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Sample records for bamboo leaf extract

  1. Adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solution on the bamboo leaf ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntari, Priwidyanjati, Dessyntha Anggiani

    2017-12-01

    Bamboo leaf ash has been developed as an adsorbent material for removal malachite green from aqueous solution. Adsorption parameters have studied are contact time and initial pH. The effect of contact time and pH were examined in the batch adsorption processes. The physicochemical characters of bamboo leaf ash were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Malachite green concentration was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FT-IR spectrogram of bamboo leaf ash shows that typical fingerprint of adsorbent material with Si-O-Si or Al-O-Al group. The X-ray diffractograms of bamboo leaf ash show that adsorbent material has a highly amorphous nature. The percentage of adsorption was showed raised with increasing contact time. The optimum removal of malachite green when the initial dye concentration, initial pH, weight of adsorbent and contact time was 20 mg/L, 7, 0.25 g and 75 minutes respectively.

  2. Exploring bamboo leaf nutrient value in the US NPGS germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are nutritious, providing food for both human and animal consumption. But their nutrient value may depend on the bamboo species, harvesting season, and growing location. Leaf crude protein content, amino acid composition, and mineral element concentration were quantified fro...

  3. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  4. Bamboo leaf ash as the stabilizer for soft soil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. S. A.; Jais, I. B. M.; Sidek, N.; Ahmad, J.; Rosli, M. I. F.

    2018-04-01

    Soft soil is a type of soil that have the size of particle less than 0.063mm. The strength of the soft soil does not fulfil the requirement for construction. The present of soft soil at the construction site always give a lot of problems and issues to geotechnical sector. Soil settlement is one of the problems that related to soft soil. The determination of the soft soil physical characteristics will provide a detail description on its characteristic. Soft soil need to be treated in order to gain the standard strength for construction. One of the method to strengthen the soft soil is by using pozzolanic material as a treatment method for soft soil. Furthermore bamboo leaf ash is one of the newly founded materials that contain pozzolanic material. Any material that consist of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) as the main component and followed by Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) are consider as pozzolanic material. Bamboo leaf ash is mix with the cement as the treatment material. Bamboo leaf ash will react with the cement to produce additional cement binder. Thus, it will increase the soil strength and will ease the geotechnical sector to achieve high quality of construction product.

  5. Sympodial bamboo species differ in carbon bio-sequestration and stocks within phytoliths of leaf litters and living leaves.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tingting; Ying, Yuqi; Teng, Jiangnan; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Meng, Cifu; Jiang, Peikun; Tang, Caixian; Li, Jianmin; Zheng, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) with high resistance against decomposition is an important carbon (C) sink in many ecosystems. This study compared concentrations of phytolith in plants and the PhytOC production of seven sympodial bamboo species in southern China, aiming to provide the information for the managed bamboo plantation and selection of bamboo species to maximize phytolith C sequestration. Leaf litters and living leaves of seven sympodial bamboo species were collected from the field sites. Concentrations of phytoliths, silicon (Si), and PhytOC in leaf litters and living leaves were measured. Carbon sequestration as PhytOC was estimated. There was a considerable variation in the PhytOC concentrations in the leaf litters and living leaves among the seven bamboo species. The mean concentrations of PhytOC ranged from 3.4 to 6.9 g kg(-1) in leaf litters and from 1.6 to 5.9 g kg(-1) in living leaves, with the PhytOC production rates ranging from 5.7 to 52.3 kg e-CO2 ha(-1) year(-1) as leaf litters. Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro) Keng f. had the highest PhytOC production rate. Based on a bio-sequestration rate of 52.3 kg e-CO2 ha(-1) year(-1), we estimated that the current 8 × 10(5) ha of sympodial bamboo stands in China could potentially acquire 4.2 × 10(4) t e-CO2 yearly via phytolith carbon. Furthermore, the seven sympodial bamboo species stored 5.38 × 10(5) t e-CO2 as PhytOC in living leaves and leaf litters in China. It is concluded that sympodial bamboos make a significant contribution to C sequestration and that to maximize the PhytOC accumulation, the bamboo species with the highest PhytOC production rate should be selected for plantation.

  6. Recovery of diurnal depression of leaf hydraulic conductance in a subtropical woody bamboo species: embolism refilling by nocturnal root pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sun, Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2012-04-01

    Despite considerable investigations of diurnal water use characteristics in different plant functional groups, the research on daily water use strategies of woody bamboo grasses remains lacking. We studied the daily water use and gas exchange of Sinarundinaria nitida (Mitford) Nakai, an abundant subtropical bamboo species in Southwest China. We found that the stem relative water content (RWC) and stem hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of this bamboo species did not decrease significantly during the day, whereas the leaf RWC and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) showed a distinct decrease at midday, compared with the predawn values. Diurnal loss of K(leaf) was coupled with a midday decline in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and CO(2) assimilation. The positive root pressures in the different habitats were of sufficient magnitude to refill the embolisms in leaves. We concluded that (i) the studied bamboo species does not use stem water storage for daily transpiration; (ii) diurnal down-regulation in K(leaf) and gs has the function to slow down potential water loss in stems and protect the stem hydraulic pathway from cavitation; (iii) since K(leaf) did not recover during late afternoon, refilling of embolism in bamboo leaves probably fully depends on nocturnal root pressure. The embolism refilling mechanism by root pressure could be helpful for the growth and persistence of this woody monocot species.

  7. A lucrative chemical processing of bamboo leaf biomass to synthesize biocompatible amorphous silica nanoparticles of biomedical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangaraj, Suriyaprabha; Venkatachalam, Rajendran

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste via cost effective route is presently one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. This study reports the low-cost indigenous production of silica nanoparticles from the leftover of bamboo (leaf biomass) through thermal combustion and alkaline extraction, and examination of physico-chemical properties and yield percentage using comprehensive characterization tools. The outcome of primed silica powder exhibits amorphous particles (average size: 25 nm) with high surface area (428 m2 g-1) and spherical morphology. Despite the yield percentage of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave ash is 50.2%, which is less than rice husk ask resources (62.1%), the bamboo waste is only an inexpensive resource yielding high purity (99%). Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste with the help of lucrative route is at present times one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. In vitro study on animal cell lines (MG-63) shows non-toxic nature of silica nanoparticles up to 125 µg mL-1. Hence, this study highlights the feasibility for the mass production of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave waste rather using chemical precursor of silica for drug delivery and other medical applications.

  8. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  9. TLC screening for antioxidant activity of extracts from fifteen bamboo species and identification of antioxidant flavone glycosides from leaves of Bambusa. textilis McClure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Yue, Yong-De; Tang, Feng; Sun, Jia

    2012-10-19

    Interest in the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves is growing. To discover new sources of natural antioxidants, a TLC bioautography method combined with a new image processing method was developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from 15 different species of bamboo. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Bambusa. textilis McClure possessed the highest antioxidant activity among the selected bamboo species. To rapidly identify the antioxidant compounds, the crude extract of B. textilis McClure was analysed by HPLC-UV, and HPLC-micro-fractionation of the extract was carried out. Based on TLC bioautography-guided fractionation, three antioxidant fractions were isolated from B. textilis McClure by preparative chromatography. These three antioxidant compounds were identified as isoorientin 4''-O β-D-xylopyranoside, isoorientin 2''-O-α-L-rhamnoside and isoorientin according to their UV, MS, and NMR data. The proposed TLC screening method could therefore be an easy way to evaluate the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves, and the results achieved should prove very helpful for promoting their utilization, as B. textilis McClure can be considered a promising plant source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of hemicellulose and phenolic compounds from bamboo bast fiber powder

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jing; Vielnascher, Robert; Silva, Carla; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Guebitz, Georg M.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of hemicellulose and phenolic compounds from bamboo bast fibre powder was investigated. The effect of ultrasonic probe depth and power input parameters on the type and amount of products extracted was assessed. The results of input energy and radical formation correlated with the calculated values for the anti-nodal point (λ/4; 16.85 mm, maximum amplitude) of the ultrasonic wave in aqueous medium. Ultrasonic treatment at optimum probe depth of 15 mm improve 2.6-fold the extraction efficiencies of hemicellulose and phenolic lignin compounds from bamboo bast fibre powder. LC-Ms-Tof (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight) analysis indicated that ultrasound led to the extraction of coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, vanillic acid, cellobiose, in contrast to boiling water extraction only. At optimized conditions, ultrasound caused the formation of radicals confirmed by the presence of (+)-pinoresinol which resulted from the radical coupling of coniferyl alcohol. Ultrasounds revealed to be an efficient methodology for the extraction of hemicellulosic and phenolic compounds from woody bamboo without the addition of harmful solvents. PMID:29856764

  11. Four flavonoid compounds from Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract retard the digestion of starch and its working mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Peng; He, Hao; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2014-08-06

    Bamboo leaf extract as a food additive has been used for preventing the oxidation of food. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract on starch digestion. Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were determined as its α-amylase inhibitory constituents. An inhibitory kinetics experiment demonstrated that they competitively inhibit α-amylase with Ki values of respectively 152.6, 11.5, 569.6, and 75.8 μg/mL. Molecular docking showed the four flavones can interact with the active site of α-amylase, and their inhibitory activity was greatly influenced by the glucoside linking position and 3'-hydroxyl. Moreover, the results of starch-iodine complex spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that P. edulis flavonoids retard the digestion of starch not only through interaction with digestive enzymes, but also through interaction with starch. Thus, P. edulis leaf extract can be potentially used as a starch-based food additive for adjusting postprandial hyperglycemia.

  12. Characterization of Nano Bamboo Charcoal Drug Delivery System for Eucommia ulmoides Extract and Its Anticancer Effect In vitro.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaoyan; Li, Xiangzhou; Zhang, Sheng; Huang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal is being widely used as sustained release carrier for chemicals for its high specific surface area, sound biocompatibility, and nontoxicity; however, there have been no reports on nano bamboo charcoal as sustained release carrier for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To study the effect of nano bamboo charcoal in absorbing and sustained releasing Eucommia ulmoides extract (EUE) and to verify the in vitro anticancer effect of the sustained release liquid, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of nano bamboo charcoal as TCM sustained-release preparation. The adsorption capacity for the nano bamboo charcoal on EUE was measured by Langmuir model, and the release experiment was carried out under intestinal fluid condition. Characteristic changes for the nano bamboo charcoal nano-drug delivery system with and without adsorption of E. ulmoides were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and specific surface area. In addition, the anticancer effect from this novel bamboo charcoal E. ulmoides delivery system was evaluated against a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116). It was found that nano bamboo charcoal exhibits good adsorption capacity (up to 462.96 mg/g at 37°C). The cumulative release rate for EUE from this nano bamboo charcoal delivery system was 70.67%, and specific surface area for the nano bamboo charcoal decreased from 820.32 m 2 /g to 443.80 m 2 /g after EUE was loaded. An in vitro anticancer study showed that the inhibition rate for E. ulmoides against HCT116 cancer cells was 23.07%, for this novel bamboo charcoal nano-drug delivery system. This study provides a novel strategy for the delivery of traditional Chinese medicine using bamboo charcoal nano-drug delivery system. The adsorption equilibrium was reached after 30 min of ultrasonic treatmentThe saturated adsorption capacity of Eucommia ulmoides extract by nano bamboo

  13. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction of antioxidants from black bamboo leaves.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ya Fang; Kim, Sang Min; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovering bioactive compounds from natural plants, the potential of using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was examined on black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) leaves, with ethanol/water as solvents. The superheated PLE process showed a higher recovery of most constituents and antioxidative activity, compared to reflux extraction, with a significantly improved recovery of the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. For a broad range of ethanol aqueous solutions and temperatures, 50% EtOH and 200°C (static time: 25min) gave the best performance, in terms of the TP and TF (75% EtOH) content yield and DPPH scavenging ability (25% EtOH). Under the optimised extraction conditions, eight main antioxidative compounds were isolated and identified with HPLC-ABTS(+) assay guidance and assessed for radical scavenging activity. The superheated extraction process for black bamboo leaves enhanced the antioxidant properties by increasing the extraction of the phenolic components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  16. Effect of fabricated density and bamboo species on physical-mechanical properties of bamboo fiber bundle reinforced composites

    Treesearch

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Tingxing Hu; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Chung Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo stems were subjected to a mechanical treatment process for the extraction of bamboo fiber bundles. The fiber bundles were used as reinforcement for the fabrication of high-performance composites with phenolic resins as matrix. The influence of fabricated density and bamboo species on physical–mechanical properties of bamboo fiber bundle reinforced composites (...

  17. Extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells waste and application in antibacterial finishing of bamboo rayon.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2012-06-01

    Chitosan can be best utilized as safe antibacterial agent for textiles but there is always a limitation of its durability. The chitin containing shellfish waste is available in huge quantities, but very low quantities are utilized for extraction of high value products like chitosan. In the current work chitosan was extracted from shrimp shells and then used as antibacterial exhaust finishing agent for grafted bamboo rayon. Chitosan bound bamboo rayon was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was durable till 30 washes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave-assisted organic acid extraction of lignin from bamboo: structure and antioxidant activity investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction in organic acid aqueous solution (formic acid/acetic acid/water, 3/5/2, v/v/v) was applied to isolate lignin from bamboo. Additionally, the structural features of the extracted lignins were thoroughly investigated in terms of C₉ formula, molecular weight distribution, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and HSQC spectroscopy. It was found that with an increase in the severity of microwave-assisted extraction, there was an increase of phenolic hydroxyl content in the lignin. In addition, an increase of the severity resulted in a decrease of the bound carbohydrate content as well as molecular weight of the lignin. Antioxidant activity investigation indicated that the radical scavenging index of the extracted lignins (0.35-1.15) was higher than that of BHT (0.29) but lower than that of BHA (3.85). The results suggested that microwave-assisted organic acid extraction provides a promising way to prepare lignin from bamboo with good antioxidant activity for potential application in the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction and characterization of holocellulose fibers by microwave-assisted selective liquefaction of bamboo

    Treesearch

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Hui Pan; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted selective liquefaction was proposed and used as a novel method for the isolation of holocellulose fibers. The results showed that the bamboo lignin component and extractives were almost completely removed by using a liquefaction process at 120 8C for 9 min, and the residual lignin and extractives in the solid residue were as low as 0.65% and 0.49%,...

  20. Functional traits enhance invasiveness of bamboos over co-occurring tree saplings in the semideciduous Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montti, Lía; Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I.; Gatti, M. Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Many woody bamboo species are forest understory plants that become invasive after disturbance. They can grow rapidly forming a dense, nearly monospecific understory that inhibits tree regeneration. The principal aim of this study was to understand what functional traits of bamboos allow them to outcompete tree seedlings and saplings and become successful species in the semideciduous Atlantic Forests of northeastern Argentina. We studied leaf and whole-plant functional traits of two bamboo species of the genus Chusquea and five co-occurring saplings of common tree species growing under similar solar radiation and soil nutrient availabilities. Nutrient addition had no effect on bamboo or tree sapling survival and growth after two years. Tree species with high-light requirements had higher growth rates and developed relatively thin leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area and short leaf life-span when growing in gaps, but had lower survival rates in the understory. The opposite pattern was observed in shade-tolerant species that were able to survive in the understory but had lower photosynthetic capacity and growth than light-requiring species in gaps. Bamboos exhibited a high plasticity in functional traits and leaf characteristics that enabled them to grow rapidly in gaps (e.g., higher photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass and clonal reproduction in gaps than in the understory) but at the same time to tolerate closed-canopy conditions (they had thinner leaves and a relatively longer leaf life-span in the understory compared to gaps). Photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass was higher in bamboos than in trees. Bamboo plasticity in key functional traits, such as clonal reproduction at the plant level and leaves with a relatively low C cost and high photosynthesis rates, allows them to colonize disturbed forests with consequences at the community and ecosystem levels. Increasing disturbance in some forests worldwide will likely enhance bamboo

  1. Hormone Distribution and Transcriptome Profiles in Bamboo Shoots Provide Insights on Bamboo Stem Emergence and Growth.

    PubMed

    Gamuyao, Rico; Nagai, Keisuke; Ayano, Madoka; Mori, Yoshinao; Minami, Anzu; Kojima, Mikiko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Reuscher, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Growth and development are tightly co-ordinated events in the lifetime of living organisms. In temperate bamboo plants, spring is the season when environmental conditions are suitable for the emergence of new shoots. Previous studies demonstrated that bamboo plants undergo an energy-consuming 'fast stem growth' phase. However, the events during the initiation of stem elongation in bamboo are poorly understood. To understand the onset of bamboo stem growth, we performed hormone and transcriptome profiling of tissue regions in newly elongating shoots of the Moso bamboo Phyllostachys edulis. The growth hormones auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins accumulated in the shoot apex, while the stress hormones ABA, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are predominantly found in the lower part of the stem. The mature basal part of the stem showed enrichment of transcripts associated with cell wall metabolism and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin. In the young upper stem region, expression of cell formation- and DNA synthesis-related genes was enriched. Moreover, the apical region showed enhanced expression of genes involved in meristem maintenance, leaf differentiation and development, abaxial/adaxial polarity and flowering. Our findings integrate the spatial regulation of hormones and transcriptome programs during the initiation of bamboo stem growth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ampel Bamboo Leaves Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzaman; Oktaviani, Novi; Irmansyah

    2018-03-01

    The bamboo tree trunk was the most commonly used part of daily life. Bamboo leaves often wereconsidered waste by the community, and bamboo leaves contain Silicon dioxide (SiO2). We have developed and compare two silicon dioxide method, using combustion to washing method (A) and washing to combustion method (B). Atom purity of either method was 99.9 %, with the tetragonal crystal structure. Mg, Au, Ca, and K impurities were found in Method A sample, andnot in Method B.

  3. [Comparison study on total flavonoid content and anti-free redical activity of the leaves of bamboo, phyllostachys nigra, and Ginkgo bilabo].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Xiao-qing; Yu, Zuo-yu

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the differences of total flavonoid (TF) content and antifree radical activity between the-leaves of bamboo and Gingo biloba, as well as their seasonal changes. Spectrophotometery and Chemiluminescence methods were adopted to determine TF and half inhibiting concentration (IC50) on active oxygen free radicals of the leaves of bamboo, phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex. Lindl.) Munro, and Ginkgo biloba. Two kinds of leaves were picked in the same plot at the same time monthly. The TF of bamboo leaf varied in the range of 0.67%-1.71% (in dry basis of leaf, below as same) throughout a year, the minimum apparing in June and the maximum in July, then going down obviously, and remaining at a much high lever during November to next April. However, the TF of Ginkgo bilabo leaf varied in 1.48%-2.49% during whole growing period, early April to late November. It ascended with the growth of leaf, reaching the top during June and July, the going down slowly, and finally another peak appeared before defoliation. The average IC50 values on O2-. and .OH of bamboo leaf were at 11.0 micrograms.mL-1 and 5.3 mg.mL-1, and Ginkgo biloba at 19.0 micrograms.mL-1 and 3.6 mg.mL-1, respectively. The TF content and anti-free radical activity the bamboo leaf are comparable with the leaf of ginkgo biloba, which is a kind of potential resources for natural antioxidant and free radical scavenger.

  4. Non-indigenous bamboo along headwater streams of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: leaf fall, aquatic leaf decay and patterns of invasion

    Treesearch

    PAUL J. O' CONNOR; ALAN P. COVICH; F. N. SCATENA; LLOYD L. LOOPE

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of bamboo to montane rain forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico in the 1930s and 1940s has led to present-day bamboo monocultures in numerous riparian areas. When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. Bamboo dynamics expected to in¯uence stream communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest...

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of leaf and stem extract of Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Giriram; Jeyraaj, Indira A.; Jeyaraaj, R.; Loganathan, P.

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract leaf and stem of Santalum album was performed against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. S. album leaf extract showed inhibition to E.coli (0.8mm), Staphylococcus aureus (1.0mm) and Pseudomonas (1.4mm) were as stem extract showed inhibition on E.coli (0.6mm), Staphylococcus aureus (0.4mm) and seudomonas (1.0mm) respectively. However leaf extract showed significantly higher inhibition when compared to stem extract. This might be due to presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:22557199

  7. Factors contributing to deep supercooling capability and cold survival in dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis) leaf blades.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Oda, Asuka; Fukami, Reiko; Kuriyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Wintering Sasa senanensis, dwarf bamboo, is known to employ deep supercooling as the mechanism of cold hardiness in most of its tissues from leaves to rhizomes. The breakdown of supercooling in leaf blades has been shown to proceed in a random and scattered manner with a small piece of tissue surrounded by longitudinal and transverse veins serving as the unit of freezing. The unique cold hardiness mechanism of this plant was further characterized using current year leaf blades. Cold hardiness levels (LT20: the lethal temperature at which 20% of the leaf blades are injured) seasonally increased from August (-11°C) to December (-20°C). This coincided with the increases in supercooling capability of the leaf blades as expressed by the initiation temperature of low temperature exotherms (LTE) detected in differential thermal analyses (DTA). When leaf blades were stored at -5°C for 1-14 days, there was no nucleation of the supercooled tissue units either in summer or winter. However, only summer leaf blades suffered significant injury after prolonged supercooling of the tissue units. This may be a novel type of low temperature-induced injury in supercooled state at subfreezing temperatures. When winter leaf blades were maintained at the threshold temperature (-20°C), a longer storage period (1-7 days) increased lethal freezing of the supercooled tissue units. Within a wintering shoot, the second or third leaf blade from the top was most cold hardy and leaf blades at lower positions tended to suffer more injury due to lethal freezing of the supercooled units. LTE were shifted to higher temperatures (2-5°C) after a lethal freeze-thaw cycle. The results demonstrate that the tissue unit compartmentalized with longitudinal and transverse veins serves as the unit of supercooling and temperature- and time-dependent freezing of the units is lethal both in laboratory freeze tests and in the field. To establish such supercooling in the unit, structural ice barriers such as

  8. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  9. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation in cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and nutritive characteristics among five sympatric bamboo species in the Ranomafana area, southeastern Madagascar. The HCNp ranged from 209±72 μmol cyanide*g-1 dwt in Cathariostachys madagascariensis to no cyanide in Bambusa madagascariensis. Among three sympatric bamboo lemur species, the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) has the narrowest food range as it almost exclusively feeds on the highly cyanogenic C. madagascariensis. Our data suggest that high HCNp is the derived state in bamboos. The ancestral state of lemurs is most likely "generalist" while the ancestral state of bamboo lemurs was determined as equivocal. Nevertheless, as recent bamboo lemurs comprise several "facultative specialists" and only one "obligate specialist" adaptive radiation due to increased flexibility is likely. We propose that escaping a strict food plant specialization enabled facultative specialist bamboo lemurs to inhabit diverse geographical areas. PMID:27532127

  10. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  11. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  12. Silica distribution in various bamboos species and its effects on plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, B.; Meunier, J.; Keller, C.; Doelsch, E.; Panfili, F.

    2010-12-01

    Bamboos are distributed throughout the world’s temperate, tropical and subtropical regions. They are widely used in industry, as fresh edible shoots, paper maker, building and even in medicine. Bamboos also play multiple ecologic functions such as soil and water conservation and erosion control. Bamboos have generally high silicon (Si) content. Silicon is known to have beneficial effects on plants and alleviate various stresses. The aim of this study is to quantify the Si uptake and distribution in various bamboos species and to investigate the effects of Si on the plant growth. Two complementary studies were carried out, one under natural conditions and one under controlled conditions. First of all, we performed an inventory of Si tissue content in 16 bamboos species growing in a non-polluted tropical soil at the Reunion Island (France, Indian ocean). We determined Si content in leaf and in stem tissues sampled at several heights for each plant. One of these species Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » was grown for 3 months in nutrient solution at five Si concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.75, 1.15, 1.5 mM Si). Silica deposition was examined in leaves using a cryo-SEM equipped with EDS. The Si concentration varies significantly between species, depending on rhizome morphology. Bamboos having leptomorph rhizomes show significantly higher leaf and stem Si content than that of species having pachymorph rhizomes. The distribution of Si in the plant has the same trends for all species. Leaves are the most concentrated organs (10.9 %), and within the stem Si concentration significantly increases from the bottom (0.32%) to the top of the plant (2.1%). Plant Si content increases with the Si supply. Leaves of Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » accumulate 15.2 % of Si under natural conditions and up to 24 % when exposed to the highest Si treatment. Unlike previous studies, our experiment shows that the concentration of Si had no significant effect on nutrient uptake and biomass

  13. Benefits from additives and xylanase during enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    PubMed

    Li, Kena; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    Effects of additives (BSA, PEG 6000, and Tween 80) on enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branches) by cellulases and/or xylanase were evaluated. The addition of additives was comparable to the increase of cellulase loadings in the conversion of cellulose and xylan in bamboo fractions. Supplementation of xylanase (1 mg/g DM) with cellulases (10 FPU/g DM) in the hydrolysis of bamboo fractions was more efficient than addition of additives in the production of glucose and xylose. Moreover, addition of additives could further increase the glucose release from different bamboo fractions by cellulases and xylanase. Bamboo green exhibited the lowest hydrolyzability. Almost all of the polysaccharides in pretreated bamboo shoot fractions were hydrolyzed by cellulases with the addition of additives or xylanase. Additives and xylanase showed great potential for reducing cellulase requirement in the hydrolysis of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olea europaea L. leaf extract and derivatives: antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Briante, Raffaella; Patumi, Maurizio; Terenziani, Stefano; Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Nucci, Roberto

    2002-08-14

    This paper reports a very simple and fast method to collect eluates with high amounts of hydroxytyrosol, biotransforming Olea europaea L. leaf extract by a thermophilic beta-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan. Some phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue and in the eluates obtained by biotransformation are identified. To propose the eluates as natural substances from a vegetal source, their antioxidant properties have been compared with those of the leaf extract from which they are originated. The eluates possess a higher concentration of simple phenols, characterized by a stronger antioxidant capacity, than those available in extra virgin olive oils and in many tablets of olive leaf extracts, commercially found as dietetic products and food integrators.

  15. The floral transcriptomes of four bamboo species (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): support for common ancestry among woody bamboos.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, William P; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Yin, Yanbin; Duvall, Melvin R

    2016-05-20

    Next-generation sequencing now allows for total RNA extracts to be sequenced in non-model organisms such as bamboos, an economically and ecologically important group of grasses. Bamboos are divided into three lineages, two of which are woody perennials with bisexual flowers, which undergo gregarious monocarpy. The third lineage, which are herbaceous perennials, possesses unisexual flowers that undergo annual flowering events. Transcriptomes were assembled using both reference-based and de novo methods. These two methods were tested by characterizing transcriptome content using sequence alignment to previously characterized reference proteomes and by identifying Pfam domains. Because of the striking differences in floral morphology and phenology between the herbaceous and woody bamboo lineages, MADS-box genes, transcription factors that control floral development and timing, were characterized and analyzed in this study. Transcripts were identified using phylogenetic methods and categorized as A, B, C, D or E-class genes, which control floral development, or SOC or SVP-like genes, which control the timing of flowering events. Putative nuclear orthologues were also identified in bamboos to use as phylogenetic markers. Instances of gene copies exhibiting topological patterns that correspond to shared phenotypes were observed in several gene families including floral development and timing genes. Alignments and phylogenetic trees were generated for 3,878 genes and for all genes in a concatenated analysis. Both the concatenated analysis and those of 2,412 separate gene trees supported monophyly among the woody bamboos, which is incongruent with previous phylogenetic studies using plastid markers.

  16. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M.W.; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R.K.; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J.; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  17. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum). Methods Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenoic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion for seven strains of bacteria. Results Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone) against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone) at 10 mg/ disc. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  18. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  19. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  20. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  2. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  3. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

  4. A biorefinery scheme to fractionate bamboo into high-grade dissolving pulp and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella; Beatson, Rodger; Mark Martinez, D

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica. Many investigations have been carried out to resolve the silica issue, but none of them has led to a commercial process. In this work, alkaline pretreatment of bamboo was conducted to extract silica prior to pulping process. The silica-free substrate was used to produce high-grade dissolving pulp. The dissolved silica, lignin, hemicellulosic sugars, and degraded cellulose in the spent liquors obtained from alkaline pretreatment and pulping process were recovered for providing high-value bio-based chemicals and fuel. An integrated process which combines dissolving pulp production with the recovery of excellent sustainable biofuel and biochemical feedstocks is presented in this work. Pretreatment at 95 °C with 12% NaOH charge for 150 min extracted all the silica and about 30% of the hemicellulose from bamboo. After kraft pulping, xylanase treatment and cold caustic extraction, pulp with hemicellulose content of about 3.5% was obtained. This pulp, after bleaching, provided a cellulose acetate grade dissolving pulp with α-cellulose content higher than 97% and hemicellulose content less than 2%. The amount of silica and lignin that could be recovered from the process corresponded to 95 and 77.86% of the two components in the original chips, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the concentrated and detoxified sugar mixture

  5. Inhibitory activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against α-glucosidase enzyme in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsir, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Laga, A.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Alpha-glucosidase is a key enzyme in the final process of breaking carbohydrates into glucose. Inhibition of α-glucosidase affected more absorption of glucose, so it can reduce hyperglycemia condition. The aims of this study is to determine the effectiveness of inhibition wet and dried Moringa oleifera leaf extract through α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effectiveness study of inhibition on the activity of α-glucosidase enzyme obtained from white glutinous rice (Oryza sativa glutinosa) was carried out using wet and dried kelor leaf extract of 13% (w/v) with 10 mM α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) substrate. A positive control used 1% acarbose and substrate without addition of extract was a negative control. Inhibitory activity was measured using spectrophotometers at a wavelength of 400 nm. The result showed that the inhibition activity against α-glucosidase enzyme of dried leaf extract, wet leaf extract and acarbose was 81,39%, 83,94%, and 95,4%, respectively on pH 7,0. The effectiveness inhibition of the wet Moringa leaf extract was greater than the dried leaf extract. The findings suggest that M. oleifera leaf has the potential to be developed as an alternative food therapy for diabetics.

  6. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  7. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  8. Study on bamboo gluing performance numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. R.; Sun, W. H.; Sui, X. M.; Zhang, X. F.

    2018-01-01

    Bamboo gluing timber is a green building materials, can be widely used as modern building beams and columns. The existing bamboo gluing timber is usually produced by bamboo columns or bamboo bundle rolled into by bamboo columns. The performance of new bamboo gluing timber is decided by bamboo adhesion character. Based on this, the cohesive damage model of bamboo gluing is created, experiment results are used to validate the model. The model proposed in the work is agreed on the experimental results. Different bamboo bonding length and bamboo gluing performance is analysed. The model is helpful to bamboo integrated timber application.

  9. Young bamboo culm: Potential food as source of fiber and starch.

    PubMed

    Felisberto, Mária Herminia Ferrari; Miyake, Patricia Satie Endo; Beraldo, Antonio Ludovico; Clerici, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva

    2017-11-01

    With the objective of widening the use of bamboo in the food industry, the present work aimed to produce and characterize the young bamboo culm flours from varieties Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa tuldoides and Bambusa vulgaris as potential sources of fiber and starch. The young culms were collected, cut in three sections (bottom, middle, top), processed into flour, and they were physically, chemically and technologically analyzed. The data were obtained in triplicate and evaluated by means of average differences, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scott-Knott test (p<0.05). The young bamboo culms flours presented low values for moisture content (<10g/100g), protein, lipids and ash contents (<3g/100g). Regarding the carbohydrates profile, the flours were significantly different in their sugar, starch and total fiber contents. All flour samples presented a potential for fiber extraction (>60g/100g), and the varieties B. vulgaris and D. asper, presented an additional potential for starch extraction (16 and 10g/100g, respectively). Regarding technological characteristics, all flours presented bright yellow color, lightly acidic pH (>5.0), water solubility index (WSI) lower to 2.5%, excepting D. asper, which presented a WSI superior to 7.5%. In this way, the evaluated young bamboo culms present potential application in the food industry as flours and as source of fibers; in addition, the varieties D. asper and B. vulgaris can also be used for starch extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups ( p = 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups ( p < 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Bamboo-Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications.

