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Sample records for bambu dendrocalamus giganteus

  1. Indopithecus giganteus distinct from Sivapithecus indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.

  2. Miscanthus x giganteus xylooligosaccharides: Purification andfermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A procedure was developed to recover xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) hydrolyzates. MxG hydrolyzates were prepared using autohydrolysis, and XOS rich fractions were acquired using activated carbon adsorption and stepwise ethanol elution. The combined XOS fractions were pu...

  3. Purification and characterization of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from Miscanthus x giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our previous investigation showed that xylooligosaccharides (XOS) could be produced effectively from Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG). Using autohydrolysis, an XOS yield of to 13.5% (w/w) of initial biomass and xylan yield of 69.2% (w/w) was observed. In this study, we investigated the purification of X...

  4. Henipavirus infection in fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus), India.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan H; Prakash, Vibhu; Smith, Craig S; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2008-08-01

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

  5. Termite Resistance of Thermally-Modified Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne.

    PubMed

    Manalo, Ronniel D; Garcia, Carlos M

    2012-03-27

    The effects of thermal modification on the resistance of Dendrocalamus asper against Microcerotermes losbañosensis were investigated after exposure to virgin coconut oil at 140-200 °C for 30-120 min. The results showed that heat treatment significantly improved bamboo's resistance to termites based on mass losses and visual observations. The enhancement was highest at 200 °C. Prolonged treatment had a positive effect on the resistance at lower temperatures only.

  6. Development and feeding of fall armyworm, on Miscanthus x giganteus and switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Observations of fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] larvae infesting plots of Miscanthus x giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize prompted laboratory-based tests of survival, development and feeding preferences on leaf tissue from M. x giganteus and switchgrass (Panicum ...

  7. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury. PMID:22649470

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plants in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus.

    PubMed

    Rao, I U; Ramanuja Rao, I V; Narang, V

    1985-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis leading to plant regeneration has been achieved in the bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus, by culturing seeds (caryopses) on B5 basal medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus cultures obtained from the embryonal end of the seeds differentiated chlorophyllous embryoids. On transfer to a germination medium (B5 liquid, sucrose, indolebutyric acid, and ∝ -naphthaleneacetic acid) 40% of the embryoids developed into plantlets. Further development of the plantlets occured on B5 liquid medium (half strength) + sucrose (1%) + IBA (5 × 10(-7)M) + NAA (10(-7)M).

  9. Avian cholera in Southern Great Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leotta, G.A.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Vigo, G.B.; Moredo, F.A.; Coria, N.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  10. Masticatory muscles of the great-gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Tomo, Soichiro; Tomo, Ikuko; Townsend, Grant C; Hirata, Kazuaki

    2007-04-01

    The great-gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) belongs to the Diprotodontia suborder (herbivorous marsupials of Australia) of the order of marsupials. We dissected the masticatory muscles in the great-gray kangaroo and classified them based on their innervation. Three (two male and one female) adult great-gray kangaroos (M. giganteus), fixed with 10% formalin, were examined. The masseter muscle of the great-gray kangaroo was classified into four layers (superficial layers 1, 2, 3, and a deep layer), all innervated by masseteric nerves. Layer 1 of the masseter muscle was well developed and the deep layer inserted into the masseteric canal. The zygomaticomandibular muscle, which belongs to both the masseter and temporalis muscles, was innervated by both the masseteric nerve and posterior deep temporal nerve, and the temporalis muscle was innervated by the anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves. The medial pterygoid muscle, which was innervated by the medial pterygoid nerve, was divided into superficial and deep portions. The lateral pterygoid muscle was divided into superior and inferior heads by the buccal nerve. We propose that the relationship of the masticatory muscles in the kangaroo has evolved by passive anterior invasion of the deep layer of the masseter by the medial pterygoid muscle via the masseteric canal, associated with the development of an anteroposterior mode of mastication.

  11. The hydrometeorological sustainability of Miscanthus x giganteus as a biofuel crop in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gavin R.

    Miscanthus x giganteus (M. x giganteus ) is a dense, 3-5 m tall, productive perennial grass that has been suggested to replace corn as the principal source of biofuel for the US transportation industry. However, cultivating a regime of this water-intensive rhizomatous crop across the US Midwest may not be agronomically realistic if it is unable to survive years of low precipitation or extreme cold wintertime soil temperatures, both of which have previously killed experimental crops. The goal of this research was to use a third-generation land surface model (LSM) to provide a new assessment of the hypothetical biogeophysical sustainability of a regime of M. x giganteus across the US Midwest given that, for the first time, a robust and near-complete dataset over a large area of mature M. x giganteus was available for model validation. Modifications to the local hydrology and microclimate would necessarily occur in areas where M. x giganteus is adapted, but a switch to this biofuel crop can only occur where its intense growing season water usage (up to 600 mm) and wintertime soil temperature requirements (no less than -6° C) are feasibly sustainable without irrigation. The first step was to interpret the observed turbulent and ecosystem flux behavior over an extant area of mature M. x giganteus and replicate this behavior within the SiB3 third-generation LSM (Simple Biosphere Model, version 3). A new vegetation parameterization was developed in SiB3 using several previous empirical studies of M. x giganteus as a foundation. The simulation results were validated against a new, robust series of turbulent and ecosystem flux data taken over a four-hectare experimental crop of M. x giganteus in Champaign, IL, USA from 2011-2013. Wintertime mortality of M. x giganteus was subsequently assessed. It was proposed that areas with higher seasonal snowfall in the US Midwest may be favorable for M. x giganteus sustainability and expansion due to the significant insulating effect

  12. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Moose, Steve

    2010-03-25

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  13. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Moose, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  14. Agronomic Experiences with Miscanthus x giganteus in Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyter, Richard; Heaton, Emily; Dohleman, Frank; Voigt, Tom; Long, Stephen

    Since 2002, researchers at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, have been studying the perennial warm-season grass Miscanthus × giganteus (M. × g.) to determine its potential as a biomass feedstock. M. × g. originated in Japan and is a hybrid believed to have M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus as its parents. Until recently, it was used as a landscape plant in the United States, but it is now the subject of research interest because of its potentially great biomass production. In central Illinois, M. × g. begins growth in April, typically reaches 2 m by the end of May, and is normally greater than 3 m by the end of September. The grass is sterile and propagated asexually using plantlets produced in tissue culture or by rhizome divisions. Following field planting, it generally takes at least three growing seasons to become fully established and reach optimal biomass production. In central Illinois, the senesced stems are harvested from early December through early March and can potentially be treated to produce ligno-cellulosic ethanol. In University of Illinois, research started in 2002. M. × g. produced an annual average of 22.0 t/ha in northern Illinois, 34.7 t/ha in central Illinois, and 35.4 t/ha in southern Illinois per year in 2004, 2005, and 2006.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequence of Dendrocalamus latiflorus and Bambusa oldhamii chloroplast genomes

    PubMed Central

    WU, F.-H.; KAN, D.-P.; LEE, S.-B.; DANIELL, H.; LEE, Y.-W.; LIN, C.-C.; LIN, N.-S.; LIN, C.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although bamboo is one of the most important woody crops in Asia, information on its genome is still very limited. To investigate the relationship among Poaceae members and to understand the mechanism of albino mutant generation in vitro, the complete chloroplast genome of two economically important bamboo species, Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro and Bambusa oldhamii Munro, was determined employing a strategy that involved polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using 443 novel primers designed to amplify the chloroplast genome of these two species. The lengths of the B. oldhamii and D. latiflorus chloroplast genomes are 139,350 and 139,365 bp, respectively. The organization structure and the gene order of these two bamboos are identical to other members of Poaceae. Highly conserved chloroplast genomes of Poaceae facilitated sequencing by the PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis using both chloroplast genomes confirmed the results obtained from studies on chromosome number and reproductive organ morphology. There are 23 gaps, insertions/deletions > 100 bp, in the chloroplast genomes of 10 genera of Poaceae compared in this study. The phylogenetic distribution of these gaps corresponds to their taxonomic placement. The sequences of these two chloroplast genomes provide useful information for studying bamboo evolution, ecology and biotechnology. PMID:19324693

  16. Development and feeding of fall armyworm on Miscanthus x giganteus and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, J R; Bradshaw, J D; Meagher, R L; Nagoshi, R N; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E

    2009-12-01

    Observations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), larvae infesting plots of Miscanthus x giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize prompted laboratory-based tests of survival, development, and feeding preferences on leaf tissue from M. x giganteus and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. Survival from hatch to pupation was >70 and 50% for fall armyworms reared on switchgrass and M. x giganteus, respectively, although survival of the S. frugiperda rice strain was significantly greater than the corn strain on both crops. Developmental times from hatch to pupation or adult emergence showed effects of crop and S. frugiperda host strain, but analysis of an interaction revealed developmental times for the rice strain were similar on both crops, whereas corn strain larvae showed delayed development on M. x giganteus relative to switchgrass. Analysis of larval (10 d) and pupal masses showed a similar pattern, with effects of crop and an interaction (at 10 d), but only the mass of corn strain larvae feeding on M. x giganteus was reduced relative to the other crop and strain combinations. In choice tests, neonates of both corn and rice strains showed a strong preference for feeding on young tissues rather than mature leaves of M. x giganteus or switchgrass, but they also clearly favored corn, Zea mays L., leaves over either of the perennial grasses. Results indicate both plants are potential hosts for S. frugiperda, but additional information is needed to understand under which scenarios and to what degree fall armyworms may damage perennial grasses grown for biofuel production.

  17. Entomopathogenic effect of Aspergillus giganteus and Penicillium corylophilum on two triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Gisela Lara; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Galvão, Cleber

    2003-01-01

    Two strains, Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus giganteus, of the most frequent species found in a survey of triatomines, were used for bioassays in the second and fourth nymphs stage of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus. Two procedures, bite and pulverization, were used and compared. A. giganteus was most effective, causing mortality in at least 50% of the nymphs of the two species tested with exception of the nymphs of the fourth stage of P. megistus. Variation in entomopathogenic capacity of the fungal species were observed in the experiments. The two procedures used proved effective.

  18. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1±0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80±0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine. PMID:26565787

  19. Autohydrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus for the production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS): Kinetics, characterization and recovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The optima conditions of production and purification of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) were investigated. Using autohydrolysis, XOS were produced at 160, 180 and 200°C at 60, 20 and 5 min, respectively. XOS yield up to 13.5% (w/w) of initial biomass and 69.2% (w/w) of x...

  20. Under Cover: Secrets to Using Companion Crops in Establishment of M. x Giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus x giganteus is of interest for bioenergy because of its high biomass yields and low input requirements. The deep-rooted perennial grass has garnered attention for potential to build soil organic matter and sequester atmospheric carbon, particularly on marginal lands. There is a risk howev...

  1. Uridine from Pleurotus giganteus and Its Neurite Outgrowth Stimulatory Effects with Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to neuronal cell death and impairment of neurite outgrowth. An edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus was found to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro but the chemical constituents and the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The chemical constituents of P. giganteus (linoleic acid, oleic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, succinic acid, benzoic acid, and uridine) were tested for neurite outgrowth activity. Uridine (100 μM) was found to increase the percentage of neurite-bearing cells of differentiating neuroblastoma (N2a) cells by 43.1 ± 0.5%, which was 1.8-fold higher than NGF (50 ng/mL)-treated cells. Uridine which was present in P. giganteus (1.80 ± 0.03 g/100g mushroom extract) increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Further, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was also increased. MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR further induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43); all of which promoted neurite outgrowth of N2a cells. This study demonstrated that P. giganteus may enhance neurite outgrowth and one of the key bioactive molecules responsible for neurite outgrowth is uridine.

  2. Yield potential and nitrogen requirements of Miscanthus × giganteus on eroded soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus × giganteus yield and fertilizer N requirements have been well studied in Europe and parts of the United States, but few reports have investigated its production on eroded claypan soils economically marginal for grain crops. This study was conducted to evaluate yield potential and fertili...

  3. Potential biomass reductions to Miscanthus × giganteus by stem-boring caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injury from stem-boring caterpillars has been observed on the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize in both its native and introduced ranges. Because some species causing stem injury in the United States have not been identified, potential biomass reducti...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Three Endophyte Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolated from Miscanthus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, António S.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lally, Richard D.; Galbally, Paul T.; Ryan, David

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (L111, L228, and L321) isolated from Miscanthus giganteus. The draft genome analyses uncovered a group of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and for plant growth promotion. PMID:27738024

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis for Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) Using the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Huiqin; Xie, Lihua; Xie, Jinzhong; Zhuo, Renying

    2012-01-01

    Background Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family with remarkable sizes, woodiness and a striking life history. However, limited genetic research has focused on bamboo partially because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables generation of genomic resources in a short time and at a minimal cost, and therefore provides a turning point for bamboo research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive dataset for the Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro). Results The Ma bamboo transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 15,138,726 reads and assembled them into 103,354 scaffolds. A total of 68,229 unigenes were identified, among which 46,087 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,165 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 11,921 and 10,147 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 45,649 unigenes onto 292 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Moso bamboo, rice and millet. Unigenes that did not match any of those three sequence datasets are considered to be Ma bamboo unique. We predicted 105 unigenes encoding eight key enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis. In addition, 621 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusion Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. latiflorus Munro. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth and development were identified, and those predicted to be unique to Ma bamboo are expected to give a better insight on Ma bamboo gene diversity. Numerous SSRs characterized contributed to marker development. These data constitute a new valuable resource for genomic studies

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis for Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) using the Illumina platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Huiqin; Xie, Lihua; Xie, Jinzhong; Zhuo, Renying

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family with remarkable sizes, woodiness and a striking life history. However, limited genetic research has focused on bamboo partially because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables generation of genomic resources in a short time and at a minimal cost, and therefore provides a turning point for bamboo research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive dataset for the Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro). The Ma bamboo transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 15,138,726 reads and assembled them into 103,354 scaffolds. A total of 68,229 unigenes were identified, among which 46,087 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,165 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 11,921 and 10,147 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 45,649 unigenes onto 292 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Moso bamboo, rice and millet. Unigenes that did not match any of those three sequence datasets are considered to be Ma bamboo unique. We predicted 105 unigenes encoding eight key enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis. In addition, 621 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. latiflorus Munro. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth and development were identified, and those predicted to be unique to Ma bamboo are expected to give a better insight on Ma bamboo gene diversity. Numerous SSRs characterized contributed to marker development. These data constitute a new valuable resource for genomic studies on D. latiflorus Munro and

  7. Ultrastructure of Fibre and Parenchyma Cell Walls During Early Stages of Culm Development in Dendrocalamus asper

    PubMed Central

    GRITSCH, CRISTINA SANCHIS; MURPHY, RICHARD J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomy of bamboo culms and the multilayered structure of fibre cell walls are known to be the main determinant factors for its physical and mechanical properties. Studies on the bamboo cell wall have focussed mainly on fully elongated and mature fibres. The main aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of primary and secondary cell walls in culm tissues of Dendrocalamus asper at different stages of development. • Methods The development of fibre and parenchyma tissues was classified into four stages based on light microscopy observations made in tissues from juvenile plants. The stages were used as a basis for transmission electron microscopy study on the ultrastructure of the cell wall during the process of primary and early secondary cell wall formation. Macerations and phloroglucinol–HCl staining were employed to investigate fibre cell elongation and fibre cell wall lignification, respectively. • Key Results The observations indicated that the primary wall is formed by the deposition of two distinct layers during the elongation of the internode and that secondary wall synthesis may begin before the complete cessation of internode and fibre elongation. Elongation was followed by a maturation phase characterized by the deposition of multiple secondary wall layers, which varied in number according to the cell type, location in the culm tissue and stage of shoot development. Lignification of fibre cell walls started at the period prior to the cessation of internode elongation. • Conclusions The structure of the primary cell wall was comprised of two layers. The fibre secondary cell wall began to be laid down while the cells were still undergoing some elongation, suggesting that it may act to cause the slow-down and eventual cessation of cell elongation. PMID:15665037

  8. De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Floral Transcriptome of Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhu; Guo, Zhen-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcriptome sequencing can be used to determine gene sequences and transcript abundance in non-model species, and the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has greatly decreased the cost and time required for this process. Transcriptome data are especially desirable in bamboo species, as certain members constitute an economically and culturally important group of mostly semelparous plants with remarkable flowering features, yet little bamboo genomic research has been performed. Here we present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of a key bamboo species, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, obtained using the Illumina GAII sequencing platform. Our further goal was to identify patterns of gene expression during bamboo flower development. Results Approximately 96 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo, yielding 146,395 high quality unigenes with an average length of 461 bp. Of these, 80,418 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, of which 290 were associated with the floral transition and 47 were related to flower development. Digital abundance analysis identified 26,529 transcripts differentially enriched between two developmental stages, young flower buds and older developing flowers. Unigenes found at each stage were categorized according to their putative functional categories. These sequence and putative function data comprise a resource for future investigation of the floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. Conclusions Our results present the first broad survey of a bamboo floral transcriptome. Although it will be necessary to validate the functions carried out by these genes, these results represent a starting point for future functional research on D. latiflorus and related species. PMID:22916120

  9. Miscanthus x giganteus production: Meta-analysis, field study and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguez, Fernando E.

    This is a comprehensive study of the potential of M. x giganteus as a biomass crop for energy production. The study looks at the past, present and future of M. x giganteus for its potential for dry biomass production. In Chapter 1 the published M. x giganteus literature, including 31 European studies, was analyzed using non-linear mixed models. This quantitative review of the literature (i.e. meta-analysis) revealed patterns across and within growing seasons. This analysis not only revealed the effects of the growing season, planting density and nitrogen (N) fertilizer but also provided a measure of uncertainty about these effects. More importantly, it provided statistical models which are essentially testable hypotheses. These models were used in Chapter 2 to predict dry biomass considering effects of growing season, planting density and N fertilizer in Illinois. In Chapter 2 M. x giganteus and P. virgatum were investigated in a field study at two locations at Savoy and Perry, IL in 2006. This field study evaluated the performance of M. x giganteus and P. virgatum with respect to their response to N fertilizer and hairy vetch (a winter legume). Variables analyzed included light interception, greenness and dry biomass. In Chapter 3 a mechanistic model, WIMOVAC, was descried and parameterized for simulating M. x giganteus production. The model showed great potential at predicting photosynthesis, leaf area index and dry biomass partitioning in M. x giganteus European experiments. HE Chapter 4, the model described in Chapter 3 was re-implemented and improved, termed BIOCRO with the objective of rigorously estimating key parameters related to dry biomass partitioning. The Bayesian statistical framework for parameter estimation was achieved through the use of Markey chain Monte Carlo methods. The algorithm proposed can be used to estimate parameters in large complex models as the one proposed here. The future of this research points to novel ways in which current

  10. Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus.

    PubMed

    Ings, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A J; Robson, Paul R H; Bosch, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterized the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop.

  11. Antidepressant use and associated factors among the elderly: the Bambuí Project.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Adriano Roberto Tarifa; Castro-Costa, Érico; Diniz, Breno Satler; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the factors associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling elderly individuals. Data collected from the Bambuí Project, a population-based study on aging and health with a cohort of 1,606 elderly individuals, were used. Gender, age, education, marital status, household income and cohabitation status were the sociodemographic characteristics investigated. Health conditions included self-reported health, number of chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional disability. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to test associations and to estimate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of antidepressant use was 8.4%. After multivariate analysis, antidepressant use was associated with the female gender (PR = 2.96; 95%CI 1.82-4.81), being single or divorced (PR = 0.48; 95%CI 0.25-0.91), cognitive impairment (PR = 0.44; 95%CI 0.24-0.84) and worse self-reported health (poor/very poor) (PR=1.86; 95%CI 1.11-3.10). The results are similar to those observed in several other studies conducted in higher-income countries and suggest that self-reported health in the elderly population of Bambuí is a key factor in the decision to use antidepressants.

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the Christmas tree worm Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) reveals a high substitution rate among annelids.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Russo, Claudia Augusta de Moraes; Paiva, Paulo Cesar

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe, for the first time, the mitochondrial genome of Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) and compare it with all available annelid mitogenomes. The entire mitogenome has 22,058bp in length and bears 12 protein-coding genes (the ATP8 gene is missing), two rRNA, and 24 tRNA genes. The nucleotide composition and GC-skew are surprisingly different from those reported for other annelids. In addition, the pairwise genetic distances between the mitogenomes of S. giganteus and other annelids are higher than the distances for all annelid taxa analyzed. This result is consistent with a faster rate of mitochondrial sequence evolution in S. giganteus, which may explain the difficulty in obtaining PCR products with the available primers. The mitochondrial gene order of S. giganteus was remarkably different not only from that of the Sedentaria lineage, which includes S. giganteus, but also from the mitochondrial gene order of other major annelid lineages. The mitogenome of S. giganteus has no repetitive motifs despite its long control region (4769bp), but genes are shorter and have a lower AT content than other members of Annelida. Finally, we show that mitochondrial gene order rearrangements can directly correlate to variations in gene length.

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world’s largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  14. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  15. Plasma biochemistry and hematologic values for wild-caught flying foxes (Pteropus giganteus) in India.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Amanda B; Epstein, Jonathan H; Prakash, Vibhu; Smith, Craig S; Daszak, Peter; Field, Hume E; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2007-09-01

    Although bats of the genus Pteropus are important ecologically as pollinators and natural hosts for zoonotic pathogens, little is known about their basic physiology. Hematology and plasma biochemistries were determined from wild-caught flying foxes (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India (n=41). Mean lymphocyte differential count was higher for juveniles than adults. Mean platelet count was lower than previously reported. No hemoparasites were observed. No differences were observed between plasma biochemistry values of male and female bats, juveniles and adults, or lactating and nonlactating females. Variation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was seen based on body condition score. Blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol concentrations were lower in P. giganteus than other mammalian groups, but were consistent with those reported from other Pteropus species. Alanine aminotransferase and AST concentrations were higher than those reported for Pteropus vampyrus, a closely related species. This study provides basic physiologic information that can be used in future health and disease studies of Indian flying foxes.

  16. Lipid constituents of the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus demonstrate anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Lee, Guan-Serm; Macreadie, Ian G; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Pamela, David; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of Pleurotus giganteus fruiting bodies were tested for antifungal activities against Candida species responsible for human infections. The lipids extracted from the ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited the growth of all the Candida species tested. Analysis by GC/MS revealed lipid components such as fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, ergosterol, and ergosterol derivatives. The sample with high amounts of fatty acid methyl esters was the most effective antifungal agent. The samples were not cytotoxic to a mammalian cell line, mouse embryonic fibroblasts BALB/c 3T3 clone A31. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal activity of the lipid components of Pleurotus giganteus against Candida species.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Dodt, William G; McComish, Bennet J; Nilsson, Maria A; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David; Phillips, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome (accession number: LK995454) of an iconic Australian species, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The mitogenomic organization is consistent with other marsupials, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, an origin of light strand replication and a control region or D-loop. No repetitive sequences were detected in the control region. The M. giganteus mitogenome exemplifies a combination of tRNA gene order and structural peculiarities that appear to be unique to marsupials. We present a maximum likelihood phylogeny based on complete mitochondrial protein and RNA coding sequences that confirms the phylogenetic position of the grey kangaroo among macropodids.

  18. Functional morphology of the hindleg in two kangaroos Macropus giganteus and Aepyprymnus rufescens.

    PubMed

    Lodder, M A

    1991-01-01

    In this study the structures in the hindleg of the kangaroo which are potentially available for jumping were examined. Specimens of two species, Macropus giganteus and Aepyprymnus rufescens, were examined and are described and compared. The basic pattern of the jump of the two species is similar. This is reflected anatomically by the fact that in both species the extensors of the hip, knee and ankle as a percentage of the total weight of the hindleg are greater than the flexors of the same joints. An additional similarity is that the biceps femoris and adductor magnus have the greatest share in the weight of the hip extensors. Furthermore the estimated total force of the hip, knee and ankle extensors and total moment of the hip and ankle extensors are always greater than the flexors of the same joints. However, the percentage of the hip and knee extensors, the absolute forces and moments of both the extensors and flexors and the range of movement especially of the hip and knee are always greater in M. giganteus than in A. rufescens. As well as these differences, the long tibia and the position of the knee in view of the hip may be important factors for the longer jump achieved by M. giganteus. In comparison A. rufescens has a anatomical construction which seems to be a compromise between walking and jumping.

  19. Phytoremediation potential of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata link to Cu, Ni, and Zn phytoremediation. A 2-year microplot experiment with the tested grasses growing on metal-contaminated soil was carried out. Microplots with cement borders, measuring 1 × 1 × 1m, were filled with Haplic Luvisols soil. Simulated soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn was introduced in the following doses in mg kg(-1): 0-no metals, Cu1-100, Cu2-200, Cu3-400, Ni1-60, Ni2-100, Ni3-240, Zn1-300, Zn2-600, and Zn3-1200. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using a tolerance index (TI), bioaccumulation factor (BF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF). S. pectinata showed a higher tolerance to soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to M. × giganteus. S. pectinata was found to have a high suitability for phytostabilization of Zn and lower suitability of Cu and Ni. M. × giganteus had a lower phytostabilization potential than S. pectinata. The suitability of both grasses for Zn phytoextraction depended on the age of the plants. Both grasses were not suitable for Cu and Ni phytoextraction. The research showed that one-season studies were not valuable for fully assessing the phytoremediation potential of perennial plants.

  20. Coral preference behaviour by planktotrophic larvae of Spirobranchus giganteus corniculatus (Serpulidae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Joan R.

    1987-10-01

    Planktonic larvae of the serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus giganteus, an obligate associate of live coral, were tested for preferences for materials diffusing from natural substrates. Choices offered were Acropora prolifera, a very abundant coral on the Heron Island reef flat; Palauastraea ramosa, a less abundant coral, dead coral rubble and a glass tube as a control. Larval life is approximately 12 days. The larvae tested were 1 4 days old. Adults of S. giganteus occur commonly on A. prolifera and much less frequently on P. ramosa. Experiments were designed to prevent contact between larvae and substrate. Larvae preferred A. prolifera over P. ramosa, rubble and the control. There was no preference expressed between the control and P. ramosa or the control and rubble. A preference by young S. giganteus larvae for a substance diffusing from coral, acting together with a known positive phototaxis, may be adaptive in that it may help to maintain larvae in surface waters over the reef and in the vicinity of a specific coral until they are old enough to settle.

  1. Effect of fire on a monodominant floating mat of Cyperus giganteus Vahl in a neotropical wetland.

    PubMed

    Rocha, M; Santos Júnior, C C; Damasceno-Júnior, G A; Pott, V J; Pott, A

    2015-01-01

    The rhizomatous Cyperus giganteus, abundant in the Pantanal wetland, can dominate extense floodable areas as monodominant communities. The Jacadigo lake has a large area of C. giganteus, where we performed an evaluation on community structure during two months in 2010, before it was hit by a wildfire which top-killed the vegetation, compared to ten months post-fire. We utilized 40 plots of 1m × 1m, along permanent trails, assessing two strata: the upper, near the inflorescence of adult plants, and the lower, close to the water level. Our results show that fire does not affect dominance of C. giganteus, as it maintained the same cover as before fire; species richness is not much altered either - 28 before fire and 34 thereafter. Fire changed the floristic composition, due to the annual variation of species and the ability of some plants to colonize gaps and to regrow after fire from underground organs and seeds. The stratification of the vegetation with characteristic species of upper and lower strata was similar after fire.

