. Combining near infrared spectra of feces and geostatistics to generate forage nutritional quality maps across landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Olivier, Jean; Bradley, Robert L; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-09-01

    An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and time consuming. Here, we are proposing a rapid and cost-effective forage quality monitoring tool that combines near infrared (NIR) spectra of fecal samples and easily obtained data on plant community composition. Our approach rests on the premise that NIR spectra of fecal samples collected within low population density exclosures reflect the optimal forage quality of a given landscape. Forage quality can thus be based on the Mahalanobis distance of fecal spectral scans across the landscape relative to fecal spectral scans inside exclosures (referred to as DISTEX). The Gi* spatial autocorrelation statistic can then be applied among neighboring DISTEX values to detect and map "hot spots" and "cold spots" of nutritional quality over the landscape. We tested our approach in a heterogeneous boreal landscape on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada), where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations over the landscape have ranged from 20 to 50 individuals/km2 for at least 80 years, resulting in a loss of most palatable and nutritious plant species. Our results suggest that hot spots of forage quality occur when old-growth balsam fir stands comprise >39.8% of 300 ha neighborhoods, whereas cold spots occur in laggs (i.e., transition zones from forest to peatland). In terms of ground-level indicator plant species, the presence of Canada bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) was highly correlated with hot spots, whereas tamarack (Larix laricina) was highly correlated with cold spots. Mean DISTEX values were positively and significantly correlated with the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents of feces. While our

  19. Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.

    PubMed

    Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven tree species in northern Wisconsin over two years. These species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three species, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven species despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal

  20. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  1. Low Temperature Bulging Recrystallization in Olivine Aggregates: a Mechanism for Strain Weakening and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holyoke, C. W.; Tullis, J.

    2003-12-01

    Evidence of strain localization in olivine aggregates has been observed in both obducted slices of upper mantle and in high stress experiments (Post, 1977). Most experimental deformation studies of olivine aggregates have been done in gas apparatus at low P (<300 MPa) and thus at low flow stress; both axial compression and shear experiments involving climb-accommodated dislocation creep show steady state flow, with little if any strain weakening. However, experimental studies of quartz and feldspar at high P have shown the existence of a low T, high stress dislocation creep regime in which climb is very limited and creep is accommodated by bulging recrystallization; in this regime extreme strain weakening and localization occur. To explore high stress dislocation creep in olivine, we have deformed natural and synthetic aggregates using a modified molten salt assembly in a Griggs apparatus at a P of 1.5 GPa, T of 950 to 1100° C, and strain rates of 5x10-5/s to 10-6/s, in both axial compression and general shear. For starting materials we used both Balsam Gap dunite (d ˜500 μ m) and synthetic aggregates hot pressed from San Carlos olivine powders (10-20 and 25-38 μ m). Prior to weld sealing in Ni and outer Pt, each sample was dried for 24 hrs at 900° C in a CO/CO2 atmosphere. The yield stress of the samples ranged from 1300 to 380 MPa and all samples strain weakened. The highest stress sample shows evidence of semi-brittle flow, with high densities of linear dislocations and a few very small recrystallized grains. A sample with an intermediate yield stress (780 MPa) strain weakened to 600 MPa by 16% strain and shows very high densities of tangled dislocations in the porphyroclasts, and small (1-2 μ m) dislocation-free recrystallized grains along their boundaries. The sample with the lowest yield stress (380 MPa) strain weakened to a steady state flow stress of 120 MPa at γ = 4.5. The few remaining porphyroclasts contain subgrains, and the recrystallized grain

  2. GC-MS profiling of the phytochemical constituents of the oleoresin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and a preliminary in vivo evaluation of its antipsoriatic effect.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Cavalchini, Alberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2013-01-20