    PubMed

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  12. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  13. Lotus leaf extract and L-carnitine influence different processes during the adipocyte life cycle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue biology have been studied extensively over the last two decades. Adipose tissue growth involves both an increase in fat cell size and the formation of mature adipocytes from precursor cells. To investigate how natural substances influence these two processes, we examined the effects of lotus leaf extract (Nelumbo nucifera-extract solution obtained from Silab, France) and L-carnitine on human preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies, we used a lotus leaf extract solution alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes, we investigated lotus leaf extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. Studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of lotus leaf extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To further characterize lotus leaf extract solution-mediated effects, we determined the expression of the transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1/SREBP-1c) on the RNA- and protein level utilizing qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, the effect of L-carnitine on beta-oxidation was analyzed using human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Finally, we investigated additive effects of a combination of lotus leaf extract solution and L-carnitine on triglyceride accumulation during preadipocyte/adipocyte differentiation. Results Our data showed that incubation of preadipocytes with lotus leaf extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability. Compared to controls, adipocytes incubated with lotus leaf extract solution exhibited a significant increase in lipolysis-activity. Moreover, cell populations cultivated in the presence of lotus leaf extract solution showed a decrease in adipocyte differentiation capacity as indicated

  14. Lotus leaf extract and L-carnitine influence different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

    PubMed

    Siegner, Ralf; Heuser, Stefan; Holtzmann, Ursula; Söhle, Jörn; Schepky, Andreas; Raschke, Thomas; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Winnefeld, Marc

    2010-08-05

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue biology have been studied extensively over the last two decades. Adipose tissue growth involves both an increase in fat cell size and the formation of mature adipocytes from precursor cells. To investigate how natural substances influence these two processes, we examined the effects of lotus leaf extract (Nelumbo nucifera-extract solution obtained from Silab, France) and L-carnitine on human preadipocytes and adipocytes. For our in vitro studies, we used a lotus leaf extract solution alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes, we investigated lotus leaf extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. Studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of lotus leaf extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To further characterize lotus leaf extract solution-mediated effects, we determined the expression of the transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1/SREBP-1c) on the RNA- and protein level utilizing qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, the effect of L-carnitine on beta-oxidation was analyzed using human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Finally, we investigated additive effects of a combination of lotus leaf extract solution and L-carnitine on triglyceride accumulation during preadipocyte/adipocyte differentiation. Our data showed that incubation of preadipocytes with lotus leaf extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability. Compared to controls, adipocytes incubated with lotus leaf extract solution exhibited a significant increase in lipolysis-activity. Moreover, cell populations cultivated in the presence of lotus leaf extract solution showed a decrease in adipocyte differentiation capacity as indicated by a decrease in the ADD1

  15. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  16. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  18. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinnan; Yang, Kui; Cao, Qin; Sun, Jinde; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-07-11

    A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE) method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens) leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens , including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH ˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS⁺ ˙ free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  19. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF) enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules. PMID:22974481

  1. In vitro Antioxidant and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf Extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Archana, P; Ebrahimzadeh, Md H; Srikanth, K; Rajinikanth, M; Ramaswamy, N

    2015-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested. The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus.

  2. Measuring and modeling the spatial pattern of understory bamboo across landscapes: Implications for giant panda habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linderman, Marc Alan

    We examined an approach to classifying understory bamboo, the staple food of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), from remote sensing imagery in the Wolong Nature Reserve, China. We also used these data to estimate the landscape-scale distribution of giant panda habitat, and model the human effects on forest cover and the spatio-temporal dynamics of bamboo and the resulting implications for giant panda habitat. The spatial distribution of understory bamboo was mapped using an artificial neural network and leaf-on remote sensing data. Training on a limited set of ground truth data and using widely available Landsat TM data as input, a non-linear artificial neural network achieved a classification accuracy of 80% despite the presence of co-occurring mid-story and understory vegetation. Using information on the spatial distribution of bamboo in Wolong, we compared the results of giant panda habitat analyses with and without bamboo information. Total amount of habitat decreased by 29--56% and overall habitat patch size decreased by 16--48% after bamboo information was incorporated into the analyses. The decreases in the quantity of panda habitat and increases in habitat fragmentation resulted in decreases of 41--60% in carrying capacity. Using a spatio-temporal model of bamboo dynamics and human activities, we found that local fuelwood collection and household creation will likely reduce secondary habitat relied upon by pandas. Human impacts would likely contribute up to an additional 16% loss of habitat. Furthermore, these impacts primarily occur in the habitat relied upon by giant pandas during past bamboo die-offs. Decreased total area of habitat and increased fragmentation from human activities will likely make giant pandas increasingly sensitive to natural disturbances such as cyclical bamboo die-offs. Our studies suggest that it is necessary to further examine approaches to monitor understory vegetation and incorporate understory information into wildlife

  3. Bioefficacy of Graviola leaf extracts in scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Son, Yu-Ra; Choi, Eun-Hye; Kim, Goon-Tae; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine bioactive components of Graviola leaf extracts and to examine the radical scavenging capacity, gene expression and transcription factors of antioxidant enzymes. Rutin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and vitamin U were identified from the steaming and 50% EtOH extracts of Graviola leaves. Graviola leaf extracts effectively scavenged peroxy and nitrogen radicals. 50% EtOH of Graviola leaves provided a 1-2.9 times higher trolox equivalent than the steaming extract. It also had a higher VCEAC. Graviola leaf extracts reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves upregulated SOD1 and Nrf2, but catalase and HMOX1 were not altered by the 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves.

  4. Influence of phytochemicals in piper betle linn leaf extract on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lien, Le Thi; Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Do Minh; Hang, Pham Luong; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thang, Nguyen Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing has being extensively investigated over the world. Healing impairment is caused by many reasons including increasing of free-radicals-mediated damage, delaying in granulation tissue formation, reducing in angiogenesis and decreasing in collagen reorganization. These facts consequently lead to chronic wound healing. Piper betle Linn (Betle) leaves have been folklore used as an ingredient of drugs for cutaneous wound treatment. However, the effect of betle leaf on wound healing is not yet well elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing efficacy of methanol leaf extract of Piper betle Linn on proliferation of fibroblast NIH3T3 cells as well as full-thickness burn and excision wounds in swiss mice. Scratch wound healing assays were conducted to examine the effects of betle leaf extract on healing activity of fibroblast cells. Burn and excision wounds on swiss mouse skins were created for investigating the wound healing progress caused by the betle leaf extract. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also evaluated to examine the products of lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) under conditions of with or without betle leaf extract treatment. The results of this study showed that Piper betle Linn leaf extract in methanol increased proliferation of NIH3T3 cells and promoted wound healing in vitro and in vivo with both burn wound and excision wound models. In addition, this extract significant decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver of treated-mice compared with that in non-treated mice. Our results suggest that Piper betle Linn can be used as an ingredient in developing natural origin drugs for treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  5. In vitro Antioxidant and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf Extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp

    PubMed Central

    Mahitha, B.; Archana, P.; Ebrahimzadeh, MD. H.; Srikanth, K.; Rajinikanth, M.; Ramaswamy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested. The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus. PMID:26009649

  6. Isolation, chemical characterization, and immunomodulatory activity of naturally acetylated hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings* #

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-qing; Qi, Rui-ting; Pang, Mei-rong; Liu, Cong; Li, Guang-yu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo shavings, the outer or intermediate layer of bamboo stems, are the bulk of by-products produced in bamboo processing. In this study we investigated the isolation, chemical characterization, and immunostimulatory activity in vitro of the hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings. Shavings were first pretreated by steam explosion. The optimal pretreatment was found to be steam explosion at 2.2 MPa for 1 min. Following this pretreatment, the yield of hemicelluloses reached (2.05±0.22)% (based on the dry dewaxed raw materials), which was 5.7-fold higher than that of untreated samples. Bamboo-shavings hemicellulose (BSH) was then prepared by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation from the steam-exploded shavings. Purification of BSH by anion-exchange chromatography of diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-sepharose Fast Flow resulted in a neutral fraction (BSH-1, purity of 95.3%, yield of 1.06%) and an acidic fraction (BSH-2, purity of 92.5%, yield of 0.79%). The weight-average molecular weights (M w) of BSH-1 and BSH-2 were 12 800 and 11 300 g/mol, respectively. Chemical and structural analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that BSH-1 was O-acetylated-arabinoxylan and BSH-2 was O-acetylated-(4-O-methylglucurono)-arabinoxylan. BSH-1 had a higher content of acetyl groups than BSH-2. For the immunomodulatory activity in vitro, BSH and BSH-2 significantly stimulated mouse splenocyte proliferation while BSH-1 had no effect; BSH, BSH-1, and BSH-2 markedly enhanced the phagocytosis activity and nitric oxide production of the murine macrophage RAW264.7 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the water-extractable hemicelluloses from steam-exploded bamboo shavings are naturally acetylated and have immunostimulatory activity. PMID:28124842

  7. Isolation, chemical characterization, and immunomodulatory activity of naturally acetylated hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju-Qing; Qi, Rui-Ting; Pang, Mei-Rong; Liu, Cong; Li, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Ying

    Bamboo shavings, the outer or intermediate layer of bamboo stems, are the bulk of by-products produced in bamboo processing. In this study we investigated the isolation, chemical characterization, and immunostimulatory activity in vitro of the hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings. Shavings were first pretreated by steam explosion. The optimal pretreatment was found to be steam explosion at 2.2 MPa for 1 min. Following this pretreatment, the yield of hemicelluloses reached (2.05±0.22)% (based on the dry dewaxed raw materials), which was 5.7-fold higher than that of untreated samples. Bamboo-shavings hemicellulose (BSH) was then prepared by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation from the steam-exploded shavings. Purification of BSH by anion-exchange chromatography of diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-sepharose Fast Flow resulted in a neutral fraction (BSH-1, purity of 95.3%, yield of 1.06%) and an acidic fraction (BSH-2, purity of 92.5%, yield of 0.79%). The weight-average molecular weights (M w ) of BSH-1 and BSH-2 were 12 800 and 11 300 g/mol, respectively. Chemical and structural analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D (heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that BSH-1 was O-acetylated-arabinoxylan and BSH-2 was O-acetylated-(4-O-methylglucurono)-arabinoxylan. BSH-1 had a higher content of acetyl groups than BSH-2. For the immunomodulatory activity in vitro, BSH and BSH-2 significantly stimulated mouse splenocyte proliferation while BSH-1 had no effect; BSH, BSH-1, and BSH-2 markedly enhanced the phagocytosis activity and nitric oxide production of the murine macrophage RAW264.7 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the water-extractable hemicelluloses from steam-exploded bamboo shavings are naturally acetylated and have immunostimulatory activity.

  8. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chanchal K; Kamath, Jagadish V; Asad, Mohammed

    2006-04-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamide and chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin. In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava leaf extracts (250 and 500mg/kg, po) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. The higher dose of the extract (500 mg/kg, po) prevented the increase in liver weight when compared to hepatoxin treated control, while the lower dose was ineffective except in the paracetamol induced liver damage. In the chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, the higher dose (500 mg/kg, po) of P. guajava leaf extract was found to be more effective than the lower dose (250 mg/kg, po). Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of leaves of guava plant possesses good hepatoprotective activity.

  10. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  11. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Ranasinghe, Pathmasiri; Abeysekera, W. P. Kaushalya M.; Premakumara, G. A. Sirimal; Perera, Yashasvi S.; Gurugama, Padmalal; Gunatilake, Saman B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured) were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 μl of papaya leaf extracts, 20 μl from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 μl of phosphate buffered saline) were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml) of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. Results: Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P < 0.05). Papaya leaf extracts of all three maturity levels showed more than 25% inhibition at a concentration of 37.5 μg/ml. The highest inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis was observed at 37.5 μg/ml. Inhibition activity of different maturity levels was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 μg/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of

  12. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Ranasinghe, Pathmasiri; Abeysekera, W P Kaushalya M; Premakumara, G A Sirimal; Perera, Yashasvi S; Gurugama, Padmalal; Gunatilake, Saman B

    2012-10-01

    Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured) were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 μl of papaya leaf extracts, 20 μl from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 μl of phosphate buffered saline) were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml) of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P < 0.05). Papaya leaf extracts of all three maturity levels showed more than 25% inhibition at a concentration of 37.5 μg/ml. The highest inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis was observed at 37.5 μg/ml. Inhibition activity of different maturity levels was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 μg/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of hypotonicity-induced hemolysis was observed. C. papaya

  13. The Effect of Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Solution on Growth and Volatile Sulfur Compounds Production of Oral Malodor Associated Some Anaerobic Periodontal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Majbauddin, Abir; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Bamboo leaf extract solution (BLES) and sodium copper chlorophyllin solution (SCCS) are known for their anti-oxidant activities. Oral malodor is often related with periodontal pathogens. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-bacterial effect of both BLES and SCCS on anaerobic periodontal bacteria producing oral malodorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Methods Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 (PG), Prevotella intermidai TDC19B (PI), Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC25586 (FN) and Prevotella nigrescence ATCC33563 (PN) were investigated as oral isolated bacteria. VSC production ability of the oral strains was investigated by gas chromatography. With serial dilution of BLES or SCCS, the strains PG, PI, FN or PN were cultured anaerobically with AnaeroPack at 37 ℃ for 3 days. For the determination of anti-bacterial action of BLES or SCCS, the inoculum was cultured with original concentrations of BLES 0.16% (w/v) or SCCS 0.25% (w/v). Results Gas chromatography exhibited that all strains, PG, PI, FN and PN were responsible for producing a high range of H2S and a moderate range of CH3SH. Anti-bacterial effect of BLES or SCCS on the strains was observed. Inhibition of BLES or SCCS on the strains was revealed as concentration dependent. BLES or SCCS inhibited bacterial proliferation at higher concentrations (PG; 0.04% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, PI; 0.002% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, FN; 0.005% BLES or 0.01% SCCS, PN; 0.01% BLES or 0.015% SCCS). No viable bacterial colony observed at original concentration of BLES 0.16% or SCCS 0.25%. Strain growth was eliminated from inhibition at lower concentrations (PG; 0.02% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, PI; 0.001% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, FN; 0.002% BLES or 0.007% SCCS, PN; 0.005% BLES or 0.007% SCCS). Conclusion High concentrations of both BLES (0.16%) and SCCS (0.25%) show superior inhibiting capability on all four oral malodor associated periodontal anaerobes during testing, suggesting that these compounds might have a beneficial effect

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60more » nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.« less

  15. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.

    PubMed

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica . 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii .

  16. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Results: Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica. 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). Conclusion: This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii. PMID:28487894

  17. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's leaf extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that 'avocado' leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  18. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  19. Addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves as an effective way to reduce the formation of acrylamide in fried chicken wings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Weizhong; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ying

    2007-03-01

    The efficiency of antioxidant from bamboo leaves on the reduction of acrylamide during thermal processing and optimization of levels of addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves applied to fried chicken wings are reported. The authors optimized the method of the addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves to fried chicken wings and the frying processing parameters, and also compared the relationship between the content of total flavonoids in three extracts (EBL(971), EBL(972) and antioxidant from bamboo leaves) and the extent of the reduction of acrylamide. The acrylamide levels were quantified by a validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection method and the sensory evaluation was performed in a double-blind manner. The results showed that nearly 57.8 and 59.0% of acrylamide in fried chicken wings were reduced when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratios were 0.1 and 0.5% (w/w), respectively. The maximum inhibitory rate was achieved when antioxidant from bamboo leaves was chosen as the additive with a total flavonoid content of 32% compared with other two extracts and antioxidant from bamboo leaves mixed with flour was selected as the method of addition. Sensory evaluation results showed that the odour and flavour of fried chicken wings with antioxidant from bamboo leaves treatments had no significant difference compared with normal food matrixes (p > 0.05) when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratio was <0.5% (w/w). Colour acceptability in the study of sensory evaluation was in good correspondence with colour formation of fried chicken wings in each test group. These results suggest that antioxidant from bamboo leaves could significantly reduce acrylamide formation in fried chicken wings and yet still retain the original flavour and odour of the fried products. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution to the reduction of acrylamide in various foods by natural antioxidants.

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Column chromatography isolation of nicotine from tobacco leaf extract (Nicotiana tabaccum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Raden Muhammad; Fauzantoro, Ahmad; Rahman, Siti Fauziyah; Gozan, Misri

    2018-02-01

    Restrictions on the use of dried tobacco leaf for cigarette production must be accompanied by the development of non-cigarette alternative products that are made from tobacco leaves. One of the alternative that can be done is to use the nicotine compound in tobacco leaf extract as medical product, such as Parkinson's medication or to be used as active substance in biopesticide. Nicotine was isolated using column chromatography method with the variation of mobile phase mixture ratio (petroleum ether and ethanol), started from 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, 2:8, to 0:10. All of the chromatographic fraction from each mobile phase's ratio was then tested qualitatively using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and also quantitatively using HPLC instrument. The column chromatography process could isolate 4.006% of nicotine compound from 4.19% tobacco leaf extract's nicotine. It is also known that ethanol is a good solution to be used as chromatography's mobile phase for nicotine isolation from tobacco leaf extract.

  2. Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Julio; Ganz, Tali; Boaz, Mona; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Dolev, Eran; Kerem, Zohar; Madar, Zecharia

    2012-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500 mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500 mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption. In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption. Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes.

  3. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  4. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-01-01

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 and 4.5 × 108 kg CO2 y−1, respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 109 kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths. PMID:24736571

  5. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Synthesized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Bamboo and Manganese-Bamboo Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shaibu, Solomon E.; Adekola, Folahan A.; Adegoke, Halimat I.; Ayanda, Olushola S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bamboo impregnated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale manganese (nMn) were prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and PIXE analysis. The synthesized nMn-bamboo and nZVI-bamboo composites were subsequently applied to the sorption of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB dye was investigated under various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the synthesized nZVI-bamboo composite was more effective than nMn-bamboo composite in terms of higher MB dye adsorption capacity of 322.5 mg/g compared to 263.5 mg/g of nMn-bamboo composite. At a concentration of 140 mg/L MB dye, 0.02 g of nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites resulted in 79.6% and 78.3% removal, respectively, at 165 rpm, contact time of 120 min and at a solution pH of 7.6. The equilibrium data was best represented by Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model better explained the kinetic data for both nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites. PMID:28788688

  6. Timber Bamboo Pulp

    Treesearch

    Troy Runge; Carl Houtman; Alberto Negri; Jackie Heinricher

    2013-01-01

    Fast-growing biomass, such as bamboo, has the potential to serve an important future role in the pulp and paper industry with potential to both lower resource costs and improve a product’s sustainability. Moso bamboo is particularly interesting due to its fast growth and size, which allows it to be handled and chipped similarly to wood resources. In this study, we will...

  7. Development and formulation of Moringa oleifera standardised leaf extract film dressing for wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chai-Yee; Jalil, Juriyati; Ng, Pei Yuen; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2018-02-15

    M.oleifera is a medicinal plant traditionally used for skin sores, sore throat and eye infections. Recently, the wound healing property of the leaves of M. oleifera was has been well demonstrated experimentally in both in vivo and in vitro models. However, there is a lack of research which focuses on formulating M.oleifera into a functional wound dressing. In this study, the M.oleifera leaf standardized aqueous extract with highest potency in vitro migration was formulated into a film for wound healing application. Firstly, M. oleifera leaf were extracted in various solvents (aqueous, 50%, 70% and 100% ethanolic extracts) and standardized by reference standards using UHPLC technique. The extracts were then tested for cell migration and proliferation using HDF and HEK cell lines. M. oleifera leaf aqueous extract was then incorporated into alginate-pectin (SA-PC) based film dressing. The film dressings were characterized for the physicochemical properties and the bioactives release from the M. oleifera leaf extract loaded film dressing was also investigated using Franz diffusion cells. All extracts were found to contain vicenin-2, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, rosmarinic acid and rutin. Among all M. oleifera extracts, aqueous standardized leaf extracts showed the highest human dermal fibroblast and human keratinocytes cells proliferation and migration properties. Among the film formulations, SA-PC (3% w/v) composite film dressing containing M. oleifera aqueous leaf extract was found to possess optimal physicochemical properties as wound dressing. A potentially applicable wound dressing formulated as an alginate-pectin film containing aqueous extracts of M. oleifera has been developed. The dressing would be suitable for wounds with moderate exudates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of palladium nanoparticles from Prunus × yedoensis leaf extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eco-friendly production of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) by Prunus × yedoensis tree leaf extract was studied for the first time. Initial confirmation of PdNP production was confirmed by a color change from light yellow to dark brown. The optimization parameters show that pH 7, 8% leaf extract,...

  9. Wettability of three Honduran bamboo species

    Treesearch

    X. B. Li; T.F. Shube; C.Y. Hse

    2004-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the wettability of three Honduran bamboo species by contact-angiemeasurements. Static contact angles of urea formaldehyde (UF), phenol formaldehyde (PF), isocyanate (ISO) and distilled water on the bamboo surfaces were measured. The effects of bamboo species, layer (outer, middle and inner) and chemical treatment (hydrochloric acid...

  10. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    PubMed

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  11. Bioavailability of Bioactive Molecules from Olive Leaf Extracts and its Functional Value.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vertedor, Daniel; Garrido, María; Pariente, José Antonio; Espino, Javier; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaves are an important low-cost source of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to examine the effect of in vitro digestibility of an olive leaf aqueous extract so as to prove the availability of its phenolic compounds as well as its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity after a simulated digestion process. The total phenolic content was significantly higher in the pure lyophilized extract. Phenolic compounds, however, decreased by 60% and 90% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), respectively. Regarding antioxidant activity, it was reduced by 10% and 50% after gastric and intestinal digestion, respectively; despite this fact, high antioxidant capacity was found in both SGF and SIF. Moreover, the olive leaf extract showed an unusual combined antimicrobial action at low concentration, which suggested their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds. Finally, olive leaf extracts produced a general dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against U937 cells. To sum up, these findings suggest that the olive leaf aqueous extract maintains its beneficial properties after a simulated digestion process, and therefore its regular consumption could be helpful in the management and the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic disease, bacterial infection, or even cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determination of saponins and flavonoids in ivy leaf extracts using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Shin, Young June; Kim, Nanyoung; Yoo, Guijae; Park, SeonJu; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of six compounds, chlorogenic acid, rutin, nicotiflorin, hederacoside C, hederasaponin B and α-hederin, in ivy leaf extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a YMC Hydrosphere C18 analytical column using a gradient elution of 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity (r(2) > 0.9999), precision [relative standard deviation (RSD) < 0.36%] and accuracy (97.4-103.8%). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were <20.32 and 61.56 ng for all analytes, respectively. The tested compounds were found to be stable in the ivy leaf extract from 0 to 48 h, and the RSD value for each compound was <0.90%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify all six compounds in a 30% ethanol ivy leaf extract and 13 ivy leaf extract products. The results showed that all the tested products satisfied the minimum requirement for the content of hederacoside C. However, there were some differences between the contents of other constituents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Nasiry, Davood; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2017-10-02

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat. The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments. Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction. Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against

  14. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O

    2005-05-13

    In order to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves, the present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in experimental animal models. The antinociceptive effect of the herb's leaf extract was evaluated by the 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the plant's extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf aqueous extract (BPE, 25-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced significant (P<0.05-0.001) antinociceptive effects against thermally- and chemically-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. The plant extract (BPE, 25-800 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) also significantly (P<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation and caused significant (P<0.05-0.001) hypoglycaemia in rats. The results of this experimental animal study suggest that Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf aqueous extract possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. The different flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenoids and other chemical constituents of the herb are speculated to account for the observed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of the plant.

  15. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel method of extraction of bamboo seed oil (Bambusa bambos Druce) and its promising effect on metabolic symptoms of experimentally induced polycystic ovarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Soumya, V.; Muzib, Y. Indira; Venkatesh, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential effect of bamboo seed oil in decreasing the major metabolic symptoms associated with letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian disease using female rat model. Materials and Methods: A new method of microwave-assisted extraction was developed. Female rats were grouped into four with six animals each. All rats were daily administered with letrozole (1 mg/kg b.wt.) for 21 days except control, and during this period, changes in estrous cycle were observed. After letrozole treatment, Group 2 was considered negative control, Groups 3 and 4 were treated orally with bamboo oil, 0.5 ml/kg b.wt. and 1 ml/kg b.wt., respectively, for 3 weeks (five consecutive estrus cycles). Various parameters such as estrus cycle, blood sugar level, lipid profile, and weights of reproductive system were determined. The characteristics of cystic ovaries were evaluated by histopathological studies. Results: The isolated bamboo oil restored estrus cyclicity showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. 1 ml/kg b.wt. of bamboo oil showed a marked glucose reduction from 254.04 ± 2.08 to 92.6 ± 1.63, and levels of total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride were reduced from 186.45 ± 2.28, 30.07 ± 2.36, 100.36 ± 2.35 to 152.14 ± 2.63, 25.94 ± 1.66, 93.32 ± 1.09, respectively. Histopathological results showed the presence of ovulation and recovery from cystic ovaries. Conclusion: A novel and promising drug was isolated in the treatment and maintenance of various metabolic symptoms associated with polycystic ovary disease. PMID:27127318

  17. Characterization of green zero-valent iron nanoparticles produced with tree leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Pacheco, J G; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2015-11-15

    In the last decades nanotechnology has become increasingly important because it offers indisputable advantages to almost every area of expertise, including environmental remediation. In this area the synthesis of highly reactive nanomaterials (e.g. zero-valent iron nanoparticles, nZVI) is gaining the attention of the scientific community, service providers and other stakeholders. The synthesis of nZVI by the recently developed green bottom-up method is extremely promising. However, the lack of information about the characteristics of the synthetized particles hinders a wider and more extensive application. This work aims to evaluate the characteristics of nZVI synthesized through the green method using leaves from different trees. Considering the requirements of a product for environmental remediation the following characteristics were studied: size, shape, reactivity and agglomeration tendency. The mulberry and pomegranate leaf extracts produced the smallest nZVIs (5-10 nm), the peach, pear and vine leaf extracts produced the most reactive nZVIs while the ones produced with passion fruit, medlar and cherry extracts did not settle at high nZVI concentrations (931 and 266 ppm). Considering all tests, the nZVIs obtained from medlar and vine leaf extracts are the ones that could present better performances in the environmental remediation. The information gathered in this paper will be useful to choose the most appropriate leaf extracts and operational conditions for the application of the green nZVIs in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Olive oil and leaf extract prevent fluoxetine-induced hepatotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Elgebaly, Hassan A; Mosa, Nermeen M; Allach, Mariam; El-Massry, Khaled F; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Al Hroob, Amir M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2018-02-01

    Olive oil and leaf extract have several health benefits; however, their beneficial effect against fluoxetine-induced liver injury has not been investigated. The present study aimed to scrutinize the impact of fluoxetine on the liver of rats and to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil and leaf extract. Rats received fluoxetine orally at dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. The fluoxetine-induced rats were concurrently treated with olive oil or leaf extract. At the end of the experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Fluoxetine administration significantly increased circulating ALT, AST, ALP and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β levels in rats. Histological analysis showed several alterations, such as inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatocyte vacuolation and dilated sinusoids in the liver of fluoxetine-induced rats. Concurrent supplementation of olive oil and olive leaf extract significantly reduced circulating liver function marker enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and prevented fluoxetine-induced histological alterations. Both olive oil and leaf extract significantly decreased liver lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, and ameliorated liver glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, olive oil and leaf extract prevented fluoxetine-induced apoptosis in the liver of rats as evidenced by decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3, and up-regulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, olive oil and leaf extract protect against fluoxetine-induced liver injury in rats through attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Properties of Bamboo and Rice Straw Pellets

    Treesearch

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang; Xing' e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw...

  20. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Monera, Tsitsi G; Wolfe, Alan R; Maponga, Charles C; Benet, Leslie Z; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs.

  1. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajihosseini, Shadieh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Hooshmandi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root ( Beta vulgaris ) leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10): Control (C), scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S), scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50), scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100) and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200). Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were also measured. Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly increased this time (p<0.05). Scopolamine decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased serum MDA level yet insignificantly. B. vulgaris extract (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased serum MDA level in scopolamine-treated rats (p<0.05). Our results suggested that B. vulgaris leaf extract could ameliorate the memory impairments and exhibited protective effects against scopolamine-induced oxidation. Further investigation is needed to isolate specific antioxidant compounds from B. vulgaris leaf extract with protective effect against brain and memory impairments.

  2. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, Madheswaran; Saravanan, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    A single step eco-friendly, energy efficient and economically scalable green method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with water as solvent at normal room temperature is described. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from aqueous silver nitrate solution by adding the leaf extract. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIS). X-ray diffraction studies brought to light the crystalline nature and the face centered cubic structure of the silver nanoparticles. Using HR-TEM. the nano sizes and morphology of the particles were studied. The mean sizes of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 36 nm. The density of the particles was tuned by varying the molar ratio of silver nitrate. FTIS studies showed the functional group of organic molecules which were located on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. Originating from the leaf extracts, these organic molecules reduced and capped the particles.

  3. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  4. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats.

  5. Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Paula; Imatomi, Maristela; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Lacret, Rodney; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-08-01

    The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R. umbellata leaf extracts was studied using the etiolated wheat coleoptile and standard phytotoxicity bioassays. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein (1) and (-)-catechin (2) as potential allelochemicals. Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. The structure and mechanics of Moso bamboo material

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, P. G.; Gibson, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Although bamboo has been used structurally for millennia, there is currently increasing interest in the development of renewable and sustainable structural bamboo products (SBPs). These SBPs are analogous to wood products such as plywood, oriented strand board and glue-laminated wood. In this study, the properties of natural Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) are investigated to further enable the processing and design of SBPs. The radial and longitudinal density gradients in bamboo give rise to variations in the mechanical properties. Here, we measure the flexural properties of Moso bamboo in the axial direction, along with the compressive strengths in the axial and transverse directions. Based on the microstructural variations (observed with scanning electron microscopy) and extrapolated solid cell wall properties of bamboo, we develop models, which describe the experimental results well. Compared to common North American construction woods loaded along the axial direction, Moso bamboo is approximately as stiff and substantially stronger, in both flexure and compression but denser. This work contributes to critical knowledge surrounding the microstructure and mechanical properties of bamboo, which are vital to the engineering and design of sustainable SBPs. PMID:25056211

  7. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P M; Xiao, Ting T; Bruins, Marieke E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  8. Morinda citrifolia Leaf Extract Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation Through Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hanna; Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Kang, Moonkyu; Kim, Ikhwi; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf is an herbal medicine with application in the domestic treatment of a broad range of conditions, including bone fracture and luxation. However, the basic mechanism underlying the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation by Noni leaf extract remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of this extract on osteogenic differentiation and the mechanism by which Noni leaf extract enhances osteogenic differentiation. Aqueous extract of Noni leaves was prepared, and rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were identified to be two of its major components. C2C12 and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells were used to study the effect of Noni. Noni did not show cytotoxicity at a concentration range of 0.015%-1.0% (w/v%) and significantly enhanced the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers, including Runx2, ALP, osterix, and osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, Wnt3a, and β-catenin. In addition, Noni enhanced the matrix mineralization of hPDL cells. In the signaling pathways, Noni increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of β-catenin, which were attenuated by the addition of Dkk-1, a Wnt inhibitor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These results suggest that Noni leaf extract enhances osteogenic differentiation through the PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Noni leaf extract might be a novel alternative medicine for bone and periodontal regeneration in patients with periodontal diseases.