  2. Plant and soil effects on bacterial communities associated with Miscanthus  ×  giganteus rhizosphere and rhizomes

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Dongfang; Voigt, Thomas B.; Kent, Angela D.

    2015-02-11

    Here, bacterial assemblages, especially diazotroph assemblages residing in the rhizomes and the rhizosphere soil of Miscanthus × giganteus, contribute to plant growth and nitrogen use efficiency. However, the composition of these microbial communities has not been adequately explored nor have the potential ecological drivers for these communities been sufficiently studied. This knowledge is needed for understanding and potentially improving M. × giganteus – microbe interactions, and further enhancing sustainability of M. × giganteus production. In this study, cultivated M. × giganteus from four sites in Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, and New Jersey were collected to examine the relative influences of soilmore » conditions and plant compartments on assembly of the M. × giganteus-associated microbiome. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer (ARISA) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the nifH gene were applied to examine the total bacterial communities and diazotroph assemblages that reside in the rhizomes and the rhizosphere. Distinct microbial assemblages were detected in the endophytic and rhizosphere compartments. Site soil conditions had strong correlation with both total bacterial and diazotroph assemblages, but in different ways. Nitrogen treatments showed no significant effect on the composition of diazotroph assemblages in most sites. Endophytic compartments of different M. × giganteus plants tended to harbor similar microbial communities across all sites, whereas the rhizosphere soil of different plant tended to harbor diverse microbial assemblages that were distinct among sites. These observations offer insight into better understanding of the associative interactions between M. × giganteus and diazotrophs, and how this relationship is influenced by agronomic and edaphic factors.« less

  3. Effects of Miscanthus × giganteus and Wheat Straw on Behavior, Survival, and Growth of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Haverkamp, Samantha; DeBruyn, Jake; Dam, Al; Hager, Heather A

    2016-04-22

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), damages poultry barns, vectors poultry diseases, inhibits poultry weight gain, and consumes poultry feed. Management of the pest is a challenge because of its resistance to several insecticides, difficulty in treating infestations that can be concealed in locations within barns, and the high populations that occur around spilled poultry feed. However, few A. diaperinus were observed in Miscanthus × giganteus straw in a case where it was used as an alternative bedding material in open-floor poultry production in Ontario. To investigate this, we tested the effects of Miscanthus × giganteus and wheat straw on A. diaperinus behavior, survival, and growth in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, adult beetles preferred to inhabit wheat straw, whereas late-instar larvae preferred Miscanthus × giganteus As a result, more adult beetles emerged from pupae in Miscanthus × giganteus than in wheat, but there was no difference in emerged beetle weight. Early-instar larvae survived and increased in weight at similar rates in both straw types. Thus, while adult A. diaperinus strongly preferred wheat straw given a choice, late-instar preference and pupae emergence suggest that Miscanthus × giganteus may not be useful for suppressing A. diaperinus populations.

  4. An increase in expression of Pyruvate Pi Dikinase and its high activation energy correspond to cold-tolerant C4 photosynthesis of Miscanthus x giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus x giganteus is exceptional among C4 plants in its ability to produce leaves and photosynthesize at low temperature. While the most cold-adapted Zea mays lines show loss of photosynthetic capacity when transferred to 14 oC, M. x giganteus shows no loss and can continue photosynthesis down ...

  5. An increase in expression of Pyruvate Pi Dikinase and its high activation energy correspond to cold-tolerant C4 photosynthesis of Miscanthus x giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus x giganteus is exceptional among C4 plants in its ability to produce leaves and photosynthesize at low temperature. While the most cold-adapted Zea mays lines show loss of photosynthetic capacity when transferred to 14 deg C, M. x giganteus shows no loss and can continue photosynthesis do...

  6. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Avian cholera in a southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Leotta, G A; Rivas, M; Chinen, I; Vigo, G B; Moredo, F A; Coria, N; Wolcott, M J

    2003-07-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  8. Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveals potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Micah B.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Gurley, Emily S.; Islam, Mohammad S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. Flying foxes Pteropus spp. play a key role in forest regeneration as seed dispersers and are also the reservoir of many viruses, including Nipah virus in Bangladesh. Little is known about their habitat requirements, particularly in South Asia. Identifying Pteropus habitat preferences could assist in understanding the risk of zoonotic disease transmission broadly, and in Bangladesh, could help explain the spatial distribution of human Nipah virus cases. 2. We analysed characteristics of Pteropus giganteus roosts and constructed an ecological niche model to identify suitable habitat in Bangladesh. We also assessed the distribution of suitable habitat in relation to the location of human Nipah virus cases. 3. Compared to non-roost trees, P. giganteus roost trees are taller with larger diameters, and are more frequently canopy trees. Colony size was larger in densely forested regions and smaller in flood-affected areas. Roosts were located in areas with lower annual precipitation and higher human population density than non-roost sites. 4. We predicted that 2–17% of Bangladesh's land area is suitable roosting habitat. Nipah virus outbreak villages were 2.6 times more likely to be located in areas predicted as highly suitable habitat for P. giganteus compared to non-outbreak villages. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat suitability modelling may help identify previously undocumented Nipah outbreak locations and improve our understanding of Nipah virus ecology by highlighting regions where there is suitable bat habitat but no reported human Nipah virus. Conservation and public health education is a key component of P. giganteus management in Bangladesh due to the general misunderstanding and fear of bats that are a reservoir of Nipah virus. Affiliation between Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and people is common throughout their range, and in order to conserve these keystone bat species and prevent emergence of zoonotic viruses, it is imperative that

  9. Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveals potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Micah B; Epstein, Jonathan H; Gurley, Emily S; Islam, Mohammad S; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    1. Flying foxes Pteropus spp. play a key role in forest regeneration as seed dispersers and are also the reservoir of many viruses, including Nipah virus in Bangladesh. Little is known about their habitat requirements, particularly in South Asia. Identifying Pteropus habitat preferences could assist in understanding the risk of zoonotic disease transmission broadly, and in Bangladesh, could help explain the spatial distribution of human Nipah virus cases. 2. We analysed characteristics of Pteropus giganteus roosts and constructed an ecological niche model to identify suitable habitat in Bangladesh. We also assessed the distribution of suitable habitat in relation to the location of human Nipah virus cases. 3. Compared to non-roost trees, P. giganteus roost trees are taller with larger diameters, and are more frequently canopy trees. Colony size was larger in densely forested regions and smaller in flood-affected areas. Roosts were located in areas with lower annual precipitation and higher human population density than non-roost sites. 4. We predicted that 2-17% of Bangladesh's land area is suitable roosting habitat. Nipah virus outbreak villages were 2.6 times more likely to be located in areas predicted as highly suitable habitat for P. giganteus compared to non-outbreak villages. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat suitability modelling may help identify previously undocumented Nipah outbreak locations and improve our understanding of Nipah virus ecology by highlighting regions where there is suitable bat habitat but no reported human Nipah virus. Conservation and public health education is a key component of P. giganteus management in Bangladesh due to the general misunderstanding and fear of bats that are a reservoir of Nipah virus. Affiliation between Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and people is common throughout their range, and in order to conserve these keystone bat species and prevent emergence of zoonotic viruses, it is imperative that we

  10. In vitro flowering--a system for tracking floral organ development in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Devinder; Thapa, Pooja; Sharma, Madhu; Bhattacharya, Amita; Sood, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii plants are slender and tall (15-25 m) thereby, rendering tagging, sampling and tracking the development of flowers difficult. Therefore, a reproducible system of in vitro flowering was established for tracking the stages of flower development. MS medium supplemented with 2.22 microM 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.23 microM indole-3-butyric acid and 2% sucrose was optimized as the flower induction medium (FIM) wherein 28 and 42 days were required for the development of gynoecium and androecium, respectively. Six distinct stages of in vitro flower development were identified, and the flowers were comparable with that of in planta sporadic flowers. Pollen viability of the in vitro flowers was higher than those of in planta ones. The in vitro system developed in the present study facilitates easy tracking of different stages of flower development under controlled environmental conditions. It can also be used for medium- or long-term storage of pollens and manipulation of in vitro fertilization.

  11. Morphology and Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns during Floral Induction and Early Flower Development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae) is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The 3 mm floral buds commence the development of stamen primordia and pistil primordium. Furthermore, homologs of floral transition-related genes, including AP1, TFL1, RFL, PpMADS1, PpMADS2, SPL9, FT, ID1, FCA, and EMF2, were detected and quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR in vegetative and floral buds, respectively. Distinct expression profiles of ten putative floral initiation homologues that corresponded to the developmental stages defined by bud length were obtained and genes were characterized. Six of the genes (including DlTFL1, DlRFL, DlMADS2, DlID1, DlFCA, DlEMF2) showed statistically significant changes in expression during floral transition. DlAP1 demonstrated a sustained downward trend and could serve as a good molecular marker during floral transition in D. latiflorus. The combined analysis provided key candidate markers to track the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. PMID:25003644

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity of landraces of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii using AFLP markers and association with biochemical traits.

    PubMed

    Waikhom, S D; Ghosh, S; Talukdar, N C; Mandi, S S

    2012-08-06

    Fermented bamboo shoots are popular traditional food items of various ethnic groups of the northeastern India, especially in Manipur State. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii is an economically important bamboo species used to produce fermented bamboo shoots. We studied genetic variability of this bamboo species in Chandel and Imphal-East (commercial production districts), using AFLP molecular markers. Each of the selected primers detected polymorphisms and 1614 (95.8%) were found to be polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficients using UPGMA differentiated the populations into two major groups. Principal coordinate analysis based on the AFLP data clearly separated the populations according to their genetic diversity and antioxidant activity. Four primers were tested through multiple regression analysis to identify marker-trait association between AFLP data and biochemical attributes, i.e., antioxidant activity and total cyanide content. The 273 bp generated by EcoRI-AAG(Joe)/MseI-CTC showed high positive correlation with antioxidant activity (r = 0.729, P < 0.01). The 396 bp generated by EcoRI-AAC(Ned)/MseI-CTG were negatively correlated with cyanide content (r = -0.694, P < 0.01). Thus, we found association of DNA markers with antioxidant activities and total cyanide content. These results could be of use for the identification of superior genotypes with desirable traits.

  13. Morphology and quantitative monitoring of gene expression patterns during floral induction and early flower development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhenhua

    2014-07-07

    The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae) is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The 3 mm floral buds commence the development of stamen primordia and pistil primordium. Furthermore, homologs of floral transition-related genes, including AP1, TFL1, RFL, PpMADS1, PpMADS2, SPL9, FT, ID1, FCA, and EMF2, were detected and quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR in vegetative and floral buds, respectively. Distinct expression profiles of ten putative floral initiation homologues that corresponded to the developmental stages defined by bud length were obtained and genes were characterized. Six of the genes (including DlTFL1, DlRFL, DlMADS2, DlID1, DlFCA, DlEMF2) showed statistically significant changes in expression during floral transition. DlAP1 demonstrated a sustained downward trend and could serve as a good molecular marker during floral transition in D. latiflorus. The combined analysis provided key candidate markers to track the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase.

  14. Development of monolithic eco-composites from carbonized blocks of solid iron bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) by impregnation with furfuryl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Krzesińska, M; Zachariasz, J; Lachowski, A I

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to manufacture the porous biomorphous composite using carbonized shapes cut from solid stem of solid iron bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus, as a monolithic support. Bamboo carbonized at 800 degrees C was next infiltrated with liquid filler--furfuryl alcohol. After the polymerization and cross-linking of the filler, the shapes were carbonized again to obtain carbon/carbon composite. TGA method was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of the resulting composite as well as of the raw and carbonized bamboo. The ultrasonic measurements, optical microscopy observations, the adsorption of N(2) at -196 degrees C and mercury porosimetry were applied to characterize the structure of the investigated materials. The obtained composite was found to be highly porous (over 80%), thermo-resistant in inert atmosphere (up to 940 degrees C). It possessed stiff hierarchically ordered pore structure with elastic moduli >4 GPa along the stem, and >1 GPa perpendicularly to the stem. Furthermore, the layer of carbon from the polymer coated the support accurately and did not affect the shape of the monolithic pieces of carbonized bamboo. The resulting composite possessed also more uniform, mesoporous structure than the support.

  15. An Efficient Plant Regeneration and Transformation System of Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) Started from Young Shoot as Explant

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shanwen; Cai, Changyang; Ren, Huibo; Wang, Wenjia; Xiang, Mengqi; Tang, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Caiping; Yin, Tengfei; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Genetic engineering technology has been successfully used in many plant species, but is limited in woody plants, especially in bamboos. Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is one of the most important bamboo species in Asia, and its genetic improvement was largely restricted by the lack of an efficient regeneration and transformation method. Here we reported a plantlet regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol by using Ma bamboo young shoots as explants. Under our optimized conditions, embryogenic calluses were successfully induced from the excised young shoots on callus induction medium and rapidly grew on callus multiplication medium. Shoots and roots were regenerated on shoot induction medium and root induction medium, respectively, with high efficiency. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol of Ma bamboo was established, verified by PCR and GUS staining. Furthermore, the maize Lc gene under the control of the ubiquitin promoter was successfully introduced into Ma bamboo genome and generated an anthocyanin over-accumulation phenotype. Our methods established here will facilitate the basic research as well as genetic breeding of this important bamboo species. Key achievements: A stable and high efficiency regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ma bamboo from vegetative organ is established. PMID:28798758

  16. An Efficient Plant Regeneration and Transformation System of Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) Started from Young Shoot as Explant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shanwen; Cai, Changyang; Ren, Huibo; Wang, Wenjia; Xiang, Mengqi; Tang, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Caiping; Yin, Tengfei; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Genetic engineering technology has been successfully used in many plant species, but is limited in woody plants, especially in bamboos. Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is one of the most important bamboo species in Asia, and its genetic improvement was largely restricted by the lack of an efficient regeneration and transformation method. Here we reported a plantlet regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol by using Ma bamboo young shoots as explants. Under our optimized conditions, embryogenic calluses were successfully induced from the excised young shoots on callus induction medium and rapidly grew on callus multiplication medium. Shoots and roots were regenerated on shoot induction medium and root induction medium, respectively, with high efficiency. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol of Ma bamboo was established, verified by PCR and GUS staining. Furthermore, the maize Lc gene under the control of the ubiquitin promoter was successfully introduced into Ma bamboo genome and generated an anthocyanin over-accumulation phenotype. Our methods established here will facilitate the basic research as well as genetic breeding of this important bamboo species. Key achievements: A stable and high efficiency regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Ma bamboo from vegetative organ is established.

  17. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria M A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2003-01-01

    The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m ) and underweight (BMI <= 20kg/m ) and related factors were investigated among all residents aged 60+ years in Bambu , Minas Gerais State, using multinomial logistic regression. 1,451 (85.5%) of the town's elderly participated. Mean BMI was 25.0 (SD = 4.9kg/m ) and was higher for women and decreased with age. Prevalence of obesity was 12.5% and was positively associated with female gender, family income, hypertension, and diabetes and inversely related to physical activity. Underweight affected 14.8% of participants, increased with age, and was higher among men and low-income families. It was negatively associated with hypertension and diabetes and directly associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and > or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  18. Cool C4 Photosynthesis: Pyruvate Pi Dikinase Expression and Activity Corresponds to the Exceptional Cold Tolerance of Carbon Assimilation in Miscanthus × giganteus12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dafu; Portis, Archie R.; Moose, Stephen P.; Long, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    The bioenergy feedstock grass Miscanthus × giganteus is exceptional among C4 species for its high productivity in cold climates. It can maintain photosynthetically active leaves at temperatures 6°C below the minimum for maize (Zea mays), which allows it a longer growing season in cool climates. Understanding the basis for this difference between these two closely related plants may be critical in adapting maize to colder weather. When M. × giganteus and maize grown at 25°C were transferred to 14°C, light-saturated CO2 assimilation and quantum yield of photosystem II declined by 30% and 40%, respectively, in the first 48 h in these two species. The decline continued in maize but arrested and then recovered partially in M. × giganteus. Within 24 h of the temperature transition, the pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) protein content per leaf area transiently declined in M. × giganteus but then steadily increased, such that after 7 d the enzyme content was significantly higher than in leaves growing in 25°C. By contrast it declined throughout the chilling period in maize leaves. Rubisco levels remained constant in M. × giganteus but declined in maize. Consistent with increased PPDK protein content, the extractable PPDK activity per unit leaf area (Vmax,ppdk) in cold-grown M. × giganteus leaves was higher than in warm-grown leaves, while Vmax,ppdk was lower in cold-grown than in warm-grown maize. The rate of light activation of PPDK was also slower in cold-grown maize than M. × giganteus. The energy of activation (Ea) of extracted PPDK was lower in cold-grown than warm-grown M. × giganteus but not in maize. The specific activities and Ea of purified recombinant PPDK from M. × giganteus and maize cloned into Escherichia coli were similar. The increase in PPDK protein in the M. × giganteus leaves corresponded to an increase in PPDK mRNA level. These results indicate that of the two enzymes known to limit C4 photosynthesis, increase of PPDK, not Rubisco

  19. Discovery and Comparative Profiling of microRNAs in Representative Monopodial Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and Sympodial Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lili; Sun, Huayu; Gao, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the growth pattern of bamboo, sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo are considered as two mainly kinds of bamboo. They have different phenotypes and different characteristics in developmental stage. Much attention had been paid on the study of bamboo cultivation, processing, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, which had made great progresses in the last decade, especially for the highlighted achievement of the bamboo genomics. However, there is no information available on concerning comparative profiling of miRNAs between sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, which might play important roles in the regulation of bamboo development. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the profiles of small RNAs using leaf tissues from one sympodial bamboo i.e. moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and another monopodial bamboo i.e. ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus). The result showed that there were 19,295,759 and 11,513,888 raw sequence reads, in which 92 and 69 conserved miRNAs, as well as 95 and 62 novel miRNAs were identified in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively. The ratio of high conserved miRNA families in ma bamboo is more than that in moso bamboo. In addition, a total of 49 and 106 potential targets were predicted in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively, in which several targets for novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. More importantly, annotation of differentially expressed target genes was performed based on the analysis of pathway and gene ontology terms enrichment. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first large-scale sight of discovery and comparative characterization of miRNAomes between two representative bamboos belonged to sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, respectively. Although it will be necessary to validate the function of miRNAs through more experimental research in further, these results lay a foundation for unraveling the mi

  20. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Leaf of Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenhua; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding small endogenous RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional levels by targeting mRNAs for degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many species. However, there is no information available concerning miRNAs in ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus), one of the most important non-timber forest products, which has essential ecological roles in forests. To identify miRNAs in D. latiflorus, a small RNA library was constructed from leaf tissues. Using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis, we obtained 11,513,607 raw sequence reads and identified 84 conserved miRNAs (54 mature miRNAs and 30 star miRNAs) belonging to 17 families, and 81 novel miRNAs (76 mature miRNAs and five star miRNAs) in D. latiflorus. One hundred and sixty-two potential targets were identified for the 81 novel bamboo miRNAs. Several targets for the novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. Among the novel miRNAs, 30 were selected and their expression profiles in response to different light conditions were validated by qRT-PCR. This study provides the first large-scale cloning and characterization of miRNAs in D. latiflorus. Eighty-four conserved and 81 novel miRNAs were identified in D. latiflorus. Our results present a broad survey of bamboo miRNAs based on experimental and bioinformatics analysis. Although it will be necessary to validate the functions of miRNAs by further experimental research, these results represent a starting point for future research on D. latiflorus and related species. PMID:24205306

  1. Discovery and comparative profiling of microRNAs in representative monopodial bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Wang, Lili; Dong, Lili; Sun, Huayu; Gao, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    According to the growth pattern of bamboo, sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo are considered as two mainly kinds of bamboo. They have different phenotypes and different characteristics in developmental stage. Much attention had been paid on the study of bamboo cultivation, processing, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, which had made great progresses in the last decade, especially for the highlighted achievement of the bamboo genomics. However, there is no information available on concerning comparative profiling of miRNAs between sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, which might play important roles in the regulation of bamboo development. We identified the profiles of small RNAs using leaf tissues from one sympodial bamboo i.e. moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and another monopodial bamboo i.e. ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus). The result showed that there were 19,295,759 and 11,513,888 raw sequence reads, in which 92 and 69 conserved miRNAs, as well as 95 and 62 novel miRNAs were identified in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively. The ratio of high conserved miRNA families in ma bamboo is more than that in moso bamboo. In addition, a total of 49 and 106 potential targets were predicted in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively, in which several targets for novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. More importantly, annotation of differentially expressed target genes was performed based on the analysis of pathway and gene ontology terms enrichment. This study provides the first large-scale sight of discovery and comparative characterization of miRNAomes between two representative bamboos belonged to sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, respectively. Although it will be necessary to validate the function of miRNAs through more experimental research in further, these results lay a foundation for unraveling the miRNA-mediated molecular processes in different kinds of bamboo.

  2. Prevalence of insomnia and associated socio-demographic factors in a Brazilian community: the Bambuí study.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Guerra, Henrique L; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2002-03-01

    Population-based studies of insomnia among adults residing in communities in developing countries are rare. The objectives of this population-based study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with insomnia among adults (18 years and over) living in a Brazilian town with 15,000 inhabitants (Bambuí MG) and to determine how the use of different definitions of insomnia affect its prevalence. A total of 87.3% of 1221 randomly selected individuals aged 18+ participated. Prevalences were estimated based on different definitions. To determine the associated characteristics, insomnia was defined as a complaint in the last month, occurring at least three times a week, causing distress. (1) Prevalence ranged from 12.0 to 76.3%; (2) prevalence of insomnia, as defined above, was 35.4%; (3) prevalence among women increased with age and was higher than that of men; (4) insomnia was independently associated with less education in both sexes, and among females it was associated with older age (60+ years). The prevalence of insomnia in Bambuí was high, similar to that of urban centers of developed countries; this investigation substantiated the importance of operational criteria in studies of insomnia.

  3. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from a normalized cDNA library of young leaf from Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro).

    PubMed

    Gao, Z M; Li, C L; Peng, Z H

    2011-11-01

    Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) belongs to Dendrocalamus genus, Bambusease tribe, Bambusoideae subfamily, Poaceae family. It is a representative species of clumping bamboo, and a principal commercial species for various construction purposes using mature culms and for human consumption using young shoots. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from young leaves of Ma bamboo and 9,574 high-quality ESTs were generated, from which 5,317 unigenes including 1,502 contigs and 3,815 singletons were assembled. The unigenes were assigned into different gene ontology (GO) categories and summarized into 13 broad biologically functional groups according to similar functional characteristics or cellular roles by BLAST search against public databases. Eight hundred and ninety-one unigenes were assigned by KO identifiers and mapped to six KEGG biochemical pathways. The transcripts involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as cytochrome 450, flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase, and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase were well represented by 14 unigenes in the unigene set. The candidate genes involved in phytohormone metabolism, signal transduction and encoding cell wall-associated receptor kinases were also identified. Sixty-seven unigenes related to plant resistance (R) genes, including RPP genes, RGAs and RDL/RF genes, were discovered. These results will provide genome-wide knowledge about the molecular physiology of Ma bamboo young leaves and tools for advanced studies of molecular mechanism underlying leaf growth and development.

  4. Sub-zero cold tolerance of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) and Miscanthus × giganteus: candidate bioenergy crops for cool temperate climates

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Murilo de Melo; Lee, D. K.; Sage, Rowan F.

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus grown in cool temperate regions of North America and Europe can exhibit severe mortality in the year after planting, and poor frost tolerance of leaves. Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a productive C4 perennial grass native to North America, has been suggested as an alternative biofuel feedstock for colder regions; however, its cold tolerance relative to M. × giganteus is uncertain. Here, we compare the cold tolerance thresholds for winter-dormant rhizomes and spring/summer leaves of M. × giganteus and three accessions of S. pectinata. All genotypes were planted at a field site in Ontario, Canada. In November and February, the temperatures corresponding to 50% rhizome mortality (LT50) were near −24°C for S. pectinata and −4°C for M. × giganteus. In late April, the LT50 of rhizomes rose to −10°C for S. pectinata but remained near −4°C for M. × giganteus. Twenty percent of the M. × giganteus rhizomes collected in late April were dead while S. pectinata rhizomes showed no signs of winter injury. Photosynthesis and electrolyte leakage measurements in spring and summer demonstrate that S. pectinata leaves have greater frost tolerance in the field. For example, S. pectinata leaves remained viable above −9°C while the mortality threshold was near −5°C for M. × giganteus. These results indicate M. × giganteus will be unsuitable for production in continental interiors of cool-temperate climate zones unless freezing and frost tolerance are improved. By contrast, S. pectinata has the freezing and frost tolerance required for a higher-latitude bioenergy crop. PMID:25873680

  5. New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

  6. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased metal concentrations in giant sungazer lizards (Smaug giganteus) from mining areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Trevor; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-11-01

    Environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activity such as mining can have profound health effects on the animals living in adjacent areas. We investigated whether inorganic contaminants associated with gold-mining waste discharges were accumulated by a threatened species of lizard, Smaug giganteus, in South Africa. Lizards were sampled from two mining sites and two control sites. Blood samples from the most contaminated mining site had significantly greater concentrations of lithium, sodium, aluminum, sulfur, silicon, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, tungsten, and bismuth than the remaining sites. Contaminant concentrations were not significantly related to lizard body condition, although these relationships were consistently negative. The adult sex ratio of the population inhabiting the most contaminated site also deviated from an expected 1:1 ratio in favour of female lizards. We demonstrate that lizards at these mining sites contained high concentrations of heavy metals that may be imposing as yet poorly understood costs to these lizards.

  8. Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R S; Vaz, P; Ficorilli, N P; Whiteley, P L; Wilks, C R; Devlin, J M

    2011-01-01

    A gammaherpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in ocular, nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples collected from an adult free-ranging male eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with clinical signs of severe respiratory disease. This is the first time a gammaherpesvirus has been detected in a free-ranging macropod in Australia. The nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene of the detected virus showed a high degree of identity to a gammaherpesvirus recently detected in a zoological collection of eastern grey kangaroos in North America. The detection of this gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging, native eastern grey kangaroo provides evidence that this species is a natural host. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Purification and characterization of the exopolygalacturonase produced by Aspergillus giganteus in submerged cultures.

    PubMed

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2010-06-01

    Polygalacturonases are pectinolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the plant cell-wall pectin backbone. They are widely used in the food industry for juice extraction and clarification. Aspergillus giganteus produces one polygalacturonase (PG) on liquid Vogel medium with citrus pectin as the only carbon source. In specific applications, such as those used in the food and medicine industries, the PG must be free of substances that could affect the characteristics of the product and the process, such as color, flavor, toxicity, and inhibitors. We present here an efficient, simple, and inexpensive method for purifying the A. giganteus PG and describe the characteristics of the purified enzyme. Purified PG was obtained after two simple steps: (1) protein precipitation with 70% ammonium sulfate saturation and (2) anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column. The final enzyme solution retained 86.4% of its initial PG activity. The purified PG had a molecular weight of 69.7 kDa, exhibited maximal activity at pH 6.0 and 55-60 degrees C, and was stable in neutral and alkaline media. It had a half-life of 115, 18, and 6 min at 40, 50 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Purified PG showed its highest hydrolytic activity with low-esterified and nonesterified substrates, releasing monogalacturonic acid from substrate, indicating that it is an exopolygalacturonase. PG activity was enhanced in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), NH(4) (+), and Na(+) and was resistant to inhibition by Pb(2+).