    Copaiba is the oleoresin (OR) obtained from Copaifera (Fabaceae), a neotropical tree which grows in Amazon regions. The balsam, constituted by an essential oil and a resinous fraction is used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases and for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Aim of this work was (a) to carry out a characterization by GC-MS of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. oleoresin (OR); (b) to investigate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity; (c) to evaluate its antipsoriatic effect after oral intake/topical application. The volatile fraction (yield: 22.51%, w/w) shows: α-bergamotene (48.38%), α-himachalene (11.17%), β-selinene (5.00%) and β-caryophyllene (5.47%). The OR residue (77.49%, w/w), after derivatization, showed as main constituents the following compounds: copalic, abietic, daniellic, lambertinic, labd-7-en-15-oic, pimaric, isopimaric acids and kaur16-en18-oic acid. Preincubation of LPS-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes with increasing concentrations of the OR purified fraction (OR-PF), containing diterpene acids, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in a dose-range of 0.1-10 μM. In addition, in cell culture system of human THP-1 monocytes, 1 μM OR-PF counteracts LPS-driven NF-κB nuclear translocation. In a preliminary clinical trial three patients affected by chronic psoriasis, treated with oral intake or topical application of the OR, exhibited a significant improvement of the typical signs of this disease, i.e. erythema, skin thickness, and scaliness. In conclusion, the results of this work, beside an extensive analytical characterization of the OR chemical composition, provide strong evidences that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation, and consequently of proinflammatory cytokines secretion.

  3. Using dendrochonology to crossdate year of death in trees: limitations with stressed trees in a diffuse mortality context. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angers, V. A.; Bergeron, Y.; Drapeau, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dendrochronological crossdating of dead trees is commonly used to reconstruct mortality patterns over time. This method assumes that the year of formation of the last growth ring corresponds to the year of the death of the tree. Trees experiencing important stress, such as defoliation, drought or senescence, may rely on very few resources to allocate to growth and may favour other vital physiological functions over growth. Even if the tree is still living, growth may thus be reduced or even supressed during a stressful event. When a tree dies following this event and that there is a lag between year of last ring production and year of actual death, crossdating underestimates the actual year of death. As ring formation is not uniform across the bole, growth may occur only in some parts of the tree and may be detectable only if multiple bole samples are analysed. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the growth patterns of dying trees influence estimation of year of death when crossdating. Our research questions were the following 1) Is there a difference (hereafter referred as 'lag') between the last year of growth ring formation in disc samples collected at different heights in dead trees? 2) If so, what is the range of magnitude of these lags? and 3) Is this magnitude range influenced by the causes of death? Sampled sites were located in northwestern Quebec (Canada), over an area overlapping the eastern mixedwood and coniferous boreal forests. Four tree species were examined: Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP). Trees that died following fire, self-thinning, defoliation and senescence were sampled. Two to three discs were collected on each dead tree (snags and logs) at different heights. Dendrochronological analyses were conducted to determine year of last growth ring production by crossdating. The more severe the disturbance, the

  4. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  5. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Lowe, T P

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a major limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other major sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  6. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  7. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Scott; Webster, Craig G; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Webb, Susan E; Roberts, Pamela D; Stansly, Philip A; Turechek, William W

    2011-08-01

    A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest

  8. [Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene

    2014-12-01

    In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individuals of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed

  9. Epidemiology of contact allergy in adults.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T; Böhler, E; Ruhdorfer, S; Weigl, L; Wessner, D; Filipiak, B; Wichmann, H E; Ring, J