  9. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  10. Conversion of phenolic constituents in aqueous Hamamelis virginiana leaf extracts during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Lorenz, Peter; Stintzing, Florian C

    2012-01-01

    Hamamelis virginiana, known for its high level of tannins and other phenolics is widely used for treatment of dermatological disorders. Although reports on hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts from Hamamelis leaf and bark exist, knowledge on fermented leaf preparations and the underlying conversion processes are still scant. Aqueous Hamamelis leaf extracts were monitored during fermentation and maturation in order to obtain an insight into the bioconversion of tannins and other phenolics. Aliquots taken during the production period were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as well as GC-MS after derivatisation into the corresponding trimethylsilyl compounds. In Hamamelis leaf extracts, the main constituents exhibited changes during the observational period of 6 months. By successive depside bond cleavage, the gallotannins were completely transformed into gallic acid after 1 month. Although not completely, kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were also converted during 6 months to yield their corresponding aglycones. Following C-ring fission, phloroglucinol was formed from the A-ring of both flavonols. The B-ring afforded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid from quercetin and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol from kaempferol. Interestingly, hydroxycinnamic acids remained almost stable in the same time range. The present study broadens the knowledge on conversion processes in aqueous fermented extracts containing tannins, flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acids. In particular, the analogy between the microbial metabolism of phenolics from fermented Hamamelis extracts, fermented sourdough by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria or conversion of phenolics by the human microbial flora is indicated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Doaa S; Abd El-Maksoud, Marwa A E

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by albuminuria, hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally treated with three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of strawberry leaf extract for 30 days. Nephropathy biomarkers in plasma and kidney were examined at the end of the experiment. The three doses of strawberry leaf extract significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule (Kim)-1, renal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)- 6 and caspase-3 in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma insulin, albumin, uric acid, renal catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were significantly elevated in diabetic rats treated with strawberry leaf extract. These results indicate the role of strawberry leaves extract as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25645466

  12. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Monera, Tsitsi G.; Wolfe, Alan R.; Maponga, Charles C.; Benet, Leslie Z.; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6ß-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methods Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Results Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs. PMID:19745507

  13. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  14. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  15. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2006-09-01

    In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. (c) 2006 Prous Science. All rights

  16. Effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Leaf Aqueous Extract on Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation and Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tung-Chou; Li, Yuan-Sheng; Rajamani, Karthyayani; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effect of the water extract of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (COK) leaves on hair growth by in vitro and in vivo assays. Using an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, it was found that the proliferation of rat vibrissae and human hair dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) was significantly enhanced by the COK leaf extract treatment. As determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of some hair growth–related factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor-β2 were found to be higher in the cultured hDPCs exposed to COK leaf extract than those in the untreated control group. In the hair-depilated C57BL/6 mouse model, the stimulation of hair growth was demonstrated in the group of COK leaf extract treatment. Both photographical and histological observations revealed the promotion of the anagen phase in the hair growth cycle by the COK leaf extract in the C57BL/6 mice. Finally, the ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) showed that the COK extract contained mostly cinnamic aldehyde and a small amount of cinnamic acid. The results suggest that the COK leaf extract may find use for the treatment of hair loss. PMID:29637818

  17. Dadih bamboo ampel (bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo gombong (gigantochloa verticilata) 2 and 3 days fermented : effect on salad dressing hedonic quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, Nurzainah

    2018-03-01

    The study aims to find time of fermentation of dadih and hedonic quality of dadih salad dressing. Goat milk was fermented in two kinds of bamboo: bamboo Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo Gombong (Gigantochloa verticilata) with different days; i.e. 2 and 3 days which will then became dadih while the dadih then were used as a raw material for making salad dressing. In Indonesia today there is an increasing on vegetable salad demand due to understanding of the benefits of consuming vegetables. One form of vegetable preparation is vegetable salad that is generally used as non local dressings. This research was conducted from April to May 2017 using Factorial Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors; i.e factor 1 (2 and 3 days fermented dadih) and factor 2 (bamboo types : bamboo Ampel and bamboo Gombong) with 4 replications. The parameters were flavor, color, aroma and texture (hedonic evaluation) where there were 25 panelists in doing evaluation. The results showed that 2 days fermented in bamboo ampel significantly (P <0.05) were preferred.

  18. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B. N.; Girish, T. K.; Raghavendra, R. H.; Naidu, K. Akhilender; Rao, U. J. S. Prasada; Rao, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24741275

  19. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  20. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  1. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  2. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical screening of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. leaf extract (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Rivera, Windell L

    2011-10-01

    To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic, and phytochemical properties of ethanol extracts of leaves of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. (V. globosa). The extracts were tested against bacteria and fungus through disc diffusion assay; against protozoa through growth curve determination, antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays. The extract revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Antifungal assay showed that it inhibited Candida albicans. The antiprotozoal assay against Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica showed that V. globosa can inhibit the parasites, wherein the action can be comparable to metronidazole. With the in situ cell death detection kit, Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica exposed to V. globosa leaf extract was observed to fluoresce simultaneously in red and yellow signals signifying apoptotic-like changes. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the chemical composition of plant extract containing alkaloids, saponins, 2-deoxysugars, and hydrolysable tannins. Thus, this study provides scientific evidence on the traditional use of V. globosa leaf extract in treating microbial diseases. Further, the leaf extract can possibly be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy; Siong, Julius Yong Fu; Syamsumir, Desy Fitrya

    2011-01-01

    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.

  4. Leaf Extracts of Selected Gardening Trees Can Attenuate Quorum Sensing and Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kaimin; Kuk, Min; Jung, Haein; Chan, Kokgan; Kim, Sooki

    2017-09-01

    An increasing concern on resistance to multiple-antibiotics has led to the discovery of novel agents and the establishment of new precaution strategy. Numerous plant sources have been widely studied to reduce virulence of pathogenic bacteria by interfering cell-to-cell based communication called quorum sensing (QS). Leaf extracts of 17 gardening trees were collected and investigated for their anti-QS effects using a sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Methanolic extracts of K4 ( Acer palmatum ), K9 ( Acer pseudosieboldianum ) and K13 ( Cercis chinensis ) leaves were selected for further experiments based on their antagonism effect on QS without inhibiting C. violaceum CV026 growth. Subsequently, the leaf extracts on QS-mediated virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 involved in biofilm formation, motility, bioluminescence, pyocyanin production, QS molecules production, and Caenorhabditis elegans killing activity were evaluated. The biofilm formation ability and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa PAO1 were decreased approximately 50% in the presence of these leaf extracts at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The expression level of lecA::lux of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and pyocyanin production were also reduced. The three leaf extracts also decreased autoinducer (AI) production in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without direct degradation, suggesting that AI synthesis might have been suppressed by these extracts. The three leaf extracts also showed anti-infection activity in C. elegans model. Taken together, these results suggest that methanolic leaf extracts of K4, K9 and K13 have the potential to attenuate the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts for their antibacterial and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Malahubban, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Fakurazi, S; Zakry, F A

    2013-09-01

    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.

  6. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Coleus amboinicus Lour

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan, E-mail: puns2005@gmail.com

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of AgNPs using the leaf extract of Coleus amboinicus L. was described. {yields} UV-vis absorption spectra showed the formation of isotrophic AgNPs at 437 nm in 6 h. {yields} XRD analysis showed intense peaks corresponding to fcc structure of AgNPs. {yields} HR-TEM analysis revealed the formation of stable anisotrophic and isotrophic AgNPs. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, Coleus amboinicus Lour. leaf extract-mediated green chemistry approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was described. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmissionmore » electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of leaf extract on the control of size and shape of silver nanoparticles is reported. Upon an increase in the concentration of leaf extract, there was a shift in the shape of nanoparticles from anisotrophic nanostructures like triangle, decahedral and hexagonal to isotrophic spherical nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of fcc structured nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD spectrum with peaks corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes and bright circular spots in the selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Such environment friendly and sustainable methods are non-toxic, cheap and alternative to hazardous chemical procedures.« less

  7. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  8. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this

  10. Bamboo: An Underutilized Resource with Extensive Application Possibilities.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bamboo is classified into Subtribe Bambusoideae of the Poaceae family which is comprised of over 1600 species of bamboo. Most species originated in Asia and Central and South America, although there are several species native to the United States. Often overlooked in the United States, bamboo is g...

  11. A potential oral anticancer drug candidate, Moringa oleifera leaf extract, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, IL LAE; LEE, JU HYE; KANG, SE CHAN

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been reported that cold water-extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf have anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, the anticancer activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. By the analysis of apoptotic signals, including the induction of caspase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, it was demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extracts induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In the hollow fiber assay, oral administration of the leaf extracts significantly reduced (44–52%) the proliferation of the HepG2 cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. These results support the potential of soluble extracts of M. oleifera leaf as orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of human liver and lung cancers. PMID:26622717

  12. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  13. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

  14. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  15. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10-45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50-90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles.

  16. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of guava leaf extract via inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuki; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hosokawa, Tomoko; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kimoto, Masumi; Tsuji, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hideki; Hada, Takahiko; Takahashi, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) which play important roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Because the extract from Psidium guajava is known to have a variety of beneficial effects on our body including the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiproliferative activities, we investigated whether the extract inhibited the catalytic activity of the two PGHS isoforms using linoleic acid as an alternative substrate. The guava leaf extract inhibited the cyclooxygenase reaction of recombinant human PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 as assessed by conversion of linoleic acid to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs). The guava leaf extract also inhibited the PG hydroperoxidase activity of PGHS-1, which was not affected by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Quercetin which was one of the major components not only inhibited the cyclooxygenase activity of both isoforms but also partially inhibited the PG hydroperoxidase activity. Overexpression of human PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 in the human colon carcinoma cells increased the DNA synthesis rate as compared with mock-transfected cells which did not express any isoforms. The guava leaf extract not only inhibited the PGE(2) synthesis but also suppressed the DNA synthesis rate in the PGHS-1- and PGHS-2-expressing cells to the same level as mock-transfected cells. These results demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of the guava leaf extract which is at least in part caused by inhibition of the catalytic activity of PGHS isoforms.

  18. Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) leaf extract increases extravillous trophoblast cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ly, Christina; Ferrier, Jonathan; Gaudet, Jeremiah; Yockell-Lelièvre, Julien; Arnason, John Thor; Gruslin, Andrée; Bainbridge, Shannon

    2018-04-01

    Perturbations to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell migration and invasion are associated with the development of placenta-mediated diseases. Phytochemicals found in the lowbush blueberry plant (Vaccinium angustifolium) have been shown to influence cell migration and invasion in models of tumorigenesis and noncancerous, healthy cells, however never in EVT cells. We hypothesized that the phenolic compounds present in V. angustifolium leaf extract promote trophoblast migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo human EVT cell line and Boyden chamber assays, the influence of V. angustifolium leaf extract (0 to 2 × 10 4  ng/ml) on trophoblast cell migration (n = 4) and invasion (n = 4) was determined. Cellular proliferation and viability were assessed using immunoreactivity to Ki67 (n = 3) and trypan blue exclusion assays (n = 3), respectively. At 20 ng/ml, V. angustifolium leaf extract increased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration and invasion (p < .01) and did not affect cell proliferation or viability. Chlorogenic acid was identified as a major phenolic compound of the leaf extract and the most active compound. Evidence from Western blot analysis (n = 3) suggests that the effects of the leaf extract and chlorogenic acid on trophoblast migration and invasion are mediated through an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMP) kinase-dependent mechanism. Further investigations examining the potential therapeutic applications of this natural health product extract and its major chemical compounds in the context of placenta-mediated diseases are warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Impact performance of two bamboo-based laminated composites

    Treesearch

    Huanrong Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhengjun Sun; Yan Yan; Zhiyong Cai; Xiubiao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The present work aims to determine the impact performance of two bamboo-based laminated composites [bamboo/poplar laminated composite (BPLC) and bamboo/ glass fiber laminated composite (BGFLC)] using lowvelocity impact tests by a drop tower. In addition, fracture characteristics were evaluated using computed tomography (CT). Results showed that BPLC presented better...

  20. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  1. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    PubMed

    Ezeigbo, I I; Ezeja, M I; Madubuike, K G; Ifenkwe, D C; Ukweni, I A; Udeh, N E; Akomas, S C

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  2. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    PubMed

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  3. Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and β-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant capacity, insecticidal ability and heat-oxidation stability of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Chih-Lun; Lee, Shang-Chieh; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of process factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature on the extraction yield and the bioactive contents of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extracts using response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA results showed that the response variables were affected by the ethanol concentration to a very significant degree and by extraction temperature to a lesser degree. GC/MS characterization showed that the extract is rich in bioactive compounds and those present exhibited important biological activities such as antioxidant, insect repellence and insecticidal activities. The results from the toxicity assay demonstrate that the extract obtained from the leaves of Tagetes lemmonii was an effective insect toxin against Tribolium castaneum. The radical scavenging activity and p-anisidine test results of olive oil spiked with different concentrations of leaf extract showed that the phenolic compounds can retard lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qinxue; Xu, Guangzhi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Gao, Qianxin; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Youzuo

    2012-01-01

    Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF): phenolics (TP) and triterpenoid (TT) of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter. PMID:22408451

  6. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B R; Singh, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w) in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1-200μg/ml) was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS) induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (<0.05) enhancement in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and in proliferation of lymphocytes in dose dependent manner. EC50 value was 3.10, 3.75 and 2.68 μg/ml for NBT reduction, nitrite release and lymphoproliferation, respectively. Potential effect was observed at 100 μg/ml in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and 20 μg/ml in lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate immune function

  7. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w) in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1–200μg/ml) was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS) induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (<0.05) enhancement in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and in proliferation of lymphocytes in dose dependent manner. EC50 value was 3.10, 3.75 and 2.68μg/ml for NBT reduction, nitrite release and lymphoproliferation, respectively. Potential effect was observed at 100 μg/ml in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and 20 μg/ml in lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate immune function

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities extracts of mangrove leaf against the growth of some pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Noorbakhsh, Hamid; Vasiee, Alireza; Alghooneh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels (0, 31.25, 83.33, 125 and 250 ml) were investigated on the efficiency of mangrove leaf extraction using mixture optimal design. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The mangrove leaf extraction components were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides) were evaluated based on qualitative methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods. Maximum antimicrobial effect was observed in Enterococcus faecium and highest resistance against mangrove leaf extract in Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Increasing concentration of mangrove extracts had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on inhibition zone diameter. The MICs of the mangrove leaf extraction varied from 4 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The optimum formulation was found to contain glycerin (0 ml), water (28.22 ml), methanol (59.83 ml) and ethanol (161.95 ml). The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was related to optimum extract of mangrove leaf and ethanolic extract respectively. The results of phytochemical screening of Avicennia marina leaves extract showed the existence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides. 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl- was the major compound of Avicennia marina. The results of non-significant lack of fit tests, and F value (14.62) indicated that the model was sufficiently accurate. In addition, the coefficient of variations (16.8%) showed an acceptable reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative ovicidal activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica eggs

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Megeed, Kadria N. Abdel; Hassan, Soad E.; Abdelaziz, M. M.; Toaleb, Nagwa I.; Shanawany, Eman E. El; Aboelsoued, Dina

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease affecting the productive performance of farm animals in Egypt. Aim: The aim of the present study was comparing the ovicidal effect of different extracts as an alcoholic (Methanolic and Ethanolic) and aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Materials and Methods: Tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 12.5 to 800 mg/ml. Nitroxynil was used as reference drug with a dose of 100 mg/ml. Results: M. oleifera alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed a concentration-dependent ovicidal effect on F. gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Based on LC50 values, water extract showed the highest ovicidal activity since it registered the lowest values of 2.6 mg/ml on non-embryonated eggs. Non-embryonated eggs were more susceptible to aqueous extract than developed eggs. On the other hand, the developed eggs were more susceptible to ethanolic extract than non-embryonated eggs even the lowest LC50 (12.38 mg/ml). Conclusion: M. oleifera leaf extracts especially aqueous extract could be a promising step in the field of controlling fascioliasis. Further, in vivo studies are needed to enlighten the therapeutic potential of M. oleifera extracts in treating F. gigantica infection. PMID:29657406

  10. Phytofabrication and characterization of monodisperse copper oxide nanoparticles using Albizia lebbeck leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumarai, G.; Gokulpriya, C.; Sudhapriya, R.; Sharmila, G.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2015-12-01

    Simple effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) using of Albizia lebbeck leaf extract was investigated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized CONPs, viz. UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD. The synthesized CONPs were found to be spherical in shape and size less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that A. lebbeck leaf extract can be used as a cheap and effective reducing agent for CONPs production in large scale.

  11. Evaluation of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (L.) on Fertility of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Peiris, L Dinithi C; Dhanushka, M A T; Jayathilake, T A H D G

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of Cardiospermum halicacabum for 30 days produced a significant dose dependent increase in the sperm counts and sperm motility in both caput and cauda regions. Further, significant increase in serum testosterone level was evident at all applied doses. However, no significant changes in the weight of sex organs were observed. Aqueous leaf extract also increased the number of females impregnated, number of implantations, and number of viable fetuses while decreasing the total number of resorption sites in the pregnant females. However, the total cholesterol level in the serum remained unchanged and there were no records on renotoxicity; nevertheless ALE exhibited a hepatoprotective effect. It was concluded that aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum enhanced sperm concentration, motility, and testosterone, leading to positive results in fertility.

  12. Bamboo vs. crops: an integrated emergy and economic evaluation of using bamboo to replace crops in south Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong-Fang; Cai, Chun-Ju; Zeng, Xian-Shu; Campbell, Daniel E; Fan, Shao-Hui; Liu, Guang-Lu

    2018-03-10

    Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the 'Grain for Green Program' (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on sloping farmland. The results confirmed the positive effects of all 3 kinds of bamboo systems on water conservation and soil erosion control. The benefits gained progressively increased during the first 8 years after conversion, going from 4639 to 16127 EMyuan/ha/yr on average. All three bamboo plantations were much more sustainable than common agricultural crops planted on sloping land (CP) on both the short and long-term scales with their Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) and Emergy Index for Sustainable Development (EISD), respectively, being 14.07-325.71 and 80.35-265.80 times that of CP. However, all 3 bamboo plantations had a Net Economic Benefit (NEB) less than that of CP during the first 8 years after conversion. Even with the government-mandated ecological compensation applied, the annual NEB EC s of the Bambusa rigida (BR) and Phyllostachys pubescense (PP) plantations were, respectively, 3922.03 and 7422.77 yuan/ha/yr lower than the NEB of CP. Emergy-based evaluation of ecosystem services provides an objective reference for applying ecological compensation in strategy-making, but it cannot wholly solve the economic viability problem faced by all bamboo plantations. Inter-planting annual herbs or edible fungus, such as Dictyophora echinovolvata , within bamboo forests, especially in young bamboo plantations, might be a direction for optimizing bamboo cultivation that would improve its economic viability.

  13. Different carbonization process of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, S. S. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo charcoal has attracted a lot of interests due to their microporous structure, high surface area and great adsorption properties. Some of the applications utilizing this material focused on these advantages such as water purification, electromagnetic wave absorber and blood purification. However, these advantages really depend on the carbonization and activation process of bamboo charcoal. The production must be carried out in properly control environment with precise temperatures and timing. This paper report the production of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata in controlled environment at 500 °C for 1 hour (lab-prepared). Then the material was characterized for their dispersibility and adsorption behaviour. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal that was produced commercially, by company, was also characterized and compared. The results show, bamboo charcoal produced by lab-prepared has similar qualities with the commercial bamboo charcoal.

  14. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Maryem; Affes, Hanen; Ksouda, Kamilia; Dhouibi, Raouia; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hammami, Serria; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir

    2015-12-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver. In animal studies, liquid extracts of the roots and leaves of artichoke have demonstrated an ability to protect the liver, with possibly even to help liver cells regenerate. Although research is not yet conclusive, scientists were optimistic that its long-standing use in humans for digestive and bowel problems was indeed justified. It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients. This article intended to review the wide ranging pharmacological effects of artichoke leaf extract.

  15. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo. PMID:28951734

  16. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1 , a homolog of Pin1At , from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis -acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis . On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  17. Effects of bamboo biochar on soybean root nodulation in multi-elements contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Alidoust, Darioush; Yang, Xueling; Isoda, Akihiro

    2018-04-15

    Improvements in plant physiological performance by means of biochar application in soils contaminated by multi-elements are determinants of agroecosystem functioning. This study analyzed the effects of bamboo-derived biochar on root nodulation and plant growth in a moderately acidic Andosol (pH = 5.56) contaminated with multi-elements during a 70-day investigation of soybean growth. Bamboo biochar that had been pyrolyzed at a temperature below 500°C was applied to soils at three different and moderately high rates (5%, 10%, and 15%, w/w). Biochar amendment beyond 5% stimulated root nodulation as well as soybean growth. The nodule weight per root system was significantly enhanced by 186% and 243% over the control at the 10% and 15% addition rates, respectively. The primary explanation for these stimulatory effects was attributed to an increase in the K and Mo supplies for plant uptake that was induced by the biochar application, whereas the increased availability of P contributed to a lesser extent. Leaf CO 2 assimilation rate was slightly enhanced at the highest application rate, but this enhancement was not associated with an increase in biomass. The incorporation of biochar into the soil reduced extractable-NH 4 NO 3 Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb, regardless of the application dose. This change was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.05) suppression of the uptake od trace elements in soybean shoots at the optimum application rate (10%); the degree of reduction followed this order: Pb>Mn>Cd>Zn>Cu>Ni. The increase in soil pH and the diffusion/adsorption of trace elements onto the biochar may have contributed to the lowering of the concentration of trace elements in the soil as well as in soybean shoots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    PubMed Central

    Ezeigbo, II; Ezeja, MI; Madubuike, KG; Ifenkwe, DC; Ukweni, IA; Udeh, NE; Akomas, SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine. PMID:23569944

  19. The physical and mechanical properties of treated and untreated Gigantochloa Scortechinii bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Norhasliya Mohd; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Bakhri, Azrul Affandhi Mustaffa Al; Shaari, Amalina Aisyah

    2018-02-01

    Bamboo's advantages such as fast growing, renewable and easily available raw material meets the demand of sustainable material in construction. Bamboo act as reinforcement to enhance strength in structural members. This paper investigated on the properties of Gigantochloa Scortechinii bamboo (moisture content, density, compression, shear and bending) by referring to ISO 22157. Moisture content for both untreated and treated bamboo high at the bottom section while density is high at the top section. Compression strength for untreated bamboo were between 19.96 to 23.80 MPa and treated bamboo were between 31.74 to 36.60 MPa. High compression was at the top section which have the greatest wall thickness. Shear strength recorded between 4.28 to 5.69 MPa for untreated bamboo with node and 3.67 to 5.21 MPa for treated bamboo with node. The shear strength of samples with node recorded high strength compared to internode. Untreated bamboo recorded the MOR between 53.64 to 73.66 MPa and 58.23 to 62.86 MPa for treated bamboo. MOE of untreated bamboo were between 26.70 GPa to 36.31 GPa while treated bamboo were between 28.83 to 33.41 GPa. By replacing bamboo to the conventional building material, cost of materials will be reduced and sustainability will be enhanced.

  20. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg−1) > granite (1.6 g kg−1) > basalt (1.3 g kg−1) > shale (0.7 g kg−1). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO2 ha−1 yr−1, thus a net 4.7 × 106 –310.8 × 106 kg CO2 yr−1 would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants. PMID:24918576

  1. Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of the Ethanol and Chloroform Crude Leaf Extracts of Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. ex Sims) Schott.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, Arunachalam; Gracilla, Daniel E; Dela Peña, Renato A; Malison, Marilyn T; Pangilinan, Christian R

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the medicinal properties of Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. ex Sims) Schott as a possible source of antimicrobial compounds. The phytochemical constituents were screened using qualitative methods and the antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined using agar well diffusion method. One-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, and tannins in both ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts, but triterpenes were detected only in the ethanol leaf extract. The antimicrobial assay revealed that the chloroform leaf extract inhibited Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , whereas the ethanol leaf extract inhibited E. coli , S. aureus , and B. subtilis only. The ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts exhibited the highest zone of inhibition against B. subtilis . The antifungal assay showed that both the leaf extracts have no bioactivity against Aspergillus niger and C. albicans . Results suggest that chloroform is the better solvent for the extraction of antimicrobial compounds against the test organisms used in this study. Findings of this research will add new knowledge in advancing drug discovery and development in the Philippines.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in the liver enzymes (Aspartate amino transferase and Alanine amino transferase) and gradual decline in the cellular radical scavenging enzyme levels (Catalase, Glutathione-s-transferase and Glutathione peroxidase. The combined treatment with EMI and MMI leaf extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reversed these parameters. However, the effects of MMI leaf extract (50 mg/kg) were superior to those of EMI- treated mice possibly due to its potent radical scavenging property. These results suggest that oral supplementation of Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  3. Biogenic silver nanoparticles using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract: synthesis, spectral analysis, and antimicrobial studies

    PubMed Central

    Pasupuleti, Visweswara Rao; Prasad, TNVKV; Shiekh, Rayees Ahmad; Balam, Satheesh Krishna; Narasimhulu, Ganapathi; Reddy, Cirandur Suresh; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is gaining momentum due to its ability to transform metals into nanoparticles. The synthesis, characterization, and applications of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are a cost-effective, ecologically friendly, and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were synthesized using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract. After exposing the silver ions to the leaf extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of AgNps in solution. The synthesis was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the AgNps synthesized using R. nasutus leaf extract was investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus using a disc diffusion method. The AgNps showed potential activity against all of the bacterial strains and fungal colonies, indicating that R. nasutus has the potential to be used in the development of value-added products in the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries. PMID:24039419

  4. Biogenic silver nanoparticles using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract: synthesis, spectral analysis, and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Visweswara Rao; Prasad, T N V; Shiekh, Rayees Ahmad; Balam, Satheesh Krishna; Narasimhulu, Ganapathi; Reddy, Cirandur Suresh; Ab Rahman, Ismail; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is gaining momentum due to its ability to transform metals into nanoparticles. The synthesis, characterization, and applications of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are a cost-effective, ecologically friendly, and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were synthesized using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract. After exposing the silver ions to the leaf extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of AgNps in solution. The synthesis was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the AgNps synthesized using R. nasutus leaf extract was investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus using a disc diffusion method. The AgNps showed potential activity against all of the bacterial strains and fungal colonies, indicating that R. nasutus has the potential to be used in the development of value-added products in the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  5. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract offers multiple mechanisms in bridling N-methylnitrosourea - mediated experimental colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Abhar, Hanan S; Hassanin, Elsayed Abdul Khalik; Abdelkader, Noha F; Shalaby, Mohamed B

    2017-11-01

    In Egypt, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 6th cancer in both gender and CRC rates are high in subjects under 40 years of age. This study goaled to determine the development of CRC using relevant biochemical markers and to elucidate the potent mechanism of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in retrogression of experimental CRC. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered N-methylnitrosourea (N-MNU; 2mg in 0.5ml water/rat) intrarectally thrice a week for five weeks to induce CRC, followed by treatment with either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 12.5mg/kg, i.p.) or Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in a dose of 0.675 and 1.35g/kg, p.o. respectively. The developed tumor enhanced plasma TGF-β, and Bcl 2 , serum EGF, CEA, CCSA, and MMP-7 significantly. Also, gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of colonic β-Catenin, K-ras and C-myc genes. Besides, immunohistochemical findings revealed significant increase in COX-2, cyclin D1 and survivin content in colon tissue. These data were further supported by the histological observations. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract-treated rats; particularly those treated with dose of 1.35g/kg, exhibited significant reduction in the aforementioned parameters and improvement in the histological organization of the colon tissue. The therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract was comparable with that mediated by 5-FU. The current research proved that Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract could suppress tumor cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and mitigat inflammation in vivo. The amelioration of these key events might be linked with the inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling module. The outcomes of the present investigation encourage the use of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract as a complementary and alternative therapeutic approach to abate CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and mechanical characterization of green bamboo composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy; Ng, W. K.; Arifin, F.; Rassiah, K.; Othman, F.; Hazin, M. S.; Ahmad, M. M. H. Megat

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a bamboo composite is developed using specific bamboo species known as Gigantochloa Scortechinii (Buluh Semantan) which can be found in Malaysia. In precise, the woven bamboo (WB) was formed from the culm fier composite with an average of 0.5 mm thickness and 5.0 mm width strip is laminated with Wowen E Glass (WEG) and reinforced with epoxy (EP). The laminated was using a hand lay-up technique. The developed bamboo composites are then characterized comprehensively in the term of tensile, hardness, impact, fatigue and fracture test. It is found that the strength was equivalent with the existing steel alloy in term of tensile and fracture properties.

  7. Bamboo: Strategies for Teaching about Aspects of Asian Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antolik, Brother Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Ten classroom activities introduce elementary and junior high school students to Asian culture by investigating the uses of bamboo. Students are directed to read about bamboo, investigate bamboo's roles (food, building material, clothing, tools), and construct artifacts such as a fishing pole and a flute. (Author/DB)

  8. Crystallization kinetics and thermal resistance of bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumsorn, S.; Srisawat, N.; On, J. Wong; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hamada, H.

    2014-05-01

    Bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites were prepared in this study. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was blended with bamboo fiber in a twin screw extruder with varied bamboo content from 20-0wt%. PBS/bamboo fiber composites were fabricated by compression molding process. The effect of bamboo fiber contents on properties of the composites was investigated. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study of the composites was investigated based on Avrami equation. The kinetic parameters indicated that bamboo fiber acted as heterogeneous nucleation and enhanced crystallinity of the composites. Bamboo fiber was well dispersed on PBS matrix and good adhered with the matrix. Tensile strength of the composites slightly deceased with adding bamboo fiber. However, tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased when increasing bamboo fiber contents. It can be noted that bamboo fiber promoted crystallization and crystallinity of PBS in the composites. Therefore, the composites were better in impact load transferring than neat PBS, which exhibited improving on impact performance of the composites.

  9. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  10. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nordin, Fariza Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation. PMID:21772753

  12. Olive leaf extract activity against Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis - the in vitro viability study.

    PubMed

    Zorić, Nataša; Kopjar, Nevenka; Kraljić, Klara; Oršolić, Nada; Tomić, Siniša; Kosalec, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.

  13. Investigation of Some Metals in Leaves and Leaf Extracts of Lippia javanica: Its Daily Intake

    PubMed Central

    Florence, Kunsamala

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of plant extracts can be a source of essential elements or a route of human exposure to toxicants. Metal concentrations in leaves, leaf brew, and infusion of L. javanica collected from five sites were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid and aqueous extraction. Estimated daily intakes of metals in extracts were compared with recommended dietary allowances. Total metal concentrations in leaves varied with sampling sites (p < 0.05): Mn > Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb for sites SS2–SS5. The highest metal concentrations in leaves were recorded for SS3 (Cu: 15.32 ± 4.53 and Mn: 734.99 ± 105.49), SS5 (Fe: 210.27 ± 17.17), SS2 (Pb: 3.11 ± 0.21), and SS4 (Cr: 4.40 ± 0.75 mg/kg). Leaf infusion appeared to release higher Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves across sites (Cu: 21.65; Mn: 28.01%) than leaf brew (Cu: 11.95; Mn: 19.74%). Lead was not detected in leaf extracts. Estimated dietary intakes of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Mn were below recommended dietary allowances. A 250 ml cup of leaf infusion contributed 0.30–1.18% Cu and 4.46–13.83% Mn to the recommended dietary allowances of these elements per day. Lead did not pose any potential hazard when consumed in tea beverage made from brew and infusion of leaves of L. javanica. PMID:28781598

  14. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijender; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Kumar, Dinesh; Khan, NA; Chashoo, IA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extract of Skimmia anquetilia by in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory models. Methods Acute toxicity study was carried out to determine the toxicity level of different extract using acute toxic class method as described in Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines No.423. Carrageenan (1% w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in rat paw. The leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by in-vitro human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method and in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema method. Results The in-vitro membrane stabilizing test showed petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE), ethyl acetate (EE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) showed 49.44%, 59.39%, 60.15%, 68.40% and 52.18 % protection, respectively as compared to control groups. The in-vivo results of CE, EE and ME showed 58.20%, 60.17% and 67.53% inhibition of inflammation after 6h administration of test drugs in albino rats. The potency of the leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were compared with standard diclofenac (10 mg/kg) which showed 74.18% protection in in-vitro HRBC membrane stabilization test and 71.64% inhibition in in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema model. The ME showed a dose dependent significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory activity in human red blood cell membrane stabilization test and reduction of edema in carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Conclusions The present investigation has confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of Skimmia anquetilia due to presence of bioactive phytoconstitutes for the first time and provide the pharmacological evidence in favor of traditional claim of Skimmia anquetilia as an anti- inflammatory agent. PMID:23569983

  15. Protective Effect of Morus alba Leaf Extract on N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Flaczyk, Ewa; Przeor, Monika; Kurpik, Monika; Liebert, Jadwiga Jodynis

    The leaves of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) contain various polyphenolic compounds possessing strong antioxidant activity and anticancer potential. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of aqueous extract of mulberry leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver carcinogenesis. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, mulberry extract-treated, NDEA-treated, and mulberry extract plus NDEA-treated. Mulberry extract was given in the diet (1,000 mg/kg b.w./day); NDEA was given in drinking water. Mulberry extract reduced the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplastic nodules, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation, and DNA degradation. Treatment with mulberry leaf extract along with NDEA challenge did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content. Treatment with mulberry leaf extract partially protected the livers of rats from NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and a direct antioxidant mechanism appears to contribute to its anticarcinogenic activity. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  17. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. Results and discussion The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in the liver enzymes (Aspartate amino transferase and Alanine amino transferase) and gradual decline in the cellular radical scavenging enzyme levels (Catalase, Glutathione-s-transferase and Glutathione peroxidase. The combined treatment with EMI and MMI leaf extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reversed these parameters. However, the effects of MMI leaf extract (50 mg/kg) were superior to those of EMI- treated mice possibly due to its potent radical scavenging property. These results suggest that oral supplementation of Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24. PMID:29264314

  18. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  19. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N.; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition. PMID:26419945

  20. Leaf extraction and analysis framework graphical user interface: segmenting and analyzing the structure of leaf veins and areoles.