  10. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite

  11. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Wong, Wei-Lun; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-07-19

    Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom's aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be

  12. Failure of androgenesis in Miscanthus × giganteus in vitro culture of cytologically unbalanced microspores.

    PubMed

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Słomka, Aneta; Dubert, Franciszek; Kuta, Elżbieta; Płażek, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus is a popular energy crop, which due to its hybrid origin is only vegetatively reproduced. Asexual embryogenesis in anther and microspore culture leading to double haploids production could allow to regain the ability for sexual reproduction and to increase the biodiversity of the species. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the requirements of androgenesis in Miscanthus. The standard protocols used for monocotyledonous plants were applied with many modifications regarding the developmental stage of the explants at the time of culture initiation, stress treatment applied to panicles and isolated anthers as well as various chemical and physical parameters of in vitro culture conditions. Our results indicated that the induction of androgenesis in M. × giganteus is possible. However, the very low efficiency of the process and the lack of regeneration ability of the androgenic structures presently prevent the use of this technique.

  13. The role of landscape composition and configuration on Pteropus giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Micah B; Gurley, Emily S; Epstein, Jonathan H; Islam, Mohammad S; Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-02-01

    Nipah virus has caused recurring outbreaks in central and northwest Bangladesh (the "Nipah Belt"). Little is known about roosting behavior of the fruit bat reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, or factors driving spillover. We compared human population density and ecological characteristics of case villages and control villages (no reported outbreaks) to understand their role in P. giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk. Nipah Belt villages have a higher human population density (P < 0.0001), and forests that are more fragmented than elsewhere in Bangladesh (0.50 versus 0.32 patches/km(2), P < 0.0001). The number of roosts in a village correlates with forest fragmentation (r = 0.22, P = 0.03). Villages with a roost containing Polyalthia longifolia or Bombax ceiba trees were more likely case villages (odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-90.6). This study suggests that, in addition to human population density, composition and structure of the landscape shared by P. giganteus and humans may influence the geographic distribution of Nipah virus spillovers.

  14. The Role of Landscape Composition and Configuration on Pteropus giganteus Roosting Ecology and Nipah Virus Spillover Risk in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Micah B.; Gurley, Emily S.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Islam, Mohammad S.; Patz, Jonathan A.; Daszak, Peter; Luby, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus has caused recurring outbreaks in central and northwest Bangladesh (the “Nipah Belt”). Little is known about roosting behavior of the fruit bat reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, or factors driving spillover. We compared human population density and ecological characteristics of case villages and control villages (no reported outbreaks) to understand their role in P. giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk. Nipah Belt villages have a higher human population density (P < 0.0001), and forests that are more fragmented than elsewhere in Bangladesh (0.50 versus 0.32 patches/km2, P < 0.0001). The number of roosts in a village correlates with forest fragmentation (r = 0.22, P = 0.03). Villages with a roost containing Polyalthia longifolia or Bombax ceiba trees were more likely case villages (odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–90.6). This study suggests that, in addition to human population density, composition and structure of the landscape shared by P. giganteus and humans may influence the geographic distribution of Nipah virus spillovers. PMID:24323516

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Bassolé, I H N; Lamien-Meda, A; Bayala, B; Obame, L C; Ilboudo, A J; Franz, C; Novak, J; Nebié, R C; Dicko, M H

    2011-09-15

    As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  16. Seed Set and Natural Regeneration of Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro after Mass and Sporadic Flowering in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Chen, Ling-Na; Wong, Khoon-Meng; Cui, Yong-Zhong; Yang, Han-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The flowering periods of woody bamboos, seed set, natural regeneration and death after flowering have been rarely observed and evaluated in the field. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, a tropical woody bamboo mainly distributed in the Yunnan, displayed both sporadic as well as gregarious (mass) flowering and fruited from 2006 to 2013 following severe droughts. The aim of this study is to examine potential differences in seed set and natural regeneration between the two flowering patterns in natural D. membranaceus forests. We investigated and analyzed seed set, seed germination, seedling growth and mortality in both mass and sporadic flowering populations. Observations were made over a period of three years to record changes in bamboo seedling density, height and culm diameter. We observed a low natural seed set ranging from 1.76% to 7.49%, and a relatively high seed germination rate in the nursery from 59.6% to 71.0% for both types of flowering populations. Seeds germinated in 5-7 days after sowing and the germination period lasted 10-15 days. Seed set and germination rates in mass-flowering populations were significantly higher than those of sporadically flowering stands. The seedlings within sporadically flowering populations died within two years. In comparison, seedling mortality in the mass flowering population increased over two periods of observation from 64.92% to 98.89%, yet there was good seedling establishment left over, which showed mean height and mean culm diameter increasing by 1053.25% and 410.71%, respectively, in the second year of observations, and 137.10%, and 217.48%, respectively, in the third year. There are significant differences in seed set, natural regeneration ability and sustainability of bamboo populations between the mass flowering and sporadically flowering populations of D. membranaceus. Sporadic flowering populations failed to produce effective regeneration, while mass flowering populations were able to regenerate successfully

  17. Seed Set and Natural Regeneration of Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro after Mass and Sporadic Flowering in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Khoon-Meng; Cui, Yong-Zhong; Yang, Han-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The flowering periods of woody bamboos, seed set, natural regeneration and death after flowering have been rarely observed and evaluated in the field. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, a tropical woody bamboo mainly distributed in the Yunnan, displayed both sporadic as well as gregarious (mass) flowering and fruited from 2006 to 2013 following severe droughts. The aim of this study is to examine potential differences in seed set and natural regeneration between the two flowering patterns in natural D. membranaceus forests. We investigated and analyzed seed set, seed germination, seedling growth and mortality in both mass and sporadic flowering populations. Observations were made over a period of three years to record changes in bamboo seedling density, height and culm diameter. We observed a low natural seed set ranging from 1.76% to 7.49%, and a relatively high seed germination rate in the nursery from 59.6% to 71.0% for both types of flowering populations. Seeds germinated in 5–7 days after sowing and the germination period lasted 10–15 days. Seed set and germination rates in mass-flowering populations were significantly higher than those of sporadically flowering stands. The seedlings within sporadically flowering populations died within two years. In comparison, seedling mortality in the mass flowering population increased over two periods of observation from 64.92% to 98.89%, yet there was good seedling establishment left over, which showed mean height and mean culm diameter increasing by 1053.25% and 410.71%, respectively, in the second year of observations, and 137.10%, and 217.48%, respectively, in the third year. There are significant differences in seed set, natural regeneration ability and sustainability of bamboo populations between the mass flowering and sporadically flowering populations of D. membranaceus. Sporadic flowering populations failed to produce effective regeneration, while mass flowering populations were able to regenerate successfully

  18. Plant and soil effects on bacterial communities associated with Miscanthus  ×  giganteus rhizosphere and rhizomes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongfang; Voigt, Thomas B.; Kent, Angela D.

    2015-02-11

    Here, bacterial assemblages, especially diazotroph assemblages residing in the rhizomes and the rhizosphere soil of Miscanthus × giganteus, contribute to plant growth and nitrogen use efficiency. However, the composition of these microbial communities has not been adequately explored nor have the potential ecological drivers for these communities been sufficiently studied. This knowledge is needed for understanding and potentially improving M. × giganteus – microbe interactions, and further enhancing sustainability of M. × giganteus production. In this study, cultivated M. × giganteus from four sites in Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, and New Jersey were collected to examine the relative influences of soil conditions and plant compartments on assembly of the M. × giganteus-associated microbiome. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer (ARISA) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the nifH gene were applied to examine the total bacterial communities and diazotroph assemblages that reside in the rhizomes and the rhizosphere. Distinct microbial assemblages were detected in the endophytic and rhizosphere compartments. Site soil conditions had strong correlation with both total bacterial and diazotroph assemblages, but in different ways. Nitrogen treatments showed no significant effect on the composition of diazotroph assemblages in most sites. Endophytic compartments of different M. × giganteus plants tended to harbor similar microbial communities across all sites, whereas the rhizosphere soil of different plant tended to harbor diverse microbial assemblages that were distinct among sites. These observations offer insight into better understanding of the associative interactions between M. × giganteus and diazotrophs, and how this relationship is influenced by agronomic and edaphic factors.

  19. The Carrancas Formation, Bambuí Group: A record of pre-Marinoan sedimentation on the southern São Francisco craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlein, Gabriel J.; Uhlein, Alexandre; Halverson, Galen P.; Stevenson, Ross; Caxito, Fabrício A.; Cox, Grant M.; Carvalho, Jorge F. M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The Carrancas Formation outcrops in east-central Brazil on the southern margin of the São Francisco craton where it comprises the base of the late Neoproterozoic Bambuí Group. It is overlain by the basal Ediacaran cap carbonate Sete Lagoas Formation and was for a long time considered to be glacially influenced and correlative with the glaciogenic Jequitaí Formation. New stratigraphic, isotopic and geochronologic data imply that the Carrancas Formation was instead formed by the shedding of debris from basement highs uplifted during an episode of minor continental rifting. Reddish dolostones in the upper Carrancas Formation have δ13C values ranging from +7.1 to +9.6‰, which is a unique C isotopic composition for the lowermost Bambuí Group but similar to values found in the Tijucuçu sequence, a pre-glacial unit in the Araçuaí fold belt on the eastern margin of the São Francisco craton. The stratigraphic position below basal Ediacaran cap carbonates and the highly positive δ13C values together indicate a Cryogenian interglacial age for the Carrancas Formation, with the high δ13C values representing the so-called Keele peak, which precedes the pre-Marinoan Trezona negative δ13C excursion in other well characterized Cryogenian sequences. Hence, The Carrancas Formation pre-dates de Marinoan Jequitaí Formation and represents an interval of Cryogenian stratigraphy not previously known to occur on the southern margin of São Francicso craton. Documentation of Cryogenian interglacial strata on the São Francisco craton reinforces recent revisions to the age of Bambuí Group strata and has implications for the development of the Bambuí basin.

  20. In Vitro Fermentation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced from Miscanthus × giganteus by Human Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsu; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C; Dien, Bruce S; Beloshapka, Alison N; Bauer, Laura L; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-13

    Purified xylooligosaccharides from Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G XOS) were used in an in vitro fermentation experiment inoculated with human fecal microbiota. A commercial XOS product and pectin were used as controls. Decreases in pH by 2.3, 2.4, and 2.0 units and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetic acid, 7764.2, 6664.1, and 6387.9 μmol/g; propionic acid, 1006.7, 1089.5, and 661.5 μmol/g; and butyric acid, 955.5, 1252.9, and 917.7 μmol/g) were observed in M×G XOS, commercial XOS, and pectin medium after 12 h of fermentation, respectively. Titers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Escherichia coli increased when fed all three substrates as monitored by qPCR. There was no significant trend for Clostridium perfringens. During fermentation, M×G XOS was statistically equivalent in performance to the commercial XOS sample as measured by culture acidification and growth of health-promoting bacteria and resulted in the highest SCFA production among the three substrates.

  1. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma K.; Martin, Jennifer K.; Coulson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism. PMID:26784582

  2. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.

  3. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  4. Cutaneous and diphtheritic avian poxvirus infection in a nestling Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Green, David Earl; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Thiel, T.; Geisz, H.N.; Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is declining over much of its range and currently is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Island-specific breeding colonies near Palmer Station, Antarctica, have been monitored for over 30 years, and because this population continues to increase, it is critically important to conservation. In austral summer 2004, six diseased giant petrel chicks were observed in four of these colonies. Diseased chicks were 6a??9 weeks old and had multiple proliferative nodules on their bills and skin. One severely affected chick was found dead on the nest and was salvaged for necropsy. Histopathological examination of nodules from the dead chick revealed epithelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (B??llinger bodies). A poxvirus was isolated from multiple nodules. Poxviral infection has not been reported in this species, and the reason for its emergence and its potential impact on the population are not yet known.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher J; Burns, Caitlin A; van der Gast, Christopher J; McNamara, Niall P; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses.

  6. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Burns, Caitlin A.; van der Gast, Christopher J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Bending, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  8. Ultralong Cycle Life Achieved by a Natural Plant: Miscanthus × giganteus for Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Bi, Xuanxuan; Tao, Ran; Wang, Qingzhen; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong

    2017-02-08

    Large energy-storage systems and electric vehicles require energy devices with high power and high energy density. Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries could achieve high energy density, but they are still facing problems such as low practical capacity and poor cyclability. Here, we prepare activated carbons (MGACs) based on the natural plant Miscanthus × giganteus (MG) through slow pyrolysis. It possesses a large surface area, plenty of active sites, and high porosity, which are beneficial to the utilization of oxygen electrode in Li-O2 batteries. The MGACs-based oxygen electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 9400 mAh/g at 0.02 mA/cm(2), and long cycle life of 601 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 500 mAh/g) and 295 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh/g) at 0.2 mA/cm(2), respectively. Additionally, the material exhibits high rate capability and high reversibility, which is a promising candidate for the application in Li-O2 batteries.

  9. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a glucan from Meripilus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Maity, Prasenjit; Nandi, Ashis K; Manna, Dilip K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Sen, Ipsita K; Bhanja, Sunil K; Samanta, Surajit; Panda, Bibhash C; Paloi, Soumitra; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2017-02-10

    A new water soluble glucan (MGPS), with a molecular weight ∼1.48×10(5)Da, was isolated from the fruit bodies of Meripilus giganteus by hot water extraction followed by purification through dialysis tubing cellulose membrane and sepharose 6B column chromatography. Its structural characteristics were investigated by acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR experiments. The monosaccharide composition analysis showed that MGPS contain only glucose. The backbone of MGPS was composed of two (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl, two (1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl, two (1→6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl, and one (1→4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, out of which one (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-6 position with terminal α-d-glucopyranosyl residue and one (1→4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl residue branched at O-6 position with terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl residue. In vitro antioxidant studies showed that the MGPS exhibited hydroxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=390μg/mL), superoxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=70μg/mL), and ferrous ion chelating activity (IC50=290μg/mL).

  10. The Antifungal Protein AFP from Aspergillus giganteus Inhibits Chitin Synthesis in Sensitive Fungi▿

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Silke; Marx, Florentine; Ram, Arthur F.; Meyer, Vera

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal protein AFP from Aspergillus giganteus is highly effective in restricting the growth of major human- and plant-pathogenic filamentous fungi. However, a fundamental prerequisite for the use of AFP as an antifungal drug is a complete understanding of its mode of action. In this study, we performed several analyses focusing on the assumption that the chitin biosynthesis of sensitive fungi is targeted by AFP. Here we show that the N-terminal domain of AFP (amino acids 1 to 33) is sufficient for efficient binding of AFP to chitin but is not adequate for inhibition of the growth of sensitive fungi. AFP susceptibility tests and SYTOX Green uptake experiments with class III and class V chitin synthase mutants of Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus oryzae showed that deletions made the fungi less sensitive to AFP and its membrane permeabilization effect. In situ chitin synthase activity assays revealed that chitin synthesis is specifically inhibited by AFP in sensitive fungi, indicating that AFP causes cell wall stress and disturbs cell integrity. Further evidence that there was AFP-induced cell wall stress was obtained by using an Aspergillus niger reporter strain in which the cell wall integrity pathway was strongly induced by AFP. PMID:17277210

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus in a spouted bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Du, Shoucheng; Sun, Yijia; Gamliel, David P; Valla, Julia A; Bollas, George M

    2014-10-01

    A conical spouted bed reactor was designed and tested for fast catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus over Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) catalyst, in the temperature range of 400-600 °C and catalyst to biomass ratios 1:1-5:1. The effect of operating conditions on the lumped product distribution, bio-oil selectivity and gas composition was investigated. In particular, it was shown that higher temperature favors the production of gas and bio-oil aromatics and results in lower solid and liquid yields. Higher catalyst to biomass ratios increased the gas yield, at the expense of liquid and solid products, while enhancing aromatic selectivity. The separate catalytic effects of ZSM-5 catalyst and its Al2O3 support were studied. The support contributes to increased coke/char formation, due to the uncontrolled spatial distribution and activity of its alumina sites. The presence of ZSM-5 zeolite in the catalyst enhanced the production of aromatics due to its proper pore size distribution and activity.

  12. [Raman Spectra Study on Topochemistry in Miscanthus × giganteus Cell Walls During Dilute Acid Pretreatment].

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Zhou, Xia; Yao, Chun-li; Xu, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) represents a powerful technique that can provide insights into topochemistry in lignocellulosic biomass cell wall. In this work, CRM was used to explore the impact of dilute acid (DA) pretreatment on the topochemistry of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) in the-fiber cell walls of Miscanthus × giganteus internode. Raman spectra extracted from different morphological regions of untreated fiber cell walls indicated the heterogeneous concentration of lignin and HCA. There is a companied trend between them, that is, regions where there is the higher lignin concentration have the higher concentration of HCA. When treated with DA, it was found that the intensity of 1600 cm(-1) (lignin) and 1170 cm(-1) (HCA) were decreased, which could be contributed to the partially removal of lignin and HCA. The removal rate in different morphological areas followed the decreasing order: secondary cell wall (SW) > compound middle lamella (CML) > cell corner middle lamella (CCML). The increase of the Raman band intensity ratio (1170/1600) indicated the preferential removal of lignin in the SW and CML as a result of DA pretreatment, while the constant of the ratio meant there is no preference between lignin and HCA in the CCML. The research will provide the deep understanding of the topochemistry of lignin and HCA at sub-cellular level during DA pretreatment, meanwhile, it also expands the application of Raman spectra in the research area of plant cell wall.

  13. Bone fluoride concentrations of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near an aluminium smelter in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Gould, J

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of skeletal and dental fluorosis have been described recently in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). The present study further examined the epidemiology of skeletal fluorosis in this species. Bone fluoride concentrations were obtained from a range of skeletal sites of animals from a high (Portland Aluminium) and a low (Cape Bridgewater) fluoride environment in Victoria, Australia. Age, but not sex, affected the mean bone fluoride concentration of kangaroos. For a given age, bone fluoride concentrations were significantly higher in kangaroos from Portland than Cape Bridgewater. Concentrations varied between skeletal sites examined, with samples containing cancellous bone having higher fluoride concentrations than those containing only cortical bone.

  14. Optimization and partial characterization of intracellular anticandidal protein from Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 using taguchi DOE.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis; Das, Mira Debnath

    2017-01-19

    A new intracellular antifungal protein (afp) production with average molecular weight 24.3 kDa and yield of 0.65 ± 0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of mycelia in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 was optimized. Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L27 orthogonal array (OA) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with 8 most influensive factors namely, culture pH, temperature, slant age, inoculum volume, agitation and KH2PO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and afp production. The crude protein purification was accomplished using pure ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) ion-exchange chromatography and sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The average molecular mass of the purified protein was figured by silver stained SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate)-PAGE (poly-acryl amide gel electrophoresis). In vitro antifungal susceptibility assay was profiled against Candida albicans NCIM 3471 and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were in the range 3 to 4 µg/ml. Characterization of protein was observed with FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis. The optimal production condition for crude afp was obtained as follows: soluble starch: 20 g/l; Corn steep liquor (CSL, 2%) + proteose peptone (PP, 1%): 30 g/l; pH: 5.8; temperature: 25°C; slant age: 3 d; inoculum size: 5% (v/v); agitation: 180 rpm; KH2PO4: 0.1 g/l. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in afp production by 59.4% against the expected enhancement of afp production by 61.22%. The present statistical optimization study revealed an opportunity to promote economical design at the industrial level for future scale up of effective antifungal agent against opportunistic oral and vaginal infection.

  15. Characterization of Miscanthus giganteus lignin isolated by ethanol organosolv process under reflux condition.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Sorek, Hagit; Mitchell, Valerie D; Ibáñez, Ana B; Wemmer, David E

    2012-08-22

    Miscanthus giganteus lignin was extracted by an organosolv process under reflux conditions (4 h) with varying concentrations of ethanol (65%, 75%, 85%, 95%) and 0.2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The resulting lignin was extensively characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR), and chemical analysis (residual sugars, Klason lignin, ash). The predominant linkage units present were β-O-4' (82-84%), resinol (6-7%), and phenylcoumaran (10-11%). The 65% ethanol solvent system gave the lowest lignin yield (14% of starting biomass) compared to 29-32% of the other systems. Increasing ethanol concentration resulted in decreasing carbohydrate content of the lignins (3.6-1.1%), a higher solubility in tetrahydrofuran (THF), a slight reduction of the molecular weight (M(w) 2.72-2.25 KDa), an increasing α-ethoxylation, and an increase in ethoxylated phenylpropenoic compounds (p-coumaric and ferulic acid), but the S/G ratio of the monolignols (0.63, GC/MS) and Klason lignin content (86-88%) were unaffected. An extraction method for these ethyl-esterified phenylpropenoids and smaller molecular weight lignin compounds was developed. The effect of reaction time (2, 4, and 8 h) was investigated for the 95% ethanol solvent system. Besides increased lignin yield (13-43%), a slight increase in M(w) (2.21-2.38 kDa) and S/G ratio (0.53-0.68, GC-MS) was observed. Consecutive extractions suggested that these changes were not from lignin modifications (e.g., condensations) but rather from extraction of lignin of different composition. The results were compared to similar solvent systems with 95% acetone and 95% dioxane.

  16. Intrastrain Comparison of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and Its Potent Neuritogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    David, Pamela; Tan, Yee-Shin; Wong, Kah-Hui; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild) were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Linoleic acid (4.5–5.0%, w/w) which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL). The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154–192 g kg−1), total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition). To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health. PMID:25121118

  17. Intrastrain comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and its potent neuritogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Tan, Yee-Shin; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild) were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Linoleic acid (4.5-5.0%, w/w) which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL). The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154-192 g kg(-1)), total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition). To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation protects Miscanthus × giganteus against trace element toxicity in a highly metal-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Firmin, Stéphane; Labidi, Sonia; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Nsanganwimana, Florian; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dalpé, Yolande; Grandmougin, Anne; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Verdin, Anthony; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2015-09-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-assisted phytoremediation could constitute an ecological and economic method in polluted soil rehabilitation programs. The aim of this work was to characterize the trace element (TE) phytoremediation potential of mycorrhizal Miscanthus × giganteus. To understand the mechanisms involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis tolerance to TE toxicity, the fatty acid compositions and several stress oxidative biomarkers were compared in the roots and leaves of Miscanthus × giganteus cultivated under field conditions in either TE-contaminated or control soils. TEs were accumulated in greater amounts in roots, but the leaves were the organ most affected by TE contamination and were characterized by a strong decrease in fatty acid contents. TE-induced oxidative stress in leaves was confirmed by an increase in the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). TE contamination decreased the GSSG/GSH ratio in the leaves of exposed plants, while peroxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in leaves and in whole plants, respectively. AMF inoculation also increased root colonization in the presence of TE contamination. The mycorrhizal colonization determined a decrease in SOD activity in the whole plant and PO activities in leaves and induced a significant increase in the fatty acid content in leaves and a decrease in MDA formation in whole plants. These results suggested that mycorrhization is able to confer protection against oxidative stress induced by soil pollution. Our findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation could be used as a bioaugmentation technique, facilitating Miscanthus cultivation on highly TE-contaminated soil.

  19. Comparative Biogeochemical Cycles of Bioenergy Crops Reveal Nitrogen-Fixation and Low GHG Emissions in a Miscanthus x giganteus Agro-ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the relative greenhouse gas mitigation potential of plant species considered as biofuel feedstock crops by simulating the biogeochemical processes associated with Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Zea mays, and a mixed prairie community. DayCent model simulations for Miscanthus ...

  20. Cool C4 Photosynthesis - Pyruvate Pi dikinase expression and activity corresponds to the exceptional cold tolerance of carbon assimilation in Miscanthus x giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biofuel feedstock grass Miscanthus x giganteus is exceptional among C4 species in its high productivity in cold climates. It can maintain photosynthetically active leaves at temperatures 6°C below the minimum for Zea mays (maize), which allows it a longer growing season in cool climates. Underst...

  1. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambuí, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

  2. Balking blood pressure "control" by older persons of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an ethno-epidemiological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn; Firmo, Josélia O A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Uchôa, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This ethno-epidemiological inquiry aims to comprehend hypertension-related experiences in the elderly population of Bambuí, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It combines ethnographic descriptions with statistical data. The subjective significance of factors associated with adequate arterial pressure control is explored. A baseline cohort of 26 people with hypertension, randomly selected from a total number of 1,494 residents over the age of 60, was interviewed utilizing signs, meanings and actions methodology. Multivariate analysis shows an association (p < 0.001) between female gender and monthly household income and treatment of hypertension and adequate blood pressure control. The number of doctor visits is associated with treatment but not with adequate blood pressure control. Conflicting cultural construction of "blood pressure problems" contributes to "non-adherence" to treatment. There is a fine line between blood pressure "control" and what is perceived as health professionals "controlling" patients' lives. Doctor-prescribed regimes are perceived as "prohibiting life's pleasures" and "controlling" personal liberty and free choice. Giving elderly people a voice regarding their social context can promote autonomy, well-being and happiness in later life.

  3. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  4. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, L.G.S.; Eloi-Santos, S.M.; Peixoto, S.V.; Lima-Costa, M.F.; Vidigal, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks. PMID:23011406

  5. Seasonal reproduction and feeding ecology of giant isopods Bathynomus giganteus from the continental slope of the Yucatán peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2003-04-01

    The reproduction and feeding habits of giant isopods Bathynomus giganteus [range in body length (BL): 43-363 mm] from the continental slope of the Yucatán Peninsula, México, were studied from samples collected at depths of 359-1050 m during three research cruises conducted in winter, spring, and summer of different years. Samples taken in winter and spring yielded a large proportion of mancas and juveniles, as well as high percentages of adult females with functional oostegites and males with appendices masculinae, suggesting a peak in reproductive activity during these seasons. In contrast, the virtual absence in the summer samples of (a) mancas and small juveniles, (b) females with functional oostegites, and (c) small adult males (210-290 mm BL) with appendices masculinae, suggests a low reproductive activity of B. giganteus during summer. Stomach contents analyses were conducted on five life phases (mancas, small juveniles, large juveniles, adult females and adult males) in winter and summer. Mancas and juveniles had fuller stomachs than adults during winter, and all isopods had emptier stomachs during summer than during winter. The diet of B. giganteus was broad, but the most important food categories in all life phases were fish and squid remains, underlining the main scavenging habits of B. giganteus. However, the remaining food categories show that this species is a facultative rather than a strict scavenger and suggest some ontogenetic dietary shifts. These results were further supported by diet (Horn's) overlap indices. In the winter, high diet overlap occurred between all life phases. In the summer, adult males had a low diet overlap with adult females and large juveniles. Adult males also had a low diet overlap between summer and winter. Results from this and other studies suggest that the main reproductive activity of B. giganteus in the Yucatán slope occurs during winter and spring, when the food supply on the upper-slope is highest, particularly

  6. Water use and the thermoregulatory behaviour of kangaroos in arid regions: insights into the colonisation of arid rangelands in Australia by the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; McTavish, Kirsten J; Munn, Adam J; Holloway, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) occurs mostly in the wetter regions of eastern Australia. However, in the past 30-40 years it has moved into more arid regions (rainfall < 250 mm), thus increasing its overlap zone with the xeric adapted Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). An increased access to water (supplied for domestic stock) may explain this range extension, but changes in the availability of preferred feed could also be involved. The water use, drinking patterns and thermoregulatory behaviour of these two species of kangaroo have been examined in a semi-free range study, during summer at an arid rangeland site. Foraging was largely nocturnal in both species and during the day they behaved to reduce heat loads. This was especially so for M. giganteus, which showed greater shade seeking. However, it still used more water (72 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1), mean +/- SE) than M. rufus (56 +/- 7.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1)) and drank twice as frequently. Although M. giganteus produced a less concentrated urine (1422 +/- 36 mosmol kg(-1)) than M. rufus (1843 +/- 28 mosmol kg(-1)), kidney physiology did not explain all of the differences in water metabolism between the species. Water from the feed and faecal water retention also appear to be involved. Broadly, a better access to reliable water and the utilisation of mesic microhabitats has enabled M. giganteus to make inroads into the changing rangelands of eastern Australia. However, changes in the vegetation, due to stock grazing, have also favoured M. giganteus, which is a grass eating specialist.