    2001-12-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of contact sensitization in the general population and to investigate associations with important sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Within a population-based nested, case-control study in Germany, we performed patch tests with 25 standard allergens in 1141 adults (50.4% female, age median 50 years). Additional information was obtained by a dermatologic examination, a standardized interview, and blood analysis. At least one positive reaction was exhibited by 40.0% of the subjects, with reactions most frequently observed to fragrance mix (15.9%), nickel (13.1%), thimerosal (4.7%), and balsam of Peru (3.8%). Women were sensitized more often than men (50.2% vs 29.9%, OR 2.36, CI 1.84-3.03), and this was also significant for fragrance mix, nickel, turpentine, cobalt chloride, and thimerosal. Contact sensitization was more frequent in subjects who reported adverse skin reactions (53.8% vs. 32.6%; OR 2.41, CI 1.85-3.14), and this was particularly true for sensitization to nickel (45.5% vs 8.8%, OR 8.64, CI 5.67-13.17) and fragrance mix (29.0% vs 14.0%, OR 2.51, CI 1.60-3.91) and the corresponding intolerance of fashion jewelry and fragrances. Contact sensitization decreased with increasing degree of occupational training (unskilled 45.9%, apprenticeship 40.1%, technical college 40.4%, and school of engineering 12.5%; P=0.023; trend test P=0.042). Significant associations of contact sensitization and presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, atopic eczema, or psoriasis were not observed. Frequency estimates for the general adult population based on these findings were 28.0% for overall contact sensitization and 11.4% for fragrance mix, 9.9% for nickel, and 3.2% for thimerosal. It is concluded that contact allergy is influenced by sociodemographic parameters and plays an important role in the general population.

  10. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more "big pines" (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between

  11. Interactive effects of nitrogen and water availabilities on gas exchange and whole-plant carbon allocation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, L.; Proe, M. F.; Cameron, A. D.

    1998-07-01

    Cuttings of balsam spire hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa var. Hastata Henry x Populus balsamifera var. Michauxii (Dode) Farwell) were grown in sand culture and irrigated every 2 (W) or 10 (w) days with a solution containing either 3.0 (N) or 0.5 (n) mol nitrogen m(-3) for 90 days. Trees in the WN (control) and wn treatments had stable leaf nitrogen concentrations averaging 19.4 and 8.4 mg g(-1), respectively, over the course of the experiment. Trees in the Wn and wN treatments had a similar leaf nitrogen concentration, which increased from 12.0 to 15.8 mg g(-1) during the experiment. By the final harvest, mean stomatal conductances of trees in the wN and wn treatments were less than those of trees in the Wn and WN treatments (1.8 versus 4.6 mm s(-1)). Compared to the WN treatment, biomass at the final harvest was reduced by 61, 72 and 75% in the Wn, wN and wn treatments, respectively. At the final harvest, WN trees had a mean total leaf area of 4750 +/- 380 cm(2) tree(-1) and carried 164 +/- 8 leaves tree(-1) with a specific leaf area of 181 +/- 16 cm(2) g(-1), whereas Wn trees had a smaller mean total leaf area (1310 +/- 30 cm(2) tree(-1)), because of the production of fewer leaves (41 +/- 6) with a smaller specific leaf area (154 +/- 2 cm(2) g(-1)). A greater proportion of biomass was allocated to roots in Wn trees than in WN trees, but component nitrogen concentrations adjusted such that there was no Wn treatment effect on nitrogen allocation. Compared with WN trees, rates of photosynthesis and respiration per unit weight of tissue of Wn trees decreased by 28 and 31%, respectively, but the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf nitrogen remained unaltered. The wN and Wn trees had similar leaf nitrogen concentrations; however, compared with the Wn treatment, the wN treatment decreased mean total leaf area (750 +/- 50 cm(2) tree(-1)), number of leaves per tree (29 +/- 2) and specific leaf area (140 +/- 6 cm(2) g(-1)), but increased the allocation of biomass and

  12. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  13. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  14. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  15. An Empirical Typology of Tree Species Assemblages across the U.S. for Assessing Climate Change Threats to Forest Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, J. K.; Coulston, J.; Wear, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of how the composition of forest tree communities will change in the future is critical for assessing the effects of climate change on forests. Recent research suggests that simply knowing the responses of individual species to changing climate does not adequately capture likely community-level response. In part, this is because some tree species in a community play a larger role than others, and thus, any climate change effects on those species will have greater effects on the associated forest tree community. As the basis of an assessment of climate change impacts to forest communities, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree communities across the U.S. We then used indicator species analysis to define the important tree species in each community. The result was a U.S.-wide typology of 29 clusters representing empirical forest communities. Clusters contained between six and 30,000 inventory plots each, and were associated with between one and twelve indicator species. We show how these clusters can be used to assess forest community-level climate change impacts. For a subset of clusters in the eastern U.S., we overlaid projected habitat suitability maps from USDA Forest Service Climate Change Tree Atlas for the indicator species under two climate change scenarios for the end of the century. Climate change threat results ranged widely for both scenarios, showing an average loss of habitat across all indicator species in some communities, and an average gain for others. For example, the balsam fir-quaking aspen community in the northeastern U.S. was projected to see the most loss of habitat for indicator species, with a change of 47.0% and 73.4% in importance value under the low and high climate change scenarios, respectively. Conversely, the indicator species in the green ash-American elm community were projected to see gains of 32.7% and 117.4% in importance value in