    PubMed

    Price, Charles A; Symonova, Olga; Mileyko, Yuriy; Hilley, Troy; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the structure and function of physical biological networks has spurred the development of a number of theoretical models that predict optimal network structures across a broad array of taxonomic groups, from mammals to plants. In many cases, direct tests of predicted network structure are impossible given the lack of suitable empirical methods to quantify physical network geometry with sufficient scope and resolution. There is a long history of empirical methods to quantify the network structure of plants, from roots, to xylem networks in shoots and within leaves. However, with few exceptions, current methods emphasize the analysis of portions of, rather than entire networks. Here, we introduce the Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), a user-assisted software tool that facilitates improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins have been enhanced relative to the background, and following a series of interactive thresholding and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks and areoles. Metrics include the dimensions, position, and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape, and position of the areoles they surround. Available for free download, the LEAF GUI software promises to facilitate improved understanding of the adaptive and ecological significance of leaf vein network structure.

  1. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Cajanus cajan leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rong; Tian, Ru-Hua; Cai, Jia-Zhong; Wu, Jun-Hui; Shen, Xiao-Ling; Hu, Ying-Jie

    2017-12-01

    The leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae) have diverse bioactivities, but little safety data are reported. This study examines the toxicological profiles of C. cajan leaf extracts. The leaves were extracted by water or 90% ethanol to obtain water or ethanol extract (WEC or EEC). EEC was suspended in water and successively fractionated into dichloroform and n-butanol extracts (DEC and BEC). Marker compounds of the extracts were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Kunming mice were administered with a single maximum acceptable oral dose (15.0 g/kg for WEC, EEC and BEC and 11.3 g/kg for DEC) to determine death rate or maximal tolerated doses (MTDs). In sub-chronic toxicity investigation, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given WEC or EEC at 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 g/kg doses for four weeks and observed for two weeks after dosing to determine toxicological symptoms, histopathology, biochemistry and haematology. Flavonoids and stilbenes in the extracts were assayed. In acute toxicity test, no mortality and noted alterations in weight and behavioural abnormality were observed, and the maximum oral doses were estimated as MTDs. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and significant variances in haematological and biochemical parameters or organ histopathology were observed, but increased kidney weight in 3.0 g/kg WEC- or 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg EEC-treated female rats, and reduced testes and epididymis weight in EEC-treated male rats were recorded. These changes returned to the level of control after recovery period. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Cajanus cajan leaf extracts was not observed.

  2. Wasabi leaf extracts attenuate adipocyte hypertrophy through PPARγ and AMPK.

    PubMed

    Oowatari, Yasuo; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Katsube, Takuya; Iinuma, Kiyohisa; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophy of adipocytes in obese adipose tissues causes metabolic abnormality by adipocytokine dysregulation, which promotes type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) leaf extracts on metabolic abnormalities in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a model of metabolic syndrome. Male SHRSP/ZF rats aged 7 weeks were divided into two groups: control and wasabi leaf extract (WLE) groups, which received water or oral treatment with 4 g/kg/day WLE for 6 weeks. WLE improved the body weight gain and high blood pressure in SHRSP/ZF rats, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the WLE group. Adipocyte hypertrophy was markedly prevented in adipose tissue. The expression of PPARγ and subsequent downstream genes was suppressed in the WLE group adipose tissues. Our data suggest that WLE inhibits adipose hypertrophy by suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and stimulating the AMPK activity by increased adiponectin.

  3. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p < 0.05) on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability.

  4. Pretreatment of bamboo residues with Coriolus versicolor for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Hongxun

    2007-08-01

    Pretreatment by a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor B1 under different conditions and saccharification of bamboo were investigated. The saccharification rate was significantly enhanced and a maximum saccharification rate of 37.0% was achieved after pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 223.2 mg/g of bamboo residues, which was 2.34 times that of the raw material. It was feasible to treat bamboo residues with B1 for the saccharification of bamboo.

  5. Hypolipidemic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaf Powder and its Extract in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Shahinaz A; Morsy, Nashwa F S; Elaby, Shahenda M; Ghaly, Mohammed A A

    2017-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam possess some potential medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of M. oleifera leaf powder and its extract against hyperlipidemia in rats. Adult male albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was fed on a basal diet that served as a negative control, whereas the others were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or 1.475% or administered daily with 200 or 400 mg dry moringa leaf extract/kg bw for 60 days. A positive control group was fed on the HFD. Serum indices related to lipid profile, oxidative status, and liver function were analyzed. Feeding rats on an HFD containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or an oral dose of its dry extract at 400 mg/kg bw alleviated the harmful elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum that were induced by the HFD. This is the first study demonstrating the hypocholesterolemic effect of M. oleifera leaf powder.

  6. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  7. Effects of carbonization conditions on properties of bamboo pellets

    Treesearch

    Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Benhua Fei; Yan Yu; Xing' e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a biomass material and has great potential as a bio-energy resource of the future in China. Bamboo pellets were successfully manufactured using a laboratory pellet mill in preliminary work. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the effect of carbonization conditions (temperature and time) on properties of bamboo pellets and to evaluate product...

  8. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and total phenolics of methanolic leaf extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

    PubMed

    Michael, J Savarimuthu; Kalirajan, A; Padmalatha, C; Singh, A J A Ranjit

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the methanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA). The sample was tested using five in vitro antioxidant methods (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (-OH), nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO), superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and total antioxidant activity) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of NA and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method). The extract showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as an IC50 value. IC50 (Half maximal inhibitory concentration) of the methanolic extract was found to be 57.93 μg·mL(-1) for DPPH, 98.61 μg·mL(-1) for -OH, 91.74 μg·mL(-1) for NO, and 196.07 μg·mL(-1) for superoxide radical scavenging activity. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be (1198 ± 24.05) mg ascorbic acid for the methanolic extract. Free radical scavenging activity observed in the extracts of NA showed a concentration-dependent reaction. The in vitro scavenging tested for free radicals was reported to be due to high phenolic content in the leaf extract. The leaf extract of NA showed the highest total phenolic content with a value of 78.48 ± 4.2 equivalent mg TAE/g (tannic acid equivalent). N. arbor-tristis leaf extract exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. The finding suggests that N. arbor-tristis leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction of rebaudioside-A by sonication from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf and decolorization of the extract by polymers.

    PubMed

    Gasmalla, Mohammed Abdalbasit A; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of steviol glycosides extraction from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf was carried out by investigating the effects of isopropyl alcohol concentration (60 %, v/v), time (6-24 min), temperature (30 °C) and sonic power (300-480 W) on extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and decolorization of the extract by polymer (Separan AP30 and Resin ADS-7). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was suitable for the extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and the yield of rebaudioside A achieved 35.61 g/100 g when the output power was 360 W and treatment time was 18 min. The sonication had influence on the particle size of stevia leaf and the color of the extracted solution. As the sonication intensity increased, the particle size decreased. The colour of differently treated stevia solutions were significantly different (P < 0.05). Separan AP30 and adsorption resin ADS-7 were performed to remove the colour impurity. The results showed that more than 65 % of the coloured impurity was removed by Separan AP30 combined with Calcium oxide (CaO).

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2015-01-05

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Manufacturing Process of Bamboo Pellets

    Treesearch

    Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Benhua Fei; Xing' e Liu

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo was a kind of biomass materials and had great potential as a bio-energy resource of the future in China. The physical and combustion properties of bamboo pellets were determined and the effects of moisture content (MC) and sizes of particle on these properties were investigated in this research. The results showed that MC and sizes of particle affected these...

  12. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  13. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2016-01-01

    The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors.

  14. Evaluation of Three Protein-Extraction Methods for Proteome Analysis of Maize Leaf Midrib, a Compound Tissue Rich in Sclerenchyma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Xiaolin; Ku, Lixia; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely related to the growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) plants and final kernel production. As an important part of the maize leaf, the midrib holds leaf blades in the aerial position for maximum sunlight capture. Leaf midribs of adult plants contain substantial sclerenchyma cells with heavily thickened and lignified secondary walls and have a high amount of phenolics, making protein extraction and proteome analysis difficult in leaf midrib tissue. In the present study, three protein-extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics, i.e., phenol extraction, TCA/acetone extraction, and TCA/acetone/phenol extraction, were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated based on 2DE maps and MS/MS analysis using the midribs of the 10th newly expanded leaves of maize plants. Microscopy revealed the existence of substantial amounts of sclerenchyma underneath maize midrib epidermises (particularly abaxial epidermises). The spot-number order obtained via 2DE mapping was as follows: phenol extraction (655) > TCA/acetone extraction (589) > TCA/acetone/phenol extraction (545). MS/MS analysis identified a total of 17 spots that exhibited 2-fold changes in abundance among the three methods (using phenol extraction as a control). Sixteen of the proteins identified were hydrophilic, with GRAVY values ranging from -0.026 to -0.487. For all three methods, we were able to obtain high-quality protein samples and good 2DE maps for the maize leaf midrib. However, phenol extraction produced a better 2DE map with greater resolution between spots, and TCA/acetone extraction produced higher protein yields. Thus, this paper includes a discussion regarding the possible reasons for differential protein extraction among the three methods. This study provides useful information that can be used to select suitable protein extraction methods for the proteome analysis of recalcitrant plant tissues that are rich in sclerenchyma cells.

  15. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1–120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:28018419

  16. Extraction of Volatile Flavor Compounds From Tobacco Leaf Through a Low-Density Polyethylene Membrane.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Michinori; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2017-03-01

    A low-density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane pouch method was developed to extract volatile flavor compounds from tobacco leaf. Tobacco leaf suspended in water was enclosed in a pouch prepared from a LDPE membrane of specific gravity 0.92 g/cm3 and 0.03 mm thickness and then extracted with diethyl ether. In comparison with direct solvent extraction, LDPE membrane excluded larger and higher boiling point compounds which could contaminate a gas chromatograph inlet and damage a column. Whilst being more convenient than a reduced-pressure steam distillation, it could extract volatile flavor compounds of wide range of molecular weight and polarity. Repeatabilities in the extracted amounts were ranged from 0.38% of 2.3-bipyridyl to 26% of β-ionone, and average value of 39 compounds was 5.9%. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mechanical properties of moso bamboo treated with chemical agents

    Treesearch

    Benhua Fei; Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a type of biomass material and has great potential as a bioenergy resource for the future in China. Surface chemical and thermal–mechanical behavior play an important role in the manufacturing process of bamboo composites and pellets. In this study, moso bamboo was treated by sodium hydrate solution and acetic acid solution. Surface chemical and dynamic...

  18. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Umer, Shemsu; Tekewe, Alemu; Kebede, Nigatu

    2013-01-28

    In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract also showed good antimicrobial

  19. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract

  20. Mechanical properties evaluation of single and hybrid composites polyester reinforced bamboo, PALF and coir fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihayat, T.; Suryani, S.; Fauzi, T.; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Syafruddin; Helmi; Zulkifli; Alam, P. N.; Sami, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition fiber natural of bamboo, pineapple leaf and coir in single and hybrid composite to see the best characteristics of tensile strength and flexural test by using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and observe the effect on the microstructure of the composite through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Bamboo, Palf and coir have synthesis from natural fiber was used as reinforcement in polyester composite using hand lay up or a hot-compression moulding while filler:matrix was used (45%:55wt.%, 70%:30wt.% and 15%:85wt.%). From the variation of the volume fraction between filler and matrix show that mechanical properties of composites increased with increasing amount of filler in the matrix. This is evidenced by the high mechanical properties A:B:C/Ps in compositions 45%: 55wt.% 136 Mpa while flexural strength 93 N and good structure surface morphology. This research has produced a hybrid composite materials that have high mechanical properties and bending compared with conventional synthetic fibers and other materials.

  1. Characteristics of Microactive Carbon from Bamboo Var. Petung as Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirawan, I. P. S.; Sutrisno; Seminar, K. B.; Nelwan, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    Bamboo has unique characteristics, such as in the carbonization process at a temperature of 500°C, the carbon characteristics is homogeneous. The characteristics of bamboo have great potential as a future bio-energy resource. Apart from being a bio-energy source of bamboo can also be used as an adsorbent material in the form of activated carbon. Activated carbon is the most inexpensive and easy to produce adsorbent material. One of the activated carbons of bamboo materials used is the micro-active carbon from bamboo. Microactivated carbon bamboo has a pore structure which is good for adsorption because of its surface area being much better than the other adsorbent, mainly on mesopore and micropore pore size. The purpose of this research is to make micro-activated carbon adsorbent bamboo var. petungand to analyze their characteristics. The characteristic of microactivecarbon was analyzed by SEM EDS and Iod number. The result showed a variation in pore size from 1μm to 11.157μm. The surface area of micro-active carbon of 200 mesh and 80 mesh is 1954.95 m2g-1 and 1516.34 m2g-1.

  2. Piscicidal activity of leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant and their biochemical stress response on fish metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Yadav, R P; Singh, A

    2010-11-01

    The leaf and bark of Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) plant was administered for 24 h to the freshwater fish Catla catla (Hamilton) to evaluate their piscicidal activity in laboratory and cemented pond condition. The LC0 values of lef and bark extracts of different solvents (i.e., acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of this plant to fish Catla catla were determined. The LC50 values of acetone leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana plant is 88.80 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 529.38 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition; acetone bark extract of this plant is 99.43 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 591.78 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition against freshwater fish Catla catla. Similar trend was also observed in case of other solvent (i.e., diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of leaf and bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana plant against freshwater fish Catla catla in laboratory and cemented pond conditions. The acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant was very effective in comparison to other solvent extract in both the conditions. So, the biochemical analysis is taken only acetone leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant in laboratory condition. Exposure of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC,) of acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant over 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) alterations in total protein, free amino acids, DNA & RNA, protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in muscle, liver and gonadal tissues of fish Catla catla in laboratory condition.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Estrogen hormone level of prepubertal female rat treated with Calliandra calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, I.; Wiratmini, N. I.; Narayani, I.

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the phytoestrogen potential of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract in prepubertal female rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sixty weaned female rats (21 days old) were divided into five groups i.e. control (K), negative control which was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension (KN) and treatment groups which were given with C. calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract doses 25 mg/kg bw (P1), 50 mg/kg bw (P2) and 75 mg/kg bw (P3). The treatment suspension was administered 0.5 mL/rat/day by gavage for 28 days, started at the age of 21st days old. The rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected from 4 rats / group at the age of 28th, 42nd and 56th days old, each. The concentration of estrogen hormone levels were measured from blood serum by ELISA kit and were read at 450 nm wavelength with an ELISA Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed statistically by General Linear Model with 95% of confidence. The result showed that rat’s body weight decreased significantly with the higher doses and the longer the treatment of C. calothyrsus leaf extract due to the anti-nutritive activity of calliandra tannins. The estrogen hormone level was significantly increased at the highest dose. The highest estrogen levels were found in the group of female rats which were given the exctract of 75 mg/kg bw until the age of 42nd days. This results showed that there was a phytoestrogen potential in the C. calothyrsus leaf extract.

  6. Fermented guava leaf extract inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in Mouse macrophage cells by inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho; Park, Soo-Young; Jin, Yeong-Jun; Ko, Hee-Chul; Moon, Sang-Wook; Kim, Se-Jae

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the antiinflammatory activities of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaf. To improve the functionality of guava leaf, it was fermented with Phellinus linteus mycelia, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol extract from fermented guava leaf inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. Western blot analysis showed that fermented guava leaf extract decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the mechanism involved, the study examined the effect of fermented guava leaf extract on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Fermented guava leaf extract significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Immunochemical analysis revealed that fermented guava leaf extract suppressed LPS-induced degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Taken together, the data indicate that fermented guava leaf extract is involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB pathway, revealing a partial molecular basis for the antiinflammatory properties of fermented guava leaf extract.

  7. Antimutagenic effects of betel leaf extract against the mutagenicity of two tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated chewing tobacco alone to be more hazardous than chewing tobacco with betel quid. Experimental studies have shown that betel leaf is antimutagenic against standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) are the only carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, including chewing tobacco, we tested the effect of an extract of betel leaf against the mutagenicity of the two important TSNA, viz., N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay with TA100 +S9 and the in vivo micronucleus test. In both the test systems it was observed that betel leaf extract suppressed the mutagenic effects of both the nitrosamines to a significant extent.

  8. A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.

    PubMed

    Sang-A-Gad, Pensiriwan; Guharat, Suriya; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-11-01

    Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. To describe cyanide poisoning in eight victims who were exposed to HCN produced in a well containing pickling bamboo shoots. Due to a series of botched rescue attempts, a total of eight patients entered into a 27 m(3) well containing pickled bamboo shoots and immediately lost consciousness. After rescue, two patients developed cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis and died. Four other patients suffered metabolic acidosis, but recovered after supportive care. The remaining two regained consciousness and recovered soon after the event. Ambient air study and cyanide content of bamboo shoots helped confirm the diagnosis. All patients had high anion gap metabolic acidosis with normal oxygenation. Blood cyanide levels ranged from 2.66 to 3.30 mcg/ml (taken after about 18 h of incident). Ambient air study (21 h after incident) revealed oxygen 20.9%, and sulfur dioxide 19.4 ppm. The instrument was unfortunately not equipped to detect HCN. A simulation study revealed HCN and sulfur dioxide in the ambient air at 10 ppm and 7.5 ppm, respectively. Cyanide content in the bamboo shoots ranged from 39 to 434 mg/kg in the wet shoots. This series of patients developed sudden onset of alteration of consciousness and metabolic acidosis upon exposure, and cyanide was confirmed in all victims. The simulation study confirmed the presence of HCN in the ambient air of the well containing bamboo shoots. We have reported mass acute cyanide poisoning with two fatalities. The source of HCN was unusual as it was produced from pickling bamboo shoot.

  9. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad; Yusuf, Nur'aini Raman; Yunus, Normawati M.; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-10-01

    The alkaline and water soluble polysaccharides were isolate by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1%, 5% and 8% NaOH. The samples were prepared at 60 °C for 3 h from local bamboo. The functional group of the sample were examined using FTIR analysis. The most precipitate obtained is from using 60% ethanol containing 8% NaOH with yield of 2.6%. The former 3 residues isolated by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1% and 5% NaOH are barely visible after filtering with cellulose filter paper. The FTIR result showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides consisted mainly of OH group, CH group, CO indicates the carbohydrate and sugar chain. The sample weight loss was slightly decreased with increasing of temperature.

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of flakeboard reinforced with bamboo strips

    Treesearch

    Ge Wang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and mechanical performance of flakeboard reinforced with bamboo strips. The study investigated three different bamboo strip alignment patterns and an experimental control. All panels were tested in static bending both along parallel and perpendicular to the lengths of the bamboo strips. Internal bond...

  11. Hydroethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf for induced osteoarthritis using a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, N; Zare, Z; Jamshidzadeh, A; Lotfi, M; Azarpira, Negar; Sepehrimanesh, M; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of an extract of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in guinea pig. The left knee of 30 male guinea pigs was anesthetized and the cranial cruciate ligament was severed. The animals were followed for 8 weeks until osteoarthritis was confirmed by radiography and histopathology. Animals were divided randomly into five groups; group 1, the ligament was severed and untreated; group 2, the ligament was severed and treated with piascledine, an extract of soybean and avocado; group 3, the ligament was severed and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; group 4, the ligament was severed and treated with 400 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; and group 5, control animals without surgery or extracts. Radiological and histopathological evaluations after 8 weeks showed reduced severity of osteoarthritis in the piascledine treatment group compared to group 1. The guava extract also reduce the severity of osteoarthritis compared to controls. Histopathological examination of treatment and control groups showed that treatment the guava extract improved lesions significantly. Hydroethanolic extracts of guava leaf appears to prevent osteoarthritis by inhibition of free radical formation in the knee joint.

  12. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Du-Bois; Effah-Yeboah, Emmanuel; Barnes, Precious; Abban, Heckel Amoabeng; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Ofori, Eric Gyamerah; Dadzie, Joseph Budu

    2016-01-01

    The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Both leaf extracts produced a significant (p < 0.05) antihyperglycaemic effect. Also results from treated rats revealed increasing effect in some haematological parameters. Similarly, the higher dose (300 mg/kg) of both extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels as compared to the diabetic control rats. Results also showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in LDL-C and VLDL-C in the extract-treated rats with a corresponding increase in HDL-C, as compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover histopathological analysis revealed ameliorative effect of pathological insults induced by the STZ in the pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats. PMID:27294153

  13. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  14. Moringa Oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Liron; Earon, Gideon; Ron, Ilan; Rimmon, Adam; Vexler, Akiva; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2013-08-19

    Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live up to five years after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment, however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells' chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. The effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract alone and in combination with cisplatin on the survival of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated by XTT-based colorimetric assay. The distribution of Panc-1 cells in the cell cycle following treatment with Moringa leaf extract was evaluated by flow cytometry, and evaluations of protein levels were via immunoblotting. Data of cell survival following combined treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn software. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibited the growth of all pancreatic cell lines tested. This effect was significant in all cells following exposure to ≥0.75 mg/ml of the extract. Exposure of Panc-1 cells to Moringa leaf extract induced an elevation in the sub-G1 cell population of the cell-cycle, and reduced the expression of p65, p-IkBα and IkBα proteins in crude cell extracts. Lastly, Moringa Oleifera leaf extract synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on Panc-1 cells. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells.

  15. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

  16. Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Goh, Yong-Meng; Noordin, M Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu S; Othman, Hemn H; Abu Bakar, Nurul Ain; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer causes 1.4 million deaths annually. In the search for functional foods as complementary therapies against lung cancer, the immuno-stimulatory properties of the vegetable Morinda citrifolia leaves were investigated and compared with the anti-cancer drug erlotinib. Lung tumour-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 mg kg(-1) or 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of the leaf extract, or erlotinib (50 mg kg(-1) body-weight) for 21 days. The 300 mg kg(-1) body weight extract significantly (and dose-dependently) suppressed lung tumour growth; the extract worked more effectively than the 50 mg kg(-1) body weight erlotinib treatment. The extract significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts, and spleen tissue B cells, T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is a lung adenocarcinoma biomarker. The extract also suppressed the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inflammatory markers, and enhanced the tumour suppressor gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog, PTEN). It inhibited tumour growth cellular gene (transformed mouse 3T3 cell double minute 2 (MDM2), V-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1 (RAF1), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR)) mRNA expression in the tumours. The extract is rich in scopoletin and epicatechin, which are the main phenolic compounds. The 300 mg kg(-1)Morinda citrifolia leaf 50% ethanolic extract showed promising potential as a complementary therapeutic dietary supplement which was more effective than the 50 mg kg(-1) erlotinib in suppressing lung adenocarcinoma. Part of the mechanisms involved enhancing immune responses, suppressing proliferation and interfering with various tumour growth signalling pathways.

  17. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing.

  18. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-11-01

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential metabolomic analysis of the potential antiproliferative mechanism of olive leaf extract on the JIMT-1 breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Taamalli, Amani; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Roldan-Segura, Cristina; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-02-01

    A new differential metabolomic approach has been developed to identify the phenolic cellular metabolites derived from breast cancer cells treated with a supercritical fluid extracted (SFE) olive leaf extract. The SFE extract was previously shown to have significant antiproliferative activity relative to several other olive leaf extracts examined in the same model. Upon SFE extract incubation of JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells, major metabolites were identified by using HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS). After treatment, diosmetin was the most abundant intracellular metabolite, and it was accompanied by minor quantities of apigenin and luteolin. To identify the putative antiproliferative mechanism, the major metabolites and the complete extract were assayed for cell cycle, MAPK and PI3K proliferation pathways modulation. Incubation with only luteolin showed a significant effect in cell survival. Luteolin induced apoptosis, whereas the whole olive leaf extract incubation led to a significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. The antiproliferative activity of both pure luteolin and olive leaf extract was mediated by the inactivation of the MAPK-proliferation pathway at the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2). However, the flavone concentration of the olive leaf extract did not fully explain the strong antiproliferative activity of the extract. Therefore, the effects of other compounds in the extract, probably at the membrane level, must be considered. The potential synergistic effects of the extract also deserve further attention. Our differential metabolomics approach identified the putative intracellular metabolites from a botanical extract that have antiproliferative effects, and this metabolomics approach can be expanded to other herbal extracts or pharmacological complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Costus afer Leaf Extract: Synthesis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Elemike, Elias E; Fayemi, Omolola E; Ekennia, Anthony C; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ebenso, Eno E

    2017-04-29

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (CA-AgNPs). The optical and structural properties of the resulting silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectrophotometer (FTIR). TEM images of the silver nanoparticles confirmed the existence of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a mean size of 20 nm. The FTIR spectra affirmed the presence of phytochemicals from the Costus afer leaf extract on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. The electrochemical characterization of a CA-AgNPs/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-modified electrode was carried out to confirm the charge transfer properties of the nanocomposites. The comparative study showed that the CA-AgNPs/MWCNT-modified electrode demonstrated faster charge transport behaviour. The anodic current density of the electrodes in Fe(CN)₆] 4- /[Fe(CN)₆] 3- redox probe follows the order: GCE/CA-Ag/MWCNT (550 mA/cm²) > GCE/MWCNT (270 mA/cm²) > GCE (80 mA/cm²) > GCE/CA-Ag (7.93 mA/cm²). The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against Gram negative ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) and Gram positive ( Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus ) pathogens. The nanoparticles exhibited better inhibition of the bacterial strains compared to the precursors (leaf extract of Costus afer and silver nitrate). Furthermore, the ability of the nanoparticles to scavenge DPPH radicals at different concentrations was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and compared to

  1. Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, William P; Clark, Lynn G; Attigala, Lakshmi; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-03-18

    Bambusoideae (Poaceae) comprise three distinct and well-supported lineages: tropical woody bamboos (Bambuseae), temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) and herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). Phylogenetic studies using chloroplast markers have generally supported a sister relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. This suggests either at least two origins of the woody bamboo syndrome in this subfamily or its loss in Olyreae. Here a full chloroplast genome (plastome) phylogenomic study is presented using the coding and noncoding regions of 13 complete plastomes from the Bambuseae, eight from Olyreae and 10 from Arundinarieae. Trees generated using full plastome sequences support the previously recovered monophyletic relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. In addition to these relationships, several unique plastome features are uncovered including the first mitogenome-to-plastome horizontal gene transfer observed in monocots. Phylogenomic agreement with previous published phylogenies reinforces the validity of these studies. Additionally, this study presents the first published plastomes from Neotropical woody bamboos and the first full plastome phylogenomic study performed within the herbaceous bamboos. Although the phylogenomic tree presented in this study is largely robust, additional studies using nuclear genes support monophyly in woody bamboos as well as hybridization among previous woody bamboo lineages. The evolutionary history of the Bambusoideae could be further clarified using transcriptomic techniques to increase sampling among nuclear orthologues and investigate the molecular genetics underlying the development of woody and floral tissues.

  2. A facile and green preparation of reduced graphene oxide using Eucalyptus leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyang; Zhuang, Zechao; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a green and facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (GO) by Eucalyptus leaf extract (EL-RGO) was investigated, which was characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Eucalyptus leaf extract also play both reducing and capping stabilizing agents prepared EL-RGO as shown a good stability and electrochemical properties. This approach could provide an alternative method to prepare EL-RGO in large-scale production. Moreover, the good electrochemical property and biocompatibility can be used in various applications. In addition, the merit of this study is that both the oxidized products and the reducing agents are environmental friendly by green reduction.

  3. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of betel leaf extract against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    PubMed

    Bhide, S V; Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that betel leaf inhibits the mutagenic action of standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since tobacco-specific nitrosamines are the major carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, we studied the effect of an extract of betel leaf on the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of one of the most potent, 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Betel-leaf extract and hydroxychavicol suppressed the mutagenicity of NNK in both the Ames and the micronucleus test. In studies in mice, betel-leaf extract reduced the tumorigenic effects of NNK by 25%. Concurrent treatment with the extract also inhibited the decreases in levels of vitamin A in liver and plasma induced by NNK. Betel leaf thus has protective effects against the mutagenic, carcinogenic and adverse metabolic effects of NNK in mice.

  4. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  5. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo.

  6. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labbé, Nicole; Commandré, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280°C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Study on bamboo treated with gamma rays by X-ray diffraction].

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Bo; Fei, Ben-Hua; Jiang, Ze-Hui; Yu, Zi-Xuan; Tian, Gen-Lin; Yang, Quan-Wen

    2011-06-01

    The microfibril angle and crystallinity of bamboo treated with gamma rays were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result indicated that crystallinity in bamboo increased when irradiation dose was less than 100 kGy, while the irradiation dose was raised to about 100 kGy, crystallinity in bamboo reduced. But during the whole irradiation process, the influence on microfibril angle was not obvious, so it was not the dominant factors on variation in physical-mechanical properties of bamboo during the process of irradiation.

  8. Nephroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pistacia atlantica Leaf Hydroethanolic Extract Against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Heidarian, Esfandiar; Jafari-Dehkordi, Effat; Valipour, Parisa; Ghatreh-Samani, Keihan; Ashrafi-Eshkaftaki, Leila

    2017-09-03

    Gentamicin in overdose can lead to tubular injury and kidney dysfunction. Some antioxidants can protect kidneys against nephrotoxicity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica) leaf hydroethanolic extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Forty rats were divided into five groups: the first group received a daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline. The second group received gentamicin (120 mg/kg, i.p.). The third, fourth, and fifth groups were orally treated with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of P. atlantica leaf hydroethanolic extract, respectively, and they also received gentamicin (120 mg/kg, i.p.). After seven days, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), creatinine (Cr), urea, uric acid, lipids profile, protein carbonyl (PC), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. Also, a piece of kidney was used to determine catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, vitamin C, the gene expression of TNF-α, and for subsequent histopathological studies. Treatment with P. atlantica leaf hydroethanolic extract resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in CAT, SOD, vitamin C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the levels of Cr, urea, uric acid, MDA, PC, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TNF-α protein, and the gene expression of TNF-α compared with the untreated group. Histopathological studies show that in lymphocyte infiltration, remarkable reduction was observed in P. atlantica leaf hydroethanolic extract-treated groups, compared with the untreated group. The present study suggests that P. atlantica leaf hydroethanolic extract has protective effects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and its antimicrobial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodley, Jerushka S.; Babu Naidu Krishna, Suresh; Pillay, Karen; Sershen; Govender, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera using sunlight irradiation as primary source of energy, and its antimicrobial potential. Silver nanoparticle formation was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 450 nm and 440 nm, respectively for both fresh and freeze-dried leaf samples. Crystanality of AgNPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR spectroscopic analysis suggested that flavones, terpenoids and polysaccharides predominate and are primarily responsible for the reduction and subsequent capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction analysis also demonstrated that the size range of AgNPs from both samples exhibited average diameters of 9 and 11 nm, respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity on both bacterial and fungal strains. The biosynthesised nanoparticle preparations from M. oleifera leaf extracts exhibit potential for application as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    proteins that regarded as the main tool for capturing light of plants, implying stem photosynthesis plays a key role during culm elongation due to the unavailability of its leaf. By real-time quantitative PCR, the expression level of 6 unigenes was detected. The results showed the expression level of all genes accorded with the transcriptome data, which confirm the reliability of the transcriptome data. As we know, this is the first study underline the D. sinicus transcriptome, which will deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of culm development. The results may help variety improvement and resource utilization of bamboos.

  12. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  13. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-Chi; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2009-06-01

    People in oriental countries, including Japan and Taiwan, boil guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) in water and drink the extract as a folk medicine for diabetes. The present study investigated the enhancement of aqueous guava leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes and searched for the active compound. The extract was eluted with MeOH-H(2)O solutions through Diaion, Sephadex, and MCI-gel columns to separate into fractions with different polarities. The uptake test of 2-[1-(14)C] deoxy-D-glucose in rat clone 9 hepatocytes was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of these fractions. The active compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that phenolics are the principal component of the extract, that high polarity fractions of the guava leaf extract are enhancers to glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes, and that quercetin is the major active compound. We suggest that quercetin in the aqueous extract of guava leaves promotes glucose uptake in liver cells, and contributes to the alleviation of hypoglycemia in diabetes as a consequence.

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  15. Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Gi; Lee, Yoon-Jeong; Jang, Myeong-Hwan; Kwon, Tae-Ryong; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2017-09-10

    Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo.