  7. Transcriptional responses indicate maintenance of photosynthetic proteins as key to the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus × giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Ashley K.; Boddu, Jay; Wang, Dafu; James, Brandon; Swaminathan, Kankshita; Moose, Stephen P.; Long, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus is exceptional among C4 plants in its ability to acclimate to chilling (≤14 °C) and maintain a high photosynthetic capacity, in sharp contrast to maize, leading to very high productivity even in cool temperate climates. To identify the mechanisms that underlie this acclimation, RNA was isolated from M × giganteus leaves in chilling and nonchilling conditions and hybridized to microarrays developed for its close relative Zea mays. Among 21 000 array probes that yielded robust signals, 723 showed significant expression change under chilling. Approximately half of these were for annotated genes. Thirty genes associated with chloroplast membrane function were all upregulated. Increases in transcripts for the lhcb5 (chlorophyll a/b-binding protein CP26), ndhF (NADH dehydrogenase F, chloroplast), atpA (ATP synthase alpha subunit), psbA (D1), petA (cytochrome f), and lhcb4 (chlorophyll a/b-binding protein CP29), relative to housekeeping genes in M. × giganteus, were confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In contrast, psbo1, lhcb5, psbA, and lhcb4 were all significantly decreased in Z. mays after 14 days of chilling. Western blot analysis of the D1 protein and LHCII type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein also showed significant increases in M. × giganteus during chilling and significant decreases in Z. mays. Compared to other C4 species, M. × giganteus grown in chilling conditions appears to counteract the loss of photosynthetic proteins and proteins protecting photosystem II typically observed in other species by increasing mRNA levels for their synthesis. PMID:24958895

  8. Characterisation of siRNAs derived from new isolates of bamboo mosaic virus and their associated satellites in infected ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenwu; Yan, Wenkai; Yang, Wenting; Yu, Chaowei; Chen, Huihuang; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang; Xie, Lianhui

    2017-02-01

    We characterised the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) of bamboo mosaic virus (Ba-vsiRNAs) and its associated satellite RNA (satRNA)-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) in a bamboo plant (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) by deep sequencing. Ba-vsiRNAs and satsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length, with both (+) and (-) polarity, predominated. The 5'-terminal base of Ba-vsiRNA was biased towards A, whereas a bias towards C/U was observed in sense satsiRNAs, and towards A in antisense satsiRNAs. A large set of bamboo genes were identified as potential targets of Ba-vsiRNAs and satsiRNAs, revealing RNA silencing-based virus-host interactions in plants. Moreover, we isolated and characterised new isolates of bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV; 6,350 nt) and BaMV-associated satRNA (satBaMV; 834 nt), designated BaMV-MAZSL1 and satBaMV-MAZSL1, respectively.

  9. First proteome study of sporadic flowering in bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris and Dendrocalamus manipureanus) reveal the boom is associated with stress and mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Goyari, Sailendra; Jose, Robinson C; Roy, Pranab; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2015-12-15

    Bamboo species are the fastest-growing plants having a long vegetative cycle. Abrupt switching from the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase via sporadic flowering boom, occasionally leads to death of bamboo clumps, and threatens the existence of many bamboo species. To apprehend the molecular mechanism driving sporadic flowering, proteome changes in the initial and advanced floral buds of two edible bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris and Dendrocalamus manipureanus) was dissected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 39 differentially expressed peptide spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). In both B. vulgaris and D. manipureanus, identified proteins were categorized as transposon-related, defence and stress-related, cell cycle related, metabolism related, signal transduction related, and some lacked known putative domains. Proteins such as SEPALLATA3, ubiquitin, histone 3, thaumatin-like protein, putative tethering factor, SF-assemblin, polyubiquitin, mitochondrial carrier-like protein and RPT2-like protein were significantly expressed. Differences in D. manipureanus and B. vulgaris suggested that bamboo species have diverse 'drivers' or 'passengers' genes that govern natural sporadic flowering boom. This first floral proteomics analysis of bamboos revealed that sporadic boom is a highly energetic process, associated with stress elements, mobile genetic elements and signal transduction cross-talk elements.

  10. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling to Elucidate Key Candidates Involved in Bud Burst and Rattling Growth in a Subtropical Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii)

    PubMed Central

    Bhandawat, Abhishek; Singh, Gagandeep; Seth, Romit; Singh, Pradeep; Sharma, Ram K.

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo, one of the fastest growing plants, can be a promising model system to understand growth. The study provides an insight into the complex interplay between environmental signaling and cellular machineries governing initiation and persistence of growth in a subtropical bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii). Phenological and spatio-temporal transcriptome analysis of rhizome and shoot during the major vegetative developmental transitions of D. hamiltonii was performed to dissect factors governing growth. Our work signifies the role of environmental cues, predominantly rainfall, decreasing day length, and high humidity for activating dormant bud to produce new shoot, possibly through complex molecular interactions among phosphatidylinositol, calcium signaling pathways, phytohormones, circadian rhythm, and humidity responses. We found the coordinated regulation of auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid signaling and cell cycle modulators; facilitating cell proliferation, cell expansion, and cell wall biogenesis supporting persistent growth of emerging shoot. Putative master regulators among these candidates were identified using predetermined Arabidopsis thaliana protein-protein interaction network. We got clues that the growth signaling begins far back in rhizome even before it emerges out as new shoot. Putative growth candidates identified in our study can serve in devising strategies to engineer bamboos and timber trees with enhanced growth and biomass potentials. PMID:28123391

  11. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from Switchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, May M.; Chiu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-30

    Perennial grass has been proposed as a potential candidate for producing cellulosic biofuel because of its promising productivity and benefits to water quality, and because it is a non-food feedstock. While extensive research focuses on selecting and developing species and conversion technologies, the impact of grass-based biofuel production on water resources remains less clear. As feedstock growth requires water and the type of water consumed may vary considerably from region to region, water use must be characterized with spatial resolution and on a fuel production basis. This report summarizes a study that assesses the impact of biofuel production on water resource use and water quality at county, state, and regional scales by developing a water footprint of biofuel produced from switchgrass and Miscanthus × giganteus via biochemical conversion.

  12. Elucidating and alleviating impacts of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors on Clostridium beijerinckii during fermentation of Miscanthus giganteus to butanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-10-01

    Fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated Miscanthus giganteus (MG) by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was investigated towards understanding the toxicity of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors to solventogenic Clostridium species vis-à-vis butanol production. While C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 did not grow in undiluted MG hydrolysate-based fermentation medium, supplementation of this medium with Calcium carbonate enabled the growth of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and production of butanol. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometric assays, LHW-pretreated MG was found to contain lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds; some of which were transformed by exponentially growing C. beijerinckii to less inhibitory compounds during fermentation. Contrary to all expectations, the reduction product of furfural, furfuryl alcohol, inhibited butanol production by C. beijerinckii by more than 16 %. Collectively, these results provide new insights into why lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are recalcitrant to fermentation to biofuels and chemicals.

  13. In vitro study of magnesium-calcite biomineralization in the skeletal materials of the seastar Pisaster giganteus.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Subramanyam; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Weaver, James C; Morse, Daniel E; Kini, R Manjunatha; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of formation of biogenic magnesium-rich calcite remain an enigma. Here we present ultrastructural and compositional details of ossicles from the seastar Pisaster giganteus (Echinodermata, Asteroidea). Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analyses confirm that the ossicles are composed of magnesium-rich calcite, whilst also containing about 0.01 % (w/w) of soluble organic matrix (SOM) as an intracrystalline component. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed that this mixture of intracrystalline macromolecules consists predominantly of glycine-rich polypeptides. In vitro calcium carbonate precipitation experiments indicate that the SOM accelerates the conversion of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) into its final crystalline product. From this observation and from the discovery of ACC in other closely related taxa, it is suggested that substitution of magnesium into the calcite lattice through a transient precursor phase may be a universal phenomenon prevalent across the phylum echinodermata.

  14. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  15. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  16. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, L; Jorgensen, J; Haselton, A; Pitt, A; Rudner, R; Margulis, L

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  17. Pectinase production by Aspergillus giganteus in solid-state fermentation: optimization, scale-up, biochemical characterization and its application in olive-oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gastón E; Ponce-Mora, María C; Noseda, Diego G; Cazabat, Gabriela; Saravalli, Celina; López, María C; Gil, Guillermo P; Blasco, Martín; Albertó, Edgardo O

    2017-02-01

    The application of pectinases in industrial olive-oil processes is restricted by its production cost. Consequently, new fungal strains able to produce higher pectinase titers are required. The aim of this work was to study the capability of Aspergillus giganteus NRRL10 to produce pectinolytic enzymes by SSF and evaluate the application of these in olive-oil extraction. A. giganteus was selected among 12 strains on the basis of high pectinolytic activity and stability. A mixture composed by wheat bran, orange, and lemon peels was selected as the best substrate for enzyme production. Statistical analyses of the experimental design indicated that pH, temperature, and CaCl2 are the main factors that affect the production. Subsequently, different aeration flows were tested in a tray reactor; the highest activity was achieved at 20 L min(-1) per kilogram of dry substrate (kgds). Finally, the pectinolytic enzymes from A. giganteus improved the oil yield and rheological characteristics without affecting oil chemical properties.

  18. The evaluation of growth and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita on soil contaminated simultaneously with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Kocoń, Anna; Jurga, Beata

    2017-02-01

    One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A 3-year microplot experiment with two perennial energy crops, M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita, was conducted in the experimental station of IUNG-PIB in Poland (5° 25' N, 21° 58 'E), in the years of 2008-2010. Miscanthus was found more tolerant to concomitant soil contamination with heavy metals and produced almost double biomass than Sida in all three tested years, independent of soil type. Miscanthus collected greater amount of heavy metals (except for cadmium) in the biomass than Sida. Both energy crops absorb high levels of zinc, lower levels of lead, copper, and nickel, and absorbed cadmium at least, generally more metals were taken from the sandy soil, where plants also yielded better. Photosynthesis net rate of Miscanthus was on average 40% higher compared to Sida. Obtained results indicate that M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita can successfully be grown on moderately contaminated soil with heavy metals.

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb2+ and was not significantly affected by Hg2+. Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca2+. The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking. PMID:25610636

  20. An investigation of the topography of the lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). 1. The superficial lymphatic system.

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, P R

    1988-01-01

    The superficial lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus is described. The description is based on dissections of 130 eastern grey kangaroos. The most significant difference found between the superficial lymphatic drainage pattern of kangaroos and that of the domestic species was the existence of large inguino-axillary lymphatic trunks in the kangaroo. Thus in the kangaroo, instead of lymph passing from the inguinal lymphocentre to the lumbar lymphatic trunks as is the situation in the domestic animals, lymph passes from the inguinal lymphocentre to the axillary lymphocentre. Apart from the lymph draining from the head and ventral neck (which passes to the superficial cervical lymphocentre) and lymph which may pass from the superficial lymphatic vessels to deeper lymphatic vessels, all the superficial lymphatic drainage of the kangaroo passes through the axillary lymphocentre. From the viewpoint of the meat inspection of the carcasses of kangaroos taken as game meat animals, pathology of the axillary lymphocentre may reflect disease in a much wider range of body regions than it would in a domestic animal. PMID:3198478

  1. Studies on productivity and characterization of polygalacturonase from Aspergillus giganteus submerged culture using citrus pectin and orange waste.

    PubMed

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Gomes, Eleni; Monti, Rubens; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2008-02-01

    Polygalacturonases are part of the group of enzymes involved in pectin degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate some of the factors affecting polygalacturonase production by an Aspergillus giganteus strain and to characterize this pectinolytic activity. Several carbon sources, both pure substances and natural substrates, were tested in standing cultures, and the best results were obtained with orange bagasse and purified citrus pectin. On citrus pectin as sole carbon source, the highest extracellular activity (9.5 U/ml and 40.6 U/mg protein) was obtained in 4.5-day-old cultures shaken at 120 rpm, pH 3.5 and 30 degrees C, while on orange bagasse, the highest extracellular activity (48.5 U/ml and 78.3 U/mg protein) was obtained in 3.5-day-old cultures shaken at 120 rpm, pH 6.0 and 30 degrees C. Optimal polygalacturonase activity was observed in assays conducted at pH 5.5-6.5 and 55-60 degrees C. The activity showed good thermal stability, with half-lives of 90 and 30 min when incubated at 55 and 60 degrees C, respectively. High stability was observed from pH 4.5 to 8.5; more than 90% of the activity remained after 24 h in this pH range.

  2. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  3. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  4. Cytotoxicity and modes of action of four Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used to treat cancers: Echinops giganteus, Xylopia aethiopica, Imperata cylindrica and Piper capense.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Sandjo, Louis P; Wiench, Benjamin; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-08-26

    Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Piper capense and Xylopia aethiopica are four medicinal spices used in Cameroon to treat cancers. The above plants previously displayed cytotoxicity against leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cell lines as well as human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells. The present study aims at emphasizing the study of the cytotoxicity and the modes of action of the above plants on a panel of ten cancer cell lines including various sensitive and drug-resistant phenotypes. The study has been extended to the isolation of the bioactive constituents from Echinops giganteus. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay, whereas the caspase-Glo assay was used to detect the activation of caspases 3/7, caspase 8 and caspase 9 in cells treated with the four extracts. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptotic cells, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as well as measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The four tested extracts inhibited the proliferation of all tested cancer cell lines including sensitive and drug-resistant phenotypes. Collateral sensitivity of cancer cells to the extract of Echinops giganteus was generally better than to doxorubicin. The recorded IC50 ranges were 3.29 µg/mL [against human knockout clones HCT116 (p53(-/-)) colon cancer cells] to 14.32 µg/mL (against human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells) for the crude extract from Echinops giganteus, 4.17 µg/mL (against breast cancer cells transduced with control vector MDA-MB231 cells) to 19.45 µg/mL (against MDA-MB-231 BCRP cells) for that of Piper capense, 4.11 µg/mL (against leukemia CCRF-CEM cells) to 30.60 µg/mL (against leukemia HL60AR cells) for Xylopia aethiopica, 3.28 µg/mL [against HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells] to 33.43 µg/mL (against HepG2 cells) for Imperata cylindica and 0.11 µg/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 132.47 µg/mL (against HL60AR cells) for doxorubicin. The four

  5. Refuge or Reservoir? The Potential Impacts of the Biofuel Crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a Major Pest of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Joseph L.; Raghu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect) of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR) are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays). Methodology/Principal Findings In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR) was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR). Adult dry weight was 75–80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. Conclusions/Significance Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe. PMID:20016814

  6. Influence of light and nitrogen on the photosynthetic efficiency in the C4 plant Miscanthus × giganteus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Stutz, Samantha S; Gandin, Anthony; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous studies describing how growth conditions influence the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. However, it remains unclear how changes in the biochemical capacity versus leaf anatomy drives this acclimation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how growth light and nitrogen availability influence leaf anatomy, biochemistry and the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus × giganteus. There was an increase in the mesophyll cell wall surface area but not cell well thickness in the high-light (HL) compared to the low-light (LL) grown plants suggesting a higher mesophyll conductance in the HL plants, which also had greater photosynthetic capacity. Additionally, the HL plants had greater surface area and thickness of bundle-sheath cell walls compared to LL plants, suggesting limited differences in bundle-sheath CO2 conductance because the increased area was offset by thicker cell walls. The gas exchange estimates of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity were significantly less than the in vitro PEPc activity, suggesting limited substrate availability in the leaf due to low mesophyll CO2 conductance. Finally, leakiness was similar across all growth conditions and generally did not change under the different measurement light conditions. However, differences in the stable isotope composition of leaf material did not correlate with leakiness indicating that dry matter isotope measurements are not a good proxy for leakiness. Taken together, these data suggest that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus is robust under low-light and limited nitrogen growth conditions, and that the observed changes in leaf anatomy and biochemistry likely help to maintain this efficiency.

  7. Establishment, Growth, and Yield Potential of the Perennial Grass Miscanthus × Giganteus on Degraded Coal Mine Soils

    PubMed Central

    Jeżowski, Stanisław; Mos, Michal; Buckby, Sam; Cerazy-Waliszewska, Joanna; Owczarzak, Wojciech; Mocek, Andrzej; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; McCalmont, Jon P.

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus is a giant C4 grass native to Asia. Unlike most C4 species, it is relatively cold tolerant due to adaptations across a wide range of altitudes. These grasses are characterized by high productivity and low input requirements, making them excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for growing Miscanthus on extremely marginal soils, degraded by open lignite (brown coal) mining. Field experiments were established within three blocks situated on waste heaps originating from the lignite mine. Analyses were conducted over the first 3 years following Miscanthus cultivation, focusing on the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on crop growth, development and yield in this extreme environment. The following levels of fertilization were implemented between the blocks: the control plot with no fertilization (D0), a plot with sewage sludge (D1), a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus one dose of mineral fertilizer (D2) and a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus a double dose of mineral fertilizer (D3). Crop development and characteristics (plant height, tillering, and biomass yield [dry matter]) were measured throughout the study period and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were apparent between plant development and 3rd year biomass production over the course of the study (0.964 kg plant-1 for DO compared to 1.503 kg plant-1 for D1). Soil analyses conducted over the course of the experiment showed that organic carbon levels within the soil increased significantly following the cultivation of Miscanthus, and overall, pH decreased. With the exception of iron, macronutrient concentrations remained stable throughout. The promising yields and positive effects of Miscanthus on the degraded soil suggests that long term plantations on land otherwise unsuitable for agriculture may prove to be of great environmental and

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Huncik, Kevin M; Taniguchi, Satie; Petry, Maria V; Kucklick, John R; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2016-09-01

    Seabirds play an important role as top consumers in the food web and can be used as biomonitors of exposure to pollutants. Contamination studies involving non-destructive sampling methods are of considerable importance, allowing better evaluation of the levels of pollutants and their toxic effects. In the present study, organohalogen contaminants were analyzed in 113 blood samples from Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) adults and chicks collected in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 from colonies on Elephant and Livingston Islands, South Shetland, Antarctica. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane and derivatives (DDTs) and chlordanes were detected in all birds, whereas polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were not detected in any blood samples. No significant differences were found in organochlorine levels between sampling events. Adults exhibited significantly higher levels than chicks, except for PeCB. PCBs, HCB, mirex and DDTs were statistically similar in males and females from Elephant Island. Females on Livingston Island exhibited higher HCB values than males, but no sex differences were found regarding other organochlorines. The similarity in organochlorine levels between sexes in birds with very marked sexual segregation in feeding habits during the breeding season may indicate that significant amounts of contaminants are acquired during migration to lower latitudes, when the diets of males and females are similar. Birds sampled on Livingston Island exhibited significantly lower levels of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, mirex and chlordanes in comparison to those on Elephant Island, which could be the result of distinct foraging patterns between the two colonies. Organochlorine levels were similar between years in birds captured in two consecutive breeding seasons. Blood samples from Southern Giant Petrels adults and chicks proved to be useful for the comparison

  9. Contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates to the biostimulation of PAH degradation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Técher, Didier; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Henry, Sonia; Bennasroune, Amar; Formanek, Pavel; Martinez-Chois, Claudia; D'Innocenzo, Marielle; Muanda, François; Dicko, Amadou; Rejšek, Klement; Falla, Jairo

    2011-09-15

    Phytoremediation is considered as a promising and cost-effective method to enhance bioremediation of polluted soils. Exudation of plant root secondary metabolites similar to organic pollutants may induce the expression of microbial degradative enzymes and favour cometabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates in the biostimulation of PAH-degradation. This perennial grass was chosen because of its capability to grow on polluted soils and its high biomass production for non-food purposes. First, the impact of cometabolism phenomena was evaluated on the selective enrichment of pyrene-degrading bacterial consortia. The identification of each isolated strains following incubation with pyrene only, "pyrene+phenanthrene", "pyrene+salycilate" or "pyrene+diesel fuel" showed a varying bacterial diversity and pyrene-degrading ability, depending on the co-substrate used. Then, a microplate assay was designed, based on the simultaneous measurement of bacterial consortia growth and degradation activity, in the presence of PAH and total root exudates. Results showed that i) the addition of root exudates was efficient for promoting bacterial growth, ii) but a selective enrichment of PAH-degraders compared to aliphatic ones could be clearly demonstrated, thereby conducing to an enhanced PAH catabolism. The identification of plant secondary metabolites showed the presence of a broad range of flavonoid-derived compounds that could play a role in cometabolic processes. Microplate assays with the two major molecules, quercetin and rutin, suggested a partial involvement of these compounds in biostimulation processes. Further investigations with the other identified secondary metabolites (apigenin, isovitexin, catechin, gallic and caffeic acid) should provide more information on the exudate-PAH cometabolic degradation phenomenon.

  10. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Joseph L; Raghu, S

    2009-12-16

    Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect) of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR) are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays). In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR) was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR). Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  11. Biosolids and distillery effluent amendment to Irish Miscanthus ×giganteus plantations: impacts on groundwater and soil.

    PubMed

    Galbally, P; Fagan, C; Ryan, D; Finnan, J; Grant, J; McDonnell, K

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the risk of water pollution arising from amendment of organic by-products (OBs) to energy crops under Irish conditions. Therefore, the impact of landspreading two OBs on the quality of groundwater underlying plantations of Miscanthus X giganteus was assessed. Municipal biosolids and distillery effluent (DE) were spread annually (for 4 yr) on six 0.117-ha treatment plots at rates of 100, 50, and 0%. The 100% rate represented a maximum P load of 15 t ha(-1) as per Irish EPA regulation. Groundwater was sampled for 25 mo and tested for pH, electrical conductivity, NO(3)(-), orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)), total soluble P, K(+), Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Assessment of quality was based on comparison with Irish groundwater threshold values (GTVs). The study was limited to within-plot using a "well bottom" approach and did not investigate movement of groundwater plumes or vectors of percolation through the soil profile. Mean groundwater concentrations did not exceed GTVs during the sampling period for any species, with the exception of groundwater PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot, which was almost double the GTV of 0.035 mg L(-1). There was no significant build-up of nutrients or heavy metals in groundwater (or soil) for any plot. Excessive PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot groundwater is likely due to high background soil P, soil characteristics, and the occurrence of macropore/soil pore flow. These factors (particularly background soil P) should be assessed when determining suitable sites for land-spreading OBs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Purification and pharmacological properties of eight sea anemone toxins from Anemonia sulcata, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, Stoichactis giganteus, and Actinodendron plumosum.

    PubMed

    Schweitz, H; Vincent, J P; Barhanin, J; Frelin, C; Linden, G; Hugues, M; Lazdunski, M

    1981-09-01

    Eight different polypeptide toxins from sea anemones of four different origins (Anemonia sulcata, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, Stoichactis giganteus, and Actinodendron plumosum) have been studied. Three of these toxins are new; the purification procedure for the five other ones has been improved. Sea anemone toxins were assayed (i) for their toxicity to crabs and mice, (ii) for their affinity for the specific sea anemone toxin receptor situated on the Na+ channels of rat brain synaptosomes, and (iii) for their capacity to increase, in synergy with veratridine, the rate of 22Na+ entry into neuroblastoma cells via the Na+ channel. Some of the toxins are more active on crustaceans, whereas others are more toxic to mammals. A very good correlation exists between the toxic activity to mice, the affinity of the toxin for the Na+ channel in rat brain synaptosomes, and the stimulating effect on 22 Na+ uptake by neuroblastoma cells. The observation has also been made that the most cationic toxins are also the most active on mammals and the least active on crustaceans. Toxicities (LD50) to mice of the most active sea anemone toxins and of the most active scorpion toxins are similar, and sea anemone toxins at high enough concentrations prevent binding of scorpion toxins to their receptor. However, scorpion toxins have affinities for the Na+ channel which are approximately 60 times higher than those found for the most active sea anemone toxins. Three sea anemone toxins appear to be more interesting than toxin II from A. sulcata (the "classical" sea anemone toxin) for studies of the Na+ channel structure and mechanism when the source of the channel is of a mammalian origin. Two of these three toxins can be radiolabeled with iodine while retaining their toxic activity; they appear to be useful tools for future biochemical studies of the Na+ channel.