  16. Modeling the Emergent Impacts of Harvesting Acadian Forests over 100+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Plug, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Harvesting strategies and policies for Acadian forest in Nova Scotia, Canada, presently are set using Decision Support Models (DSMs) that aim to maximize the long-term (>100y) value of forests through decisions implemented over short time horizons (5-80 years). However, DSMs typically are aspatial, lack ecological processes and do not treat erosion, so the long-term (>100y) emergent impacts of the prescribed forestry decisions on erosion and vegetation in Acadian forests remain poorly known. To better understand these impacts, we created an equation-based model that simulates the evolution of a ≥4 km2 forest in time steps of 1 y and at a spatial resolution of 3 m2, the footprint of a single mature tree. The model combines 1) ecological processes of recruitment, competition, and mortality; 2) geomorphic processes of hillslope erosion; 3) anthropic processes of tree harvesting, replanting, and road construction under constraints imposed by regulations and cost/benefit ratio. The model uses digital elevation models, parameters (where available), and calibration (where measurements are not available) for conditions presently found in central Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The model is unique because it 1) deals with the impacts of harvesting on an Acadian forest; and 2) vegetation and erosion are coupled. The model was tested by comparing the species-specific biomass of long-term (40 y) forest plot data to simulated results. At the spatial scale of individual 1 ha plots, model predictions presently account for approximately 50% of observed biomass changes through time, but predictions are hampered by the effects of serendipitous "random" events such as single tree windfall. Harvesting increases the cumulative erosion over 3000 years by 240% when compared to an old growth forest and significantly suppresses the growth of Balsam Fir and Sugar Maple. We discuss further tests of the model, and how it might be used to investigate the long-term sustainability of the

  17. Humus layer is the main locus of secondary SO4 production in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Daniel; Marty, Charles; Duchesne, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the sources of S exported from catchments and the reactivity of the large soil organic S pool is crucial to understand the mid- or long-term response of forested catchments to decreasing atmospheric S deposition and global warming. Sulfur fluxes as well as S and O isotopes of SO4 were measured in precipitation, throughfall, soil solutions and streams at two boreal forest catchments respectively dominated by black spruce (BS) and balsam fir (BF) in Quebec, Canada. Overall, δ34S-SO4 signature showed relatively small variations among various solution types. However, at both sites, δ18O-SO4 in precipitation (averages of 10.5-11.1‰) was decreased by 3.5-3.6‰ in throughfall because of the production of secondary SO4 through oxidation of SO2 deposited on the canopy. Throughfall δ18O-SO4 was decreased by a further 5.4-6.6‰ in the solution leaving the humus layer which was attributed to the production of secondary SO4 under the action of soil microorganisms through the oxidation of organic S during which the S atom acquired O from water and gaseous O2 present in the soil. A mixing equation based on known isotopic signature of each source suggested that ˜67-81% of the S-SO4 leaving the catchments had interacted with the canopy and the humus layer. The stability of δ18O-SO4 in the mineral soil solution and in the stream of both sites, suggests that SO4 does not undergo reduction-oxidation cycles after its passage through the humus layer. Despite its huge size, the organic S reservoir within the mineral soil would be largely inert. Given the chemical nature of SO4 transformation in the canopy, the humus layer would be responsible for nearly 100% of the biological production of secondary SO4 in the whole watershed at both sites. Taking into account the substantial production of dissolved organic S in the humus layer further emphasizes the crucial importance of the latter in the S cycling of boreal forests.