  16. Anti-proliferation and Apoptosis Induction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Carica papaya L. on Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Zuhrotun Nisa, Fatma; Astuti, Mary; Murdiati, Agnes; Mubarika Haryana, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Chemotherapy is the main method of breast cancer treatment but there are side effects. Carica papaya leaves is vegetable foods consumed by most people of Indonesia have potential as anticancer. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-proliferative and apoptotic induced effect of aqueous papaya leaves extracts on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Inhibitory on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay while apoptosis induction was measured using Annexin V. The results showed that papaya leaf can inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 with IC50 in 1319.25 μg mL-1. The IC50 values of papaya leaf extract was higher than the IC50 value quercetin and doxorubicin. Papaya leaf extract can also induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells MCF-7 about 22.54% for concentration 659.63 μg mL-1 and about 20.73% for concentration 329.81 μg mL-1. The percentage of cell apoptosis of papaya leaf extract lower than doxorubicin but higher than quercetin. This study indicated that papaya leaf extract have potential as anticancer through mechanism anti-proliferation and apoptosis induction.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of a lightweight bamboo composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, Andreas; Berwing, Michael; Förster, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The demand for fast changing production lines and other facilities needs new lightweight and stable systems for partitioning walls. There is also a need for ecological products for this application. The wood like grass bamboo provides a wide potential to substitute conventional wood. A composite lightweight honeycomb like bamboo board was developed and compared with reinforced and unreinforced plywood specimen. The acquired mechanical properties gave a promising result for the usability of bamboo as basis material for wide span boards. It can be manufactured with minimal technical investments, that suits also well for regions with little industry. The ecological assessment of the structure is very positive.

  18. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on absorption of heavy metals and growth of Moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhong, Bin; Shafi, Mohammad; Guo, Jia; Liu, Chen; Guo, Hua; Peng, Danli; Wang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2018-04-30

    The effect of EDTA and citric acid on accumulation, toxicity of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb), and growth of Moso bamboo was investigated in current experiment. The availability of heavy metals in soil and its uptake by plants has indicated toxicity. The results revealed that EDTA and citric acid has reduced biomass of Moso bamboo but non-significant difference in biomass was observed compared with control. Application of EDTA (10 mmol kg -1 ) has significantly improved copper (Cu) by 56.5 and 84.9% in roots and above ground parts of plants. Application of EDTA (10 mmol kg -1 ) has significantly enhanced lead (Pb) by 51.8 and 210.8% in roots and above ground parts of Moso bamboo. Furthermore, treatment of EDTA has significantly improved activities of water-soluble Cd, Cu, and Pb in soil by 98.9, 70.1, and 73.1 times compared with control. In case of contents of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metals, the treatment of EDTA (10 mmol kg -1 ) has produced maximum increase of 244.5 mg kg -1 Zn and 157.9 mg kg -1 Pb, respectively. It is concluded that effect of EDTA was superior compared with citric acid for improvement of phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo.

  19. Moringa Oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live up to five years after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment, however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells’ chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. Methods The effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract alone and in combination with cisplatin on the survival of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated by XTT-based colorimetric assay. The distribution of Panc-1 cells in the cell cycle following treatment with Moringa leaf extract was evaluated by flow cytometry, and evaluations of protein levels were via immunoblotting. Data of cell survival following combined treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn software. Results Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibited the growth of all pancreatic cell lines tested. This effect was significant in all cells following exposure to ≥0.75 mg/ml of the extract. Exposure of Panc-1 cells to Moringa leaf extract induced an elevation in the sub-G1 cell population of the cell-cycle, and reduced the expression of p65, p-IkBα and IkBα proteins in crude cell extracts. Lastly, Moringa Oleifera leaf extract synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on Panc-1 cells. Conclusion Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID

  20. In vitro evaluation of genotoxicity of avocado (Persea americana) fruit and leaf extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Paresh; Paul, Rajkumar; Ganesh, N

    2010-07-01

    Persea americana is much sought after both for the nutritional value of its fruit and the medicinal values of its various plant parts. A chromosomal aberration assay was undertaken to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of crude extracts from avocado fruits and leaves. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to separately increasing concentrations of 50% methanolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves. The groups exposed to leaf and fruit extracts, respectively, showed a concentration-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to that in a control group. The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of leaf extract were found respectively to be 58 ± 7.05, 72 ± 6.41, and 78 ± 5.98, which were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 each) than that in the control group (6 ± 3.39). The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of fruit extract were found to be 18 ± 5.49, 40 ± 10.00, and 52 ± 10.20, respectively, which were significantly higher (p = 0.033, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively) than that for control (6 ± 3.39). Acrocentric associations and premature centromeric separation were the two most common abnormalities observed in both the exposed groups. The group exposed to leaf extracts also showed a significant number of a variety of other structural aberrations, including breaks, fragments, dicentrics, terminal deletion, minutes, and Robertsonian translocations. The group exposed to leaf extract showed higher frequency of all types of aberrations at equal concentrations as compared to the group exposed to fruit extract.

  1. Self-adaptive formation of uneven node spacings in wild bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Motohiro; Inoue, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Bamboo has a distinctive structure wherein a long cavity inside a cylindrical woody section is divided into many chambers by stiff diaphragms. The diaphragms are inserted at nodes and thought to serve as ring stiffeners for bamboo culms against the external load; if this is the case, the separation between adjacent nodes should be configured optimally in order to enhance the mechanical stability of the culms. Here, we reveal the hitherto unknown blueprint of the optimal node spacings used in the growth of wild bamboo. Measurement data analysis together with theoretical formulations suggest that wild bamboos effectively control their node spacings as well as other geometric parameters in accord with the lightweight and high-strength design concept.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf Extract of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell. Arg.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mahadi; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Islam, A. F. M. Mahmudul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Rahman, Akib Bin; Hossain, Md. Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ishtiaque Ahmed; Rana, Md. Sohel

    2014-01-01

    In folk medicine Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell. Arg. is used to treat muscle pain, itching, fever, rheumatic arthritis, snake bite, hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive as well as the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of leaf. The leaves were extracted with methanol following hot extraction and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, xylene induced ear edema, cotton pellet induced granuloma, and tail immersion methods at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins was identified in the extract. The extract exhibited considerable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities against four classical models of pain. In acetic acid induced writhing, xylene induced ear edema, and cotton pellet granuloma models, the extract revealed dose dependent activity. Additionally, it increased latency time in tail immersion model. It can be concluded that M. repandus possesses significant antinociceptive potential. These findings suggest that this plant can be used as a potential source of new antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory candidates. The activity of methanol extract is most likely mediated through central and peripheral inhibitory mechanisms. This study justified the traditional use of leaf part of this plant. PMID:25629031

  3. Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Culturable Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Moso Bamboo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

    2015-02-11

    Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 μg/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods.

  5. Bamboo mapping of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda for the year 2016 using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Feng, Duole; Jayaraman, Durai; Belay, Daniel; Sebrala, Heiru; Ngugi, John; Maina, Eunice; Akombo, Rose; Otuoma, John; Mutyaba, Joseph; Kissa, Sam; Qi, Shuhua; Assefa, Fiker; Oduor, Nellie Mugure; Ndawula, Andrew Kalema; Li, Yanxia; Gong, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of bamboo in East Africa is necessary for biodiversity conservation, resource management and policy making for rural poverty reduction. In this study, we produced a contemporary bamboo cover map of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda for the year 2016 using multi-temporal Landsat imagery series at 30 m spatial resolution. This is the first bamboo map generated using remotely sensed data for these three East African countries that possess most of the African bamboo resource. The producer's and user's accuracies of bamboos are 79.2% and 84.0%, respectively. The hotspots with large amounts of bamboo were identified and the area of bamboo coverage for each region was estimated according to the map. The seasonal growth status of two typical bamboo zones (one highland bamboo and one lowland bamboo) were analyzed and the multi-temporal imagery proved to be useful in differentiating bamboo from other vegetation classes. The images acquired in September to February are less contaminated by clouds and shadows, and the image series cover the dying back process of lowland bamboo, which were helpful for bamboo identification in East Africa.

  6. Facile synthesis of size-tunable gold nanoparticles by pomegranate (Punica granatum) leaf extract: Applications in arsenate sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Ashit; Mahajan, Ketakee; Bankar, Ashok

    Highlights: ► Pomegranate leaf extracts mediated rapid gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. ► The phyto-inspired AuNPs were size-tuned and characterized. ► The reducing and capping agents in the extract were identified. ► The nanoparticles reacted specifically with arsenate (V) ions. - Abstract: When pomegranate leaf extracts were incubated with chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized. These were characterized by a variety of techniques. With an increasing content of the leaf extract, a gradual decrease in size and an increase in monodispersity were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the phyto-fabricated AuNPs were surrounded by an amorphousmore » layer. Gallic acid in the extract mediated the reduction and a natural decapeptide capped the nanostructures. Blocking of thiol groups in the decapeptide cysteine residues caused the nanoparticles to aggregate. On interaction with arsenate (V) ions, the UV–vis spectra of the nanoparticles showed a decrease in intensity and a red-shift. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the presence of arsenate associated with the AuNPs. Thus, by using these AuNPs, a method for sensing the toxic arsenate ions could be developed.« less

  7. Ethanosolv Pretreatment of Bamboo with Dilute Acid for Efficient Enzymatic Saccharification

    Treesearch

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Xuejun Pan

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanosolv pretreatment catalyzed by sulfuric acid was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w on bamboo) sulfuric acid in water or 75% (v/v) ethanol was...

  8. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Gordanian, B.; Behbahani, M.; Carapetian, J.; Fazilati, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK293). The studied Artemisia species were A. absinthium, A. vulgaris, A. incana, A. fragrans and A. spicigera. The cytotoxic activity was measured by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500 μg/ml). Among these five species, methanol extracts of flower, leaf, stem and root of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity. The flower extracts of these two species were found to have higher cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell with an IC50 value of 221.5 and >500 μg/ml, respectively. Leaf methanol extract of A. incana also showed cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts of A. absinthium, A. vulgaris and A. incana against MCF7 was 10%-40% more than HEK293 cells. Not only the extracts of A. spicigera and A. fragrans did not show any cytotoxic effect against both cell lines, but also increased the number of cells. This study revealed that A. absinthium and A. vulgaris may have a great potential to explore new anticancer drugs. PMID:25657777

  9. Changes of foraging patch selection and utilization by a giant panda after bamboo flowering.

    PubMed

    Li, Guochun; Song, Huadong; Altigani, Latifa A A; Zheng, Xueli; Bu, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda's response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda's activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013-May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350-2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9-69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment.

  10. Effect of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on enamel demineralisation and dental biofilm composition in situ.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Danelon, Marcelle; Evangelista, Gustavo Vaz; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2012-08-01

    Previous evaluations of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract were not done in conditions similar to the oral environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. cattleianum leaf extract on enamel demineralisation, extracellular polysaccharide formation, and the microbial composition of dental biofilms formed in situ. Ten volunteers took part in this crossover study. They wore palatal appliances containing 4 enamel blocks for 14 days. Each volunteer dripped 20% sucrose 8 times per day on the enamel blocks. Twice a day, deionised water (negative control), extract, or a commercial mouthwash (active control) was dripped after sucrose application. On the 12th and 13th days of the experiment, plaque acidogenicity was measured with a microelectrode, and the pH drop was calculated. On the 14th day, biofilms were harvested and total anaerobic microorganisms (TM), total streptococci (TS), mutans streptococci (MS), and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated. Enamel demineralisation was evaluated by the percentage change of surface microhardness (%ΔSMH) and integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN). The researcher was blinded to the treatments during data collection. The extract group showed lower TM, TS, MS, EPS, %ΔSMH, and ΔKHN values than the negative control group. There were no differences between the active and negative control groups regarding MS and EPS levels. There were no differences in pH drop between the extract and active control groups, although they were significantly different from the negative control group. For all other parameters, the extract differed from the active control group. Psidium cattleianum leaf extract exhibits a potential anticariogenic effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface: Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Price, Charles A.; Symonova, Olga; Mileyko, Yuriy; Hilley, Troy; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the structure and function of physical biological networks has spurred the development of a number of theoretical models that predict optimal network structures across a broad array of taxonomic groups, from mammals to plants. In many cases, direct tests of predicted network structure are impossible given the lack of suitable empirical methods to quantify physical network geometry with sufficient scope and resolution. There is a long history of empirical methods to quantify the network structure of plants, from roots, to xylem networks in shoots and within leaves. However, with few exceptions, current methods emphasize the analysis of portions of, rather than entire networks. Here, we introduce the Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), a user-assisted software tool that facilitates improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins have been enhanced relative to the background, and following a series of interactive thresholding and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks and areoles. Metrics include the dimensions, position, and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape, and position of the areoles they surround. Available for free download, the LEAF GUI software promises to facilitate improved understanding of the adaptive and ecological significance of leaf vein network structure. PMID:21057114

  12. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05). Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo. PMID:23964314

  13. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  14. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  15. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm−1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis. PMID:27785011

  16. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EUCALYPTUS SPP. AND PISTASCIA LENTISCUS LEAF EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Qabaha, Khaled; Ras, Sari Abu; Abbadi, Jehad; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus extracts on Lipopolysacaride (LPS)-induced Interlukin-6 (Il-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) by polymorphonuclear Cells (PMNCs). Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from the whole blood using Histopaque (Ficol-1077) method and then cultured in an enriched Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RBMI) medium. Supernatants' Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) levels were determined 24 hour after LPS stimulation. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were compared using paired-samples t test. Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus leaves extracts have shown significant reduction in the levels of both Il-6 and TNF-α Gallic acid; a strong anti-inflammatory agent was found to be the major phenolic compound in both leaf extracts. However, other anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp . leaf extract. Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp . and Pistascia lentiscus extract is an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our results may also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory effect of the above extracts may be due to the presence of gallic acid and other phenolic compounds. List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature: LPS: Lipopolysacaride, Il-6: Interlukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, PMNCs: Polymorphonuclear Cells, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, EDTA

  18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EUCALYPTUS SPP. AND PISTASCIA LENTISCUS LEAF EXTRACTS

    PubMed Central

    Qabaha, Khaled; Ras, Sari Abu; Abbadi, Jehad; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extracts on Lipopolysacaride (LPS)-induced Interlukin-6 (Il-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) by polymorphonuclear Cells (PMNCs). Materials and Methods: Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from the whole blood using Histopaque (Ficol-1077) method and then cultured in an enriched Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RBMI) medium. Supernatants’ Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) levels were determined 24 hour after LPS stimulation. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were compared using paired-samples t test. Results: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus leaves extracts have shown significant reduction in the levels of both Il-6 and TNF-α Gallic acid; a strong anti-inflammatory agent was found to be the major phenolic compound in both leaf extracts. However, other anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp. leaf extract. Conclusion: Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extract is an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our results may also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory effect of the above extracts may be due to the presence of gallic acid and other phenolic compounds. List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature: LPS: Lipopolysacaride, Il-6: Interlukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, PMNCs: Polymorphonuclear Cells, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  19. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Nesseem, D I; Michel, C G; Sleem, A A; El-Alfy, T S

    2009-02-01

    This study deals with the formulation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd. A bioactivity guided fractionation of different leaf extracts [defatted ethanol 70% (a), butanol (b), ethanol 70% (c), ethyl acetate (d) and petroleum ether (e) extracts] revealed that extract (c) possessed the highest antihyperglycemic activity followed by (b) and (a). HPLC was adopted for standardization of the extract (c) based on evaluation of the major saponin christinin-A which was used as marker. The detection limit was 9.45 mg/ml for Christinin-A. Extracts (a), (b) and (c) were separately formulated in soft (S) and hard (H) gelatin capsules. Two different formulations (F1 and F2) were tried using different excipients suitable for oral drug delivery. Formula 1, used for soft gelatin capsules [(F1) Sa, Sb, Sc] Formula 2, used for hard gelatin capsules [(F2) - Ha, Hb, Hc]. The recovery rates of the samples of saponin were in the range 99.43-101.86% at 200, 800 microg/ml and 1200 microg/ml. Saponin release rates from different formulae were carried out using dissolution tester USP XXIV. The highest release was obtained from formulation Sc. The release of the extracts followed diffusion mechanism. The selected formula Sc exhibited highest anti-diabetic activity (P < 0.01) on acute and long-term administration and highest saponin release. This formula (Sc) contained poly-oxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (BC-20TX), PEG 400, PEG 6000, purified water, meglyol 810, ascorbic acid and 200 mg of extract (c).

  1. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    proteins that regarded as the main tool for capturing light of plants, implying stem photosynthesis plays a key role during culm elongation due to the unavailability of its leaf. By real-time quantitative PCR, the expression level of 6 unigenes was detected. The results showed the expression level of all genes accorded with the transcriptome data, which confirm the reliability of the transcriptome data. As we know, this is the first study underline the D. sinicus transcriptome, which will deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of culm development. The results may help variety improvement and resource utilization of bamboos. PMID:27304219

  2. Acacia nilotica (Babool) leaf extract mediated size-controlled rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Maity, Nabasmita

    2013-09-01

    The leaf extract of Acacia nilotica (Babool) is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavanoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponines, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the leaf extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete in several minutes, and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the leaf extract. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature.

  3. Release Profile of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract Nanocapsule as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrani, K.; Imansari, F.; Utami, T. S.; Arbianti, R.

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata is one of 13 leading commodities Indonesian medicinal plants through the Ditjen POM. Andrographolide as main active compound has been shown to have many pharmacological activities, one of which is as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors which has clinical potential as an antitumor, antiviral, antidiabetic, and immunoregulator agents. This study aims to do nanoencapsulation of Andrographis paniculatar leaf extract to increase its active compound bioavailability and get a release profile through synthetic fluids media simulation. Nanoencapsulation with ionic gelation method result the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity values of 73.47% and 46.29% at 2%: 1% of chitosan: STPP ratio. The maximum α-glucosidase inhibition of 37.17% was obtained at 16% concentration. Burst release at gastric pH conditions indicate that most of the drug (in this study is an Andrographis paniculata leaf extract) adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles an indicates that the kind of nanoparticle formed is nanosphere.

  4. Study on the mould-resistant properties of moso bamboo treated with high pressure and amylase

    Treesearch

    Xiao-Dong Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo's products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for...

  5. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  6. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P.; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer. PMID:26712788

  7. Higher level phylogenetic relationships within the bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on five plastid markers.

    PubMed

    Kelchner, Scot A

    2013-05-01

    Bamboos are large perennial grasses of temperate and tropical forests worldwide. Two general growth forms exist: the economically and ecologically important woody bamboos (tribes Arundinarieae and Bambuseae), and the understory herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae). Evolutionary relationships among the 1400+described species have been difficult to resolve with confidence. Comparative analysis of bamboo plastid (chloroplast) DNA has revealed three to five major lineages that show distinct biogeographic distributions. Taxon sampling across tribes and subtribes has been incomplete and most published data sets include a relatively small number of nucleotide characters. Branching order among lineages is often poorly supported, and in more than one study herbaceous bamboos form a clade within the woody bamboos. In this paper, the Bamboo Phylogeny Group presents the most complete phylogeny estimation to date of bamboo tribes and subtribes using 6.7 kb of coding and noncoding sequence data and 37 microstructural characters from the chloroplast genome. Quality of data is assessed, as is the possibility of long branch attraction, the degree of character conflict at key nodes in the tree, and the legitimacy of three alternative hypotheses of relationship. Four major plastid lineages are recognized: temperate woody, paleotropical woody, neotropical woody, and herbaceous bamboos. Woody bamboos are resolved as paraphyletic with respect to Olyreae but SH tests cannot reject monophyly of woody species (Arundinarieae+Bambuseae). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. THE EFFECT OF FICUS CARICA L. (ANJIR) LEAF EXTRACT ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Ammara; Tahir, Mohammad; Lone, Khalid Pervez; Faisal, Bushra; Latif, Waqas

    2015-01-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside isolated from Micromonospora purpurea known for its nephrotoxicity. Ficus carica L is known to treat many ailments. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ficus carica L. (Anjir) leaf extract on renal oxidative stress induced by gentamicin in albino mice. In this laboratory based experimental study 30 mice were divided into three groups, containing 10 mice each. Group A being the control; groups B and C were experimental and treated with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally and, Ficus carica L. leaf extract 400 mg/kg/day orally with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally respectively for a period of 8 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after completion of the experimental period by cardiac puncture under anesthesia and kidneys of each mouse were taken out for microscopic examination. Gentamicin treatment increased serum urea and creatinine levels (group B). Ficus carica L. leaf extract treated animals showed significant reduction in biochemical markers of kidney functions in group C. The histopathological examination of group A showed normal renal structure which was deranged in group B treated with only gentamicin, whereas, group C exhibited marked improvement in histological structure. Ficus carica L. leaf extract is effective in preventing gentamicin induced functional and structural changes in kidney of albino mice.

  9. Correlations between axial stiffness and microstructure of a species of bamboo

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Sayyad; Paul Knox, J.

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo is a ubiquitous monocotyledonous flowering plant and is a member of the true grass family Poaceae. In many parts of the world, it is widely used as a structural material especially in scaffolding and buildings. In spite of its wide use, there is no accepted methodology for standardizing a species of bamboo for a particular structural purpose. The task of developing structure–property correlations is complicated by the fact that bamboo is a hierarchical material whose structure at the nanoscopic level is not very well explored. However, we show that as far as stiffness is concerned, it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of important structural properties like the axial modulus from the knowledge of certain key elements of the microstructure. Stiffness of bamboo depends most sensitively on the size and arrangement of the fibre sheaths surrounding the vascular bundles and the arrangement of crystalline cellulose microfibrils in their secondary cell walls. For the species of bamboo studied in this work, we have quantitatively determined the radial gradation that the arrangement of fibres renders to the structure. The arrangement of the fibres gives bamboo a radially graded property variation across its cross section. PMID:28280545

  10. Performance Using Bamboo Fiber Ash Concrete as Admixture Adding Superplasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Gunalaan

    2017-06-01

    The increasing demand on natural resources for housing provisions in developing countries have called for sourcing and use of sustainable local materials for building and housing delivery. Natural materials to be considered sustainable for building construction should be ‘green’ and obtained from local sources, including rapidly renewable plant materials like palm fronds and bamboo, recycled materials and other products that are reusable and renewable. Each year, tens of millions of tons of bamboo are utilized commercially, generating a vast amount of waste. Besides that, bamboo fiber is easy availability, low density, low production cost and satisfactory mechanical properties. One solution is to activate this waste by using it as an additive admixture in concrete to keep it out of landfills and save money on waste disposal. The research investigates the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement. The structural value of the bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement was evaluated with consideration for its suitability in concrete. Varied percentage of bamboo fiber powder (BFP) at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% as an admixture in 1:2:4 concrete mixes. The workability of the mix was determined through slump; standard consistency test was carried on the cement. Compressive strength of hardened cured (150 x 150 x 150) mm concrete cubes at 7days, 14days and 28days were tested.

  11. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  12. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    PubMed

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  13. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  14. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  15. Effect of Bamboo Viscose on the Wicking and Moisture Management Properties of Gauze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Abdul R.; Su, Siwei; Amjad, Bilal; Cai, Yingjie; Lin, Lina

    2017-12-01

    Bamboo viscose or regenerated cellulose fibers were used to check their absorbency properties effect on the wicking and moisture management in gauzes. Bamboo viscose and cotton fibers were spun into five different yarn samples with different fiber proportion by ring spinning. Fifteen different gauze samples were made of these yarn samples. The gauze samples were subjected to wicking test to check the wicking ability. Water vapor transmission test was applied to check the vapor transmission rate. These tests were applied to measure the effectiveness of bamboo viscose, cotton and blended gauze samples in wound healing. Pure bamboo gauzes and gauzes with high content of bamboo fiber, i.e. 75B:25C and 50B:50C, shows better wicking and vapor transmission properties. It makes gauzes with high bamboo viscose suitable for wound care applications because of moisture absorbency.

  16. Assessment of the antimobial activity of olive leaf extract against foodborne bacterial pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as an herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effect...

  17. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  18. Potential Hypoglycaemic and Antiobesity Effects of Senna italica Leaf Acetone Extract.

    PubMed

    Malematja, R O; Bagla, V P; Njanje, I; Mbazima, V; Poopedi, K W; Mampuru, L; Mokgotho, M P

    2018-01-01

    Type II diabetes is on the rise while obesity is one of the strongest risk factors of type II diabetes. The search for a drug for type II that can equally mitigate obesity related complication is desired. The acetone leaf extract of Senna italica was evaluated for its cytotoxic, antiglycation, and lipolytic effect, glucose uptake, and GLUT4 translocation and expression using published methods, while that for adipogenesis and protein expression levels of obesity related adipokines was assessed using adipogenesis assay and mouse adipokine proteome profiler kit, respectively. The possible mechanism of glucose uptake was assessed through the inhibition of PI3K pathway. The extract had no adverse effect on 3T3-L1 cell viability (CC50 > 1000  μ g/ml). High antiglycation effect was attained at 10 mg/ml, while at 25-200  μ g/ml it showed no significant increase in adipogenesis and lipolysis. The extract at 100  μ g/ml was shown to decrease the expression levels of various adipokines and minimal glucose uptake at 50-100  μ g/ml with a nonsignificant antagonistic effect when used in combination with insulin. GLUT4 translocation and expression were attained at 50-100  μ g/ml with an increase in GLUT4 expression when in combination with insulin. The acetone leaf extract of S. italica stimulates glucose uptake through the PI3K-dependent pathway and can serve as a source of therapeutic agent for the downregulation of obesity-associated adipokines in obesity and antiglycation agents.

  19. Experimental research on friction coefficient between grain bulk and bamboo clappers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gan; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Yanqi; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhuang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    A silo is an important piece of storage equipment, especially in the grain industry. The internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the grain and the silo wall are the main parameters needed for calculating the lateral pressure of the silo wall. Bamboo is used in silo walls, but there are no provisions about the friction coefficient between bulk grain and bamboo clappers in existing codes. In this paper, the material of the silo wall is bamboo. The internal friction of five types of grain and the friction coefficient between the grain and the bamboo clappers were measured with an equal-strain direct shear apparatus. By comparing the experimental result values with the code values, the friction coefficient between the grain bulk and bamboo clappers is lower than that between grain and steel wall and that between grain and concrete wall. The differences in value are 0.21 and 0.09, respectively.

  20. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  1. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model. PMID:24551786

  2. Withered on the stem: is bamboo a seasonally limiting resource for giant pandas?

    PubMed

    Li, Youxu; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun

    2017-04-01

    In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality. Giant pandas in late winter and early spring consumed a less optimal diet in Foping Nature Reserve, as the availability of the most nutritious and preferred components and age classes of Bashania fargesii declined, suggesting that bamboo may be a seasonally limiting resource. Most panda mortalities and rescues occurred during the same period of seasonal food limitation. Our findings raised the possibility that while total bamboo biomass may not be a limiting factor, carrying capacity may be influenced by subtle seasonal variation in bamboo quality. We recommend that managers and policy-makers should consider more than just the quantity of bamboo in the understory and that carrying capacity estimates should be revised downward to reflect the fact that all bamboos are not equal.

  3. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  4. Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Osho, Adeleke; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adeosun, Charles B; Oluwagbemi, Tolu; Atolani, Olubunmi

    2016-03-01

    In Nigeria, Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae), an understudied medicinal plant, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, antibacterial potential, and sub-acute toxicity of C. sebestena leaves. Ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was tested against five standard bacteria, namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical observations and blood parameters were used to evaluate the possible toxicity of C. sebestena. The TLC profile yielded 39 fractions, which were pooled to nine combined sub-fractions (A-I). The FTIR spectrum of sub-fraction H indicated the presence of aliphatic C-H stretching vibration at 2922 and 2850 cm-1, C=O stretch at 1734 and 1708 cm-1, and C=C stretch of aromatics and aliphatics at 1464 and (shoulder) 1618 cm-1, respectively. The fractions of the C. sebestena ethyl acetate leaf extract showed antibacterial potential across board, but fraction H had the highest antibacterial activity against B. cereus and S. aureus. The study also indicated the relatively low toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. sebestena in the liver of rats. The study showed that C. sebestena leaves have strong antibacterial potential and low toxicity, thereby underlying the scientific basis for their folkloric use in the management of microbial infections and its associated complications.

  5. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate β-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating β-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of β-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  8. High-Throughput Sequencing of Six Bamboo Chloroplast Genomes: Phylogenetic Implications for Temperate Woody Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Background Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction) of woody bamboos makes them an interesting but taxonomically difficult group. Phylogenetic analyses based on large DNA fragments could only provide a moderate resolution of woody bamboo relationships, although a robust phylogenetic tree is needed to elucidate their evolutionary history. Phylogenomics is an alternative choice for resolving difficult phylogenies. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the complete nucleotide sequences of six woody bamboo chloroplast (cp) genomes using Illumina sequencing. These genomes are similar to those of other grasses and rather conservative in evolution. We constructed a phylogeny of Poaceae from 24 complete cp genomes including 21 grass species. Within the BEP clade, we found strong support for a sister relationship between Bambusoideae and Pooideae. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, all six nodes within Bambusoideae were supported with ≥0.95 posterior probability from Bayesian inference and 5/6 nodes resolved with 100% bootstrap support in maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. We found that repeats in the cp genome could provide phylogenetic information, while caution is needed when using indels in phylogenetic analyses based on few selected genes. We also identified relatively rapidly evolving cp genome regions that have the potential to be used for further phylogenetic study in Bambusoideae. Conclusions/Significance The cp genome of Bambusoideae evolved slowly, and phylogenomics based on whole cp genome could be used to resolve major relationships within the subfamily. The difficulty in resolving the diversification among three clades of

  9. Potential Hypoglycaemic and Antiobesity Effects of Senna italica Leaf Acetone Extract

    PubMed Central

    Njanje, I.; Poopedi, K. W.

    2018-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes is on the rise while obesity is one of the strongest risk factors of type II diabetes. The search for a drug for type II that can equally mitigate obesity related complication is desired. Methods The acetone leaf extract of Senna italica was evaluated for its cytotoxic, antiglycation, and lipolytic effect, glucose uptake, and GLUT4 translocation and expression using published methods, while that for adipogenesis and protein expression levels of obesity related adipokines was assessed using adipogenesis assay and mouse adipokine proteome profiler kit, respectively. The possible mechanism of glucose uptake was assessed through the inhibition of PI3K pathway. Results The extract had no adverse effect on 3T3-L1 cell viability (CC50 > 1000 μg/ml). High antiglycation effect was attained at 10 mg/ml, while at 25–200 μg/ml it showed no significant increase in adipogenesis and lipolysis. The extract at 100 μg/ml was shown to decrease the expression levels of various adipokines and minimal glucose uptake at 50–100 μg/ml with a nonsignificant antagonistic effect when used in combination with insulin. GLUT4 translocation and expression were attained at 50–100 μg/ml with an increase in GLUT4 expression when in combination with insulin. Conclusion The acetone leaf extract of S. italica stimulates glucose uptake through the PI3K-dependent pathway and can serve as a source of therapeutic agent for the downregulation of obesity-associated adipokines in obesity and antiglycation agents. PMID:29713364

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect.

  11. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  12. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  13. Rapid determination of chemical composition and classification of bamboo fractions using visible-near infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong; Li, Kang; Zhang, Maomao; Xin, Donglin; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    During conversion of bamboo into biofuels and chemicals, it is necessary to efficiently predict the chemical composition and digestibility of biomass. However, traditional methods for determination of lignocellulosic biomass composition are expensive and time consuming. In this work, a novel and fast method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of chemical composition and enzymatic digestibilities of juvenile bamboo and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branch) using visible-near infrared spectra was evaluated. The developed partial least squares models yielded coefficients of determination in calibration of 0.88, 0.94, and 0.96, for cellulose, xylan, and lignin of bamboo fractions in raw spectra, respectively. After visible-near infrared spectra being pretreated, the corresponding coefficients of determination in calibration yielded by the developed partial least squares models are 0.994, 0.990, and 0.996, respectively. The score plots of principal component analysis of mature bamboo, juvenile bamboo, and different fractions of mature bamboo were obviously distinguished in raw spectra. Based on partial least squares discriminant analysis, the classification accuracies of mature bamboo, juvenile bamboo, and different fractions of bamboo (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, and bamboo branch) all reached 100 %. In addition, high accuracies of evaluation of the enzymatic digestibilities of bamboo fractions after pretreatment with aqueous ammonia were also observed. The results showed the potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis in efficiently analyzing the chemical composition and hydrolysabilities of lignocellulosic biomass, such as bamboo fractions.