  13. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation in forebulge grabens: An example from the Ediacaran Bambuí Group, São Francisco Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Humberto L. S.; Suss, João F.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic successions have been described in multiple Phanerozoic sedimentary settings recording the dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, climate, in situ carbonate production, and variations in siliciclastic sediment supply. The Ediacaran Bambuí 1st-order sequence (i.e., Bambuí Group) covers most of the intracratonic São Francisco basin (southeast Brazil) and encompasses thick packages of carbonate and fine- to coarse-grained siliciclastic strata. Recording a marine foreland basin stage that developed in the São Francisco plate during the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic West Gondwana assembly, the Ediacaran deposits unconformably overlie Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages of the Sete Lagoas basement high and fill a series of kilometer-long grabens in the southern São Francisco basin. Seismic data reveal that these troughs developed through the extensional reactivation of ancient basement structures along with the tectonically driven forebulge uplift of the Sete Lagoas high, in the early evolutionary stages of the Bambuí basin cycle. Based on the detailed description of continuous drill cores of a well recently drilled during hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, we recognized two transgressive-regressive 2nd-order sequences preserved within one of the focused grabens: (i) Sequence 1 includes the glaciogenic deposits of the basal Carrancas Formation that grade upward into the carbonate ramp successions of the Sete Lagoas Formation; (ii) Sequence 2 contains the siliciclastic-dominated and deep water to deltaic strata of the Serra de Santa Helena Formation and passes upward into peritidal carbonates of the Lagoa do Jacaré Formation. These sedimentary successions encompass suites of retrogradational, aggradational, and progradational lower-rank cycles and are bounded by erosional surfaces. Regional seismic interpretation, well data, and the available literature indicate that most of these deposits and their correlatives are

  14. Heterogeneity and Glycan Masking of Cell Wall Microstructures in the Stems of Miscanthus x giganteus, and Its Parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie; Bosch, Maurice; Knox, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls, being repositories of fixed carbon, are important sources of biomass and renewable energy. Miscanthus species are fast growing grasses with a high biomass yield and they have been identified as potential bioenergy crops. Miscanthus x giganteus is the sterile hybrid between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, with a faster and taller growth than its parents. In this study, the occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides in stems of Miscanthus species has been determined using fluorescence imaging with sets of cell wall directed monoclonal antibodies. Heteroxylan and mixed linkage-glucan (MLG) epitopes are abundant in stem cell walls of Miscanthus species, but their distributions are different in relation to the interfascicular parenchyma and these epitopes also display different developmental dynamics. Detection of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes was often restricted to intercellular spaces of parenchyma regions and, notably, the high methyl ester LM20 HG epitope was specifically abundant in the pith parenchyma cell walls of M. x giganteus. Some cell wall probes cannot access their target glycan epitopes because of masking by other polysaccharides. In the case of Miscanthus stems, masking of xyloglucan by heteroxylan and masking of pectic galactan by heteroxylan and MLG was detected in certain cell wall regions. Knowledge of tissue level heterogeneity of polysaccharide distributions and molecular architectures in Miscanthus cell wall structures will be important for both understanding growth mechanisms and also for the development of potential strategies for the efficient deconstruction of Miscanthus biomass. PMID:24312403

  15. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus)

    PubMed Central

    Ngahang Kamte, Stephane L.; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Campagnaro, Gustavo Daniel; Biapa Nya, Prosper C.; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Giordani, Cristiano; Benelli, Giovanni; Hofer, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils. PMID:28684709

  16. A Population-Based Study of the Association between Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Cognitive Impairment in Old Age (The Bambuí Study)

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Castro-Costa, Erico; Uchôa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Joselia; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Prince, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background Limited clinical data suggest that chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which causes Chagas’ disease (ChD), is associated with cognitive impairment. This study investigated this association in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 1,449 persons aged ≥60 years from a Brazilian endemic area (Bambuí). Cognitive functioning was ascertained by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), considering its score in percentiles [≤14 (<5th percentile), 15–22 (5th to <25th) and ≥23]. Hypothesized risk factors were T. cruzi infection, ChD-related electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and use of digoxin medication. Potential confounders included depressive symptoms, smoking, stroke, hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, and use of psychoactive medication. Results The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.6%. There was a graded and independent association between infection and the MMSE score (adjusted odds ratios estimated by ordinal logistic regression = 1.99; 95% CI 1.43–2.76). No significant associations between the MMSE score and ECG abnormalities or digoxin medication use were found. Conclusions This study provides for the first time epidemiological evidence of an association between T. cruzi infection and cognitive impairment which was not mediated by either ChD-related ECG abnormalities or digoxin medication use. PMID:19088484

  17. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  18. Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus x giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, James; Ineson, Phil

    2017-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and contributes ca. 30% of global ecosystem respiration.However, for convenience, measurements used to compare Rs from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00, with an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months' continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas Rs peaked in Miscanthus during the night and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since daily mean Rs in Miscanthus coincided with levels 40% greater than the mean in barley, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  19. Relationships between soil parameters and physiological status of Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on soil contaminated with trace elements under NPK fertilisation vs. microbial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Sitko, Krzysztof; Krzyżak, Jacek; Skalska, Aleksandra; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Ciszek, Dorota; Werle, Sebastian; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Mos, Michal; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-06-01

    Crop growth and development can be influenced by a range of parameters, soil health, cultivation and nutrient status all play a major role. Nutrient status of plants can be enhanced both through chemical fertiliser additions (e.g. N, P, K supplementation) or microbial fixation and mobilisation of naturally occurring nutrients. With current EU priorities discouraging the production of biomass on high quality soils there is a need to investigate the potential of more marginal soils to produce these feedstocks and the impacts of soil amendments on crop yields within them. This study investigated the potential for Miscanthus x giganteus to be grown in trace element (TE)-contaminated soils, ideally offering a mechanism to (phyto)manage these contaminated lands. Comprehensive surveys are needed to understand plant-soil interactions under these conditions. Here we studied the impacts of two fertiliser treatments on soil physico-chemical properties under Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on Pb, Cd and Zn contaminated arable land. Results covered a range of parameters, including soil rhizosphere activity, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as well as plant physiological parameters associated with photosynthesis, TE leaf concentrations and growth performance. Fertilization increased growth and gas exchange capacity, enhanced rhizosphere microbial activity and increased Zn, Mg and N leaf concentration. Fertilization reduced root colonisation by AMF and caused higher chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves. Microbial inoculation seems to be a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers, especially due to an insignificant influence on the mobility of toxic trace elements (particularly Cd and Zn). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Elderly Chagas Disease Patients: 10‐Year Follow‐Up of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Lima‐Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrocardiography has been considered an important tool in the management of Chagas disease (ChD) patients, although its value in elderly infected patients is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi infected and noninfected older adults. Methods and Results We studied 1462 participants in Bambuí City, Brazil, with electrocardiogram (ECG) records classified by the Minnesota Code. Follow‐up time was 10 years; the endpoint was mortality. Adjustment for potential confounding variables included age, gender, conventional risk factors, and B‐type natriuretic peptide (BNP). The mean age was 69 years (60.9% women). The prevalence of ChD was 38.1% (n=557). ECG abnormalities were more frequent in ChD patients (87.6% versus 77.7%, P<0.001). Right bundle branch block (RBBB) with left anterior hemiblock (LAH) was strongly related to ChD (OR: 11.99 [5.60 to 25.69]). During the mean follow‐up time of 8.7 years, 556 participants died (253 with ChD), and only 89 were lost to follow‐up. ECG variables of independent prognostic value for death in ChD included absence of sinus rhythm, frequent ventricular and supraventricular premature beats, atrial fibrillation, RBBB, old and possible old myocardial infarction, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of any major ECG abnormalities doubled the risk of death in ChD patients (HR: 2.18 [1.35 to 3.53]), but it also increased the risk in non‐ChD subjects (HR: 1.50 [1.07 to 2.10]); the risk of death increased with the number of major abnormalities in the same patient. Conclusion ECG abnormalities are more common among elderly Chagas disease patients and strongly predict adverse outcomes. PMID:24510116

  1. Discontinuation of anti-hypertensive drugs increases 11-year cardiovascular mortality risk in community-dwelling elderly (the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension remains a major public health problem whose management is hampered by poor persistence with pharmacological therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between discontinuing antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study of all of the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil) enrolled 1606 subjects (92.2%), of whom 1494 (93.0%) were included in this study. The use of AHDs was ascertained annually in a real-clinical context, and time-varying AHD exposure was categorised as non-use, current use or stopped. The predicted cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated using interval Poisson models for ungrouped person-time data, taking into account current levels of systolic blood pressure (BP). Results The overall adjusted cardiovascular mortality risk ratio of AHD stoppers vs current users was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.35-4.15). There was a significant interaction with BP levels: the association between discontinuing AHDs and the risk of cardiovascular mortality was stronger at higher systolic BP levels. The estimates of the risk of cardiovascular mortality over the follow-up period were similar in AHD users and non-users, for whom AHDs were never prescribed. Conclusion Discontinuing AHDs increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Misconceptions about symptoms or drug-related adverse effects could underlie a subject’s decision to discontinue AHDs. Greater attention should be paid to the choice of AHDs and informative action. PMID:25030357

  2. Prevalence of sleep complaints and associated factors in community-dwelling older people in Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study (BHAS).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Guerra, Henrique L; Firmo, Josélia O A; Vidigal, Pedro G; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2002-05-01

    Population-based studies of insomnia among older people residing in communities in developing countries are rare. The objectives of this population-based study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with insomnia among older adults (60 years and over) living in a Brazilian town with 15,000 inhabitants (Bambuí MG). All 1742 residents in this age group were selected for a structured interview and blood tests. From these, 1516 (87.0%) participated in the study. The prevalence of insomnia was 38.9%, being higher among women (45.3%) than among men (28.8%). The use of sleeping pills was reported by 380/1513 (25.1%) of the participants; 186 (49.0%) of these complained of insomnia, suggesting that their treatment should be reassessed. Factors independently associated with insomnia were: female sex (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.41-2.24), dissatisfaction with free time arrangements (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.28-2.77), self-rated health as reasonable or bad/very bad (OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.50-2.72 and OR=3.12, 95% CI=2.21-4.39, respectively), history of previous medical diagnosis of some chronic conditions (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.73), inability to perform routine activities due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.10-2.15), and staying in bed in the previous 2 weeks (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.04-2.48). The prevalence of insomnia was high, indicating that this was a public health problem for older adults living in the study community. Our results emphasize the necessity for further investigations about insomnia among older people living in small communities in Brazil and other developing countries.

  3. Giant Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus giganteus (Agaricomycetes) Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Glucose Uptake via Activation of PPARγ and Glucose Transporters 1 and 4 in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Paravamsivam, Puvaneswari; Heng, Chua Kek; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; M, Ravishankar Ram; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2016-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus giganteus was tested for its effect on adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. The basidiocarps of P. giganteus were soaked in methanol to obtain a crude methanol extract and then fractionated to obtain an ethyl acetate extract. In this study, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay, lipid accumulation using an Oil Red O assay, and glucose uptake using a fluorescence glucose uptake assay. Gene expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with TaqMan primer. Ethyl acetate extract significantly enhanced adipogenic differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. Glucose uptake was facilitated by the highly expressed glucose transporters Glut1 and Glut4. Taken together, these results suggest that P. giganteus ethyl acetate extract has an insulin-sensitizing effect on adipocytes and has potential as an adjuvant for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Detection of renal dysfunction based on serum creatinine levels in a Brazilian community: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Passos, V M A; Barreto, S M; Lima-Costa, M F F

    2003-03-01

    There are few population-based studies of renal dysfunction and none conducted in developing countries. In the present study the prevalence and predictors of elevated serum creatinine levels (SCr > or = 1.3 mg/dl for men and 1.1 mg/dl for women) were determined among Brazilian adults (18-59 years) and older adults (>60 years). Participants included all older adults (N = 1742) and a probabilistic sample of adults (N = 818) from Bambu town, MG, Southeast Brazil. Predictors were investigated using multiple logistic regression. Mean SCr levels were 0.77 +/- 0.15 mg/dl for adults, 1.02 +/- 0.39 mg/dl for older men, and 0.81 +/- 0.17 mg/dl for older women. Because there were only 4 cases (0.48%) with elevated SCr levels among adults, the analysis of elevated SCr levels was restricted to older adults. The overall prevalence of elevated SCr levels among the elderly was 5.09% (76/1494). The prevalence of hypercreatinemia increased significantly with age (chi = 26.17, P = 0.000), being higher for older men (8.19%) than for older women (5.29%, chi = 5.00, P = 0.02). Elevated SCr levels were associated with age 70-79 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-4.42), hypertension (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.34-6.92), use of antihypertensive drugs (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.26-4.82), chest pain (OR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.31-8.74), and claudication (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.30-9.09) among men, and with age >80 years (OR = 4.88, 95% CI: 2.24-10.65), use of antihypertensive drugs (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 1.67-9.86), physical inactivity (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.02) and myocardial infarction (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.58-9.62) among women. The prevalence of renal dysfunction observed was much lower than that reported in other population-based studies, but predictors were similar. New investigations are needed to confirm the variability in prevalence and associated factors of renal dysfunction among populations.

  5. Overweight and class I obesity are associated with lower 10-year risk of mortality in Brazilian older adults: the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Beleigoli, Alline M; Boersma, Eric; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Antonio L

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies mostly with European and North-American populations have shown inconsistent results regarding the association of overweight/obesity and mortality in older adults. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between overweight/ obesity and mortality in an elderly Brazilian population. Participants were 1,450 (90.2% from total) individuals aged 60 years and over from the community-based Bambuí (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing. From 1997 to 2007, 521 participants died and 89 were lost, leading to 12,905 person-years of observation. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd and 5th years of follow-up. Multiple imputation was performed to deal with missing values. Hazard ratios (HR) of mortality for BMI or WC alone (continuous and categorical), and BMI and WC together (continuous) were estimated by extended Cox regression models, which were fitted for clinical, socioeconomic and behavioral confounders. Adjusted absolute rates of death at 10-year follow-up were estimated for the participants with complete data at baseline. Continuous BMI (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.90) was inversely related to mortality, even after exclusion of smokers (HR 0.85; 0.80-0.90), and participants who had weight variation and died within the first 5 years of follow-up (HR 0.83; CI 95% 0.73-0.94). Overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2)) was inversely (HR 0.76; 95%CI 0.61-0.93) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.14) not significantly associated with mortality. Subjects with BMI between 25-35 kg/m(2) (23.8-25.9%) had the lowest absolute rates of death at 10-years follow-up. The association between WC and death was not significant, except after adjusting WC for BMI levels, when the relationship turned into marginally positive (HR 1.01; CI 95% 1.00-1.02). The usual BMI and WC cut-off points should not be used to guide public health and clinical weight control interventions in elderly in Brazil.

  6. Comparison of the enzymatic digestibility of physically and chemically pretreated selected line of diploid-Miscanthus sinensis Shiozuka and triploid-M.×giganteus.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Anzoua, Kossonou Guillaume; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The diploid Miscanthus sinensis "Shiozuka" which was selected as a high-biomass producing line, and the triploid M. × giganteus (M×G) were treated by ball milling (physical treatment) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment (AHP; chemical treatment), and their structural sugar compositions and enzymatic digestibility were compared. The structural sugar content of Shiozuka was moderate and lower than that of M×G. The Klason lignin content of Shiozuka was also lower than that of M×G. However, Shiozuka was sensitive to ball milling and AHP treatment; ball milled and AHP-treated Shiozuka had higher enzymatic digestibility than ball milled and AHP-treated M×G. Shiozuka would be promising feedstock to obtain fermentable sugars with low energy consumption. Finally, enzymes for the hydrolysis of chemically treated Miscanthus were isolated from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 66589 and Penicillium pinophilum. The sugar yield could be increased by enzymatic hydrolysis of AHP-treated samples with NaOH and H2O2 and the isolated enzymes.

  7. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis).

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Peacock, Christopher S; Choo, Ace Y L; Cook, Roger W; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N; Scott, Jenni L; Rose, Karrie

    2015-08-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia.

  8. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Peacock, Christopher S.; Choo, Ace Y.L.; Cook, Roger W.; O'Donoghue, Peter; Crameri, Sandra; Vogelnest, Larry; Gordon, Anita N.; Scott, Jenni L.; Rose, Karrie

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) in Western Australia. PMID:26106576

  9. Technical note: Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus × giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Keane, J.; Ineson, Phil

    2017-03-01

    For convenience, measurements used to compare soil respiration (Rs) from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00 UTC, convenience which is justified by an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months of continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas in Miscanthus after an initial early evening decline, Rs increased above the daily average during the night and in July maximum daily rates of Rs were seen at 22:00 and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since the time of the daily mean Rs in Miscanthus occurred when Rs in the barley was 40 % greater than the daily mean, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs especially if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  10. Potential of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma to enhance ecosystem-service provision in the biofuel grass Miscanthus x giganteus in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Chirino-Valle, Ivan; Kandula, Diwakar; Littlejohn, Chris; Hill, Robert; Walker, Mark; Shields, Morgan; Cummings, Nicholas; Hettiarachchi, Dilani; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sterile hybrid grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg) can produce more than 30 t dry matter/ha/year. This biomass has a range of uses, including animal bedding and a source of heating fuel. The grass provides a wide range of other ecosystem services (ES), including shelter for crops and livestock, a refuge for beneficial arthropods, reptiles and earthworms and is an ideal cellulosic feedstock for liquid biofuels such as renewable (drop-in) diesel. In this study, the effects of different strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma on above- and below-ground biomass of Mxg were evaluated in glasshouse and field experiments, the latter on a commercial dairy farm over two years. Other ES benefits of Trichoderma measured in this study included enhanced leaf chlorophyll content as well as increased digestibility of the dried material for livestock. This study shows, for the first time for a biofuel feedstock plant, how Trichoderma can enhance productivity of such plants and complements other recent work on the wide-ranging provision of ES by this plant species. PMID:27117716

  11. Serologic-based investigation of leptospirosis in a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) indicating the presence of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Smythe, Lee; Dohnt, Michael; Symonds, Meegan; Slack, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) are one of the most abundant large macropodids sharing the landscape with humans. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of Leptospira carriage within this species and the role that they may partake in the transmission of this disease in Australia. The sera of 87 free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, captured in the Warragamba Catchment Area, Sydney, Australia, from June 2004 to November 2006, were screened against a reference panel of 22 Leptospira serovars using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 47% (41 of 87) of serum samples collected. Leptospira weilii Topaz, a newly emergent serovar in Australia, was detected in all seropositive kangaroos (41 of 41; 100%). The sex and tail-fat body condition index of kangaroos appeared to have no significant effect on the exposure to the disease. This serologic-based study is the first reported for L. weilii serovar Topaz in New South Wales, to our knowledge, having previously been isolated only in humans and two other animal species (bovine and long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta]) in Western Australia and Queensland. The potential role of eastern grey kangaroos in the maintenance and zoonotic spread of the disease to livestock and humans is discussed.

  12. Low growth temperatures modify the efficiency of light use by photosystem II for CO2 assimilation in leaves of two chilling-tolerant C4 species, Cyperus longus L. and Miscanthus x giganteus.

    PubMed

    Farage, Peter K; Blowers, David; Long, Stephen P; Baker, Neil R

    2006-04-01

    Two C4 plants, Miscanthus x giganteus and Cyperus longus L., were grown at suboptimal growth temperatures and the relationships between the quantum efficiencies of photosynthetic electron transport through photosystem II (PSII) (PSII operating efficiency; Fq'/Fm') and CO2 assimilation (phiCO2) in leaves were examined. When M. x giganteus was grown at 10 degrees C, the ratio of the PSII operating efficiency to phiCO2 increased relative to that found in leaves grown at 14 and 25 degrees C. Similar increases in the Fq'/Fm': phiCO2 occurred in the leaves of two C. longus ecotypes when the plants were grown at 17 degrees C, compared to 25 degrees C. These elevations of Fq'/Fm': phiCO2 at low growth temperatures were not attributable to the development of anthocyanins, as has been suggested for maize, and were indicative of the operation of an alternative sink to CO2 assimilation for photosynthetic reducing equivalents, possibly oxygen reduction via a Mehler reaction, which would act as a mechanism for protection of PSII from photoinactivation and damage. Furthermore, in M. x giganteus grown at 10 degrees C, further protection of PSII was effected by a 20-fold increase in zeaxanthin content in dark-adapted leaves, which was associated with much higher levels of non-photochemical quenching of excitation energy, compared to that observed in leaves grown at 14 and 25 degrees C. These differences may explain the long growing season and remarkable productivity of this C4 plant in cool climates, even in comparison to other C4 species such as C. longus, which occur naturally in such climates.

  13. Final Report DE-SC0006634. Quantifying phenotypic and genetic diversity of Miscanthus sinensis as a resource for knowledge-based improvement of M. ×giganteus (M. sinensis × M. sacchariflorus)

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, Erik

    2016-02-08

    Miscanthus is especially attractive as a bioenergy crop for temperate environments because it produces high yields, needs few inputs, and grows well during the cool weather of early spring and late fall when few warm-season grasses can. However, Miscanthus feedstock production for the emerging U.S. bioenergy industry and for existing demand in Europe is based on a single sterile, vegetatively propagated variety of M. ×giganteus. M. ×giganteus is an interspecific hybrid of the parental species M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Prior to the current study, little information existed about the genetic diversity and breeding potential of either M. ×giganteus parental species. In the current project, we studied more than 600 accessions of M. sinensis from throughout its native range in China, Japan, and Korea, in addition to ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations. Using thousands of DNA markers, we identified seven geographically distinct genetic groups of M. sinensis. Notably, we found that the ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations were derived from only a subset of the Southern Japan group, indicating that our study greatly increased the genetic diversity available for breeding new biomass cultivars. Additionally, this new understanding of M. sinensis population structure could be used to predict which crosses may produce progeny with the greatest hybrid vigor. Replicated field trials were also established at multiple locations in North America and Asia. Data on traits of importance for biomass productivity, such as flowering time, yield and height, were taken. Analyses of the phenotypic data from the field trials along with the DNA markers allowed us to identify many marker-trait associations. These results will enable marker-assisted breeding, which will allow selection at the seedling stage rather than waiting two to three years to obtain phenotypic data. Thus, this study is expected to greatly increase the efficiency of breeding

  14. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  15. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C4 grass Miscanthus ×giganteus.

    PubMed

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Adhikari, Shivani; Peng, Junhua; Gifford, Justin; Juvik, John A; Long, Stephen P; Sacks, Erik J

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C4 biomass crop accession: M. ×giganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 °C/5 °C to that at 25 °C/25 °C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A sat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (ФPSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following a chilling treatment of 10 °C/5 °C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A sat and ФPSII, and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species.

  17. Hybridization and Back-Crossing in Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a Summary of Hybridization in Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth M.; Techow, N. M. S. Mareile; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4–2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  18. Genomic and small RNA sequencing of Miscanthus × giganteus shows the utility of sorghum as a reference genome sequence for Andropogoneae grasses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is a perennial grass that produces superior biomass yields in temperate environments. The essentially uncharacterized triploid genome (3n = 57, x = 19) of Mxg is likely critical for the rapid growth of this vegetatively propagated interspecific hybrid. Results A survey of the complex Mxg genome was conducted using 454 pyrosequencing of genomic DNA and Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis of small RNA. We found that the coding fraction of the Mxg genome has a high level of sequence identity to that of other grasses. Highly repetitive sequences representing the great majority of the Mxg genome were predicted using non-cognate assembly for de novo repeat detection. Twelve abundant families of repeat were observed, with those related to either transposons or centromeric repeats likely to comprise over 95% of the genome. Comparisons of abundant repeat sequences to a small RNA survey of three Mxg organs (leaf, rhizome, inflorescence) revealed that the majority of observed 24-nucleotide small RNAs are derived from these repetitive sequences. We show that high-copy-number repeats match more of the small RNA, even when the amount of the repeat sequence in the genome is accounted for. Conclusions We show that major repeats are present within the triploid Mxg genome and are actively producing small RNAs. We also confirm the hypothesized origins of Mxg, and suggest that while the repeat content of Mxg differs from sorghum, the sorghum genome is likely to be of utility in the assembly of a gene-space sequence of Mxg. PMID:20128909

  19. Effect of C/N ratio and microelements on nutrient dynamics and cell morphology in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 using Taguchi DOE.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis; Das, Mira Debnath

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of individual Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions upon the nutrient dynamics and cell morphology during submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 in a medium containing ample soluble starch, corn steep liquor and proteose peptone supply. Nutrient dynamics was elucidated using Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L8 orthogonal array (OA) with carbon, nitrogen and four most influensive microelements at their assigned ratio namely; K(+)/Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)/Na(+). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on morphological changes and nutrient dynamics during submerged fermentation. At higher K(+)/Ca(2+) ratio 4.78:1; the maximum growth was figured out in terms of dry weight, while the inhibition of dry weight production was observed at higher Mg(2+)/Na(+) ratio 0.94:1 with enhanced intracellular afp production. At lower C/N ratio 27.4:1; filamentous form of growth was maintained with the hyphae being scarcely branched without bulbous cells. Membrane perturbation due to the induction of intracellular oxidative stress was noticed at higher C/N ration. Taguchi DOE resulted in afp yield per substrate utilized, Y p/s of 1.08 mg g(-1) soluble starch utilized with gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of 23.9 g L(-1) while afp yield per biomass utilized resulted, Y p/x of 1.12 mg afp gdcw(-1) L(-1) and biomass yield per substrate utilized, Y x/s of 1.195 gdcw g(-1) L(-1). The present study revealed an opportunity to develop a cost effective methods for cell propagation so as to yield effective inoculum levels towards mass production and formulation studies.

  20. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  1. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens B; Kørup, Kirsten; Spitz, Idan; Sacks, Erik J; Long, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    A clone of the hybrid perennial C4 grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is known for achieving exceptionally high rates of leaf CO2 uptake during chilling. This is a requisite of success in the early spring, as is the ability of the leaves to survive occasional frosts. The aim of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied. Accessions whose leaves survived a natural late frost in the field were screened for high maximum photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) following chilling weather, as an indicator of their capacity for light-limited photosynthesis. Those showing the highest Fv/Fm were transferred to a high-light-controlled environment and maintained at chilling temperatures, where they were further screened for their capacities for high-light-limited and light-saturated leaf uptake of CO2 (ΦCO2,max and Asat, respectively). For the first time, relatives of Mxg with significantly superior capacities for photosynthesis at chilling temperatures were identified. Msa accession '73/2' developed leaves in the spring that survived night-time frost, and during growth under chilling maintained a statistically significant 79 % higher ΦCO2,max, as a measure of light-limited photosynthesis, and a 70 % higher Asat, as a measure of light-saturated photosynthesis. A second Msa accession, '73/3' also showed significantly higher rates of leaf uptake of CO2. As remarkable as Mxg has proved in its chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis, this study shows that there is still value and potential in searching for yet more superior tolerance. Msa accession '73/2' shows rates of light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis at chilling temperatures that are comparable with those of the most cold-tolerant C3 species. This adds

  2. The Coordination of C4 Photosynthesis and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism in Maize and Miscanthus × giganteus in Response to Transient Changes in Light Quality1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Walker, Berkley J.; Kramer, David M.; Cousins, Asaph B.

    2014-01-01

    Unequal absorption of photons between photosystems I and II, and between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells, are likely to affect the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in C4 plants. Under steady-state conditions, it is expected that the biochemical distribution of energy (ATP and NADPH) and photosynthetic metabolite concentrations will adjust to maintain the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis through the coordination of the C3 (Calvin-Benson-Bassham) and C4 (CO2 pump) cycles. However, under transient conditions, changes in light quality will likely alter the coordination of the C3 and C4 cycles, influencing rates of CO2 assimilation and decreasing the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism. To test these hypotheses, we measured leaf gas exchange, leaf discrimination, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrochromatic shift, photosynthetic metabolite pools, and chloroplast movement in maize (Zea mays) and Miscanthus × giganteus following transitional changes in light quality. In both species, the rate of net CO2 assimilation responded quickly to changes in light treatments, with lower rates of net CO2 assimilation under blue light compared with red, green, and blue light, red light, and green light. Under steady state, the efficiency of CO2-concentrating mechanisms was similar; however, transient changes affected the coordination of C3 and C4 cycles in M. giganteus but to a lesser extent in maize. The species differences in the ability to coordinate the activities of C3 and C4 cycles appear to be related to differences in the response of cyclic electron flux around photosystem I and potentially chloroplast rearrangement in response to changes in light quality. PMID:24488966

  3. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tolerance evaluation of vegetatively established Miscanthus x giganteus to herbicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In spite of the recent focus on herbicide resistant weeds, herbicide resistant weeds are not new to agriculture; the first herbicide resistant weed was documented in 1957, with the first widespread resistance occurring in common groundsel with atrazine in the early 1970’s. Glyphosate resistant weed...

  5. Water absorption and tensile strength degradation of Petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) fiber—reinforced polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judawisastra, H.; Sitohang, R. D. R.; Rosadi, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo fibers have attracted great interest and are believed to have the potential as natural fiber for reinforcing polymer composites. This research aims to study water absorption behavior and its effect to tensile strength of the composites made from petung bamboo fiber, which is one of the most grown bamboo species in Indonesia. Unidirectional (UD) and random composites were manufactured using wet hand lay-up method. Examinations were carried out by means of boiling water immersion test, tensile test, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Water absorption of UD petung bamboo fiber/polyester composites is higher than that of random composites, i.e. 3.6% compared to 2.2%. This was due to higher fiber volume fraction of the UD composites. Water absorption caused irreversible tensile strength degradation on the composites. The initial properties of the composites were not recovered even after drying. The absorbed water decreased the tensile strength by 6% in UD composites and 38% in random composites. This was most likely to occur due to the permanent interfacial degradation.