  18. Role of multi-component functional foods in the complex treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Drăgan, Simona; Nicola, Teodora; Ilina, R; Ursoniu, S; Kimar, A; Nimade, S; Nicola, T

    2007-01-01

    Cancer increases free radicals and that certain diets can influence oxidative stress. There is little evidence about the functional effect of multi-component functional foods on oxidative stress in breast cancer. 34 female patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer, stages IIIB and IV were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. All patients filled out the Quality of Life questionnaire FACT-B version 4, translated in Romanian and validated, obtained from Evanston North-Western Health Care, Illinois, USA. Seventeen patients, mean age 57.84 +/- 11.2, were put on a special diet consisting of 15 ml/day balsamic vinegar from apples and honey, with seabuckthorn berry rich in carotenoids, rosemary, sage and basil extracts, to be used in salads and vegetable soups, 150 g/day whole wheat bread with 2.5% of the nutraceutic mixture VITAPAN, 15 ml/day grape seed extract rich in polyphenols (gr. 1). Seventeen patients served as control (gr. 2). Parameters of the metabolic syndrome were measured: serum lipids, IR-HOMA insulin resistance index. Oxidative stress was measured by the FORT (free oxygen radical) test. Total hydro- and liposoluble antioxidants (ACW, ACL) in serum were measured by chemo-luminometry. All investigations were done at entry and after 3 months. Student's t test was applied to compare the means within group and between the 2 groups. The Physical well being subscale score of the QOL FACT-B version 4 questionnaire showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.001). Also, functional well being subscale (p = 0.004), FACT-G (p = 0.003) and FACT-B (p = 0.002) showed significant differences on comparison. Breast Cancer Score (Additional Concerns) had a borderline significant difference (p = 0.057). Social/Family Well being subscale and Emotional well being subscale scores showed no significant difference. At inclusion, radical activity > 310 FORT units, relevant for increased oxidative stress were present in 95.1% cases. After 3 months

  19. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2013-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  20. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  1. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Kayla

    . Forest floor fluxes of CO2 increased as the stand aged but its contribution to the ecosystem flux decreased with age. The primary environmental control on the aspen dominated ecosystem was photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The second control was soil moisture, which limited Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) on two occasions: July 2007 (mature aspen) and August 2009 (1 and 2 year old stands). In order to account for spatial variability of productivity between species, flux footprint analyses were paired with leaf level conductance measurements. Results indicated that aspen and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) were the main contributors to the ecosystem flux. Results also indicated that conductivity varied by species, slope aspect, and location on the slope. Ecosystem level fluxes were separated by wind direction and analyzed for different responses to PAR which revealed that low-lying areas were more reactive to low level PAR than upland areas.

  2. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  3. Sediment transport mechanisms inferred from heavy mineral assemblages on the 2010 Chilean tsunami deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascalho, João; Costa, Pedro; Lario, Javier

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of heavy mineral (HM) assemblages in tsunami deposits has been applied to infer inundation and backwash phases and to establish sediment sources. In ideal conditions and due to their specific density (>2.9 g/cm3), heavy minerals are the most suitable component of a sediment assemblage that can provide information regarding flow competence. Having these features in consideration, sandy tsunamigenic samples from Arauco and Mataquito areas (central Chile) were retrieved after the 27th of February 2010 tsunami that affected the Chilean coastline. Twenty seven samples (a total of 54 thin sections) tsunamigenic and beach samples were prepared to observe HM under the petrographic microscope. After dividing the samples in 4 fractions (<63 µm, 63- 125 µm, 125-500µm and >500 µm), HM were separated using bromoform and two fractions (63- 125 µm and 125-500µm) were individually mounted using Canada balsam resin on glass slides. About 300 heavy minerals per slide were identified and counted. Both assemblages were mainly composed of magnetite, pyrrhotite, amphiboles, pyroxenes, olivine, micas and zircon (this specie particularly abundant in the finer fraction analyzed). In Arauco (Ar), average HM percentages in the 125-500 µm fraction was 17.9% while in Mataquito (Ma) it was 25.7%. In the 63-125 µm fraction HM average percentages were 36.9% and 56.1%, for Ar and Ma respectively. In the 125-500 µm fraction the percentage of magnetic minerals (the densest of the denser HM) correspond to 13.2% in Ar and 2.7% in Ma. While in the finer fraction these percentages are of 0.24% and 0.1% In Ar it was possible to perceive that the highest concentration in HM and magnetic minerals was observed in the NE sector (Llico) of the embayment, where the highest run-up was observed. In this specific sector an inland decrease of HM and magnetic minerals was detected along a 300m profile, with HM percentages varying from 27% to 9% and magnetic minerals from 16% to 5%, thus