  14. [Effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on alpha-glucosidase activity in small intestine of diabetic mouse].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Heng-Chuan; Hong, Jun-Rong; Li, Hong-Gu; Huang, Cheng-Yu

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the inhibition effect of Psidium guajava linn (PGL), a leaf water-soluble extract, on the activities of alpha-glucosidases. The PGL water-soluble extract (PGL WE) was obtained by the procedure of distilled water immersion, filtration, extracted fluid concentration and dry of Psidium guajava leaf. The diabetes of Kunming mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). The small intestinal mucosa of diabetic mice was scraped to make the homogenate for the preparation of alpha-glucosidases. In vitro, the homogenates were incubated with sucrose and maltose. The formed glucose represented the activities of alpha-glucosidases. The Lineweaver-Burk plot was applied to determine the type of alpha-glucosidase activity inhibited. The water-soluble extract from PGL significantly inhibited, in the dose-dependent manner, the activities of alpha-glucosidase from small intestinal mucosa of diabetic mice. The PGL extract inhibition concentration (IC50) to sucrase or maltase was 1.0 g/L or 3.0 g/L respectively. The mixed inhibition type was showed to be the competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The GPL water-soluble extract possesses the potential effect of inhibition on the alpha-glucosidase activity from the small intestinal mucosa of diabetic mouse.

  15. Silicon isotope fractionation in bamboo and its significance to the biogeochemical cycle of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T. P.; Zhou, J. X.; Wan, D. F.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Zhang, F.

    2008-03-01

    A systematic investigation on silica contents and silicon isotope compositions of bamboos was undertaken. Seven bamboo plants and related soils were collected from seven locations in China. The roots, stem, branch and leaves for each plant were sampled and their silica contents and silicon isotope compositions were determined. The silica contents and silicon isotope compositions of bulk and water-soluble fraction of soils were also measured. The silica contents of studied bamboo organs vary from 0.30% to 9.95%. Within bamboo plant the silica contents show an increasing trend from stem, through branch, to leaves. In bamboo roots the silica is exclusively in the endodermis cells, but in stem, branch and leaves, the silica is accumulated mainly in epidermal cells. The silicon isotope compositions of bamboos exhibit significant variation, from -2.3‰ to 1.8‰, and large and systematic silicon isotope fractionation was observed within each bamboo. The δ 30Si values decrease from roots to stem, but then increase from stem, through branch, to leaves. The ranges of δ 30Si values within each bamboo vary from 1.0‰ to 3.3‰. Considering the total range of silicon isotope composition in terrestrial samples is only 7‰, the observed silicon isotope variation in single bamboo is significant and remarkable. This kind of silicon isotope variation might be caused by isotope fractionation in a Rayleigh process when SiO 2 precipitated in stem, branches and leaves gradually from plant fluid. In this process the Si isotope fractionation factor between dissolved Si and precipitated Si in bamboo ( αpre-sol) is estimated to be 0.9981. However, other factors should be considered to explain the decrease of δ 30Si value from roots to stem, including larger ratio of dissolved H 4SiO 4 to precipitated SiO 2 in roots than in stem. There is a positive correlation between the δ 30Si values of water-soluble fractions in soils and those of bulk bamboos, indicating that the dissolved

  16. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium.

    PubMed

    Saniasiaya, Jeyasakthy; Salim, Rosdan; Mohamad, Irfan; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL) using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans . The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger ( p < 0.001). Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger.

  17. Chemical changes with maturation of the bamboo species phyllostachys pubescens

    Treesearch

    X.B. Li; T.F. Shupe; G.F. Peter; C.Y. Hse; T.L. Eberhardt

    2007-01-01

    Chemical changes with maturation of the bamboo species Phyllostachys pubescens. Bamboo chemical properties were measured at three different heights from one-, three- and five-year-old plants and at three different radial positions from the thre-year-old culms of Phyllostachys pubescenssouth-eastern USA. Small but significant...

  18. Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Treesearch

    H.Q. Yu; Z.H. Jiang; C.Y. Hse; T.F. Shupe

    2008-01-01

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Selected physical and mechanical properties of 4?6 year old moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) grown in Zhejiang, China were investigated at different vertical and horizontal positions. Two way analysis of variance and Tukey?s mean comparison...

  19. Glioprotective effects of Ashwagandha leaf extract against lead induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Singh, Raghavendra; Nazmi, Arshed; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25  μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200  μM) resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70), mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) but not reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  20. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica.

  1. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  2. Leaf extract of Wasabia japonica relieved oxidative stress induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and stress loading in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Deguchi, Yuya; Masuda, Hideki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Masuda, Shuichi; Kinae, Naohide

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can induce gastric disorders, and though its presence cannot explain disease pathogenesis and does not have associations with other factors, it is well known that H. pylori infection causes stomach inflammation following oxidative stress. We examined the suppressive effects of a leaf extract of Wasabia japonica on H. pylori infection and on stress loading in Mongolian gerbils. Following oral administration of wasabi extract of 50 and 200 mg/kg B.W./d for 10 d, the animals were exposed to restraint stress for 90 and 270 min. As for the results, the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the stomach and oxidative DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes at 270 min significantly increased. That elevation was significantly suppressed by the addition of the leaf extract. We concluded that the simultaneous loading of H. pylori infection and physical stress loading might induce oxidative DNA damage additively, while a leaf extract attenuated this DNA damage in the stomach as well as the peripheral erythrocytes.

  3. Anticestodal activity of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract against Hymenolepis diminuta in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Temjenmongla

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) are considered to have anthelmintic properties in the traditional medicine of Naga tribes in Northeast India and, therefore, are used by the natives to treat the intestinal worm infections. In the present study, the anticestodal activity of H. cordata leaf extract was investigated against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, in experimentally infected albino rats. For the assessment of anticestodal efficacy, the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces counts and worm loads of animals were monitored following treatment with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg p.o. doses of leaf extract to different groups of rats harbouring larval, immature and mature H. diminuta infections. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Further, the extract showed its maximum efficacy against the mature Hymenolepis worms. In this case, the 800 mg/kg dose of extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the EPG counts of animals by 57.09% and worm load by 75.00%, at post-treatment. In comparison, the reference drug praziquantel at 5 mg/kg showed a reduction in the EPG counts and worm load of experimental animals by 80.37 and 87.50%, respectively. These findings indicate that leaves of H. cordata possess significant anticestodal property and provide a rationale for their use in traditional medicine as an anthelmintic.

  4. Calcium hydroxide associated with a new vehicle: Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts. Tissue response evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentim, Diego; Bueno, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano; Marques, Vanessa Abreu Sanches; Vasques, Ana Maria Veiga; Cury, Marina Tolomei Sandoval; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Dezan, Eloi

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate edemogenic activity and subcutaneous inflammatory reaction induced by Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts associated with Ca(OH)2. Thirty male Wistar rats, split equally into three groups [aqueous extract + Ca(OH)2; ethanolic extract + Ca(OH)2; and propylene glycol + Ca(OH)2], were assessed every 3 h or 6 h (five animals in each period). Under general anesthesia, 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein and each combination to be evaluated was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal region 30 min thereafter. Edemogenic activity was analyzed by spectrophotometry (λ=630 nm). For inflammatory reaction analysis, 50 rats received four polyethylene tubes (three experimental groups) and an empty tube (control group). The assessments were made at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by the assignment of scores for evaluation of tissue response intensity. Ethanolic extract + Ca(OH)2 yielded the largest edemogenic activity at 3 h. Intergroup differences at 6 h were not significant. The histological analysis showed progressive repair over time (p<0.05) and aqueous and ethanolic extracts produced similar responses to those of the control and Ca(OH)2 + propylene glycol groups. Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts used as Ca(OH)2 vehicles evoked similar tissue response when compared to Ca(OH)2 associated with propylene glycol.

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial efficacy of palladium nanoparticles synthesized using Filicium decipiens leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila, G.; Farzana Fathima, M.; Haries, S.; Geetha, S.; Manoj Kumar, N.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles through green chemistry route is an emerging eco-friendly approach in the present days. An eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using Filicium decipiens leaf extract was reported in the present study. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The PdNPs formation was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and spherical shaped PdNPs with size range of 2-22 nm was observed in TEM analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of palladium in the synthesized nanoparticles. The crystalline nature of PdNPs was confirmed by XRD pattern and compared with the standard. The phytochemicals and proteins were identified by their functional groups in FT-IR spectrum and revealed the amide, amine groups present in F. decipiens may have involved in the bio-reduction reaction for PdNPs synthesis. Prepared PdNPs showed potential antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. F. decipiens leaf extract based PdNPs showed high bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Results showed that phytochemicals rich F. decipiens leaf extract may be utilized as an effective non-toxic reducing agent for PdNPs synthesis and prepared PdNPs may useful in biomedical applications.

  6. Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Aliyu, A B; Sallau, A B; Bashir, M; Yunusa, I; Umar, T S

    2010-05-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of the ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaf were investigated. The crude extract exhibited an in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei as it completely eliminated parasites' motility within 10 minutes postincubation with 6.66 mg/ml of effective extract concentration. The extract was further used to treat experimentally T. brucei brucei infected rats at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, beginning on day 5 post infections (p.i.). At the termination of the experiment on Day 11 p.i., the extract significantly (P < 0.05) kept the parasitemia lower than was recorded in the infected untreated rats. All the infected animals developed anemia, the severity of which was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract treatment. The infection caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as serum urea and creatinine levels. However, treatment of infected animals with the extract significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the trypanosome-induced increase in these biochemical indices. Furthermore, the T. brucei infection caused hepatomegaly and splenomegaly that were significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract administration. It was concluded that orally administered ethanol extract of S. occidentalis leaf possessed anti-T. brucei brucei activity and could ameliorate the disease-induced anemia and organ damage.

  7. Rhododendron oldhamii leaf extract improves fatty liver syndrome by increasing lipid oxidation and decreasing the lipogenesis pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Ling; Lin, Lei-Chen; Tung, Yu-Tang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Chen, Yao-Li; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Some members of Rhododendron genus are traditionally used as medicinal plants for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the protective effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo and in vitro . In this study, the effects of R. oldhamii leaf extract on inhibiting the free fatty acid (FFA)-induced accumulation of fat in HepG2 cells and on improving fatty liver syndrome in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD were investigated. For the in vitro assay, HepG2 cells were treated with FFAs (oleate/palmitate = 2:1) with or without treatment with R. oldhamii leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction to observe lipid accumulation using Nile red and oil red O stains. For the in vivo assay, C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups ( n = 5), including the normal diet group, the HFD group and the HFD+EtOAc group. After 11 weeks, body weight, serum biochemical indices and the mRNA expressions of the liver tissue, as well as the outward appearance, weight and histopathological analysis of liver and adipose tissues were evaluated. Among the fractions derived from R. oldhamii leaf, the EtOAc fraction exhibited a strong fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Following reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), four specific phytochemicals, including (2 R , 3 R )-astilbin (AS), hyposide (HY), guaijaverin (GU) and quercitrin (QU), were isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf extract. Among them, AS and HY showed excellent fat-accumulation inhibitory activity. Thus, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf and its derived phytochemicals have great potential in preventing FFA-induced fat accumulation. In addition, the EtOAc fraction of R. oldhamii leaf significantly improved fatty liver syndrome and reduced total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in HFD

  8. Preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo assisted by mechanical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silviana, S.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of green composites by using natural fibres is developed due to their availability, ecological benefits, and good properties in mechanical and thermal. One of the potential sources is bamboo that has relative high cellulose content. This paper was focused on the preparation of sago starch-based reinforced microfribrillated cellulose of bamboo that was assisted by mechanical treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo was prepared by isolation of cellulose with chemical treatment. Preparation of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose was conducted by homogenizers for dispersing bamboo cellulose, i.e. high pressure homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer. Experiments were elaborated on several variables such as the concentration of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose dispersed in water (1-3 %w) and the volume of microfibrillated cellulose (37.5-75%v). Four %w of sago starch solution was mixed with bamboo microfibrillated cellulose and glycerol with plasticizer and citric acid as cross linker. This paper provided the analysis of tensile strength as well as SEM for mechanical and morphology properties of the biocomposite. The results showed that the preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced bamboo microfibrillated cellulose by using ultrasonic homogenizer yielded the highest tensile strength and well dispersed in the biocomposite.

  9. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activitity of methanol extract of Maranta arundinacea L fresh leaf and tuber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusbandari, A.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Maranta arundinacea L is one of herbaceous plants in Indonesia which have flavonoid content. Flavonoids has antioxidants activity by inhibition of free radical oxidation reactions. The study aims were to determination total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fresh leaf and tuber of M. arundinacea L by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanol extracts were obtained with maceration and remaseration method of fresh leaves and tubers. The total phenolic content was assayed with visible spectrophotometric using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The antioxidant activity was assayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) compared to gallic acid. The results showed that methanol extract of tuber and fresh leaf of M. arundinacea L contained phenolic compound with total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh tuber of 3.881±0.064 (% GAE) and fresh leaf is 6.518±0.163 (% b/b GAE). IC50 value from fresh tuber is 1.780±0.0005 μg/mL and IC50 fresh leaf values of 0.274±0.0004 μg/mL while the standard gallic acid is IC50 of 0.640±0.0002 μg/mL.

  10. Effect of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans viability, protein expression and acid production.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, F L; Luppens, S B I; Delbem, A C B; Deng, D M; Hoogenkamp, M A; Gaetti-Jardim, E; Dekker, H L; Crielaard, W; ten Cate, J M

    2008-01-01

    Plants naturally produce secondary metabolites that can be used as antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans. The extract (100%) was obtained by decoction of 100 g of leaves in 600 ml of deionized water. To assess killing, S. mutans biofilms were treated with water (negative control) or various extract dilutions [100, 50, 25% (v/v) in water] for 5 or 60 min. To evaluate the effect on protein expression, biofilms were exposed to water or 1.6% (v/v) extract for 120 min, proteins were extracted and submitted to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The effect of 1.6% (v/v) extract on acid production was determined by pH measurements and compared to a water control. Viability was similar after 5 min of treatment with the 100% extract or 60 min with the 50% extract (about 0.03% survival). There were no differences in viability between the biofilms exposed to the 25 or 50% extract after 60 min of treatment (about 0.02% survival). Treatment with the 1.6% extract significantly changed protein expression. The abundance of 24 spots was decreased compared to water (p < 0.05). The extract significantly inhibited acid production (p < 0.05). It is concluded that P. cattleianum leaf extract kills S. mutans grown in biofilms when applied at high concentrations. At low concentrations it inhibits S. mutans acid production and reduces the expression of proteins involved in general metabolism, glycolysis and lactic acid production. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Phytochemical screening and polyphenolic antioxidant activity of aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum.

    PubMed

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2009-11-13

    We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H₂O₂, NO and ABTS; and the reducing power were determined, as well as the flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract. The extract exhibited scavenging activity towards all radicals tested due to the presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. Our findings suggest that H. pedunculatum is endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and could serve as a base for future drugs.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Polyphenolic Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Crude Leaf Extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum

    PubMed Central

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS; and the reducing power were determined, as well as the flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract. The extract exhibited scavenging activity towards all radicals tested due to the presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. Our findings suggest that H. pedunculatum is endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and could serve as a base for future drugs. PMID:20087473

  13. Bamboo as sustainable material for furniture design in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiana, Yunida; Wahidiyat, Mita; Caroline, Octaviana Sylvia

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo has been known as a sustainable material for architecture, but only used on a small scale for furniture. However, even though it a sustainable resource, many people considered Bamboo as outcast material for furniture because of its appearance. Evidently, the use of bamboo is often used to make simple tools with similar traditional designs for everyday life. The tradition of using bamboo was not further explored with respect to the ongoing development of creative design and function in the era of today’s modern technology. In retrospect to the above issues, this study is aimed to introduce the used of bamboo for material furniture in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia to increases their quality of life. It uses a research by a method of collecting data through surveys, literature review, interviews and training to determine the types of bamboo used for material furniture in disaster and remote territories. The results of this study is intended to show that the use of bamboo can be further developed into furniture for disaster and remote territory to create higher values of the products and increase the quality of life.

  14. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas; Larsen, Lesley; McDowell, Arlene

    2013-02-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity. Separation of phytochemicals and simultaneous assessment of antioxidant activity were performed online using HPLC and post-column reaction with a free-radical reagent (2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, DPPH). Active compounds were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. We applied the online HPLC-DPPH radical assay to evaluate antioxidants in leaves from different positions on the plant and to assess the effect of pre-treatment of leaves with liquid N(2) before grinding, extraction time, extraction temperature and method of concentrating extracts. Key antioxidants identified in S. oleraceus leaf extracts were caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid. Middle leaves contained the highest total amount of the three key antioxidant compounds, consisting mainly of chicoric acid. Pre-treatment with liquid N(2), increasing the extraction temperature and time and freeze-drying the extract did not enhance the yield of the key antioxidants. The online HPLC-DPPH radical assay was validated as a useful screening tool for investigating individual antioxidants in leaf extracts. Optimized extraction conditions were middle leaves pre-treated with liquid N(2), extraction at 25°C for 0.5 h and solvent removal by rotary evaporation. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Comparative evaluation of successive extracts of leaf and stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck for mast cell stabilization activity.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, S; Bhandarkar, Anant V; Deepak, M

    2008-06-01

    Successive chloroform, methanol and water extracts of bark and leaves of Albizzia lebbeck were tested for its in vitro mast cell stabilizing effect against compound 48/80. Methanolic extract of leaf and methanolic and water extracts of bark have shown maximum activity comparable to that of disodium chromoglycate.

  16. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  17. New conceptual design of portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musthaffa, A. A.; Nor, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yuhazri, M. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Portable bridges serve as routes for troops during the military operations and the disaster relief operation. Nowadays, bamboo has been regarded as one of the alternative construction materials for building and bridge structures. This paper presents the conceptual design of the portable bridge. Several types of portable bridges and bamboo bridges are reviewed in the current work. The characteristics, capability and method of construction of each bridge are discussed. Finally, the conceptual of the portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes is presented. The idea of producing portable bridge is proposed in the current work as it is crucial for providing route for communities affected by natural disasters.

  18. Observation of Muntingia Calabura’s Leaf Extract as Feed Additive for Livestock Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujaningsih, R. I.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Sumarsih, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using of synthetic antioxidants in feedstuffs continuously can cause negative effect for the livestock. This study observed the constituent compounds of cherry leaf powder using format method of descriptive qualitative. Comparative study was done between young and old leaves to identify the content of antioxidant and antimicrobial. Based on the results of phytochemical tests that have been done, old cherry leaves contain compounds of flavonoids more than young cherry leaves. From the results of this study can be concluded that the results of old cherry leaf isolation using soxhlet extraction has antibacterial power against E. coli bacteria, and S. aureus at concentration of 75% have greater inhibitory ability.

  19. In vitro antioxidant activities of leaf and root extracts of Albizia antunesiana harms.

    PubMed

    Chipiti, Talent; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidative activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root samples of Albizia antunesiana were determined across a series of four in vitro models. The results showed that all the extracts had reducing power (Fe(3+)- Fe2+), DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities. The ethanol root extract had more potent antioxidant power in all the experimental models and possesses a higher total phenol content of 216.6 +/- 6.7 mg/g. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and leaves indicated that several aromatic phenolic compounds, a coumarin and some common triterpenoids were present in these extracts. Data from this study suggest that the leaves and roots of Albizia antunesiana possessed antioxidative activities that varied depending on the solvents.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory constituents of leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L. in animal models.

    PubMed

    Awakan, Oluwakemi Josephine; Malomo, Sylvia Omonirume; Adejare, Abdullahi Adeyinka; Igunnu, Adedoyin; Atolani, Olubunmi; Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2018-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. leaf is useful in the treatment of inflammation and asthma, but the bioactive constituents responsible for these activities have not been characterized. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying the bioactive constituent(s) of A. occidentale ethanolic leaf extract (AOEL) and its solvent-soluble portions, and evaluating their effects on histamine-induced paw edema and bronchoconstriction. The bronchodilatory effect was determined by measuring the percentage protection provided by plant extracts in the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model in guinea pigs. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts on histamine-induced paw edema in rats was determined by measuring the increase in paw diameter, after which the percent edema inhibition was calculated. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the bioactive constituents. Column chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used respectively to isolate and characterize the constituents. The bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated bioactive constituent were evaluated. Histamine induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pigs and edema in the rat paw. AOEL, hexane-soluble portion of AOEL, ethyl acetate-soluble portion of AOEL, and chloroform-soluble portion of AOEL significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities (P < 0.05). Oleamide (9-octadecenamide) was identified as the most abundant compound in the extracts and was isolated. Oleamide significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities by 32.97% and 98.41%, respectively (P < 0.05). These results indicate that oleamide is one of the bioactive constituents responsible for the bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activity of A. occidentale leaf, and can therefore be employed in the management of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B

  1. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Geraldo Amaral, Juliano; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Maria Zucolotto, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. PMID:27847818

  2. Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, Y.; Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Reddy, A. V.; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-02-01

    A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of tulasi leaf with AgNO3 solution within 15 min. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using physic-chemical techniques viz., UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Characterization data reveals that the particles were crystalline in nature and triangle shaped with an average size of 42 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs were found to be -55.0 mV. This large negative zeta potential value indicates repulsion among AgNPs and their dispersion stability.

  3. Heat shock, visible light or high calcium augment the cytotoxic effects of Ailanthus altissima (Swingle) leaf extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Popa, Claudia Valentina; Lungu, Liliana; Cristache, Ligia Florentina; Ciuculescu, Crinu; Danet, Andrei Florin; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    To gain new insight into the antimicrobial potential of Ailanthus altissima Swingle, ethanol leaf extracts were evaluated for the antifungal effects against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. The extracts inhibited the yeast growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect could be augmented by heat shock, exposure to visible light or exposure to high concentrations of Ca(2+). Using transgenic yeast cells expressing the Ca(2+)-dependent photoprotein, aequorin, it was found that the leaf extracts induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. Experiments on yeast mutants with defects in Ca(2+) transport demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of the A. altissima leaf extracts (AaLEs) was mediated by transient pulses of Ca(2+) ions which were released into the cytosol predominantly from the vacuole. The investigation of the antifungal synergies involving AaLEs may contribute to the development of optimal and safe combination therapies for the treatment of drug-resistant fungal infections.

  4. In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: an insect of public health concern.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bishnupada; Dutta, B K

    2003-11-01

    Leaf extract of C. sativa causes paralysis leading to death in larvae of C. samoensis. The extract brought a drastic change in the morphology of sensilla trichoidea and the general body cuticle. The larvae exposed to the leaf extract also showed a significant reduction in the concentration of Mg and Fe, while Mn showed only slight average increase. Since the sensilla trichoidea has nerve connection, it is expected that the toxic principle of the leaf extract has affected the central nervous system. The significant reduction of the level of Fe indicates that the extract could cause the reduction in oxygen binding capacity of the haemolymph, thereby acting as a respiratory poison in addition to its known role as a neurotoxic substance.

  5. Diversity and Utilization of Bamboo Plants in The Area of Hotel in Kedewatan Village, Ubud, Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, N. W. F.; Pradnyawathi, N. L. M.

    2017-10-01

    Bamboo or tiying (Balinese language) is a widely used non-timber plant in Indonesia especially in Bali. The presence of bamboo appertains to its ethno-botanical function of bamboo especially for rituals. However, there are other utilization of bamboo which is naturally grown or intentionally planted. Kedewatan as a famous place in northern Ubud, Bali have many lavish hotels with its natural environment and appealing place. The aims of this study is to invent bamboo species diversity and bamboo utilization on private areas of hotel in Kedewatan. Methods used in this study was field survey with observation and interview technic. Observation was implemented by purposive sampling methods by selecting hotel which adjacent to Ayung and Wos rivers. Interview was conducted with some key persons in charge on managing hotel garden. In addition, bamboo species identification was established through literature study. The results show that there are eleven bamboo species found on the survey area with most commonly employed species in the area were tiying tali (Gigantochloa apus (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Kurz.) and tiying gading (Phyllostachys sulphurea (Carr.) A. e.t. C. Riv.) which were belong to exotic species. The areas which bamboo cultivated were welcome area as a hedgerow and near hotel lobby, between, outside and inside villa buildings, and naturally grown in the riverbanks with a good landscaping arrangement. Bamboo plantations were utilized to adorn and support the quality of the hotel building as well as to conserve soil and water along Ayung and Wos river canyons. The other utilization of bamboo was to facilitate ritual activity in Kedewatan village. They are allowed to ask for limited amount of bamboo culms with condition not to damage the physical appearance and function that desired by the hotel manager or hotel owner.

  6. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Peng, Dacheng; Xie, Jingtian

    2009-01-01

    Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems). In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem. PMID:19849852

  7. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Charan, Jaykaran; Saxena, Deepak; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Yasobant, Sandul

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Being a viral disease, there is no specific drug available for treatment. There are some reports that Carica papaya leaf extract may improve the clinical condition of dengue patients; however, to support this, at present, there is no systematically searched and synthesized evidence available. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to search the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue and to synthesize the evidence in meaningful form through meta-analysis so that inference can be drawn. Randomized controlled trials related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Google Scholar. The primary endpoint was mortality, and secondary endpoints were increase in platelet count, hospitalization days, and Grade 3 and 4 adverse events. Data related to primary and secondary endpoints were pooled together and analyzed by review manager (Review Manager (RevMan) Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Denmark) software. The random effect model was used. The bias was analyzed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Total four trials enrolling 439 subjects were included in the analysis. Of 439 subjects, data of 377 subjects were available for analysis. C. papaya leaf extract was found to be associated with increase in platelet count in the overall analysis (mean difference [MD] =20.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.21-34.73; P = 0.005]) and analysis after 4 th day (MD = 28.25 [95% CI 14.14-42.37; P < 0.0001]). After 48 h, there was no significant difference between C. papaya and control group (MD = 13.38 [95% CI - 7.71-34.51; P = 0.21]). There was significant decrease in hospitalization days in the C. papaya group (MD = 1.90 [95% CI 1.62-2.18; P < 0.00001]). Because of nonavailability of data in published clinical trials, mortality

  8. Anti-quorum sensing activity, toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and phytochemical characterization of Trapa natans leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Ivana; Ristivojevic, Petar; Pavic, Aleksandar; Radojević, Ivana; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Vasiljevic, Branka; Opsenica, Dejan; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Senerovic, Lidija

    2018-08-10

    Trapa natans L. (water chestnut or water caltrop) is a widespread aquatic plant, which has been cultivated for food and traditional medicine since ancient times. Pharmacological studies showed that water chestnut exhibits the wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, as well as antiulcer. Evaluation of anti-virulence potential and toxicity of T. natans methanol (TnM), acetone (TnA) and ethyl acetate (TnEA) leaf extracts. The anti-quorum sensing activity of Tn extracts was addressed by measuring their effects on biofilm formation, swarming motility and pyocyanin and elastase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specific P. aeruginosa biosensors were used to identify which of the signaling pathways were affected. The lethal and developmental toxicity of extracts were addressed in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. The phenolic composition of T. natans leafs extracts was analyzed by a linear ion trap-OrbiTrap hybrid mass spectrometer (LTQ OrbiTrapMS) and UHPLC system configured with a diode array detector (DAD) hyphenated with the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Subinhibitory concentrations of Tn leaf extracts (0.2 MIC) inhibited pyocyanin and elastase production up to 50% and 60%, respectively, and reduced swarming zones, comparing to non-treated P. aeruginosa. TnA inhibited biofilm formation by 15%, TnM showed a stimulatory effect on biofilm formation up to 20%, while TnEA showed no effect. The bioactive concentrations of TnM and TnA were not toxic in the zebrafish model system. Twenty-two phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in TnM, where thirteen of them were identified in T. natans for the first time. Tn extracts, as well as their major components, ellagic and ferulic acids, demonstrated the ability to interfere with P. aeruginosa Las and PQS signaling pathways. This study demonstrates anti-virulence potential of Tn leaf extracts against medically important pathogen P

  9. Morphological study of the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Xylopia aethiopica on the pancreas in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ofusori, David A; Komolafe, Omobola A; Adewole, Olarinde S; Arayombo, Babatunde E; Margolis, Denise; Naicker, Thajasvarie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the histological and immunohistochemical effects of aqueous leaf extract of Xylo- pia aethiopica on the pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 30 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=10). Group A was the control (administered with equivalent vol- ume of citrate buffer), group B animals were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer (65 mg/kg), group C animals were made diabetic as above and treated with 200mg/kg body weight of aqueous leave extract of Xylopia aethiop- ica for 25 days. Upon animal sacrifice, the pancreas were excised, fixed in 10% formol saline and processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.. The results revealed destruc- tion of the islet cells in the untreated diabetic group as compared with the controls. The extract treated group was characterized by recovery/regenerative processes indicated by improvement in islet morphology. In untreated diabetic rats immunoreactive P-cells were sparse, at variance from the controls. The group treated with aqueous leaf extract of Xylopia aethiopica revealed more intense staining for insulin and significant (p<0.05) increase in the percentage of immuno- labelled surface area when compared with the untreated diabetic group, suggesting the ability of P-cells to secrete insulin in the extract treated rats. We conclude that the aqueous leaf extract of Xylopia aethiopica improves recovery process of P-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and might become useful in the management of diabetes related complications.

  10. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  11. Maple leaf (Acer sp.) extract mediated green process for the functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Schreiber, Makoto; Mason, Cynthia; Mohanty, Amar Kumar; Misra, Manjusri

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through a novel maple leaf extract mediated biological process was demonstrated. Maple leaf extract was found to be a very effective bioreduction agent for the reduction of silver ions. The reduction rate of Ag(+) into Ag(0) was found to be much faster than other previously reported bioreduction rates and was comparable to the reduction rates obtained through chemical means. The functionalization of ZnO particles with silver nanoparticles through maple leaf extract mediated bioreduction of silver was investigated through UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the ZnO particles were coated with silver nanoparticles 5-20 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic ability of the ZnO particles functionalized with silver nanoparticles was found to be significantly improved compared to the photocatalytic ability of the neat ZnO particles. The silver functionalized ZnO particles reached 90% degradation of the dye an hour before the neat ZnO particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less.

    PubMed

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (-)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model.

  14. Evaluation of Senna singueana leaf extract as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for malaria.

    PubMed

    Hiben, Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos; Sibhat, Gereziher Gebremedhin; Fanta, Biruk Sintayehu; Gebrezgi, Haile Desta; Tesema, Shewaye Belay

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of malarial resistance to most antimalarial drugs is the main factor driving the continued effort to identify/discover new agents for combating the disease. Moreover, the unacceptably high mortality rate in severe malaria has led to the consideration of adjuvant therapies. Senna singueana leaves are traditionally used against malaria and fever. Extracts from the leaves of this plant demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities, which in turn could reduce the severity of malaria. Extracts from the root bark of this plant exhibited antiplasmodial activity; however, the leaves are the more sustainable resource. Thus, S. singueana leaf was selected for in vivo evaluation as a potential alternative or adjuvant therapy for malaria. Using malaria [Plasmodium berghei ANKA, chloroquine (CQ) sensitive]-infected Swiss albino mice of both sexes, 70% ethanol extract of S. singueana leaves (alone and in combination with CQ) was tested for antimalarial activity and adjuvancy potential. The 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate antimalarial activity. The dose of S. singueana extract administered was safe to mice and exhibited some parasite suppression effect: extract doses of 200 mg/kg/d, 400 mg/kg/d, and 800 mg/kg/d caused 34.54%, 44.52%, and 47.32% parasite suppression, respectively. Concurrent administration of the extract with CQ phosphate at varied dose levels indicated that the percentage of parasite suppression of this combination was higher than administering CQ alone, but less than the sum of the effects of the extract and CQ acting separately. In conclusion, the study indicated that 70% ethanol extract of S. singueana leaf was safe to mice and possessed some parasite suppression effect. Coadministration of the extract with CQ appeared to boost the overall antimalarial effect, indicating that the combination may have a net health benefit if used as an adjuvant therapy.