  6. In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.

    PubMed

    Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.

  7. Evaluating the influence of wind speed on caryopsis dispersal of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus x. giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the increasing demand for alternative energy sources, perennial grasses are being evaluated for biomass production on large scales. Yet there is concern that some candidate species have the potential to escape cultivation and invade natural areas. Therefore, it is important that components of...

  8. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production.

  9. Biomass and bioethanol production from Miscanthus x giganteus in Arkansas, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants fix about 56 billion tons of CO2 and produce more than 170 billion tons of biomass annually, with cell walls representing about 70% of that biomass. This biomass represents a massive source of stored solar energy. Globally, a major technological goal is cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol ...

  10. Southern giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus nest attendance patterns under extreme weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Uwe Horst; Krüger, Lucas; Petry, Maria Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Differences in nest attendance between genders in seabirds may be related to morphological differences. Southern giant petrel is a dimorphic species with gender-specific foraging behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in nest attendance during the breeding period of southern giant petrels by presence/absence patterns of both sexes during incubation and compare use of the colony after nest failure. Fourteen birds were tagged with digitally coded radio-transmitters in a colony at Elephant Island, Antarctica, in the beginning of 2009/2010 breeding season. Females were present during 18 periods (min. 3 days, max. 9 days) and males only in five periods (min. 2 days, max. 13 days). The difference in mean number of radio signals per day between females (4330; s.e. 313.5) and males (2691; s.e. 248.6) was highly significant (t = 4.3; d.f. = 199; P < 0.001; Fig. 4 ). As consequence of the severe weather conditions that year, all tagged birds failed to reproduce. After abandonment of the nests, the presence of both genders decreased drastically, although the tagged individuals stayed in the area. Under severe weather conditions female Southern Giant Petrels continue breeding while males abandon the nest earlier.

  11. Managing spread from rhizome fragments is key to reducing invasiveness in Miscanthus x giganteus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developing strategies to mitigate the risk of potentially invasive crop species requires experiments that test the ability of candidate species to establish in surrounding habitats. We followed the establishment success of two candidate Miscanthus species for five years. They were introduced into tw...

  12. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J.; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J.; McKee, Jeff J.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary We designed a programme to control free-ranging kangaroos on a Queensland golf course, using contraceptive implants in females and vasectomisation or testicle removal in males. This reduced the numbers of pouch young to about one half of pre-intervention levels and controlled the population over a 2–4 year period. However, the necessary darting caused a mortality rate of 5–10% of captured animals, mainly due to complications before and after anaesthesia. It is concluded that population control is possible but careful management of kangaroos around the time of anaesthesia induction and recovery is important in such programmes to minimise losses. Abstract Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control. PMID:26480325

  13. Kinetics of levulinic acid and furfural production from Miscanthus × giganteus.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K; Girisuta, B; Haverty, D; Leahy, J J; Hayes, M H B

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of acid hydrolysis of the cellulose and hemicellulose in Miscanthus to produce levulinic acid and furfural under mild temperature and high acid concentration. Experiments were carried out in an 8L-batch reactor with 9%-wt. biomass loading, acid concentrations between 0.10 and 0.53 M H2SO4, and at temperatures between 150 and 200°C. The concentrations of xylose, glucose, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were used in two mechanistic kinetic models for the prediction of the performance of ideal continuous reactors for the optimisation of levulinic acid and the concurrent production of furfural. A two-stage arrangement was found to maximise furfural in the first reactor (PFR - 185°C, 0.5M H2SO4, 27.3%-mol). A second stage leads to levulinic acid yields between 58% and 72%-mol at temperatures between 160 and 200°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring of a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus population on the Frazier Islands, Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creuwels, J.C.S.; Stark, J.S.; Woehler, Eric J.; Van Franeker, J. A.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1956, Southern Giant Petrels on the Frazier Islands, East Antarctica, have been counted with different census techniques, sometimes varying within seasons and among islands, which hindered analysis of the data. Protective measures for the islands from 1986 onwards have increased the need for reliable long-term census data, but reduced the ways to collect these data. Published and unpublished data were re-examined, and population trends were reconstructed based on two relatively standardised techniques: the number of active chicks (AC) and the number of apparently occupied nests (AON) around hatching. AC-values from Nelly Island from 1959 to 1998 indicate substantial periodic fluctuations, but no consistent long-term change. Since the late 1970s, AC-values on the other two islands and AON-values suggest that the breeding population may have grown by 35%. This recent growth, however, is within the extent of periodic fluctuations observed in Southern Giant Petrel population that is stable over the long term. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  15. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.

    2012-01-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

  16. Simultaneous determination of 12 coumarins in bamboo leaves by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuying; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde; Yao, Xi; Wei, Qi; Yu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive HPLC-UV method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 12 coumarin compounds (skimin, scopolin, scopoletin, umbelliferone, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, coumarin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, pimpinellin, imperatorin, and osthole) in bamboo leaves. The samples were extracted with ethanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) by ultrasonication and purified by Florisil SPE. The method was validated for linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and recovery. The standard curves in the corresponding ranges had good linearity. LOD was at the range of 0.19 to 0.85 mglkg and LOQ 0.64 to 2.82 mg/kg. The values of RSD for accuracy and intraday and interday precision were less than 3%, except for 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin. Recoveries from spiked samples at 30, 20, and 10 mg/kg in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were higher than 70%, except for scopoletin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and coumarin. The method was validated using field-collected samples taken from Beijing and Changning Counties, SiChuan, China. Six coumarins, namely, skimin, scopolin, scopoletin, umbelliferone, coumarin, and pimpinellin, were found in the extracts of 11 species of bamboo leaves. The concentrations of total coumarins were in the range of 8.67 to 99.2 mg/kg. The maximum concentration of total coumarins was found in Bambusa pervariabilis, and the minimum was in

  17. Identification of a Sturtian cap carbonate in the Neoproterozoic Sete Lagoas carbonate platform, Bambuí Group, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ader, Magali

    2007-03-01

    A sedimentological and C-O isotopic study has been carried out in nine sections of the Sete Lagoas Formation at its classical outcropping area, in the southern tip of the São Francisco craton (central Brazil), with the objective of refining its stratigraphic position within the Neoproterozoic. At the study area, the Neoproterozoic Sete Lagoas Formation comprises two shallowing-upward megacycles, corresponding to more than 200 m in thickness. Each cycle is limited by a flooding surface amalgamated with a third-order sequence boundary. The first megacycle presents deep-platform deposits with abundance of crystal fans (aragonite pseudomorphs). These deposits are characterized by negative C-isotope values (-4.5‰). They grade upward to storm-wave and tide-influenced layers with δ13C values around 0‰. In the second megacycle, a new transgression drowned the platform, depositing a thick, mixed sub-storm wave-base succession. This megacycle comprises deposits of lime mudstone-pelite rhythmite, which grade to crystalline limestone rich in organic matter, both with unusually positive δ13C values (up to + 14‰). Regional correlation of Sete Lagoas deposits indicate that they rest atop glaciomarine rocks of the Macaúbas Group and basal strata show seafloor precipitates with negative δ13C values. Therefore, it is possible to characterize the Sete Lagoas carbonate as a cap carbonate sequence. The very high δ13C in the second megacycle together with geochronologic data suggest that this unit correlates better with post-Sturtian sequences. Some differences in the depositional record are observed between Sete Lagoas and the other post-Sturtian units previously described in North America, Australia, and Namibia. Those differences may in part be due to deposition in shallower settings of the Sete Lagoas carbonates, thus preserving a thick record of storm- and wave-influenced sedimentation not found elsewhere. Alternatively, they may also be attributed to diachronic deposition of the so-called post-Sturtian cap carbonate sequences.

  18. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Old, J M; Deane, E M

    2001-12-01

    Mesenteric lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from juvenile eastern grey kangaroos were investigated. The mesenteric nodes had a similar structure to that described for eutherian mammals. They contained distinct regions of medulla and cortex, with prominent follicles and germinal centres. Gut associated lymphoid tissue consisted of areas of submucosal follicles. These varied from areas of densely packed lymphocytes with darkly staining, prominent coronas to areas with no defined follicles. The distribution of T cells in these tissues was documented by use of species-crossreactive antibodies to the surface markers CD3 and CD5; B cells were identified by antibodies to CD79b. Within the lymph nodes T cells were located mainly in the paracortex and cortex, with limited numbers observed in the follicles; B cells were located on the marginal zone of the follicles. In GALT, T cells were located in the peripheral regions of the germinal centres of secondary follicles, while B cells were abundant in primary follicles. These observations are consistent with those made in a range of other marsupials (metatherian) and eutherian mammals and are indicative of the capacity to respond to antigens entering via the mouth.

  19. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  20. Minimizing invasive potential of Miscanthus × giganteus grown for bioenergy: identifying demographic thresholds for population growth and spread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of herbaceous perennial bioenergy crops in the north central region of the USA is being targeted primarily at marginal lands to avoid conflicts between food and fuel. A fundamental challenge for biofeedstock development is to evaluate and minimize the potential of such crops to escape cul...

  1. Purification of a marsupial insulin: amino-acid sequence of insulin from the eastern grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Treacy, G B; Shaw, D C; Griffiths, M E; Jeffrey, P D

    1989-03-24

    Insulin has been purified from kangaroo pancreas by acidic ethanol extraction, diethyl ether precipitation and gel filtration. The amino-acid sequence of this, the first marsupial insulin to be studied, is reported. It differs from human insulin by only four amino-acid substitutions, all in regions of the molecule previously known to be variable. However, it should be noted that one of these, asparagine for threonine at A8, has not been reported before. Computer comparisons of all 43 insulin sequences reported to date with kangaroo insulin show it to be most closely related to a group of mammalian insulins (dog, pig, cow, human) known to be of high biological potency. The measurement of blood glucose lowering in the rabbit by kangaroo insulin is consistent with this conclusion. Comparisons of amino-acid sequences of other proteins with their kangaroo counterparts show a greater difference, in line with the time of divergence of marsupials. The limited differences observed in insulin and cytochrome c suggest that their structures need to be closely conserved in order to maintain function.

  2. Comparison of sample pre-treatments for laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of Miscanthus x giganteus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2010-07-01

    Efforts to further the potential of the large perennial grass Miscanthusxgiganteus as a biofuel feedstock would be aided by the ability to image the chemical species present during the fuel production process. Toward this end, two mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches have been investigated here-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As a first step, cross sections of Miscanthus were subjected to a variety of sample preparation methods to optimize conditions for MSI. For LDI-MS, a thin metal coating (2 nm thick Au) provided high quality signals of saccharide-related ions. The traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, also showed high efficiency for the desorption of saccharide-related ions. In contrast, with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix, these ions were nearly absent in the mass spectra. Direct laser ablation of untreated Miscanthus sections was also performed. High resolution images, where the fine structure of the vascular bundle could be clearly visualized, were obtained using SIMS. Although coating the sections with a nanometer thick Au layer can greatly enhance the quality of SIMS images, the coating had limited effect on secondary ion signal enhancement. Using the optimized mass spectrometry approaches described here, information on the spatial distribution of several saccharides was obtained.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Vaz, Paola Karinna; Motha, Julian; McCowan, Christina; Ficorilli, Nino; Whiteley, Pam Lizette; Wilks, Colin Reginald; Hartley, Carol Anne; Gilkerson, James Rudkin; Browning, Glenn Francis; Devlin, Joanne Maree

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a macropodid herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteous) displaying clinical signs of respiratory disease and possibly neurologic disease. Sequence analysis of the herpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes revealed that the virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to macropodid herpesvirus 2 (MaHV-2) with 82.7% gG and 94.6% gB amino acid sequence identity. Serologic analyses showed similar cross-neutralization patterns to those of MaHV-2. The two viruses had different growth characteristics in cell culture. Most notably, this virus formed significantly larger plaques and extensive syncytia when compared with MaHV-2. No syncytia were observed for MaHV-2. Restriction endonuclease analysis of whole viral genomes demonstrated distinct restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns for all three macropodid herpesviruses. These studies suggest that a distinct macropodid alphaherpesvirus may be capable of infecting and causing disease in eastern grey kangaroos.

  4. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  5. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Bambusa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Xia, Nianhe; Lin, Rushun

    2005-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of Bambusa species were performed using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The 21 species sampled included members of Bambusa (sensu stricto), Dendrocalamopsis, Dendrocalamus, Guadua, Leleba, and Lingnania. Arundinaria gigantea was used as an outgroup. Using the maximum parsimony method with PAUP*, gaps were treated as missing states or new states. Parsimonious analysis revealed that Dendrocalamus latiflorus was closely related to the members of Dendrocalamopsis. Dendrocalamus membranaceus was a sister species to Dendrocalamus strictus. Three Dendrocalamus species were closely related to and nested in a polyphyletic Bambusa. Bambusa subaequalis was a sister species to B. multiplex, B. emeiensis to B. chungii, B. contracta to B. hainanensis, and B. flexuosa was a sister species to B. sinospinosa, B. tuldoides, B. surrecta, B. intermedia, and B. valida group, which raised doubts about the monophyly of the subgenera Bambusa (sensu stricto), Dendrocalamopsis, Leleba, and Lingnania under the genus Bambusa.

  7. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unilateral failure of development of mandibular premolars and molars in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and its effects on molar progression.

    PubMed

    Barber, D; Campbell, J; Davey, J; Luke, T; Agren, E; Beveridge, I

    2008-01-01

    An adult male Eastern Grey kangaroo from a wildlife reserve near Melbourne was submitted for necropsy examination and was discovered to have abnormal dentition. There was no evidence that any premolars or molars had ever been present on the right mandible, whilst the incisors were normal. The age of the kangaroo was estimated to be 1 year 9 months using the right maxillary molars and 2 years 4 months old using the contralateral side, presumably due to the asymmetry of the dental arcades. 'Lumpy jaw', a common periodontal disease of kangaroos, from which Bacteroides sp was cultured, was present on the base of the vertical ramus of the left mandible. Complete unilateral absence of premolar and molar teeth in the mandible of a kangaroo has not been described. This condition affected molar progression in both sets of maxillary molars.

  9. Maximizing ecosystem services in the design of agroecosystems:implications of integrating field to watershed heterogeneity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, biofuel crops, such as switch grass, energy cane, Miscanthus giganteus, and napier grass, have received much attention as a way to produce renewable sources of fuel. Miscanthus giganteus is an example of a robust and non-invasive “biofeedstock” plant that has already been shown to have hig...

  10. Root biomass and soil carbon response to growing perennial grasses for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dedicated bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), miscanthus [Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg)], indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) can provide cellulosic feedstock for biofuel production while maintaining or improving soil and en...

  11. Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus x giganteus, Saccharum spp. (energy cane), and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) are three potential biomass crops being evaluated for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to these crops. Therefore, identification of viruses infecting t...

  12. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-01-01

    To assess the dust interception efficiency of some selected tree species and impact of dust deposition on chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of leaves the present study was undertaken. The plant species selected for the study were Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Psidium guajava, and Dendrocalamus strictus. It was found that all species have maximum dust deposition in the winter season followed by summer and rainy seasons. Chlorophyll content decreased and ascorbic acid content increased with the increase of dust deposition. There was significant negative and positive correlation between dust deposition and chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, respectively. Maximum dust interception was done by Dalbergia sisso and least by Dendrocalamus strictus. Thus plants can be used to intercept dust particles which are of potential health hazards to humans.

  13. Assessing genetic diversity in a sugarcane germplasm collection using an automated AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Besse, P; Taylor, G; Carroll, B; Berding, N; Burner, D; McIntyre, C L

    1998-10-01

    An assessment of genetic diversity within and between Saccharum, Old World Erianthus sect. Ripidium, and North American E.giganteus (S.giganteum) was conducted using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP(TM)) markers. An automated gel scoring system (GelCompar(TM)) was successfully used to analyse the complex AFLP patterns obtained in sugarcane and its relatives. Similarity coefficient calculations and clustering revealed a genetic structure for Saccharum and Erianthus sect. Ripidium that was identical to the one previously obtained using other molecular marker types, showing the appropriateness of AFLP markers and the associated automated analysis in assessing genetic diversity in sugarcane. A genetic structure that correlated with cytotype (2n=30, 60, 90) was revealed within the North American species, E. giganteus (S.giganteum). Complex relationships among Saccharum, Erianthus sect. Ripidium, and North American E.giganteus were revealed and are discussed in the light of a similar study which involved RAPD markers.

  14. [How health activities view man and how man rethinks them: an anthropological analysis of Chagas disease control].

    PubMed

    Magnani, Claudia; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Gontijo, Eliane Dias

    2009-09-01

    This anthropological study addresses the cultural perceptions of a group of residents in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in relation to experience with Chagas disease and the impact of health measures on social life. The ethnographic study was based on open interviews, seeking to identify individual perceptions among 35 inhabitants of Bambuí (with and without Chagas disease) living in the region since the 1940s, when Chagas disease control activities were launched. Within a broad analysis of social perceptions concerning the effect of these health measures, the study sought to observe the cultural representations of the illness process. The study is intended to contribute to comprehensive work in health interventions, including the target population's socio-cultural characteristics. The cultural perspective plays an important role in preventing social distress.

  15. Perennial biomass grasses and the Mason-Dixon Line: Comparative productivity across latitudes in the southern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding latitudinal adaptation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J. M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize) to the southern Great Plains is key to maximizing productivity by matching each grass variety to its ideal production environment. Objectives of...

  16. Management factors affecting establishment and yield of bioenergy miscanthus on claypan soil landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has been well studied for its establishment and yield in Europe and certain parts of the US Midwest but little has been done to investigate these properties when grown on degraded soils, which are typified as being less productive, and consequently, economically...

  17. Biomass yield comparisons of giant miscanthus, giant reed, and miscane grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated efforts to decrease the nation’s dependence on imported oil by developing domestic renewable sources of cellulosic-derived bioenergy. In this study, giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.), and giant reed (Ar...

  18. Clash of the Titans: Comparing productivity via radiation use efficiency for two grass giants of the biofuel field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The comparative productivity of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) is of critical importance to the biofuel industry. The radiation use efficiency (RUE), when derived in an environment with non-limiting soil water and soil nutrients, provides one metric of re...

  19. Miscanthus productivity and nutrient export on 22 producer fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On-farm assessments of Miscanthus × giganteus growth and nutrition across a wide range of management and environmental conditions are needed to determine and model how this crop performs and where it should be placed on the landscape. Therefore, Miscanthus growth and nutrition were monitored during ...

  20. A stochastic approach for predicting the profitability of bioenergy grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) have potential to meet a growing demand for renewable energy. Before producers will invest in planting these crops, they need credible estimations of the potential profits. The objective of this study was to examine profitabilit...

  1. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... giganteus) as a dedicated energy crop to be grown in the Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company submitted a proposal to the Farm..., Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania sponsored by Aloterra Energy LLC and MFA Oil Biomass LLC is now...

  2. 76 FR 65493 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under the Biomass Crop Assistance Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) as a dedicated energy crop to be grown in the REPREVE Renewables, LLC... Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). This notice provides a means for the public to voice any...

  3. Impact of rhizome quality on miscanthus establishment in claypan soil landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thousands of degraded-soil hectares in the U.S. Midwest have been planted to Miscanthus × giganteus as an industrial or bioenergy crop in recent years, but few studies on factors affecting crop establishment have been performed on these soils. The objective of this study was to quantify how both rhi...

  4. Nitrogen management of switchgrass and miscanthus on marginal soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus × giganteus and switchgrass yield and fertilizer N requirements have been well studied in Europe and parts of the United States, but few reports have investigated their production on eroded claypan soils economically marginal for grain crops. This study was conducted to evaluate yield pot...

  5. Carbon exchange by establishing biofuel crops in Central Illinois

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial grass biofuels may contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in soils, thereby providing a broad range of environmental benefits at multiple scales. To quantify those benefits, the carbon balance was investigated over three perennial grass biofuel crops miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus)...

  6. Short term impacts provide a management window for minimizing invasions from bioenergy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In anticipation of the expansion of perennial bioenergy cultivation, we experimentally introduced Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus × giganteus (two non-native candidate bioenergy species) into two different non-crop habitats (old field and flood-plain forest) to evaluate their establishment succes...

  7. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Caribbean Islands Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Southern cattail or yerba eneas (Typha domingensis), giant flatsedge or junco de ciénaga (Cyperus giganteus), and Jamaica swamp sawgrass (Cladium...created either deliberately or inadvertently by human activities. Furthermore, many areas that were cleared and drained in the past for agriculture...topography, soils, natural and human -caused disturbances, and current and historical plant distributional patterns at various spatial scales

  8. Adult activity and oviposition of corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Miscanthus, corn, and switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of the biomass crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize) to support larval development for both United States (U.S.) and European populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggests an avenue for potential i...

  9. Managing Perennial Monocultures for Ecosystem Services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are perennial grasses that can provide both renewable energy and ecosystem services, but the extent to which they do depends strongly on crop management. Nutrient use efficiency and wildlife habitat provision are influenced pr...

  10. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  11. Adaptation of C4 bioenergy crop species to various environments within the Southern Great Plains of U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As high productivities of perennial grasses are evaluated for feedstock, a major consideration is biomass stability. In this study, two experiments were conducted to examine some components of this for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L.) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg). The po...

  12. Extending Miscanthus Cultivation with Novel Germplasm at Six Contrasting Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Olena; Nunn, Christopher; Sanderson, Ruth; Hastings, Astley F. S.; van der Weijde, Tim; Özgüven, Mensure; Tarakanov, Ivan; Schüle, Heinrich; Trindade, Luisa M.; Dolstra, Oene; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Iqbal, Yasir; Kiesel, Andreas; Mos, Michal; Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a genus of perennial rhizomatous grasses with C4 photosynthesis which is indigenous in a wide geographic range of Asian climates. The sterile clone, Miscanthus × giganteus (M. × giganteus), is a naturally occurring interspecific hybrid that has been used commercially in Europe for biomass production for over a decade. Although, M. × giganteus has many outstanding performance characteristics including high yields and low nutrient offtakes, commercial expansion is limited by cloning rates, slow establishment to a mature yield, frost, and drought resistance. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of 13 novel germplasm types alongside M. × giganteus and horticultural “Goliath” in trials in six sites (in Germany, Russia, The Netherlands, Turkey, UK, and Ukraine). Mean annual yields across all the sites and genotypes increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 t dry matter ha−1 following the first year of growth, to 7.3 ± 0.3, 9.5 ± 0.3, and 10.5 ± 0.2 t dry matter ha−1 following the second, third, and fourth years, respectively. The highest average annual yields across locations and four growth seasons were observed for M. × giganteus (9.9 ± 0.7 t dry matter ha−1) and interspecies hybrid OPM-6 (9.4 ± 0.6 t dry matter ha−1). The best of the new hybrid genotypes yielded similarly to M. × giganteus at most of the locations. Significant effects of the year of growth, location, species, genotype, and interplay between these factors have been observed demonstrating strong genotype × environment interactions. The highest yields were recorded in Ukraine. Time needed for the crop establishment varied depending on climate: in colder climates such as Russia the crop has not achieved its peak yield by the fourth year, whereas in the hot climate of Turkey and under irrigation the yields were already high in the first growing season. We have identified several alternatives to M. × giganteus which have provided stable yields across wide climatic ranges, mostly

  13. Breeding system and pollination of two closely related bamboo species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Na; Cui, Yong-Zhong; Wong, Khoon-Meng; Li, De-Zhu; Yang, Han-Qi

    2017-05-01

    An understanding of the breeding systems and pollination of agriculturally important plants is critical to germplasm improvement. Breeding system characteristics greatly influence the amount and spatial distribution of genetic variation within and amongst populations and influence the rarity and extinction vulnerability of plant species. Many woody bamboos have a long vegetative period (20-150 years) followed by gregarious monocarpy. Relatively, little is known about their pollination and breeding systems. We studied these characteristics in wild Dendrocalamus membranaceus populations and cultivated Dendrocalamus sinicus populations distributed in the Yunnan Province of China. Floral morphology, flower visitors and breeding system were studied from 2013 to 2015. Both bamboos were protogynous, but flowering periods of florets overlapped providing opportunities for self-pollination amongst florets, especially in D. membranaceus. There was no agamospermy in either species. Seed set of D. sinicus was low (0.42 ± 0.42 %) under natural pollination but higher (8.89 ± 2.55 %) after artificial xenogamy. Seed set of D. membranaceus was higher (7.49 ± 0.82 %) in mass flowering populations and 2.14 ± 0.25 % in sporadically flowering populations. The Asian honeybee Apis cerana could provide cross-pollination of D. membranaceus and D. sinicus, and flower visitation peaked at 1000-1200 h. Pollination limitation due to lack of pollinators or pollen was detected in the cultivated populations of D. sinicus and sporadically flowering populations of D. membranaceus. Pollination limitation was not obvious within mass flowering populations. Hand pollination could significantly increase seed set of these two bamboo species. Dendrocalamus membranaceus and D. sinicus were self-compatible and have a mixed-mating system with outcrossing being pre-dominant. Their seed production was limited by the quantity of pollen and pollinator activity. Honeybees were

  14. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  15. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth.

  16. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Hapukotuwa, Nirmala K; Grace, J Kenneth

    2011-11-03

    Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009). Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers); and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0-10) were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13-29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia of 10 wild mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Fatih; Oskay, Mustafa; Sağlam, Hüsniye; Erdoğan, Tuğçe Fafal; Tamer, A Usame

    2010-04-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia obtained from 10 wild edible mushrooms-Armillaria mellea, Meripilus giganteus, Morchella costata, Morchella elata, Morchella esculenta var. vulgaris, Morchella hortensis, Morchella rotunda, Paxillus involutus, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus ostreatus-were investigated. For determination of antimicrobial activities of these mushrooms, ethanol extracts were examined with 11 test microorganisms by the agar well diffusion method. P. ostreatus and M. giganteus were the most active species against both bacteria and yeast. Antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts were studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Among the mushroom extracts, M. elata showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. This research has shown that these 10 wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants and antibiotics.

  18. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    DOE PAGES

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; ...

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced formore » M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.« less

  19. Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Blum, Lauren S; Husain, M Mushtaq; Gurley, Emily; Khan, Rasheda; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Rahman, Shafiqur; Nahar, Nazmun; Kenah, Eben; Comer, James A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2006-12-01

    We investigated an outbreak of encephalitis in Tangail District, Bangladesh. We defined case-patients as persons from the outbreak area in whom fever developed with new onset of seizures or altered mental status from December 15, 2004, through January 31, 2005. Twelve persons met the definition; 11 (92%) died. Serum specimens were available from 3; 2 had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Nipah virus by capture enzyme immunoassay. We enrolled 11 case-patients and 33 neighborhood controls in a case-control study. The only exposure significantly associated with illness was drinking raw date palm sap (64% among case-patients vs. 18% among controls, odds ratio [OR] 7.9, p = 0.01). Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) are a nuisance to date palm sap collectors because the bats drink from the clay pots used to collect the sap at night. This investigation suggests that Nipah virus was transmitted from P. giganteus to persons through drinking fresh date palm sap.