  4. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  5. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  6. Ca isotope cycling in a forested ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, Chris; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2010-02-01

    Reports of large Ca isotope fractionations between trees and soils prompted this study of a Boreal forest ecosystem near La Ronge, Saskatchewan, to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The results on five tree species (black spruce, trembling aspen, white spruce, jack pine, balsam poplar) confirm that nutrient Ca uptake by plants favors the light isotopes, thus driving residual Ca in plant available soil pools towards enrichment in the heavy isotopes. Substantial within-tree fraction occurs in tissues formed along the transpiration stream, with low δ 44Ca values in fine roots (2 mm), intermediate values in stemwood, and high values in foliage. Separation factors between different plant tissues are similar between species, but the initial fractionation step in the tips of the fine roots is species specific, and/or sensitive to the local soil environment. Soil water δ 44Ca values appear to increase with depth to at least 35 cm below the top of the forest floor, which is close to the deepest level of fine roots. The heavy plant fractionated signature of Ca in the finely rooted upper soils filters downward where it is retained on ion exchange sites, leached into groundwater, and discharged into surface waters. The relationship between Ca uptake by tree fine roots and the pattern of δ 44Ca enrichment with soil depth was modeled for two Ca pools: the forest floor (litter) and the underlying (upper B) mineral soil. Six study plots were investigated along two hillside toposequences trending upwards from a first order stream. We used allometric equations describing the Ca distribution in boreal tree species to calculate weighted average δ 44Ca values for the stands in each plot and estimate Ca uptake rates. The δ 44Ca value of precipitation was measured, and soil weathering signatures deduced, by acid leaching of lower B mineral soils. Steady state equations were used to derive a set of model Ca fluxes and fractionation factors for each plot. The model reproduces

  7. A Multivariate Approach for Using Satellite Imagery to Map the Composition and Structure of Forests Susceptible to Insect Disturbance: Application to the Simulation of Carbon Dynamics in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Wolter, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Compared to other forest disturbances, insects and disease influence the largest area of forests in both the U.S. and Canada, affecting an estimated 50 million acres in the U.S. with economic costs over $1.5 billion. The successful understanding and modeling of ecosystem impacts of insect disturbances (especially for carbon dynamics) requires good knowledge of the spatial distribution, density and structure of host species on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution of host species for the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale planning and modeling of outbreak dynamics. Spruce budworm is one of the most destructive indigenous pests in sub-boreal and boreal spruce-fir forests in the United States and Canada. Although periodic outbreaks are part of the natural cycle in these forests, traditional forest management practices may be responsible for increasing the frequency and severity of outbreaks. Currently, accurate spatially explicit forest structure data for such endeavors remains a persistent challenge and considerable research has focused on using remote sensing to identify methodologies to facilitate accurate estimation of stand volume and/or biomass. We used multi-temporal, multi-seasonal Landsat data and over 230 ground truth plots (and 220 additional validation plots) to map basal area (BA), for over two million hectares of forest in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario. BA was mapped both overall and for two spruce budworm host tree species ( Picea glauca and Abies balsamea) using partial least squares (PLS) regression applied to raw spectral bands, various spectral derivatives, and ground truth data. Results of the PLS regression yielded reasonable estimates of overall forest BA with an adjusted R2 of 0.62 and RMSE 4.67 m2 ha-1. White spruce relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.88 (RMSE 12.57 m2ha-1) and balsam fir relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.64 (RMSE 6.08 m2ha-1). The method also produced