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Aisha; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Rashid, Muhammad Abid; Mahmood, Adeel; Shahid, Muhammad; Noor, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Context Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and other ailments. Objective The current study explores scientific validation for this traditional medication. Materials and methods We used ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) assays to estimate antioxidant activity of P. guajava leaf extracts (methanol, hexane and chloroform). Antitumour and in vivo cytotoxic activities were determined using potato disc assay (PDA) and brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Three human carcinoma cell lines (KBM5, SCC4 and U266) were incubated with different doses (10-100 μg/mL) of extracts and the anticancer activity was estimated by MTT assay. NF-κB suppressing activity was determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Chemical composition of the three extracts was identified by GC-MS. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured by colorimetric assays. Results and discussions The order of antioxidant activity of three extracts was methanol > chloroform > hexane. The IC50 values ranged from 22.73 to 51.65 μg/mL for KBM5; 22.82 to 70.25 μg/mL for SCC4 and 20.97 to 89.55 μg/mL for U266 cells. The hexane extract exhibited potent antitumour (IC50  value = 65.02 μg/mL) and cytotoxic (LC50  value = 32.18 μg/mL) activities. This extract also completely inhibited the TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in KBM5 cells. GC-MS results showed that pyrogallol, palmitic acid and vitamin E were the major components of methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts. We observed significant (p < 0.05) difference in total phenolic and flavonoid contents of different solvent extracts. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P. guajava leaf extracts play a substantial role against cancer and down-modulate inflammatory nuclear factor kB.

  16. Bamboo shoot preservation for enhancing its business potential and local economy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bal, Lalit M; Singhal, Poonam; Satya, Santosh; Naik, S N; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo shoot as food has been used in traditional ways by the tribal community the world over. For enhancing its business potential, research on various aspects of bamboo shoot as food is being carried out in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Asian countries and several products are available in the market. Bamboo shoots are used as a delicacy in human food, are a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories. The research studies included in this review paper focus on post-harvest preservation of bamboo shoot. In view of the seasonal availability of bamboo shoot, the post-harvest preservation system for handling cynogenic toxicity in raw shoot while keeping nutrients intact and enhancement of shelf life of the value added products assume great significance for the business potential of this natural product. A yardstick of assessing the "Shelf life-Quality Matrix" developed in this review paper would give a new perspective of quality control in case of preservation of bamboo shoot. Also, knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating an innovative job profile in the food industry as well as rural entrepreneurship.

  17. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  18. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective of Microwave-KOH Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo

    Treesearch

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Yan Yu; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo, with its advantages of fast growth, short renovation, easy propagation and rich in cellulose and hemicellulose, is a potential feedstock for bioethanol or other biofuels production. The objective of this study was to examine the fea- sibility of microwave assistant KOH pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo. Pretreatment was car- ried out by...

  20. Potential Mechanism of Detoxification of Cyanide Compounds by Gut Microbiomes of Bamboo-Eating Pandas

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume secondary plant compounds and, therefore, expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores. The giant and red pandas are bamboo-eating specialists within the mammalian order Carnivora. Bamboo contains abundant plant secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanide-containing compounds). However, Carnivora species, including the giant panda, have deficient levels of rhodanese (one of the essential cyanide detoxification enzymes) in their tissues compared with the same tissues of herbivores. Here, we make a comparative analysis of 94 gut metagenomes, including 25 from bamboo-eating pandas (19 from giant pandas and 6 from red pandas), 30 from Père David’s deer, and 39 from published data for other mammals. The bamboo-eating pandas’ gut microbiomes had some common features, such as high proportions of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that bamboo-eating pandas’ gut microbiomes were significantly enriched in putative genes coding for enzymes related to cyanide degradation (e.g., rhodanese) compared with the gut microbiomes of typical herbivorous mammals, which might have coevolved with their special bamboo diets. The enrichment of putative cyanide-digesting gut microbes, in combination with adaptations related to morphology (e.g., pseudothumbs) and genomic signatures, show that the giant panda and red panda have evolved some common traits to adapt to their bamboo diet. IMPORTANCE The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens), two obligate bamboo feeders, have distinct phylogenetic positions in the order Carnivora. Bamboo is extraordinarily rich in plant secondary metabolites, such as allied phenolic and polyphenolic compounds and even toxic cyanide compounds. Here, the enrichment of putative cyanide-digesting gut microbes, in combination with adaptations related to morphology (e.g., pseudothumbs) and genomic signatures, show that the giant panda and red panda have

  1. Experimental study on the strength of double shear timber connection using bamboo dowel fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshari, Buan; Sugiartha, Wayan; Mahmud, Fathmah; Rofaida, Aryani; Pathurrahman

    2017-11-01

    Utilization of timber and bamboo as building materials was very promising for now and future. As renewable resources they have high mechanical properties, lightweight, environmentally friendly and economic. Utilization of bamboo as connector was rarely published. Therefore, this study focused on utilization of non-metal material as connector in timber structure especially for beam and column. This research was conducted in the laboratory to examine the strength of double shear timber connection by using glued in rods (bamboo dowel) as connector with variation of adhesive thickness. As control specimen was used bamboo dowel Ø14 mm without adhesive in double shear connection. The results showed that the strength of double shear timber connection by using glued in rods (bamboo dowel) as connector could increased by 41% to resist axial force higher than the control one.

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

    2014-07-15

    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C 29 H 60 ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Garima; Bhavesh, Riju; Kasariya, Kunal; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Singh, Rajendra Pal

    2011-07-01

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV-vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4-30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  5. Bioactivity Improvement of Olea europaea Leaf Extract Biotransformed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Rosa; Restuccia, Cristina; Monteleone, Julieta Ines; Sperlinga, Elisa; Siracusa, Laura; Serafini, Mauro; Finamore, Alberto; Spagna, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol. In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells. The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: a) enzymatic extract from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, characterized by β-glucosidase and esterase activities; b) commercial β-glucosidase. Composition and bioactivity of the resulting extracts were compared. The results showed that the yeast-treated extract presented hydroxytyrosol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity comparable to those obtained using commercial β-glucosidase; however, it was showed the additional presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. In experiments on Caco-2 cells, the leaf extracts promoted the recovery of cell membrane barrier at different minimum effective concentrations. The high specificity of W. anomalus enzymatic extract may represent an effective tool for the release of bioactive phenols from olive by-products.

  6. Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Youssefian, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-06-08

    Bamboo, a fast-growing grass, has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo come from the natural composite structure of fibers that consists mainly of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have used atomistic simulations to study the mechanical properties of and adhesive interactions between the materials in bamboo fibers. With this aim, we have developed molecular models of lignin, hemicellulose and LCC structures to study the elastic moduli and the adhesion energies between these materials and cellulose microfibril faces. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data. It was also shown that the hemicellulose model has stronger mechanical properties than lignin while lignin exhibits greater tendency to adhere to cellulose microfibrils. The study suggests that the abundance of hydrogen bonds in hemicellulose chains is responsible for improving the mechanical behavior of LCC. The strong van der Waals forces between lignin molecules and cellulose microfibril is responsible for higher adhesion energy between LCC and cellulose microfibrils. We also found out that the amorphous regions of cellulose microfibrils are the weakest interfaces in bamboo fibrils. Hence, they determine the fibril strength.

  7. Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Youssefian, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo, a fast-growing grass, has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo come from the natural composite structure of fibers that consists mainly of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have used atomistic simulations to study the mechanical properties of and adhesive interactions between the materials in bamboo fibers. With this aim, we have developed molecular models of lignin, hemicellulose and LCC structures to study the elastic moduli and the adhesion energies between these materials and cellulose microfibril faces. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data. It was also shown that the hemicellulose model has stronger mechanical properties than lignin while lignin exhibits greater tendency to adhere to cellulose microfibrils. The study suggests that the abundance of hydrogen bonds in hemicellulose chains is responsible for improving the mechanical behavior of LCC. The strong van der Waals forces between lignin molecules and cellulose microfibril is responsible for higher adhesion energy between LCC and cellulose microfibrils. We also found out that the amorphous regions of cellulose microfibrils are the weakest interfaces in bamboo fibrils. Hence, they determine the fibril strength. PMID:26054045

  8. Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefian, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo, a fast-growing grass, has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo come from the natural composite structure of fibers that consists mainly of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have used atomistic simulations to study the mechanical properties of and adhesive interactions between the materials in bamboo fibers. With this aim, we have developed molecular models of lignin, hemicellulose and LCC structures to study the elastic moduli and the adhesion energies between these materials and cellulose microfibril faces. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data. It was also shown that the hemicellulose model has stronger mechanical properties than lignin while lignin exhibits greater tendency to adhere to cellulose microfibrils. The study suggests that the abundance of hydrogen bonds in hemicellulose chains is responsible for improving the mechanical behavior of LCC. The strong van der Waals forces between lignin molecules and cellulose microfibril is responsible for higher adhesion energy between LCC and cellulose microfibrils. We also found out that the amorphous regions of cellulose microfibrils are the weakest interfaces in bamboo fibrils. Hence, they determine the fibril strength.

  9. Deployable bamboo structure project: A building life-cycle report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, Adrian; Prastyatama, Budianastas; Sagara, Altho; Wirabuana, Revian N.

    2017-11-01

    Bamboo is considered as a sustainable material in the world of construction, and it is vastly available in Indonesia. The general utilization of the material is increasingly frequent, however, its usage as a deployable structure-a recently-developed use of bamboo, is still untapped. This paper presents a report on a deployable bamboo structure project, covering the entire building life-cycle phase. The cycle encompasses the designing; fabrication; transportation; construction; operation and maintenance; as well as a plan for future re-use. The building is made of a configuration of the structural module, each being a folding set of bars which could be reduced in size to fit into vehicles for easy transportation. Each structural module was made of Gigantochloa apus bamboo. The fabrication, transportation, and construction phase require by a minimum of three workers. The fabrication and construction phase require three hours and fifteen minutes respectively. The building is utilized as cafeteria stands, the operation and maintenance phase started since early March 2017. The maintenance plan is scheduled on a monthly basis, focusing on the inspection of the locking mechanism element and the entire structural integrity. The building is designed to allow disassembly process so that it is reusable in the future.

  10. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  11. Chemical investigations of male and female leaf extracts from Schinus molle L.

    PubMed

    Garzoli, Stefania; Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Turchetti, Giovanni; Pesci, Lorenzo; Tiezzi, Antonio; Ovidi, Elisa

    2018-05-29

    The pepper-tree Schinus molle is an evergreen ornamental plant with various and diversified list of medical uses. In this article we analysed the chemical composition of male and female leaves of this plant during the off-flowering and flowering seasons. The leaf extracts were obtained by using a sequential extraction with solvents of different polarities and the chemical composition was investigated by GC-MS. The results showed a total of twenty-three components, in which elemol is the most abundant constituent followed by bicyclogermacrene, γ-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol and isocalamendiol. The petroleum ether and diethyl ether extracts from male and female flowering and off-flowering leaves consisted of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as a major constituent followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons, while the acetone extracts showed a different composition. The obtained results show differences in the chemical composition between male and female and flowering and not flowering.

  12. The ability of Abelmoschus manihot L. leaf extract in scavenging of free radical DPPH and total flavonoid determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudewi, S.; Lolo, W. A.; Warongan, M.; Rifai, Y.; Rante, H.

    2017-11-01

    Abelmoschus manihot L. has reported to have flavonoids content. This study aims were to determine the ability of A. manihot extract in counteracting free radical DPPH and determine the content of total flavonoids. A. manihot leaf was taken from 2 regions in North Sulawesi, namely Tomohon and Kotamobagu. The maceration was carried out to extract the active compound in a 96% ethanol solvent. Free radical scavenging analysis was carried out by DPPH and determination of its total flavonoid in the extract was measured using spectrophotometri method. The results showed that A. manihot extract from Tomohon and Kotamobagu could counteract free radical of DPPH with value of free radical activity of 88.151 and 88.801 %, respectively. A. manihot leaf from Kotamobagu has higher total flavonoids content 61.763 mg/g compare to Tomohon 46.679 mg/g which presented as quercetin. A. manihot has antioxidant activity.

  13. Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf.

    PubMed

    Hisam, Elly Ezlinda Abdul; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohtaruddin, Norhafizah; Rofiee, Mohd Salleh; Hamid, Hasiah Ab; Othman, Fezah

    2012-12-01

    Bauhinia purpurea L. (Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer. In an attempt to establish its pharmacological potential, we studied the antiulcer activity of lipid-soluble extract of B. purpurea obtained via extraction of air-dried leaves using chloroform. The rats were administered the chloroform extract (dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg) orally after 24 h fasting. They were subjected to the absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation assays after 30 min. The acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg extract and the rats were observed for the period of 14 days. omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard control. At 5000 mg/kg, the extract produced no sign of toxicity in rats. The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antiulcer activity for the ethanol-induced model. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric wall mucus production and pH of gastric content, while significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the total volume and total acidity of the gastric content in the pylorus ligation assay. The extract possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities, which could be attributed to its flavonoid and tannin content. These findings provide new information regarding the potential of lipid-soluble compounds of B. purpurea for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers.

  14. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  15. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species and Promoting Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Hwang, Eunmi; Yi, Sun Shin; Song, Ki Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Yun Joo; Jun, Hyun Sik

    2017-08-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L., also known as sea buckthorn (SBT), possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study examined whether SBT leaf extract could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of rat glioma C6 cells. The results revealed that the treatment with SBT leaf extract inhibited proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. SBT-induced reduction of C6 glioma cell proliferation and viability was accompanied by a decrease in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for the proliferation of tumor cells. SBT treatment not only significantly upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) but also promoted its localization in the nucleus. Although increased expression and nuclear translocation of Bax were observed in SBT-treated C6 glioma cells, the induced nuclear morphological change was distinct from that of typical apoptotic cells in that most of SBT-treated cells were characterized by convoluted nuclei with cavitations and clumps of chromatin. All of these results suggest that SBT leaf extract could inhibit the rapid proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells, possibly by inducing the early events of apoptosis. Thus, SBT may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  16. Antimutagenic and free radical scavenger effects of leaf extracts from Accacia salicina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Three extracts were prepared from the leaves of Accacia salicina; ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts and was designed to examine antimutagenic, antioxidant potenty and oxidative DNA damage protecting activity. Methods Antioxidant activity of A. salicina extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect against plasmid DNA strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. In addition, nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate anti-oxidative effects of tested extracts. Results These extracts from leaf parts of A. salicina showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (S9). The highest protections against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity were observed with all extracts and especially chloroform extract. This extract exhibited the highest inhibitiory level of the Ames response induced by the indirect mutagen 2- aminoanthracene. All extracts exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radicals induced DNA damages. The ethyl acetate (EA) and chloroform (Chl) extracts showed with high TEAC values radical of 0.95 and 0.81 mM respectively, against the ABTS.+. Conclusion The present study revealed the antimutagenic and antioxidant potenty of plant extract from Accacia salicina leaves. PMID:22132863

  17. Antimutagenic and free radical scavenger effects of leaf extracts from Accacia salicina.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Jihed; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2011-12-01

    Three extracts were prepared from the leaves of Accacia salicina; ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts and was designed to examine antimutagenic, antioxidant potenty and oxidative DNA damage protecting activity. Antioxidant activity of A. salicina extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect against plasmid DNA strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. In addition, nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate anti-oxidative effects of tested extracts. These extracts from leaf parts of A. salicina showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (S9). The highest protections against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity were observed with all extracts and especially chloroform extract. This extract exhibited the highest inhibitiory level of the Ames response induced by the indirect mutagen 2- aminoanthracene. All extracts exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radicals induced DNA damages. The ethyl acetate (EA) and chloroform (Chl) extracts showed with high TEAC values radical of 0.95 and 0.81 mM respectively, against the ABTS(.+). The present study revealed the antimutagenic and antioxidant potenty of plant extract from Accacia salicina leaves. © 2011 Boubaker et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Antimicrobial fish gelatin films with olive leaf extract for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat smoked salmon (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Olive leaf is a sizable by-product from the olive industry. Its use as antimicrobial/antioxidant ingredient in edible films for fish preservation was evaluated. Olive leaf powder (OLP) and its water/ethanol extract (OLPE) were tested against three foodborne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Escheri...

  19. Protective effect of Carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Indran, M; Mahmood, A A; Kuppusamy, U R

    2008-09-01

    The effects of Carica papaya leaf (CPL) aqueous extract on alcohol induced acute gastric damage and the immediate blood oxidative stress level were studied in rats. The results showed that gastric ulcer index was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with CPL extract as compared with alcohol treated controls. The in vitro studies using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed strong antioxidant nature of CPL extract. Biochemical analysis indicated that the acute alcohol induced damage is reflected in the alterations of blood oxidative indices and CPL extract offered some protection with reduction in plasma lipid peroxidation level and increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. Carica papaya leaf may potentially serve as a good therapeutic agent for protection against gastric ulcer and oxidative stress.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J.; Wong-Corral, Francisco J.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis. PMID:26451153

  1. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  2. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  3. Techno-economic potential of bioethanol from bamboo in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bamboo is potentially an interesting feedstock for advanced bioethanol production in China due to its natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and low management requirements. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was selected as a promising technology to enhance sugar release from bamboo lignocellulose whilst keeping economic and environmental costs to a minimum. The present research was conducted to assess: 1) by how much LHW pretreatment can enhance sugar yields in bamboo, and 2) whether this process has the potential to be economically feasible for biofuel use at the commercial scale. Pretreatments were performed at temperatures of 170-190°C for 10–30 minutes, followed by enzymatic saccharification with a commercial enzyme cocktail at various loadings. These data were then used as inputs to a techno-economic model using AspenPlus™ to determine the production cost of bioethanol from bamboo in China. Results At the selected LHW pretreatment of 190°C for 10 minutes, 69% of the initial sugars were released under a standardised enzyme loading; this varied between 59-76% when 10–140 FPU/g glucan of commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 was applied. Although the lowest enzyme loading yielded the least amount of bioethanol, the techno-economic evaluation revealed it to be the most economically viable scenario with a production cost of $0.484 per litre (with tax exemption and a $0.16/litre subsidy). The supply-chain analysis demonstrated that bioethanol could be economically competitive with petrol at the pump at enzyme loadings up to 60 FPU/g glucan. However, in a prospective scenario with reduced government support, this enzyme loading threshold would be reduced to 30 FPU/g glucan. Conclusions Bioethanol from bamboo is shown to be both technically and economically feasible, as well as competitive with petrol in China. Alternative approaches to reduce bioethanol production costs are still needed however, to ensure its competitiveness in a possible

  4. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill: Characterization and assessment of antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Soman, Soumya; Ray, J G

    2016-10-01

    Biological approach to synthesis of metal nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract is a highly relevant and recent theme in nanotechnological research. Phytosynthesized AgNPs have better inhibitory and antimicrobial effects compared to aqueous leaf extract and silver nitrate. In the present investigation crystalline silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 10nm have been successfully synthesized using aqueous leaf extract (AQLE) of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill., which act as both reducing as well as capping agent. The particles were characterized using UV Visible spectroscopy, HRTEM-EDAX, XRD, FT-IR and DLS. An evaluation of the anti bacterial activity was carried out using Agar well diffusion method and MIC determination against four bacterial strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi; the AgNPs exhibited quite high antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bactericidal studies with TEM at different time intervals after AgNPs treatment showed the presence of AgNPs near cell membrane of bacteria at about 30min exposure and the bacterial-lysis was found completed at 24h. This gave an insight on the mechanism of bacterial-lysis by direct damage to the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea less leaf.

    PubMed

    Iwalewa, E O; Iwalewa, O J; Adeboye, J O

    2003-06-01

    The chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea (Asteraceae; Less) leaf (100, 200 and 400mg/kg intraperitoneally) were tested in: acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, carrageenin-induced oedema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and behavioral activities, respectively. The changes in writhings and behavioural activities in mice, the pyrexia and paw volumes in rats were reduced significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control. There was an increase in pain threshold on the oedematous right hind limb paw of the rats. These results indicate that the extracts could possess analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. All these effects and the changes in the behavioural activities could be suggested as contributory effects to the use of V. cinerea leaf in the treatment of malaria.

  6. Effects of methylene chloride/methanol leaf extract of Celtis durandii engler (Ulmaceae) on constriction of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Dimo, T; Ntchapda, F; Atchade, A T; Yewah, M P; Kamtchouing, P; Ngassam, P

    2005-07-01

    Celtis durandii is a medicinal plant widely used in some part of Cameroon for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The vasorelaxant effects of the methylene chloride/methanol leaf extract of C. durandii were examined on isolated rat thoracic aorta. The relaxant effects of C. durandii on vascular preparation from rat aorta precontracted with KCl or norepinephrine was concentration dependent. This relaxing effect was significantly reduced with KCl-induced contraction following mechanical damage to the aortic endothelium. Relaxation elicited by C. durandii was not significantly affected by glibenclamide (10(-6) M), a selective inhibitor of K-ATP-dependent channels or tetraethylammonium (10(-6) M), a non selective K+ channel blocker. Indomethacin (10(-6) M) significantly inhibited relaxation induced by the plant extract. These findings indicate that the vasorelaxation effect of the methylene chloride/methanol leaf extract of C. durandii may be mediated at least in part by prostacyclin.

  7. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  8. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2018-01-30

    Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p -coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR , TRP-1 , and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.

  10. Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC50) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR, TRP-1, and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics. PMID:29385729

  11. Development of extract library from indonesian biodiversity: exploration of antibacterial activity of mangrove bruguiera cylindrica leaf extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audah, K. A.; Amsyir, J.; Almasyhur, F.; Hapsari, A. M.; Sutanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Antibacterial drugs derived from natural sources play significant roles in the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections since antibiotics have become less effective against many infectious diseases. Mangroves are very potential natural antibacterial sources among great numbers of wild medicinal plants. Bruguiera cylindrica is one of the many mangroves species which spread along Indonesian coastline. The aim of this study was to explore the antibacterial activity of B. cylindrica wet and dried leaf extracts. The wet extracts study was conducted with three different solvents system (water, ethanol, and n-Hexane) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. While, the dried extracts study was conducted with four different solvents system (water, ethanol, chloroform and n-Hexane) against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of phenolic and flavonoid. Antibacterial actitivity was measured by zone of inhibition which obtained from agar-disk diffusion method. The widest area of zone of inhibition was showed by wet extracts with ethanol against S. aureus and E. coli are 14.30 and 13.30 mm, respectively. While, the zone of inhibition dried extracts with ethanol against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. coli are 9.32, 6.59 and 6.20 mm, respectively. In conclusion, both type of extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria as crude extracts.

  12. Effect of carbonization temperatures on biochar formation of bamboo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, D.; Kumar, S.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo is a typical plant native in Asia, been used in many sectors, which also produces a large volume of leaves which goes waste and not find its application for any useful purposes; is often considered as a bio-waste and normally incinerated or dumped; as its applications are not yet fully explored. However, some research work done on bamboo fibers for use as a reinforcement in making polymer matrix composite. In the present piece of research work, the influence of burning/carbonization of bamboo leaves (at different temperatures) have been studied and characterized. Proximate analysis gave the fixed carbon content (of ~nearly21%). X-Ray diffraction results revealed the presence of various phases viz. cristobalite (SiO2), Calcite (Ca2O3) etc. accompanied with changes in crystal structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed various modes of vibrations viz. O-H stretching bending of other bonds; (for aromatic benzene derivatives) etc. Scanning Electron Microscopic observation (of morphology) showed irregular stacking arrangements between the randomly spaced lamellae structure, with variation in carbonizing temperature. Results revealed the advantages of pyrolysis process in biochar production/formation. It appears that, the bamboo biochar can have suitable properties for its use as an alternative energy source and also for agricultural applications. Its high porosity and carbon content suggest its application as activated carbon also; after physical or chemical treatments. The present research focuses on extending the frontiers of use of bamboo leaves from being an unutilized biowaste to its conversion into a value added product, which can be compassed in terms of sustainable applications.

  13. Hydrolysis of bamboo biomass by subcritical water treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mood; Banerjee, Tamal; Goud, Vaibhav V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) from bamboo under subcritical water (SCW) treatment in a batch reactor at the temperature ranging from 170 °C to 220 °C and 40 min hydrolysis time. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of temperature and time on TRS yield. The maximum TRS yield (42.21%) was obtained at lower temperature (180 °C), however longer reaction time (25 min). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterise treated and untreated bamboo samples. The XRD profile revealed that crystallinity of bamboo increased to 71.90% with increase in temperature up to 210 °C and decreased thereafter to 70.92%. The first-order reaction kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data to obtain rate constants. From the Arrhenius plot, activation energy and pre-exponential factor at 25 min time were found to be 17.97 kJ mol(-1) and 0.154 min(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; T Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D < 0.05 mm) at the 9% addition rate was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The fine bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  16. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    PubMed Central

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (−)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model. PMID

  17. "Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles using Elephantopus scaber leaf extract".

    PubMed

    Kharat, Sopan N; Mendhulkar, Vijay D

    2016-05-01

    The simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticle in the leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. is illustrated in the present work. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized with UV-Vis-spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The UV-spectra show maximum absorbance at 435 nm, NTA analysis shows 78 nm average sizes of nanoparticles, TEM analysis indicates spherical shape of the nanoparticles with the average diameter of 50 nm. The XRD peaks at 2θ range of 30-80° correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311) reflection planes that indicate the structure of metallic silver. FTIR analysis reveals surface capping of phenolic groups. Existence of peaks in the range of 1611 to 1400 cm(-1) indicates the presence of aromatic rings in the leaf extract. The peak at 1109 cm(-1) is due to the presence of OH groups. The antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated performing DPPH assay and it is observed that the photosynthesized nanoparticle also possesses antioxidant potentials. Thus, it can be used as potential free radical scavenger. Silver particles have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this context, the surface coating of plant metabolite constituents has great potentials. Therefore, the present work has been undertaken to synthesize the AgNPs using leaf extract of medicinal plant, E. scaber, to characterize and access their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemical Comparison of the Water and Ethanol Leaf Extracts of the Cree medicinal plant, Sarracenia purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae).

    PubMed

    Cieniak, Carolina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Liu, Rui; Muhammad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Cuerrier, Alain; Foster, Brian C; Arnason, John T

    2015-01-01

    The Cree of Eeyou Istchee in Northern Quebec identified Sarracenia purpurea L. as an important plant for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Traditionally the plant is used as a decoction (boiling water extract) of the leaf, however, in order to study the extract in a laboratory setting, an 80% ethanol extract was used. In this study, the phytochemistry of both extracts of the leaves was compared and quantified. Two S. purpurea leaf extracts were prepared, one a traditional hot water extract and the other an 80% ethanol extract. Using UPLC-ESI-MS, the extracts were phytochemically compared for 2 triterpenes, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, using one gradient method and for 10 additional substances, including the actives quercetin-3-O-galactoside and morroniside, using a different method. The concentrations of the nine phenolic substances present, as well as an active principle, the iridoid glycoside morroniside, were very similar between the two extracts, with generally slightly higher concentrations of phenolics in the ethanol extract as expected. However, two triterpenes, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, were 107 and 93 times more concentrated, respectively, in the ethanol extract compared to the water extract. The main phytochemical markers and most importantly the antidiabetic active principles, quercetin-3-O-galactoside and morroniside, were present in similar amounts in the two extracts, which predicts similar bioactivity.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  19. Evaluation of Senna singueana leaf extract as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Hiben, Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos; Sibhat, Gereziher Gebremedhin; Fanta, Biruk Sintayehu; Gebrezgi, Haile Desta; Tesema, Shewaye Belay

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of malarial resistance to most antimalarial drugs is the main factor driving the continued effort to identify/discover new agents for combating the disease. Moreover, the unacceptably high mortality rate in severe malaria has led to the consideration of adjuvant therapies. Senna singueana leaves are traditionally used against malaria and fever. Extracts from the leaves of this plant demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities, which in turn could reduce the severity of malaria. Extracts from the root bark of this plant exhibited antiplasmodial activity; however, the leaves are the more sustainable resource. Thus, S. singueana leaf was selected for in vivo evaluation as a potential alternative or adjuvant therapy for malaria. Using malaria [Plasmodium berghei ANKA, chloroquine (CQ) sensitive]-infected Swiss albino mice of both sexes, 70% ethanol extract of S. singueana leaves (alone and in combination with CQ) was tested for antimalarial activity and adjuvancy potential. The 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate antimalarial activity. The dose of S. singueana extract administered was safe to mice and exhibited some parasite suppression effect: extract doses of 200 mg/kg/d, 400 mg/kg/d, and 800 mg/kg/d caused 34.54%, 44.52%, and 47.32% parasite suppression, respectively. Concurrent administration of the extract with CQ phosphate at varied dose levels indicated that the percentage of parasite suppression of this combination was higher than administering CQ alone, but less than the sum of the effects of the extract and CQ acting separately. In conclusion, the study indicated that 70% ethanol extract of S. singueana leaf was safe to mice and possessed some parasite suppression effect. Coadministration of the extract with CQ appeared to boost the overall antimalarial effect, indicating that the combination may have a net health benefit if used as an adjuvant therapy. PMID:26870688

  20. Bamboo-Dominated Forests of the Southwest Amazon: Detection, Spatial Extent, Life Cycle Length and Flowering Waves

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Anelena L.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Bianchini, Milton C.; Plagnol, Daniela; Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Daly, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp) in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27–28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon. PMID:23359438

  1. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  2. Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S.; Jebanesan, A.

    2005-01-01

    The leaf extract of Solanum trilobatum (Solanaceae) was tested under laboratory conditions for oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities against the adult mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Concentrations of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1% reduced egg laying by gravid females from 18 to 99% compared to ethanol-treated controls. In skin repellent tests, concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, and 0.02 % provided 70 to 120 minutes protection against mosquito bites, whereas the ethanol control provided only 2.2 minutes of protection. Both oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activity were dose dependent. The results suggest that the leaf extract of S. trilobatum is an effective oviposition deterrent and skin repellent against An. stephensi. PMID:16341247

  3. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001), negative inotropic and negative chronotropic effects on guinea pig isolated electrically driven left and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. Moreover, PAE reduced or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the positive inotropic and chronotropic responses of guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips induced by noradrenaline (NA, 10(-10)-10(-5) M), and calcium (Ca(2+), 5-40 mM). PAE (50-800 mg/ml) also significantly reduced (p < 0.05-0.001) or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rhythmic, spontaneous, myogenic contractions of portal veins isolated from healthy normal Wistar rats. Like acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-8)-10(-5) M), the plant extract (25- 800 mg/ml) produced concentration-related relaxations of isolated endothelium-containing thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline. The vasorelaxant effects of PAE in the isolated, endothelium-intact aortic rings were markedly inhibited or annulled by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-5) M), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Furthermore, PAE (25-400 mg/kg iv) caused dose-related, transient but significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of the anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive rats used. The results of

  4. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulfuryl fluoride as a quarantine treatment for Chlorophorus annularis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Chinese bamboo poles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Daojian; Barak, Alan V; Jiao, Yi; Chen, Zhinan; Zhang, Guiming; Chen, Zhilin; Kang, Lin; Yang, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Bamboo (genera Bambusa and Phyllstachys) is one of the fastest growing and economically important plants in the world, and it is cultivated widely throughout southern China. China annually exports to the United States significant quantities of bamboo garden stakes (Bambusa spp.). In recent years, Plant Protection and Quarantine officers of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have made numerous interceptions of the bamboo borer, Chlorophorus annularis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in bamboo products from China. This species is considered to have high pest risk potential in the trade of bamboo products. As a fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (SF) would be a practical alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Here, we report the results of SF fumigation tests for C. annularis in bamboo poles at three doses--96 g/m3 at 15.9 degrees C, 80 g/m3 at 21.5 degrees C, and 64 g/m3 at 26.0 degrees C--in glass test chambers. Commercial standard fumigations were also conducted in a standard 6.1-m-long, 33.2-m3 (standard height, 20-feet) marine general cargo container loaded to 80% (vol:vol) with similar bamboo poles, and sufficient levels of SF were obtained during the 24-h fumigations. During the course of these tests, 2424 larvae, 90 pupae, and 23 adults in total were killed, with no survivors. A treatment schedule using SF is proposed for bamboo as an alternative to MeBr at several temperatures tested.