  20. Traditional herbal remedies and dietary spices from Cameroon as novel sources of larvicides against filariasis mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Fogang, Hervet Paulin Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Barboni, Luciano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils were obtained from different plant parts by hydrodistillation and their composition was analysed by GC-MS. The three spices exhibited different volatile chemical profiles, being characterized by 1,8-cineole, sabinene and β-pinene (A. daniellii), geraniol and terpinen-4-ol (D. cinerea), and silphiperfol-6-ene and presilphiperfolan-8-ol (E. giganteus). Results showed that the highest larvicidal toxicity on Cx. quinquefasciatus was exerted by D. cinerea essential oil (LC50 = 39.1 μL L(-1)), followed by A. daniellii (pericarp essential oil: LC50 = 65.5 μL L(-1); leaves: LC50 = 65.5μL L(-1); seeds: LC50 = 106.5μL L(-1)) and E. giganteus (LC50 = 227.4 μL L(-1)). Overall, the chance to use the D. cinerea essential oil against Cx. quinquefasciatus young instars seems promising, since it is effective at moderate doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer mosquito control tools.

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Plants to Produce Precursors (Phloroglucinol and 1,2,4-butanetriol) of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    introduced into Miscanthus, a non-food crop that is known to grow well on marginal soils with minimum or no inputs. Transformation of plants will be done...Figure. 2. Miscanthus giganteus plants growing in tissue culture (left) and in soil (right) E. Work Plan: 1) Generation of transgenic ...Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial PhlD gene We will amplify PhlD by PCR using the genomic DNA from Pseudomonas fluorescens pf-5. We will verify the

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Plants to Produce Precursors (Phloroglucinol and 1,2,4-butanetriol) of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    culture grown plants and inflorescence yielded good callus induction. We are now using the root and inflorescence calli to develop regeneration and... inflorescence ) from Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus, a triploid species) were used for callus induction (Figure 5). We have tried 126 hormonal...combinations for each tissue. Leaves did not produce callus in any hormonal combinations. Roots and inflorescence produce good calli under a few

  3. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  4. Nuclear SSR markers for Miscanthus, Saccharum, and related grasses (Saccharinae, Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Trevor R.; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Barth, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the characterization of the biomass crop Miscanthus, especially M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and tested for cross-species amplification. • Methods and Results: Twenty-nine SSR markers (di- and tetranucleotide repeats) were developed from DNA sequences obtained from 192 clones from an enriched genomic library of M. sinensis. All markers were successfully amplified in M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and 19 amplified across a broad range of Miscanthus species. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity values (19 locus sample) were 0.88 and 0.89, respectively, for M. sinensis, 0.48 and 0.54 for M. sacchariflorus, and were the lowest in M. ×giganteus (0.33, 0.41). Thirteen out of 19 primer pairs showed cross-species amplification in non-Miscanthus sensu stricto taxa. • Conclusions: The new set of 29 SSR markers will be of high value for characterizing Miscanthus germplasm collections, for prebreeding, and for assessing variation in natural populations. PMID:25202497

  5. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  6. Molecular detection of hybridization between sympatric kangaroo species in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Neaves, L E; Zenger, K R; Cooper, D W; Eldridge, M D B

    2010-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization has traditionally been regarded as rare in many vertebrate groups, including mammals. Despite a propensity to hybridize in captivity, introgression has rarely been reported between wild sympatric macropodid marsupials. Here we investigate sympatric populations of western (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern (Macropus giganteus) grey kangaroos through 12 autosomal microsatellite loci and 626 bp of the hypervariable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. M. fuliginosus and M. giganteus within the region of sympatry corresponded, both genetically and morphologically, to their respective species elsewhere in their distributions. Of the 223 grey kangaroos examined, 7.6% displayed evidence of introgression, although no F1 hybrids were detected. In contrast to captive studies, there was no evidence for unidirectional hybridization in sympatric grey kangaroos. However, a higher portion of M. giganteus backcrosses existed within the sample compared with M. fuliginosus. Hybridization in grey kangaroos is reflective of occasional breakdowns in species boundaries, occurring throughout the region and potentially associated with variable conditions and dramatic reductions in densities. Such rare hybridization events allow populations to incorporate novel diversity while still retaining species integrity.

  7. A comparison of canopy evapotranspiration between perennial rhizomatous grasses and Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, G.; Bernacchi, C.; Dohleman, F.

    2008-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock based liquid fuel economy. The current focus on using these vegetation types as a source of renewable fuel has sparked numerous concerns associated with environmental impacts. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on local and regional hydrological cycles. We hypothesize that evapotranspiration, ET, will be higher for perennial grasses relative to maize as a result higher leaf area, higher above-ground biomass and prolonged growing seasons. To test this hypothesis, a technique in which ET is estimated as the residual in the energy balance equation from measurements of net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes was employed. Measurements were made during the 2007 growing season for three replicate plots of the perennial rhizomatous grasses Miscanthus giganteus and Panicum virgatum, as well as for Zea mays planted at the University of Illinois South Farms. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for M. giganteus was double relative to Z. mays, and 130% of P. virgatum ET. When compared over the periods in which all three species experienced mature and closed canopies (from day of year 200 to 250), M. giganteus still showed higher rates of ET compared with Z. mays, however, the increase was only ~15%. We conclude that ET associated with perennial alternative energy crops are higher relative to annual row crop; with most ET disparity, particularly for P. virgatum, being driven by phenology, quicker canopy closure and a prolonged growing season. Physiological rates of ET were highest for M. giganteus, followed by Z. mays, followed P. virgatum. Differences in phenology were more important than those of physiology for ET overshadowing effects from increased biomass associated with M. giganteus and/or a physiological difference between these

  8. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin.

  9. Flying-fox (Pteropus spp.) sperm membrane fatty acid composition, its relationship to cold shock injury and implications for cryopreservation success.

    PubMed

    Melville, D F; Johnston, S D; Miller, R R

    2012-12-01

    The very large acrosome of Pteropus species spermatozoa is prone to damage during cooling procedures. Cryogenic succuss has been linked to membrane composition, therefore the lipid composition of five Pteropus species sperm acrosomal and plasma membranes were investigated to provide insight into reasons for cold shock susceptibility. Rapid chilling and re-warming of spermatozoa from three Pteropus species resulted in a decrease (P<0.05) in acrosomal integrity. Biochemical analysis of lipids revealed that stearic acid (18:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1, n-9) the predominant unsaturated fatty acid in both acrosomal and plasma membranes. Linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) was only detected in plasma membranes of Pteropus hypomelanus and was detected in acrosomal membranes of all Pteropus spp. studied (except Pteropus giganteus). Although detected in both plasma and acrosomal membranes of Pteropus vampyrus, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) was not detected at all in Pteropus poliocephalus, only in trace levels in the acrosomal and plasma membranes of P. giganteus and P. hypomelanus and not in acrosomal membranes of Pteropus rodricensis. No difference was seen in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) within plasma membranes, however PUFAs were lower (P<0.05) in acrosomal membranes of P. giganteus compared with P. vampyrus. Pteropus spp. spermatozoa have a very low ratio of unsaturated/saturated membrane fatty acids (<0.5). Membranes containing more PUFAs are more fluid, so the use of cryogenic media which improves membrane fluidity should improve Pteropus spp. spermatozoal viability post-thaw. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Revision of the Taiwanese species of the genus Leptophion Cameron, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae), with a discussion of their phenology and distribution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, So; Watanabe, Kyohei; Maeto, Kaoru

    2016-07-26

    We revise the Taiwanese species of the ophionine genus Leptophion Cameron, 1901. As a result, three species, including a new species, are recognized. Two of them were identified as L. maculipennis (Cameron, 1905) and L. radiatus (Uchida, 1956), both of which had been previously recorded in Taiwan; we redescribe them based on Taiwanese specimens. We describe a single new species as L. giganteus Shimizu & Watanabe, sp. nov. The phenology and distribution of the species are briefly discussed. A key to the Taiwanese species of Leptophion and additional couplets to the key proposed by Gauld & Mitchell (1981) are also provided.

  11. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-06-01

    The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M × giganteus 'Hornum'. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for genotype screening of productivity and cold tolerance. © The

  12. Marker-Trait Association for Biomass Yield of Potential Bio-fuel Feedstock Miscanthus sinensis from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Gang; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Taylor, Megan; Jiang, Yiwei; Yu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Xinchun; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    As a great potential bio-fuel feedstock, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world, especially Miscanthus × giganteus owing to its high biomass yield in Europe and North America. However, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics of M. × giganteus have become a limitation for utilization and adaptation to extreme climate conditions. In this study, we focused on one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis, which was originally distributed in East Asia with abundant genetic resources and comparable biomass yield potential to M. × giganteus in some areas. A collection of 138 individuals was selected for conducting a 3-year trial of biomass production and analyzed by using 104 pairs of SRAP, ISAP, and SSR primers for genetic diversity as well as marker-trait association. Significant differences in biomass yield and related traits were observed among individuals. Tiller number, fresh biomass yield per plant and dry biomass yield per plant had a high level of phenotypic variation among individuals and the coefficient of variation were all above 40% in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The majority of the traits had a significant correlation with the biomass yield except for the length and width of flag leaves. Plant height was a highly stable trait correlated with biomass yield. A total of 1059 discernible loci were detected by markers across individuals. The population structure (Q) and cluster analyses identified three subpopulations in the collection and family relative kinship (K) represented high gene flow among M. sinensis populations from Southwest China. Model testing identified that Q+K was the best model for describing the associations between the markers and traits, compared to the simple linear, Q or K model. Using the Q+K model, 12 significant associations (P < 0.001) were identified including four markers with plant height and one with biomass yield. Such associations would serve an efficient tool for an early

  13. Marker-Trait Association for Biomass Yield of Potential Bio-fuel Feedstock Miscanthus sinensis from Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Gang; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Taylor, Megan; Jiang, Yiwei; Yu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Xinchun; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    As a great potential bio-fuel feedstock, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world, especially Miscanthus × giganteus owing to its high biomass yield in Europe and North America. However, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics of M. × giganteus have become a limitation for utilization and adaptation to extreme climate conditions. In this study, we focused on one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis, which was originally distributed in East Asia with abundant genetic resources and comparable biomass yield potential to M. × giganteus in some areas. A collection of 138 individuals was selected for conducting a 3-year trial of biomass production and analyzed by using 104 pairs of SRAP, ISAP, and SSR primers for genetic diversity as well as marker-trait association. Significant differences in biomass yield and related traits were observed among individuals. Tiller number, fresh biomass yield per plant and dry biomass yield per plant had a high level of phenotypic variation among individuals and the coefficient of variation were all above 40% in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The majority of the traits had a significant correlation with the biomass yield except for the length and width of flag leaves. Plant height was a highly stable trait correlated with biomass yield. A total of 1059 discernible loci were detected by markers across individuals. The population structure (Q) and cluster analyses identified three subpopulations in the collection and family relative kinship (K) represented high gene flow among M. sinensis populations from Southwest China. Model testing identified that Q+K was the best model for describing the associations between the markers and traits, compared to the simple linear, Q or K model. Using the Q+K model, 12 significant associations (P < 0.001) were identified including four markers with plant height and one with biomass yield. Such associations would serve an efficient tool for an early

  14. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Methods Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m–2 s–1 (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for

  15. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  16. Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Christiane Santos; dos Santos, José Eloy; Medeiros, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso; Furtado, Eliana; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years. PMID:24831551

  17. Insomnia Subtypes and Their Relationship to Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Brazilian Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Cláudia; Stewart, Robert; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Fuzikawa, Cíntia; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia O.A.; Castro-Costa, Érico

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between different types of insomnia as exposures and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) as a binary outcome in older Brazilian residents. Design: The baseline examination of the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study (BHAS), which is an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study of older adults. Setting: Bambuí (15,000 inhabitants), a city in the State of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil Participants: All residents aged ≥ 60 years were eligible to take part in the BHAS baseline. Of 1742 residents identified who were ≥ 60 years, 1606 (92.2%) were interviewed and received comprehensive examinations of health status. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: EDS was defined as the presence of sleepiness ≥ 3 times per week in the last month, causing any interference in usual activities. All insomnia subtypes were significantly associated with EDS in unadjusted analyses, and these associations were only modestly altered after adjusting incrementally for the other covariates. In a final model, the 3 insomnia subtypes were entered into a fully adjusted model simultaneously to investigate mutual independence, giving prevalence ratios of 1.63 (95% CI 1.14-2.31) for initial insomnia, 2.13 (95% CI 1.48-3.07) for middle insomnia, and 1.36 (95% CI 0.94-1.96) for terminal insomnia. The population attributable fractions for initial, middle, and terminal insomnia on prevalence of EDS were 17.6%, 32.9%, and 9.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Middle insomnia emerged as the insomnia subtype most strongly associated with EDS. Further research is required to clarify causal pathways underlying this cross-sectional association. Citation: Hara C; Stewart R; Lima-Costa MF; Rocha FL; Fuzikawa C; Uchoa E; Firmo JOA; Castro-Costa E. Insomnia subtypes and their relationship to excessive daytime sleepiness in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1111-1117. PMID:21804673

  18. Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Agindotan, Bright O; Ahonsi, Monday O; Domier, Leslie L; Gray, Michael E; Bradley, Carl A

    2010-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus, energycane, and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) are three potential biomass crops being evaluated for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to these crops. Therefore, identification of viruses infecting these bioenergy crops is important for quarantine purposes, virus resistance breeding, and production of virus-free planting materials. The application is described of sequence-independent amplification, for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops. The method involves virus partial purification from a small amount of infected leaf tissue (miniprep), extraction of viral RNA, amplification of randomly primed cDNAs, cloning, sequencing, and BLAST searches for sequence homology in the GenBank. This method has distinct advantage over other virus characterization techniques in that it does not require reagent specific to target viruses. Using this method, a possible new species was identified in the genus Marafivirus in switchgrass related to Maize rayado fino virus, its closest relative currently in GenBank. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), genus Potyvirus, was identified in M.xgiganteus, energycane, corn (Zea mays), and switchgrass. Other viruses identified were: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), genus Potyvirus, in johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense); Soil borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), genus Furovirus, in wheat (Triticum aestivum); and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), genus Comovirus, in soybean (Glycine max). The method was as sensitive as conventional RT-PCR. This is the first report of a Marafivirus infecting switchgrass, and SCMV infecting both energycane and M. x giganteus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; Lacey, Jeffrey; Cortez, Marnie; Payne, Courtney; Karlen, Douglas; Birrell, Stuart; Laird, David; Kallenbach, Robert; Egenolf, Josh; Sousek, Matthew; Voigt, Thomas

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.

  20. Visualizing heterogeneity of photosynthetic properties of plant leaves with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Iermak, Ievgeniia; Vink, Jochem; Bader, Arjen N; Wientjes, Emilie; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the distribution and properties of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) in palisade and spongy chloroplasts of leaves from the C3 plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the C4 plant Miscanthus x giganteus. This was achieved by separating the time-resolved fluorescence of PSI and PSII in the leaf. It is found that the PSII antenna size is larger on the abaxial side of A. thaliana leaves, presumably because chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll are "shaded" by the palisade cells. The number of chlorophylls in PSI on the adaxial side of the A. thaliana leaf is slightly higher. The C4 plant M. x giganteus contains both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which have a different PSI/PSII ratio. It is shown that the time-resolved fluorescence of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells can be analysed separately. The relative number of chlorophylls, which belong to PSI (as compared to PSII) in the bundle sheath cells is at least 2.5 times higher than in mesophyll cells. FLIM is thus demonstrated to be a useful technique to study the PSI/PSII ratio and PSII antenna size in well-defined regions of plant leaves without having to isolate pigment-protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    PubMed

    Chouvarine, Philippe; Cooksey, Amanda M; McCarthy, Fiona M; Ray, David A; Baldwin, Brian S; Burgess, Shane C; Peterson, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations. A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  2. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  3. Seasonality and abundance of the mosquito Isostomyia paranensis from phytotelmata in temperate Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Micieli, María V; Macia, Arnaldo; Lounibos, L Philip; García, Juan J

    2007-09-01

    Sampling was conducted for 1 year in a marsh near Buenos Aires from axils of Scirpus giganteus, a larval habitat of the poorly known sabethine mosquito, Isostomyia paranensis. Immatures of this species were recovered on every sampling date, averaging 3-4/plant in April and decreasing to 0-1/plant in October-December. The spatial distribution of Is. paranensis immatures was clumped, and larval age skewed toward 1st instars. The percentage of mosquito-positive S. giganteus was negatively correlated with accumulated rainfall 1 wk before collection. Microcrustacea were the only other invertebrates common in this phytotelmata, and no parasites or pathogens were detected in Is. paranensis. Fourth instars of this species attacked and killed one another in the laboratory, but only algae were recovered from dissected digestive tracts of field-collected larvae. Adult females of this species emerged from independent collections of pupae refused blood, but females captured at human bait readily consumed human blood. Mean (+/- SD) number of eggs developed by females collected at human bait and fed with blood (77.4 +/- 22.8) was not significantly different from the mean number of eggs developed by females collected as pupae and fed on sugar (72.0 +/-23.0).

  4. A Strategy To Estimate Unknown Viral Diversity in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Murray, Kris A.; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M.; Solovyov, Alexander; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Arrigo, Nicole C.; Islam, Ariful; Ali Khan, Shahneaz; Hosseini, Parviez; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Olival, Kevin J.; Sanchez-Leon, Maria D.; Karesh, William B.; Goldstein, Tracey; Luby, Stephen P.; Morse, Stephen S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Daszak, Peter; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of emerging zoonoses originate in wildlife, and many are caused by viruses. However, there are no rigorous estimates of total viral diversity (here termed “virodiversity”) for any wildlife species, despite the utility of this to future surveillance and control of emerging zoonoses. In this case study, we repeatedly sampled a mammalian wildlife host known to harbor emerging zoonotic pathogens (the Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus giganteus) and used PCR with degenerate viral family-level primers to discover and analyze the occurrence patterns of 55 viruses from nine viral families. We then adapted statistical techniques used to estimate biodiversity in vertebrates and plants and estimated the total viral richness of these nine families in P. giganteus to be 58 viruses. Our analyses demonstrate proof-of-concept of a strategy for estimating viral richness and provide the first statistically supported estimate of the number of undiscovered viruses in a mammalian host. We used a simple extrapolation to estimate that there are a minimum of 320,000 mammalian viruses awaiting discovery within these nine families, assuming all species harbor a similar number of viruses, with minimal turnover between host species. We estimate the cost of discovering these viruses to be ~$6.3 billion (or ~$1.4 billion for 85% of the total diversity), which if annualized over a 10-year study time frame would represent a small fraction of the cost of many pandemic zoonoses. PMID:24003179

  5. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Sciessere, L.; Cunha-Santino, M. B.; Bianchini, I.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus) on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface) of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon) within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality. PMID:24031706

  6. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses.

  7. Cell wall compositional modifications of Miscanthus ecotypes in response to cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Domon, Jean-Marc; Baldwin, Laëtitia; Acket, Sébastien; Caudeville, Elodie; Arnoult, Stéphanie; Zub, Hélène; Gillet, Françoise; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus, a potential energy crop grass, can be damaged by late frost when shoots emerge too early in the spring and during the first winter after planting. The effects of cold acclimation on cell wall composition were investigated in a frost-sensitive clone of Miscanthus x giganteus compared to frost-tolerant clone, Miscanthus sinensis August Feder, and an intermediate frost-tolerant clone, M. sinensis Goliath. Cellulose and lignin contents were higher in M. x giganteus than in the M. sinensis genotypes. In ambient temperature controls, each clone displayed different glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) contents and degree of arabinose substitution on the xylan backbone. During cold acclimation, an increase in (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan content was observed in all genotypes. Uronic acid level increased in the frost sensitive genotype but decreased in the frost tolerant genotypes in response to cold. In all clones, major changes in cell wall composition were observed with modifications in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) activities in both non- and cold-acclimated experiments. A large increase in CAD activity under cold stress was displayed in each clone, but it was largest in the frost-tolerant clone, M. sinensis August Feder. The marked increase in PAL activity observed in the frost-tolerant clones under cold acclimation, suggests a reorientation of the products towards the phenylpropanoid pathway or aromatic synthesis. How changes in cell wall physical properties can impact frost tolerance is discussed.

  8. Performance Evaluation for Enhancement of Some of the Engineering Properties of Bamboo as Reinforcement in Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kute, S. Y.; Wakchaure, M. R.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is one of the alternative materials with strong potential for reinforcing the cement matrices. Unlike steel, during casting and curing of concrete, reinforced bamboo absorbs water and expands, which results in radial cracking of surrounding concrete. When curing is stopped, bamboo starts shrinking slowly loosing the contact with concrete. The dimensional changes of bamboo resulting from moisture and temperature variations, causes de-bonding which affects the bond strength severely. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations made to evaluate potential of bamboo to be used as concrete reinforcement. Specimens with and without node were extracted from well seasoned Dendrocalamus strictus variety of bamboo. They were tested for water absorption, dimensional changes, tensile and bond strength in M20 concrete with twenty different treatments. The paper also presents the comparison of bond strength of mild steel, TMT steel and untreated bamboo with that of bamboo having different low cost treatments for reducing the water absorption thereby enhancing bond strength of bamboo in concrete.

  9. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    PubMed

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL

  10. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  11. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  12. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science.

    PubMed

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  13. Optimizing the use of bamboo biomass for energy and fiber from small-scale plantations in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabant, András; Haruthaithanasan, Maliwan; Atkla, Wanida; Phudphong, Tepa; Thanavat, Eakpong; Haruthaithanasan, Kasem

    2014-05-01

    Farmers in Thailand have recently started to establish bamboo plantations on marginal land, aiming at utilizing them for bioenergy and fiber. On two sites in eastern Thailand, first-year yield data of Bambusa beecheyana and Dendrocalamus membranaceus plantations indicated vast differences between sites (1 vs. 18 t*ha-1*a-1), but none between species. In terms of feedstock quality for power plants, High Heating Values (19.2 to 19.5 MJ*t-1) did not, but culm moisture contents did differ between species (51% for B. beecheyana vs. 45% for D. membranaceus), and culm sections (38% wet base at top vs. 55% at bottom). This gradient was stronger in D. membranaceus, which additionally showed significantly higher moisture content in internodes, as compared to nodes (46% vs. 43%). Analysis of fiber yield and quality indicated better suitability of D. membranaceus as opposed to B. beecheyana to be used in the textile industry. Our results provide guidance on increasing value addition to bamboo biomass by optimizing the allotment of different species and biomass compartments to different uses (bioenergy, fibers).

  14. Liquefaction of bamboo shoot shell for the production of polyols.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liyi; Zhang, Jingmiao; Zhao, Jie; Tu, Song

    2014-02-01

    Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) shoot shell (BSS) was liquefied in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) and ethylene glycol (EG) catalyzed by sulfuric acid under atmospheric pressure. The effects of liquefaction conditions such as liquid-solid ratio, temperature, time, catalyst, solvents ratio, and material size on the liquefaction yield of BSS have been investigated. Methods including Elemental analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were selected to analyze the characteristics of products in three fractions: an aqueous fraction (AQ), an acetone-soluble fraction (AS) and a residue (RS), respectively. Results showed that the highest liquefaction percentage was 99.79% under the optimal conditions (liquid-solid ratio 6:1; temperature 150°C; reaction time 80min; raw size more than 40 mesh; catalyst mass percentage of solvent 4%; solvent volume ratio 3:1). Polyols could be obtained effectively by the liquefaction of BSS, an agricultural by-product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kar, Ajit; Choudhary, B K; Bandyopadhyay, N G

    2003-01-01

    In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed. While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  16. Young bamboo culm: Potential food as source of fiber and starch.

    PubMed

    Felisberto, Mária Herminia Ferrari; Miyake, Patricia Satie Endo; Beraldo, Antonio Ludovico; Clerici, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva

    2017-11-01

    With the objective of widening the use of bamboo in the food industry, the present work aimed to produce and characterize the young bamboo culm flours from varieties Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa tuldoides and Bambusa vulgaris as potential sources of fiber and starch. The young culms were collected, cut in three sections (bottom, middle, top), processed into flour, and they were physically, chemically and technologically analyzed. The data were obtained in triplicate and evaluated by means of average differences, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scott-Knott test (p<0.05). The young bamboo culms flours presented low values for moisture content (<10g/100g), protein, lipids and ash contents (<3g/100g). Regarding the carbohydrates profile, the flours were significantly different in their sugar, starch and total fiber contents. All flour samples presented a potential for fiber extraction (>60g/100g), and the varieties B. vulgaris and D. asper, presented an additional potential for starch extraction (16 and 10g/100g, respectively). Regarding technological characteristics, all flours presented bright yellow color, lightly acidic pH (>5.0), water solubility index (WSI) lower to 2.5%, excepting D. asper, which presented a WSI superior to 7.5%. In this way, the evaluated young bamboo culms present potential application in the food industry as flours and as source of fibers; in addition, the varieties D. asper and B. vulgaris can also be used for starch extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast-growing species and sustainability (productivity and site dynamics of three fast-growing species)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.N.; Sugur, G.V.

    1992-12-31

    Growth of three fast-growing species, raised in a high rainfall zone (2000-2500 mm per annum) has been compared, and the associated site dynamics studies in the Western Ghat area of Karnataka State. Two fast-growing exotics, Acacia auriculiformis and Castuarina equisitifolia, were planted on degraded, open sites at high planting densities (5000 plants ha{sup {minus}1}), and one native fast-growing species. Dendrocalamus strictus, was planted on a good site under seasonal irrigation and wider spacing (500 plants ha{sup {minus}1}). These were studies at the age of 5 years for their comparative productivity, quantity of litter fall and changes in nutrient and microbial status. Among these species, A. auriculiformis recorded the highest total productivity closely followed by D. strictus. However, the MAI after 5 years indicated a higher productivity for D. strictus, when culm production attained harvestable size. C. equisitifolia was a close third. It was also found that D. strictus produced higher biomass at lower planting densities, under better sites and management. The litter fall and changes in nutrient status indicated the highest efficiency in A. auriculiformis, followed by C. equisitifolia. It was concluded that the higher planting density was the major contributing factor; the values were comparatively low for D. strictus mainly owing to a lower stocking density of plants.

  18. Transcriptome-Based Differentiation of Closely-Related Miscanthus Lines

    DOE PAGES

    Chouvarine, Philippe; Cooksey, Amanda M.; McCarthy, Fiona M.; ...

    2012-01-10

    Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthusmore » (Miscanthus6giganteus). We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations."« less

  19. Transcriptome-Based Differentiation of Closely-Related Miscanthus Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Chouvarine, Philippe; Cooksey, Amanda M.; McCarthy, Fiona M.; Ray, David A.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Burgess, Shane C.; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-10

    Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus6giganteus). We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations."

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    PubMed

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  2. Translocation of Trace Elements from Sewage Sludge Amendments to Plants in a Reclaimed Area.

    PubMed

    Halecki, Wiktor; Klatka, Sławomir

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate bioaccumulation of trace elements in plants grown in post-mining soils amended with the biosolids material. Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated on the laboratory scale, and a mixture of grasses, Melilotus albus, Beta vulgaris, Zea mays L. and Miscanthus × giganteus were evaluated on the field scale. The results of the research showed that P. vulgaris fertilized with the Carbocrash substrate was able to grow. In addition, growth was enhanced following stimulation with gibberellic acid. Transfer of trace elements should be evaluated on the plot scale. Therefore, we monitored the level of trace elements on an experimental plot in a reclaimed area. Crops plants were sown in multi-year periods. During the growing season the mixture of grasses and crop plants had a low bioaccumulation factor, which also showed a positive effect of fertilization with the Carbocrash substrate.