  8. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  9. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  10. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  11. Holocene pollen and sediment record from the tangle lakes area, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Sims, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Pollen and sediments have been analyzed from a 5.5 meter‐length core of lacustrine sediments from Tangle Lakes, in the Gulkana Upland south of the Alaska Range (63 ° 01 ‘ 46”; N. latitude, 146° 03 ‘ 48 “ W. longitude). Radiocarbon ages indicate that the core spans the last 4700 years. The core sediments are sandy silt and silty clay; the core shows distinct rhythmic laminations in the lower 398 cm. The laminae appear to be normally graded; peat fibers and macerated plant debris are more abundant near the tops of the laminae. Six volcanic‐ash layers are present in the upper 110 cm of the core.Present‐day vegetation of the Tangle Lakes area is mesic shrub tundra and open spruce woodland, with scattered patches of shrub willow (Salix), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), spruce (Picea), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and alder (Alnus). Pollen analysis of 27 core samples suggests that this vegetation type has persisted throughout the past 4700 years, except for an apparently substantial increase in Picea beginning about 3500 years B.P. Percentages of Picea pollen are very low (generally 1–3 percent) in the lower 2 meters of core (ca. 4700 to 3500 years B.P.), but rise to 13–18 percent in the upper 3.4 meters (ca. 3500 years B.P. to present). Previously reported data from this area indicate that Picea trees initially arrived in the Tangle Lakes area about 9100 years B.P., at least 2.5 to 3 thousand years after deglaciation of the region. The present investigation suggests that Picea trees became locally scarce or died out sometime after about 9000 years B.P. but before 4700 years B.P., then reinvaded the area about 3500 years B.P. If this extrapolated age for the Picea reinvasion is accurate it suggests that local expansion of the Picea population coincides with the onset of a Neoglacial interval of cooler, moister climate. This is an unexpected result, because intervals of cooler climate generally coincide with lowering of the altitudinal limit of

  12. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  13. Analyse dendroecologique et dendroclimatique des gisements de bois de lacs de la taiga de l'est de l'Amerique du Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, Fabio

    over the last millennium and to show the impacts of past fires on tree mortality, density and growth. Using our impressive paleoecological dataset (n = 1037 logs) in combination with our present-day forest inventory, we were able to reconstruct millennial forest dynamics with an unprecedented high spatial (few hundreds of square meters) and temporal (annual) resolution. Our findings help explain how the present-day landscape diversity in the taiga reflects the fire history of the last millennium, which varies from site to site. Fires have caused persistent and cumulative impacts resulting in a progressive opening of the forest coyer along with exclusion of balsam fir, a fire-sensitive tree species. The taiga landscape is a mosaic of forest stands characterized by different times since fire and different postfire forest structure trajectories. In the third chapter, we used our network of millennial tree-ring chronologies developed from the collected subfossil logs to pro duce a regional reconstruction of July-August temperatures over the last 1100 years. Our network filled a wide gap in the north-hemispheric network of paleoclimate proxies with annual resolution used for temperature reconstructions of the last millennium (see IPCC report). Moreover, our reconstruction provided direct field evidence that the climate of Northeastern North America is particularly sensitive to volcanic forcing. Indeed, successive large eruptions triggered the beginning of cold episodes in the study area that persisted for decades. In particular, two series of eruptions, centered around the Samalas event in 1257 and the Tambora event in 1815, coincided with two abrupt temperature regime shifts. In Northeastern North America, these shifts marked the onset of the Little Ice Age and the beginning of its coldest phase, respectively. Our reconstruction also showed a well-expressed Medieval Climate Anomaly, which included a few decades significantly warmer than the last 10 years. Keywords : fire