  7. Morus alba leaf extract mediates neuroprotection against glyphosate-induced toxicity and biochemical alterations in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rebai, Olfa; Belkhir, Manel; Boujelben, Adnen; Fattouch, Sami; Amri, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and some neurological disorders such as Parkinson's pathology. Therefore, phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigate the impact of glyphosate on the rat brain following i.p. injection and the possible molecular target of neuroprotective activity of the phenolic fraction from Morus alba leaf extract (MALE) and its ability to reduce oxidative damage in the brain. Wistar rats from 180 to 240 g were i.p. treated with a single dose of glyphosate (100 mg kg -1 b.w.) or MALE (100 μg mL -1  kg -1 b.w.) for 2 weeks. Brain homogenates were used to evaluate neurotoxicity induced by the pesticide. For this, biochemical parameters were measured. Data shows that MALE regulated oxidative stress and counteracted glyphosate-induced deleterious effects and oxidative damage in the brain, as it abrogated LDH, protein carbonyls, and malonyldialdehyde. MALE also appears to be able to scavenge H 2 O 2 levels, maintain iron and Ca 2+ homeostasis, and increase SOD activity. Thus, in vivo results showed that mulberry leaf extract is a potent protector against glyphosate-induced toxicity, and its protective effect could result from synergism or antagonism between the various bioactive phenolic compounds in the acetonic fraction from M. alba leaf extract.

  8. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn

  9. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (<0.25 mm and <1 mm), were applied at three rates (0, 1, and 5% w/w). Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the bamboo and rice straw biochar treated soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p < 0.01). The EUBCR sequential extraction procedure revealed that the acid extractable fractions of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with biochar addition. Rice straw biochar was more effective than bamboo biochar in decreasing the acid extractable metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd < Cu < Pb < Zn, and reduced the acid extractable pool of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by 11, 17, 34 and 6%, respectively, compared to the control. In the same 5% rice straw biochar treatments, the organic bound fraction increased by 37, 58, 68 and 18% for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, compared to the

  10. Antimicrobial and enzymatic antibrowning film used as coating for bamboo shoot quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-03-15

    Edible films were prepared with varying proportion of alginate and starch in the ratio of 2:0(F1), 2:1(F2), 1:1(F3), 1:1.5(F4), 1:2(F5), 0:2(F6) with added carboxymethyl cellulose (15%, w/w of starch). The film F5 had superior barrier, mechanical and thermal properties over the other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of F5 film were reported as 1.21 × 10(-9)g/Pa h m, 9.37%, 40%, 977.3g and 14.62 mm respectively. However, surface characteristics showed the smooth and uniform film and thermal decomposition took place above 200 °C. The film forming solution of selected F5 film, added with antioxidant and antimicrobial extracts was coated on bamboo shoots and stored for 5 days. The film was successful in lowering the browning of bamboo shoots, and also successfully inhibited surface microbial load. Moreover, the moisture loss of coated shoot was less compared to uncoated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The hepatocurative effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Colak, Emine; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Tekin, Neslihan; Colak, Ertugrul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Degirmenci, Irfan; Gunes, Hasan Veysi

    2016-01-01

    Cynara scolymus is a pharmacologically important medicinal plant containing phenolic acids and flavonoids. Experimental studies indicate antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of C. scolymus but there have been no studies about therapeutic effects of liver diseases yet. In the present study, hepatocurative effects of C. scolymus leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats were investigated by serum hepatic enzyme levels, oxidative stress indicator (malondialdehyde-MDA), endogenous antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, p53, caspase 3 and histopathology. Animals were divided into six groups: control, olive oil, CCl4, C. scolymus leaf extract, recovery and curative. CCl4 was administered at a dose of 0.2 mL/kg twice daily on CCl4, recovery and curative groups. Cynara scolymus extract was given orally for 2 weeks at a dose of 1.5 g/kg after CCl4 application on the curative group. Significant decrease of serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) levels were determined in the curative group. MDA levels were significantly lower in the curative group. Significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in the curative group was determined. In the curative group, C. scolymus leaf extract application caused the DNA % fragmentation, p53 and caspase 3 levels of liver tissues towards the normal range. Our results indicated that C. scolymus leaf extract has hepatocurative effects of on CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury by reducing lipid peroxidation, providing affected antioxidant systems towards the normal range. It also had positive effects on the pathway of the regulatory mechanism allowing repair of DNA damage on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. The ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract on amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gayoum, Abdelgayoum A; Al-Hassan, Abdelrahman A; Ginawi, Ibrahim A; Alshankyty, Ibraheem M

    2015-01-01

    Amikacin is an important antibiotic, and its use is limited because of the induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, search for natural and synthetic agents that can moderate amikacin toxicity never stopped. The present study aims to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract against the amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. 48 rats were distributed into 6 groups: 1-Animals of control (C) group were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with saline, 2-(AK); injected ip with amikacin {300 mg/kg/day for 12days}, 3-(OO) group: given olive oil {7 ml/kg/day for 16days}, 4-(OOAK) group: given olive oil as in OO and amikacin for 12days, 5-(OL) group: given olive leaf extract {50 mg/kg/day for 16days}, 6-(OLAK) group: given leaf extract as in OL and amikacin for 12days. Animals were fasted and sacrificed. Serum was used for biochemical analysis and kidneys for histopathology. Serum urea and creatinine were significantly ( P  < 0.001) elevated in AK, and significantly dropped in the OOAK and OLAK groups. Serum uric acid was reduced in AK by 45.29%. Kidneys from AK showed necrosis, whereas, those from OOAK and OLAK showed mild histology. The serum triglyceride was decreased by 17.8% in OL, by 37.02% in OOAK and by 31.48% in OLAK. The calculated amikacin effect showed a significant positive correlation with urea ( r  = 0.521, P  = 0.0004), and a negative correlation with uric acid ( r  = ⿿ 0.58, P  < 0.0001). The study confirmed nephrotoxicity of amikacin in rat which was ameliorated by virgin olive oil and by olive leaf extract. Amikacin did not cause dyslipidemia but reduced serum uric acid.

  13. Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipta, M.; Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, non-renewable fossil energy dominates utilization of the world energy need for many applications. Efforts has been developed to find alternative renewable energy sources, due to fossil energy availability is diminishing. And one of renewable energy source is from biomass. The aim of this research is to determine characteristics of the Ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as an energy potential of biomass. The Ampel bamboo’s characteristics possessed are evaluated based on its chemical composition; moisture, volatile, ash, and fixed carbon through proximate analysis; and also carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content through ultimate analysis. From the Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that Ampel bamboo contains of about 18.10% hemicelluloses, 47.75% cellulose and 18.86% lignin. While from the ultimate analysis results in the content of carbon, hydrogen, and Nitrogen of Ampel bamboo are 39.75%, 5.75% and 0% respectively. With such characteristics, it indicates that Ampel bamboo has an attractive potential as a renewable energy source.

  14. Green synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using Graptophyllum pictum leaf aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, I. P.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) attracted the attention of many researchers due to their unique properties. In this research, nanoscale magnetite particles have been successfully synthesized through an environmentally friendly method using aqueous extract of Graptophyllum pictum leaf (GPLE). In MNPs formation, GPLE acted as a base source and capping agent. Alkaloids in GPLE were hydrolyzed in water and hydroxilated Fe2+ to form Fe3O4 nanoparticles powder through calcination. After the addition of leaf extract, MNPs formation was observed by color change from pale yellow to dark brown. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results confirmed that MNPs formation indicated the surface plasmon resonance at a maximum wavelength, λmax 291 nm. The average crystallite size is 23.17 nm. The formed MNPs through green synthesis method promise in various medical applications such as drug carrier and targeted therapy.

  15. Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  16. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha-1 to 3400 culm ha-1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha-1 to 48.31 Mg C ha-1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha-1 to 119.5 Mg C ha-1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha-1 to 7.6 Mg C ha-1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance.

  17. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha−1 to 3400 culm ha−1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha−1 to 48.31 Mg C ha−1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha−1 to 119.5 Mg C ha−1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha−1 to 7.6 Mg C ha−1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance. PMID:29451911

  18. Optimisation of mechanical properties of bamboo fibre reinforced-PLA biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurnadia M., J.; Fazita, M. R. Nurul; Abdul Khalil H. P., S.; Mohamad Haafiz M., K.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the raw materials that have been widely used in industries are petroleum-based. Growing environmental awareness, the depletion of fossil fuels, and climate change are the key drivers to seek more ecologically friendly materials, such as natural fibres to replace synthetic fibres in polymeric composite. Among the natural fibres available, bamboo fibre has relatively high strength. Poly (lactic) acid (PLA), one of the well-known biopolymers, has been used as a matrix in order to produce totally biodegradable biocomposites. In this study, bamboo fibres were compounded with PLA by a twin screw extruder. The bamboo fibre reinforced PLA composites were then manufactured via the compression moulding method. The influences of screw speed and die temperature during extrusion on the mechanical properties, the tensile and flexural of the biocomposites, were studied. The effects of fibre content and fibre length were also investigated. Taguchi experimental design approach was adopted to determine the optimum set of conditions to achieve the "best" mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties were characterised based on the D638-10 and D790-10 standards, respectively. It was observed that the fibre aspect ratio and fibre content significantly affected the mechanical performance of bamboo fibres reinforced PLA composites.

  19. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-06-30

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry ( Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry ( V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry ( V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season.

  20. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry (V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry (V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season. PMID:28933373

  1. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Ishola, Ismail O; Okoro, Uzodinma

    2013-01-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea. To investigate the antidiarrhoeal action of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP). Normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastric emptying and enteropooling models in rodents were used to investigate antidiarrhoeal effect. The possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal activity was investigated using prazosin (1 mg/kg, s.c; α1, adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, s.c; α2 adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.p; α- adrenoceptor non-selective antagonist), atropine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), pilocarpine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic agonist), and isosorbide dinitrate (IDN) (150 mg/kg, p.o; nitric oxide donor). BP (25-100 mg/kg, p.o) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) decrease in intestinal propulsion in normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit models in comparison to distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.) treated control. This antidiarrhoeal effect was inhibited by propranolol pretreatment but yohimbine, prazosin, or atropine pretreatment failed to block this effect. BP treatment reduced the increased peristaltic activity induced by pilocarpine, however, co-treatment with IDN significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) increase in onset of diarrhoea, decreased diarrhoea score, the number and weight of wet stools when compared to control. The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index (ADI(in) vivo)) of 53.52 produced by the extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to 76.28 ADI(in vivo) produced by morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). The extract produced dose- dependent and significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) decrease in the weight and volume of intestinal content in the intestinal fluid accumulation

  2. Inhibition of forage seed germination by leaf litter extracts of overstory hardwoods used in silvopastoral systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silvopastoral management strategies seek to expand spatial and temporal boundaries of forage production and promote ecosystem integrity through a combination of tree thinning and understory pastures. We determined the effects of water extracts of leaf litter from yellow poplar, Liriodendron tulipife...

  3. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 μg/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 μg/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 μg/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 μg/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID

  4. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C; Uzor, Philip F; Nnamani, Nneka R; Adiele, Ijeoma E; Obiano, Nkemakonam C

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Alchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract. Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plant A. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300 mg/kg, produced significant (P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening. From this study, it was concluded that the plant of A. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An optimal proportion of mixing broad-leaved forest for enhancing the effective productivity of moso bamboo.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Shi, Pei-Jian; Hui, Cang; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-04-01

    Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys edulis) are important forestry plants in southern China, with substantial roles to play in regional economic and ecological systems. Mixing broad-leaved forests and moso bamboos is a common management practice in China, and it is fundamental to elucidate the interactions between broad-leaved trees and moso bamboos for ensuring the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. We examine how the proportion of broad-leaved forest in a mixed managed zone, topology, and soil profile affects the effective productivity of moso bamboos (i.e., those with significant economic value), using linear regression and generalized additive models. Bamboo's diameter at breast height follows a Weibull distribution. The importance of these variables to bamboo productivity is, respectively, slope (25.9%), the proportion of broad-leaved forest (24.8%), elevation (23.3%), gravel content by volume (16.6%), slope location (8.3%), and soil layer thickness (1.2%). Highest productivity is found on the 25° slope, with a 600-m elevation, and 30% broad-leaved forest. As such, broad-leaved forest in the upper slope can have a strong influence on the effective productivity of moso bamboo, ranking only after slope and before elevation. These factors can be considered in future management practice.

  6. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-08-16

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline.

  7. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata leaf extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, R. F.; Natalia, Desy

    2016-11-01

    In traditional medicine, Physalis angulata which is well known as ceplukan in Indonesia, has been utilized to cure several diseases by conventional extraction in hot water. The investigation of the Swietenia mahagoni extract activity in modern medicine typically utilized organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane in extraction. In this research, subcritical water was used as a solvent instead of organic solvent to extract the Pysalis angulata leaf part. The focus of this research was the investigation of extract drying condition in the presence of filler to preserve the quality of antioxidant in Swietenia mahagoni extract. Filler, which is inert, was added to the extract during drying to help absorb the water while protect the extract from exposure in heat during drying. The effects of filler types, concentrations and oven drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol and antioxidant activity. Aerosil and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were utilized as fillers with concentration was varied from 0-30 wt% for MCC and 0-15 wt% for aerosil. The oven drying temperature was varied from 40-60 oC. The results showed that compare to extract dried without filler, total phenol and antioxidant activity were improved upon addition of filler. The higher the concentration of filler, the better the antioxidant; however it was limited by the homogeneity of filler in the extract. Both of the variables (oven temperature and concentration) played an important role in the improvement of extract quality of Swietenia mahagoni leaf. It was related to the drying time which can be minimized to protect the deterioration of extract from heat. In addition, filler help to provide the powder form of extract instead of the typical extract form which is sticky and oily.

  8. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiulong; Hse, Chung-Yun; De Hoop, Cornelis F; Hu, Tingxing; Qi, Jinqiu; Shupe, Todd F

    2016-10-20

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction could eliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7min, and the cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by subsequent chemical treatments with lower chemical charging and quickly. The results of wet chemistry analyses, SEM images, and FTIR and X-ray spectra indicated the combination of microwave liquefaction and chemical treatment was significantly efficient in removing non-cellulosic compounds. Ultrasonication was used to separate the nanofibrils from the purified residues to extract nanofibers. The TEM images confirmed the presence of elementary fibrils, nano-sized fibril bundles, and aggregated fibril bundles. As evidenced by the TGA analysis, cellulose nanofibers isolated by this novel technique had high thermal stability indicating that the isolated nanofibers could possibly be applied as reinforcing elements in biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three

  11. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril.

    PubMed

    Susalit, Endang; Agus, Nafrialdi; Effendi, Imam; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nofiarny, Dwi; Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Verbruggen, Marian

    2011-02-15

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension. Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (EFLA(®)943) was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily in a flat-dose manner throughout the 8 weeks. Captopril was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily at start. After 2 weeks, if necessary, the dose of Captopril would be titrated to 25 mg twice daily, based on subject's response to treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week-8 of treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints were SBP as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes at every time-point evaluation and lipid profile improvement. Evaluation of BP was performed every week for 8 weeks of treatment; while of lipid profile at a 4-week interval. Mean SBP at baseline was 149.3±5.58 mmHg in Olive group and 148.4±5.56 mmHg in Captopril group; and mean DBPs were 93.9±4.51 and 93.8±4.88 mmHg, respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a significant reduction of SBP as well as DBP from baseline; while such reductions were not significantly different between groups. Means of SBP reduction from baseline to the end of study were -11.5±8.5 and -13.7±7.6 mmHg in Olive and Captopril groups, respectively; and those of DBP were -4.8±5.5 and -6.4±5.2 mmHg, respectively. A significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed in Olive group, but not in Captopril group. In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and

  12. The Effect of Water Molecules on Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Microfibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Nima

    Bamboo fibers have higher strength-to-weight ratios than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo fibers come from their natural composite structures that comprise mainly cellulose nanofibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have utilized atomistic simulations to investigate the mechanical properties and mechanisms of interactions between these materials, in the presence of water molecules. Our results suggest that hemicellulose exhibits better mechanical properties and lignin shows greater tendency to adhere to cellulose nanofibrils. Consequently, the role of hemicellulose found to be enhancing the mechanical properties and lignin found to be providing the strength of bamboo fibers. The abundance of Hbonds in hemicellulose chains is responsible for improving the mechanical behavior of LCC. The strong van der Waals forces between lignin molecules and cellulose nanofibrils is responsible for higher adhesion energy between LCC/cellulose nanofibrils. We also found out that the amorphous regions of cellulose nanofibrils is the weakest interface in bamboo Microfibrils. In presence of water, the elastic modulus of lignin increases at low water content (less than 10 NSF CAREER Grant No. 1261284.

  13. Effect of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Janaína M; Cury, Nathalia M; Yunes, José A; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2018-01-16

    Anacardium occidentale leaves are used in folk medicine due its therapeutic properties attributed to phenolic compounds. Therefore, this study was undertaken on its hydroethanolic leaf extract (AoHE) to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Results indicated that AoHE interfered in the cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis by activation of casp3 at lower concentrations, thence, a promising candidate for the development of new cancer drugs.

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract. PMID:25050274

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in-vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Hibiscus leaf.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Kasra; Samavati, Vahid; Shahidi, Seyed-Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and the water-to-raw material ratio on extraction yield of crude polysaccharide from the leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRLP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize HRLP extraction yield by implementing the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of HRLP were: ultrasonic power, 93.59 W; extraction time, 25.71 min; extraction temperature, 93.18°C; and the water to raw material ratio, 24.3 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 9.66±0.18%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 9.526%. The results demonstrated that HRLP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Treesearch

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  18. Contribution of flavonoids to the overall radical scavenging activity of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Vlassios; Papoti, Vassiliki T; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2010-03-24

    The contribution of flavonoids to the overall radical scavenging activity of olive leaf polar extracts, known to be good sources of oleuropein related compounds, was examined. Off line and on line HPLC-DPPH(*) assays were employed, whereas flavonoid content was estimated colorimetrically. Individual flavonoid composition was first assessed by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array and fluorescence detectors and verified by LC-MS detection system. Olive leaf was found a robust source of flavonoids regardless sampling parameters (olive cultivar, leaf age or sampling date). Total flavonoids accounted for the 13-27% of the total radical scavenging activity assessed using the on line protocol. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside was one of the dominant scavengers (8-25%). Taking into consideration frequency of appearance the contribution of luteolin (3-13%) was considered important, too. Our findings support that olive leaf, except for oleuropein and related compounds, is also a stable source of bioactive flavonoids.

  19. Microbiological characterization and functionality of set-type yogurt fermented with potential prebiotic substrates Cudrania tricuspidata and Morus alba L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 plant leaf extracts on fermentation mechanisms and health-promoting activities and their potential as a nutraceutical prebiotics ingredient for application in dairy products. The individual active phenolic compounds in the plant extract-supplemented milk and yogurts were also identified. Compared with control fermentation, the plant extracts significantly increased the growth and acidification rate of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. In particular, plant extract components, including monosaccharides, formic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, together play a stimulatory role and cause this beneficial effect on the growth of yogurt culture bacteria through fermentation. In addition, supplementation with the plant extracts enhanced antioxidant activities with increased total phenolic contents, especially the highest antioxidant activity was observed in yogurt supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The content of secondary phenol metabolites in pruned leaves of Aloe arborescens, a comparison between two methods: leaf exudates and leaf water extract.

    PubMed

    Gutterman, Yitzchak; Chauser-Volfson, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Aloe arborescens plants, originating from the deserts of South Africa, are grown in the Introduction Garden at Sede Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel. In previous studies, we developed agro-technical methods to raise the content of secondary phenol metabolites (SPhMs) in the Aloe leaves. Plants that are subjected to repeated leaf pruning respond by increasing the content of their SPhMs. The SPhMs found in Aloe arborescens include barbaloin, aloenin and derivatives of aloeresin. Such compounds are used for many purposes, including human skin protection from sun and fire burns and high radiation, as products of the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industries, and as food supplements for treating stomach ulcers and diabetes. In the current study, the SPhMs were separated from pruned leaves of the same A. arborescens plants at the same time by two methods: (1) exudation by squeezing the tissues of the leaves, (2) immersion of the leaves' pruned cut bottom in water and collection of the extract. The exudates and extract were frozen, freeze-dried to a powder and the SPhMs were then separated by chromatography. The yield of powder from water extraction from pruned leaves was much lower than the yield from the exudates. However, higher percentages of the powder from the water extraction contained SPhMs (between 80 and 92.7%). The content of powder in leaf exudates from pruned leaves was much higher because the SPhMs were squeezed out from the cells and tissues. However, the percentages of SPhMs in this powder were much lower (between 39 and 62%).

  1. HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS as a powerful analytical tool for characterising phenolic compounds in olive-leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves may be considered a cheap, easily available natural source of phenolic compounds. In a previous study we evaluated the possibility of obtaining bioactive phenolic compounds from olive leaves by pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for their use as natural anti-oxidants. The alimentary use of these kinds of extract makes comprehensive knowledge of their composition essential. To undertake a comprehensive characterisation of two olive-leaf extracts obtained by PLE using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Olive leaves were extracted by PLE using ethanol and water as extraction solvents at 150°C and 200°C respectively. Separation was carried out in a HPLC system equipped with a C₁₈-column working in a gradient elution programme coupled to ESI-QTOF-MS operating in negative ion mode. This analytical platform was able to detect 48 compounds and tentatively identify 31 different phenolic compounds in these extracts, including secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, cinnamic-acid derivatives and benzoic acids. Lucidumoside C was also identified for the first time in olive leaves. The coupling of HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS led to the in-depth characterisation of the olive-leaf extracts on the basis of mass accuracy, true isotopic pattern and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra. We may conclude therefore that this analytical tool is very valuable in the study of phenolic compounds in plant matrices. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Sim, K Y; Wendy, W; Zulhisyam, A K

    2016-03-01

    This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp. In the present study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. pellucida leaf extract against A. hydrophila was determined through two-fold microbroth dilution method. The plant extract was screening for its active compound using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and the effectiveness of P. pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent was evaluated. The experimental fish were fed with medicated feed at three different concentrations (25 mg/kg, PP-25; 50 mg/kg, PP-50; and 100 mg/kg, PP-100) of P. pellucida leaf extract for 1 week before they were intraperitoneally exposed to A. hydrophila. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine the value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish that received medicated feed, and the percentage of total cumulative mortality of the experimental fish were observed at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the major bioactive compound is phytol (40%), and the MIC value was 31.5 mg/L. The value of antibody response to A. hydrophila in fish from a group of fish which received medicated feed (PP-25, 0.128±0.014 optical density [OD]; PP-50, 0.132±0.003 OD; and PP-100, 0.171±0.02 OD) was found significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to fish did not receive medicated feed (0.00 OD). Whereas, percentage cumulative mortality of fish from all groups of fish received medicated feed (PP-25, 18.0±3.2%; PP-50, 18.2±2.8%; and PP-100, 17.7±1.8%) were found significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to a group of fish did not receive medicated feed (83.2±1.4%). The findings of the present study indicated the huge potential of P. pellucida leaf extract as natural immunostimulator agent for aquaculture uses.

  3. Preparation of monoclonal antibody bank against whole water-soluble proteins from rapid-growing bamboo shoots.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Tai-Tse; Wu, Jiann-Shing; Chu, Rea-Min; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2006-11-01

    An antibody bank against the whole proteins in a proteome is a useful tool for biological research. Using the standard cell fusion method, and a modified screening protocol, we produced an mAb bank against the total water-soluble proteins extracted from the rapid-growing green bamboo shoots. An improved two-stage strategy was employed to enrich those poor immunogenic or lower expressed proteins. Totally, we obtained a bank of 192 mAb which were identified as distinctive to each other by 2-DE and immunostaining.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongxun; Lo, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    A preliminary antimicrobial disk assay of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extracts showed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the most significant antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria species, four yeasts, and four molds. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of artichoke leaf extracts. On the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the structures of the isolated compounds were determined as the four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid (1), cynarin (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), and the four flavonoids, luteolin-7-rutinoside (5), cynaroside (6), apigenin-7-rutinoside (7), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. The isolated compounds were examined for their antimicrobial activities on the above microorganisms, indicating that all eight phenolic compounds showed activity against most of the tested organisms. Among them, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, and cynaroside exhibited a relatively higher activity than other compounds; in addition, they were more effective against fungi than bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds were between 50 and 200 microg/mL.

  5. Chemopreventive efficacy of a betel leaf extract against benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhide, S V; Zariwala, M B; Amonkar, A J; Azuine, M A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of betel leaf extract and some of its constituents, eugenol, hydroxychavicol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, on benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in male Swiss mice was examined. Betel leaf and its constituents decreased the number of papillomas per animal with the maximum protection, considering molar dosage, exhibited by beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. Except for beta-carotene, eugenol, hydroxychavicol and alpha-tocopherol increased the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver while glutathione S-transferase activity was enhanced by all except eugenol. Of seven sources, Banarasi betel leaves showed the maximum amounts of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol.

  6. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays and their effects on cell lineages by in vivo assays. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TCA) was expressed as equivalent ascorbic acid (EEA/g) and it was observed that the extracts showed values ranging from 59.31 to 97.76 EAA/g. Furthermore, the DPPH assay values ranged from 62.8% to 88.3%. The cell viability assay showed that the extracts were able to reduce viability from cancer cells such as HeLa and A549 cells. The extracts MEL and HEL (250 µg/mL) were able to reduce the proliferation of HeLa cells up to 54.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The flow cytometer results showed that these extracts induce cell death via the apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, the extracts HEL and AEL were able to induce cell proliferation of normal fibroblast 3T3 cells. PMID:24159355

  7. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd.(Family:Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and microbial insecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae(Metsch.)against malaria fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was made to determine the biological activity of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Ethanolic A. alnifolia leaf extract tested against 1st through 4th instars and pupae o...

  8. Antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2017-04-01

    Fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs rich in phenolics antioxidants contribute toward reduced risk of age-related diseases and cancer. In this study, Psidium guajava leaf extract was fractionated in various organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanl and methanol and tested for their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Methanolic fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as tested by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe3 + reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu 2+ ) reducing ability) assays. The fraction was analyzed for antimutagenic activities against sodium azide (NaN 3 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in Ames Salmonella tester strains. The methanol extracted fraction at 80 μg/ml concentration inhibited above 70% mutagenicity. Further, phytochemical analysis of methanol fraction that was found to be most active revealed the presence of nine major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This data suggests that guava contains high amount of phenolics responsible for broad-spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro and could be potential candidates to be explored as modern phytomedicine.

  9. Effects of ionic surfactants on the morphology of silver nanoparticles using Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Bashir, Ommer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Kumar, Sunil; Ahmad, Rabia

    2012-10-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions with a Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Absorbance of Ag-nanoparticles increases with the concentrations of Paan leaf extract, acts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The polyphenolic groups of petiole extract are responsible to the rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions into metallic Ag(0). The results indicated that the shape of the spectra, number of peaks and its position strongly depend on the concentration of CTAB, which played a shape-controlling role during the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions, whereas SDS has no significant effect. The morphology (spherical, truncated triangular polyhedral plate and some irregular nanoparticles) and crystalline phase of the particles were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of trace triclosan in environmental water by microporous bamboo-activated charcoal solid-phase extraction combined with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yi, Chun-Liang; Zhao, Ru-Song; Wang, Xia; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Xi-Kui

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and efficient analytical method for triclosan (TCS) determination in water, which involves enrichment with bamboo-activated charcoal and detection with HPLC-ESI-MS, was developed. The influence of several operational parameters, including the eluant and its volume, the flow rate, the volume andacidity of the sample, and the amount of bamboo-activated charcoal, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed in the range of 0.02-20 μg/L, with correlation coefficients (r(2) ) >0.9990. The limit of detection was 0.002 μg/L based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to baseline noise (S/N = 3). The spiked recoveries of TCS in real water samples were achieved in the range of 97.6-112.5%. The proposed method was applied to analyze TCS in real aqueous samples. All the surface water samples collected in Xiaoqing River had detectable levels of TCS with concentrations of 42-197 ng/L. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Renewable platform chemicals from directional microwave-assisted liquefaction coupling stepwise extraction of waste biomass

    Treesearch

    Junfeng Feng; Chungyun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Directional microwave-assisted liquefaction and stepwise extraction are introduced for producing platform chemicals: aromatics and monosaccharides. When sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst, a 45% monosaccharides yield and a 29% aromatics yield were obtained from bamboo with 0.3 g catalyst per 18 g methanol and 2 g bamboo at 160 °C with 10 min. Approximately 78–86 wt%...

  13. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, Mokutima A.; Udoaffah, Matilda T.; Vulley, Moses B. G.; Ekanem, Theresa B.; Akpantah, Amabe O.; Asuquo, Olaitan A.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim: This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results: There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion: This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be

  14. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Udoaffah, Matilda T; Vulley, Moses B G; Ekanem, Theresa B; Akpantah, Amabe O; Asuquo, Olaitan A; Ekong, Moses B

    2010-12-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be cardiotoxic to the developing rat's heart.

  15. Analysis of the reaction products from micro-vial pyrolysis of the mixture glucose/proline and of a tobacco leaf extract:Search for Amadori intermediates.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Tienpont, Bart; Sandra, Koen; Ochiai, Nobuo; Tamura, Hirotoshi; Sandra, Pat

    2015-11-27

    Micro-vial pyrolysis (PyroVial) was used to study the production of compounds important for the aroma of heat-treated natural products such as tobacco. Firstly, a mixture of glucose and proline was pyrolyzed as model, as this sugar and amino acid are also abundant in tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tobacum L.). The pyrolysate was analyzed using headspace-GC–MS, liquid injection GC–MS and LC–MS. Next, micro-vial pyrolysis in combination with LC–MS was applied to tobacco leaf extract. Using MS deconvolution, molecular feature extraction and differential analysis it was possible to identify Amadori intermediates of the Maillard reaction in the tobacco leaf extract. The intermediate disappeared as was the case for 1-deoxy-1-prolino-β-d-fructose or the concentration decreased in the pyrolysate compared to the original extract such as for the 1-deoxy-1-[2-(3-pyridyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-β-d-fructose isomers indicating that Amadori intermediates are important precursors for aroma compound formation.

  16. An Efficient Plant Regeneration and Transformation System of Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) Started from Young Shoot as Explant

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shanwen; Cai, Changyang; Ren, Huibo; Wang, Wenjia; Xiang, Mengqi; Tang, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Caiping; Yin, Tengfei; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Genetic engineering technology has been successfully used in many plant species, but is limited in woody plants, especially in bamboos. Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is one of the most important bamboo species in Asia, and its genetic improvement was largely restricted by the lack of an efficient regeneration and transformation method. Here we reported a plantlet regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol by using Ma bamboo young shoots as explants. Under our optimized conditions, embryogenic calluses were successfully induced from the excised young shoots on callus induction medium and rapidly grew on callus multiplication medium. Shoots and roots were regenerated on shoot induction medium and root induction medium, respectively, with high efficiency. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol of Ma bamboo was established, verified by PCR and GUS staining. Furthermore, the maize Lc gene under the control of the ubiquitin promoter was successfully introduced into Ma bamboo genome and generated an anthocyanin over-accumulation phenotype. Our methods established here will facilitate the basic research as well as genetic breeding of this important bamboo species. Key achievements: A stable and high efficiency regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ma bamboo from vegetative organ is established. PMID:28798758

  17. Spermatoprotective activity of the leaf extract of Psidium guajava Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

    2007-12-01

    The leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) contain several natural antioxidants. We therefore designed the present study to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of guava leaves on gossypol-associated sperm toxicity in Wistar rats. Animal groups 1, 2, and 3 (n=6 each) were treated orally with crude cottonseed oil to provide 14 mg/kg/d of free gossypol for 53 d. Besides, groups 1 and 2 rats were supplemented orally with 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d respectively of guava leaf extract (GLE) for the same period. Group 4 animals (control, n=6) received normal saline. No significant difference (P>0.05) occurred in the sperm count of group 1 rats compared to control. In animal group 2, significant increase (P<0.05) in sperm count occurred, as opposed to group 3 animals, where this parameter decreased significantly (P<0.05). Besides, mean values of 78 %, 82 %, 30 %, and 65 % respectively were obtained for sperm motility in animal groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. Our findings suggest that ethanol extract of guava leaves possesses beneficial effect on gossypol-associated sperm toxicity, and may therefore enhance male fertility, possibly owing to its rich constituents of natural antioxidants.

  18. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  19. Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China's Qinling Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Winkler, Julie A.; Li, Yu; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is threatening global ecosystems through its impact on the survival of individual species and their ecological functions. Despite the important role of understorey plants in forest ecosystems, climate impact assessments on understorey plants and their role in supporting wildlife habitat are scarce in the literature. Here we assess climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species with an emphasis on their ecological function as a food resource for endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). An ensemble of bamboo distribution projections associated with multiple climate-change projections and bamboo dispersal scenarios indicates a substantial reduction in the distributional ranges of three dominant bamboo species in the Qinling Mountains, China during the twenty-first century. As these three species comprise almost the entire diet of the panda population in the region, the projected changes in