  3. Oxygen demand during mineralization of aquatic macrophytes from an oxbow lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Jr, I; Cunha-Santino, M B; Peret, A M

    2008-02-01

    This study presents a kinetic model of oxygen consumption during aerobic decomposition of detritus from seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense and Utricularia breviscapa. The aquatic macrophytes were collected from Oleo Lagoon situated in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain (SP, Brazil). Mineralization experiments were performed using the closed bottles method. Incubations made with lake water and macrophytes detritus (500 mL and 200 mg.L(-1) (DM), respectively) were maintained during 45 to 80 days at 20 degrees C under aerobic conditions and darkness. Carbon content of leachates from aquatic macrophytes detritus and dissolved oxygen concentrations were analyzed. From the results we concluded that: i) the decomposition constants differ among macrophytes; these differences being dependent primarily on molecular and elemental composition of detritus and ii) in the short term, most of the oxygen demand seems to depend upon the demineralization of the dissolved carbon fraction.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. PMID:28224883

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of the cellobiohydrolase I genes from some basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S N; Wongkham, Shannaphimon; Sysouphanthong, Phongeun; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Hyde, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Genes encoding the cellobiohydrolase enzyme (CBHI), designated as cbhI, were isolated from the basidiomycetes Auricularia fuscosuccinea, Pleurotus giganteus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. sajor-caju. Initially, the fungal genomic DNA was extracted using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol and used as a DNA template. The cbhI genes were then amplified and cloned using the pGEM-T Easy Vector Systems. The sizes of these PCR amplicons were between 700~800 bp. The DNA sequences obtained were similar showing high identity to the cbhI gene family. These cbhI genes were partial consisting of three coding regions and two introns. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited significant similarity to those of fungal CBHI enzymes belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 7.

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Cellobiohydrolase I Genes from Some Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Wongkham, Shannaphimon; Sysouphanthong, Phongeun; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Genes encoding the cellobiohydrolase enzyme (CBHI), designated as cbhI, were isolated from the basidiomycetes Auricularia fuscosuccinea, Pleurotus giganteus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. sajor-caju. Initially, the fungal genomic DNA was extracted using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol and used as a DNA template. The cbhI genes were then amplified and cloned using the pGEM-T Easy Vector Systems. The sizes of these PCR amplicons were between 700~800 bp. The DNA sequences obtained were similar showing high identity to the cbhI gene family. These cbhI genes were partial consisting of three coding regions and two introns. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited significant similarity to those of fungal CBHI enzymes belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 7. PMID:22870052

  7. The effect of harvest time, dry matter content and mechanical pretreatments on anaerobic digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis of miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Frydendal-Nielsen, Susanne; Hjorth, Maibritt; Baby, Sanmohan; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Uffe; Gislum, René

    2016-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus was harvested as both green and mature biomass and the dry matter content of the driest harvest was artificially decreased by adding water in two subsamples, giving a total of five dry matter contents. All five biomass types were mechanically pretreated by roller-milling, extrusion or grinding and accumulated methane production and enzymatically-accessible sugars were measured. Accumulated methane production was studied using sigmoid curves that allowed comparison among the treatments of the rate of the methane production and ultimate methane yield. The green biomass gave the highest methane yield and highest levels of enzymatically-accessible cellulose. The driest biomass gave the best effect from extrusion but with the highest energy consumption, whereas roller-milling was most efficient on wet biomass. The addition of water to the last harvest improved the effect of roller-milling and equalled extrusion of the samples in efficiency.

  8. Amino-acid racemizarion in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; Clifton, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Extents of racemization ( d l ratios) of amino acids in fossil Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) and Ostrea lurida Carpenter were measured on shell deposits exposed at 21 sites on the east side of Willapa Bay, Washington. Amino acids from Saxidomus show less variability in d Spl ratios and, therefore, are of greater use in correlation and age estimation than are amino acids from Ostrea. Shells of two different ages, about 120,000 ?? 40,000 yr old and about 190,000 ?? 40,000 yr old, are present. These ages correspond to Stages 5 and 7 of the marine isotope record defined by Shackleton and Opdyke in 1973 and hence the shell deposits likely formed during two different high stands of sea level. The stratigraphic record at Willapa Bay is consistent with this interpretation. ?? 1979.

  9. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described.

  10. Somatic Expression and Autosomal Inheritance of Phosphoglycerate Kinase B in Kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Vandeberg, J. L.; Cooper, D. W.; Sharman, G. B.; Poole, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The PGK-B isozyme, currently known as PGK-2 in the mouse nomenclature, is the predominant PGK isozyme in mammalian sperm. In many species it is detectable only in sperm, in spermatogenic testes and in epididymides containing sperm. In this paper, we provide evidence that some kangaroo species express low PGK-B activity in somatic tissues, in addition to high activity in testes. Three kangaroo species, M. rufogriseus, M. robustus and M. giganteus, exhibit polymorphism of PGK-B. Breeding data support the hypothesis of autosomal co-dominant inheritance, as is the case in mice. Population data for the three polymorphisms are discussed. PGK-B is not detectable in somatic tissues or spermatogenic testis extracts of monotreme mammals, birds or lizards; it is probably restricted to therian mammals. PMID:7203002

  11. Molecular characterization of Eimeria species in macropods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stan; Potter, Abbey; Elliot, Aileen; Power, Michelle; Beveridge, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2012-10-01

    A total of 597 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Euros (M. robustus), red kangaroos (M. rufus) in Western Australia and Eastern Grey Kangaroos (M. giganteus) from Victoria and screened for the presence of Eimeria by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. The overall prevalence was 24.3% (145/597). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 25 of the 145 positives. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the macropod-derived Eimeria species grouped in a separate marsupial clade that included Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums. At least 6 different clades were identified within the marsupial isolates and many of the genotypes identified are likely to be valid species, however morphological and biological data need to be collected to match sequences to previously characterized Eimeria species or identify if they are new species.

  12. Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

  13. Experimental manipulation of fertility reveals potential lactation costs in a free-ranging marsupial

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma K.; Wilson, Michelle E.; Elgar, Mark A.; Coulson, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically expensive component of reproduction in mammals. Theory predicts that reproducing females will adjust their behaviour to compensate for increased nutritional demands. However, experimental tests are required, since comparisons of the behaviour of naturally reproducing and non-reproducing females cannot distinguish between true costs of reproduction, individual differences or seasonal variation. We experimentally manipulated reproduction in free-ranging, eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), using a fertility control agent. Our novel field experiment revealed that females altered their behaviour in direct response to the energetic demands of reproduction: reproducing females increased bite rates, and thus food intake, when the energetic demands of lactation were highest. Reproducing females did not reduce the time spent on vigilance for predators, but increased their forage intake on faecal-contaminated pasture, thereby increasing the risk of infection by gastrointestinal parasites—a largely unrecognized potential cost of reproduction. PMID:21733874

  14. Marine benthic invertebrates of the upper Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, Khashm Al-Qaddiyah, central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Al-Kahtany, Khaled M.; El-Asmar, Hesham M.

    2014-09-01

    26 species belong to 24 genera and 16 families have been described and illustrated from the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, Khashm Al-Qaddiyah, central Saudi Arabia. 10 of the identified species belong to scleractinian corals, 7 to brachiopods, 4 to bivalves, 4 to gastropods and one to cephalopods. Actinastraea pseudominima, Thamnasteria nicoleti, Enallocoenia crassoramosa, Collignonastraea cf. grossouvrei, Burmirhynchia jirbaensis, Pholadomya (Bucardiomya) somaliensis, Pseudomelania (Rhabdoconcha) raabi and Nautilus giganteus are believed to be recorded for the first time from the Jurassic rocks of central Arabia. The identified species have close affinity to Tethyan faunas known from parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. They indicated shoaling of the sea floor persisted throughout the deposition of the Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, in water depth ranging from 20 to 30 m. The low diversity of invertebrates in the studied section may attribute to paleoenvironmental conditions prevailed during the Callovian age as high rate of sedimentation.

  15. Effects of “paralytic shellfish poison” on frog nerve and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. H.

    1964-01-01

    A purified extract of toxic lamellibranchs, Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes), containing “paralytic shellfish poison,” has been tested for its effects on conduction and contraction in frog nerve and muscle. The poison was very toxic and concentrations within the range 0.025 to 0.1 μg/ml. paralysed isolated muscle preparations, with abolition of the muscle action potential. The poison did not readily penetrate the perineurium, but in desheathed sciatic nerves the conduction of nerve impulses was rapidly blocked by concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 μg/ml. There was no evidence that the poison had any specific curarizing action at the neuromuscular junction, and the paralysis was not accompanied by any appreciable depolarization of the muscle membrane. PMID:14211678

  16. PARALYTIC EFFECTS OF "PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISON" ON FROG NERVE AND MUSCLE.

    PubMed

    EVANS, M H

    1964-06-01

    A purified extract of toxic lamellibranchs, Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes), containing "paralytic shellfish poison," has been tested for its effects on conduction and contraction in frog nerve and muscle. The poison was very toxic and concentrations within the range 0.025 to 0.1 mug/ml. paralysed isolated muscle preparations, with abolition of the muscle action potential. The poison did not readily penetrate the perineurium, but in desheathed sciatic nerves the conduction of nerve impulses was rapidly blocked by concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 mug/ml. There was no evidence that the poison had any specific curarizing action at the neuromuscular junction, and the paralysis was not accompanied by any appreciable depolarization of the muscle membrane.

  17. Changes in composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential of Miscanthus species during the growing season.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaowei; Li, Chao; Liu, Jing; Yi, Zili; Han, Yejun

    2017-03-24

    The composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of M. sinensis, M. floridulus, Miscanthus×giganteus and M. lutarioriparius were investigated concomitantly at different growth/harvest times during their growing season. For all the four species, there was only a slight change in the compositional content. Meanwhile there was a huge change in the BMP values. At the growth time of 60days the BMPs ranged from 247.1 to 266.5mlg(-1)VS. As growth time was prolonged, the BMPs decreased by 11-35%. For each species, the BMP was positively correlated to the cellulose degradability with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.8055 to 0.9925. This suggests that besides the biomass yield, it is justifiable to consider cellulose degradability when selecting the suitable harvest time for biofuels production from Miscanthus, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where Miscanthus can be harvested twice or more within a year.

  18. Extreme adaptations for probable visual courtship behaviour in a Cretaceous dancing damselfly

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Daran; Nel, André; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Chang, Su-Chin; Zhang, Haichun; Xia, Fangyuan; Liu, Haoying; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Courtship behaviours, frequent among modern insects, have left extremely rare fossil traces. None are known previously for fossil odonatans. Fossil traces of such behaviours are better known among the vertebrates, e.g. the hypertelic antlers of the Pleistocene giant deer Megaloceros giganteus. Here we describe spectacular extremely expanded, pod-like tibiae in males of a platycnemidid damselfly from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Such structures in modern damselflies, help to fend off other suitors as well as attract mating females, increasing the chances of successful mating. Modern Platycnemidinae and Chlorocyphidae convergently acquired similar but less developed structures. The new findings provide suggestive evidence of damselfly courtship behaviour as far back as the mid-Cretaceous. These data show an unexpected morphological disparity in dancing damselfly leg structure, and shed new light on mechanisms of sexual selection involving intra- and intersex reproductive competition during the Cretaceous. PMID:28317876

  19. Miscanthus as a feedstock for fast-pyrolysis: does agronomic treatment affect quality?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E M; Fahmi, R; Yates, N; Barraclough, T; Shield, I; Allison, G; Bridgwater, A V; Donnison, I S

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of the experiment were to assess the impact of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertiliser application on the cell wall composition and fast-pyrolysis conversion quality of the commercially cultivated hybrid Miscanthus x giganteus. Five different fertiliser treatments were applied to mature Miscanthus plants which were sampled at five intervals over a growing season. The different fertiliser treatments produced significant variation in concentrations of cell wall components and ash within the biomass and affected the composition and quality of the resulting fast-pyrolysis liquids. The results indicated that application of high rates of N fertiliser had a negative effect on feedstock quality for this conversion pathway: reducing the proportion of cell wall components and increasing accumulation of ash in the harvested biomass. No exclusive effect of potassium fertiliser was observed. The low-N fertiliser treatment produced high quality, low ash-high lignin biomass most suitable as a feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  1. Cryptosporidium cuniculus--new records in human and kangaroo in Australia.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Anson V; Whipp, Margaret J; Haydon, Shane R; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-10-30

    To date, Cryptosporidium cuniculus has been found exclusively in rabbits and humans. The present study provides the first published molecular evidence for C. cuniculus in an Australian human patient as well as a kangaroo. Using PCR-based sequencing of regions in the actin, 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) and small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU) genes, we identified a new and unique C. cuniculus genotype (akin to VbA25) from a human, and C. cuniculus genotype VbA26 from an Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) in Australia. The characterisation of these genotypes raises questions as to their potential to infect humans and/or other animals in Australia, given that C. cuniculus has been reported to cause cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Europe.

  2. Nuclear DNA content in Miscanthus sp. and the geographical variation pattern in Miscanthus lutarioriparius

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiajing; Hu, Xiaohu; Zeng, Xiaofei; Li, Ye; Zhou, Fasong; Hu, Zhongli; Jin, Surong; Diao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The genome sizes of five Miscanthus species, including 79 accessions of M. lutarioriparius, 8 of M. floridulus, 6 of M. sacchariflorus, 7 of M. sinensis, and 4 of M. × giganteus were examined using flow cytometry. The overall average nuclear DNA content were 4.256 ± 0.6 pg/2C in M. lutarioriparius, 5.175 ± 0.3 pg/2C in M. floridulus, 3.956 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sacchariflorus, 5.272 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sinensis, and 6.932 ± 0.1 pg/2C in M. × giganteus. Interspecific variation was found at the diploid level, suggesting that DNA content might be a parameter that can be used to differentiate the species. Tetraploid populations were found in M. lutarioriparius, M. sacchariflorus, and M. sinensis, and their DNA content were 8.34 ± 1.2, 8.52, and 8.355 pg, respectively. The association between the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius, collected from representative ranges across the Yangtze River, and its geographic distribution was statistically analyzed. A consistent pattern of DNA content variation in 79 M. lutarioriparius accessions across its entire geographic range was found in this study. Along the Yangtze River, the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream areas, and almost all tetraploids gathered in the upstream area extended to coastal regions. PMID:27698438

  3. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  4. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-10-11

    Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.

  5. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are

  6. Transcriptome-Based Differentiation of Closely-Related Miscanthus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarine, Philippe; Cooksey, Amanda M.; McCarthy, Fiona M.; Ray, David A.; Baldwin, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations. Results A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Conclusions Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation. PMID:22253803

  7. Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Youns, Mahmoud; Voukeng, Igor; Fankam, Aimé G; Tankeo, Simplice; Lacmata, Stephen; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-04-12

    Several medicinal plants and spices are used traditionally to treat cancers in Cameroon. Methanol extracts from thirty-four spices and plants, with related ethnobotanical use were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and their multidrug resistant (MDR) subline CEM/ADR5000, and the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition the anti-angiogenic properties of the most active extracts were investigated. The MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay was used for cytotoxic studies and the CAM-assay (chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay) for anti-angiogenesis test. The results of the cytotoxicity tests indicated that, when tested at 20 μg/ml, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Dorstenia psilirus and Piper capense were able to inhibit more that 50% the proliferation of the three tested cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2, CEM/ADR5000 CCRF-CEM). The lowest IC(50) values of 6.86 μg/ml on MiaPaCa-2 and 3.91 μg/ml on CCRF-CEM cells were obtained with X. aethiopica, while the corresponding value of 6.56 μg/ml was obtained with P. capense on CEM/ADR5000 cells. Against leukemia cells, no cross-resistance was observed with I. cylindrica, P. capense and Zinziber officinalis. Extracts from D. psilirus and E. giganteus were able to inhibit angiogenesis by more than 50% in quail embryo. The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some Cameroonian plants for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Djajadi, Demi T; Hansen, Aleksander R; Jensen, Anders; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Pinelo, Manuel; Meyer, Anne S; Jørgensen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Understanding factors that govern lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance is a prerequisite for designing efficient 2nd generation biorefining processes. However, the reasons and mechanisms responsible for quantitative differences in enzymatic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in response to hydrothermal pretreatment at different severities are still not sufficiently understood. Potentially important lignocellulosic feedstocks for biorefining, corn stover (Zea mays subsp. mays L.), stalks of Miscanthus × giganteus, and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) were systematically hydrothermally pretreated; each at three different severities of 3.65, 3.83, and 3.97, respectively, and the enzymatic digestibility was assessed. Pretreated samples of Miscanthus × giganteus stalks were the least digestible among the biomass feedstocks producing ~24 to 66.6% lower glucose yields than the other feedstocks depending on pretreatment severity and enzyme dosage. Bulk biomass composition analyses, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling were not able to explain the observed differences in recalcitrance among the pretreated feedstocks. However, methods characterizing physical and chemical features of the biomass surfaces, specifically contact angle measurements (wettability) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy (surface biopolymer composition) produced data correlating pretreatment severity and enzymatic digestibility, and they also revealed differences that correlated to enzymatic glucose yield responses among the three different biomass types. The study revealed that to a large extent, factors related to physico-chemical surface properties, namely surface wettability as assessed by contact angle measurements and surface content of hemicellulose, lignin, and wax as assessed by ATR-FTIR rather than bulk biomass chemical composition correlated to the recalcitrance of the tested biomass

  9. Antibacterial activity of selected Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used against strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tekwu, Emmanuel Mouafo; Askun, Tülin; Kuete, Victor; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephraim; Nyasse, Barthélémy; Etoa, François-Xavier; Beng, Véronique Penlap

    2012-07-13

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a re-emerging disease and one of the most important public health problems worldwide. The use or (in most cases) misuse of existint anti-tuberculosis drugs over the years has led to an increasing prevalence of resistant strains, establishing an urgent need to search for new effective agents. Spices are largely used ethno-medically across Africa. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimycobacterial activities of a total of 20 methanol crude extracts prepared from 20 Cameroonian dietary spices for their ability to inhibit the growth of or kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H(37)Rv (ATCC 27294) and H(37)Ra (ATCC 25177). The antituberculosis screening was performed using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum mycobactericidal concentration (MBC). Fifteen (15) plant extracts out of 20 showed varied levels of antimycobacterial activity against the strains M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv and H(37)Ra, with MICs in the range of 2.048-0.016 mg/ml. The extract of Echinops giganteus exhibited the most significant activity with a MIC value of 32 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively against H(37)Ra and H(37)Rv. To the best of our knowledge, the antimycobacterial activity of the tested spices has not been reported before and therefore our results can be evaluated as the first report about the antimycobacterial properties. The results of this study suggest that Echinops giganteus and Piper guineense could be important sources of bactericidal compounds against M. tuberculosis and could probably be promising candidates that can be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear DNA content in Miscanthus sp. and the geographical variation pattern in Miscanthus lutarioriparius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jiajing; Hu, Xiaohu; Zeng, Xiaofei; Li, Ye; Zhou, Fasong; Hu, Zhongli; Jin, Surong; Diao, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The genome sizes of five Miscanthus species, including 79 accessions of M. lutarioriparius, 8 of M. floridulus, 6 of M. sacchariflorus, 7 of M. sinensis, and 4 of M. × giganteus were examined using flow cytometry. The overall average nuclear DNA content were 4.256 ± 0.6 pg/2C in M. lutarioriparius, 5.175 ± 0.3 pg/2C in M. floridulus, 3.956 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sacchariflorus, 5.272 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sinensis, and 6.932 ± 0.1 pg/2C in M. × giganteus. Interspecific variation was found at the diploid level, suggesting that DNA content might be a parameter that can be used to differentiate the species. Tetraploid populations were found in M. lutarioriparius, M. sacchariflorus, and M. sinensis, and their DNA content were 8.34 ± 1.2, 8.52, and 8.355 pg, respectively. The association between the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius, collected from representative ranges across the Yangtze River, and its geographic distribution was statistically analyzed. A consistent pattern of DNA content variation in 79 M. lutarioriparius accessions across its entire geographic range was found in this study. Along the Yangtze River, the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream areas, and almost all tetraploids gathered in the upstream area extended to coastal regions.

  11. Chilling and frost tolerance in Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Patrick C; Peixoto, Murilo M; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Sage, Rowan F

    2014-07-01

    Miscanthus hybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0-10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in five Miscanthus hybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complex Saccharum hybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grown Miscanthus genotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event. Miscanthus×giganteus was found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recover A to a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (ΦREG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (ΦNF). Similarly, in the field, M.×giganteus exhibited a significantly greater A and pre-dawn F v/F m after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrids.

  12. Chilling and frost tolerance in Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Patrick C.; Peixoto, Murilo M.; Busch, Florian A.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Sage, Rowan F.

    2014-01-01

    Miscanthus hybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0–10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in five Miscanthus hybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complex Saccharum hybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grown Miscanthus genotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event. Miscanthus×giganteus was found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recover A to a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (ΦREG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (ΦNF). Similarly, in the field, M.×giganteus exhibited a significantly greater A and pre-dawn F v/F m after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrids. PMID:24642848

  13. Introgression and molecular tagging of Rf (4), a new male fertility restoration gene from wild sunflower Helianthus maximiliani L.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2008-07-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its fertility restoration (Rf) genes are critical tools for hybrid seed production to utilize heterosis. In sunflower, CMS PET1 and the associated Rf gene Rf (1) is the only source extensively used in commercial hybrid production. The objective of this research was to develop new sources of CMS and fertility restorers to broaden the genetic diversity of hybrid seed production. We identified a new type of CMS, named as CMS GIG2, from an interspecific cross between Helianthus giganteus accession1934 and H. annuus cv. HA 89. Based on reactions to a set of standard Rf testers, CMS GIG2 is different from all previously reported CMS types, including the CMS GIG1 from another H. giganteus accession. We also identified an Rf gene for CMS GIG2 from wild species H. maximiliani accession 1631. The CMS GIG2 and its restoration gene were introduced into HA 89 background through recurrent backcross and single plant selection techniques. Genetic analysis revealed that the CMS GIG2-Rf system is controlled by a completely dominant gene, named as Rf (4), and the gene additive and dominance effects were estimated as 39.9 and 42.2%, respectively, in the HA 89 background. The gene Rf (4) was mapped onto linkage group 3 with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and RFLP-derived STS-marker, and is about 0.9 cM away from the SSR marker ORS1114 based on a segregation population of 933 individuals. The CMS GIG2-Rf (4) system tagged by molecular markers provides an alternative genetic source for hybrid breeding in the sunflower crop.

  14. [Coping with functional disability among the elderly by means of religious beliefs].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Wagner Jorge; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Pereira, Josiane Katherine; Firmo, Josélia de Oliveira Araújo

    2013-08-01

    The way people deal with the stress of life is known as the process of coping or confrontation. We speak of religious coping when a person uses religious belief and behavior to facilitate problem solving, to prevent or alleviate stressful negative emotional consequences, notable among which is functional disability. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of religion as a strategy for coping with disability among the elderly. A qualitative approach, consisting of an observational ethnographic study was employed, the sample for which included 57 elderly individuals from Bambuí, Minas Gerais. The model of signs, significances and actions was used in collecting and analyzing data. The religiosity of the elderly respondents suggested that their religious beliefs and traditions help explain and address the suffering experienced by them in the presence or imminence of functional disability. Religious coping reinforces the fatalism existing in the religious belief that mirrors the inevitability of old age with disability as an accepted and natural social code, but also helps to minimize the social responsibility for the care of the elderly and reveals the disbelief in existing public health services.

  15. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-08-28

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected.

  16. [Rural endemic diseases, health and development: Emmanuel Dias and the construction of a network of allies against Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Kropf, Simone Petraglia

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the trajectory of Emmanuel Dias (1908-1962), a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (OCI) and director of the Center for Studies and Prophylaxis of Chagas Disease (OCI outpost established in 1943 in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais), as a key actor in the acknowledgement of Chagas disease as a public health problem in Brazil and the Americas. It seeks to show that the conquest of this acknowledgement, the cornerstone of which was the staging of the first campaign to combat the disease in Brazil in 1950, was made possible by the intense political mobilization of Dias together with the various social groups, such as physicians, politicians and residents of rural areas, public health officials, governments and international organizations. This mobilization occurred during the 1940s and 1950s in a historical context marked by intense debate about the relationship between health and development and helped to construct a network of alliances that was critical for the recognition of Chagas disease as a chronic cardiopathy, which threatened the productivity of rural workers and represented a medical and social problem that merited public health actions and programs geared to get it under control.

  17. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  18. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  19. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    PubMed

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  20. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  1. Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

  2. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  3. Is Miscanthus a High Risk Biofuel Feedstock Prospect for the Upper Midwest US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C. J.; VanLoocke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Miscanthus is a highly productive C4 perennial rhizomatous grass that is native to Southeast Asia, but its potential as a feedstock for cellulosic biofuel in the Midwest US is intriguing given extremely high productivity for low amounts of agrochemical inputs. However, Miscanthus x giganteus, a key variety currently studied is not planted from seed, but rather from rhizomes planted at a soil depth of 5 to 10 cm. Therefore, it is costly to establish on the basis of both time and money, making it a potentially risky investment in geographic regions that experience cold wintertime temperatures that can effectively kill the crop. The 50% kill threshold for M. giganteus rhizomes occurs when soil temperatures fall below -3.5C, which may contribute to a high risk of improper establishment during the first few seasons. Our first objective here was to study a historical, simulated reconstruction of daily wintertime soil temperatures at high spatial resolution (5 min) across the Midwest US from 1948-2007, and use this information to quantify the frequency that lethal soil temperature thresholds for Miscanthus were reached. A second objective was to investigate how the use of crop residues could impact wintertime soil temperatures. In this study, a dynamic agroecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) that has been modified to simulate Miscanthus growth and phenology was used in conjunction with high-resolution datasets of soil texture and daily gridded weather data. Model simulations suggest that across the states of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and the northern half of Iowa, the kill threshold of -3.5C at a 10cm soil depth was reached in 70-95% of the simulation years. A boundary representing a 50% likelihood of reaching -3.5C at 10cm depth in any given year runs approximately from east central Colorado, thought northern Kansas and Missouri, through central Illinois, central Indiana, and central Ohio. An analysis of monthly mean 10cm soil temperatures

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat arabinoxylan by a recombinant "minimal" enzyme cocktail containing beta-xylosidase and novel endo-1,4-beta-xylanase and alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase activities.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hanne R; Pedersen, Sven; Jørgensen, Christel T; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the identification of the key enzyme activities required in a "minimal" enzyme cocktail able to catalyze hydrolysis of water-soluble and water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and whole vinasse, a fermentation effluent resulting from industrial ethanol manufacture from wheat. The optimal arabinose-releasing and xylan-depolymerizing enzyme activities were identified from data obtained when selected, recombinant enzymes were systematically supplemented to the different arabinoxylan substrates in mixtures; this examination revealed three novel alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase activities: (i) one GH51 enzyme from Meripilus giganteus and (ii) one GH51 enzyme from Humicola insolens, both able to catalyze arabinose release from singly substituted xylose; and (iii) one GH43 enzyme from H. insolens able to catalyze the release of arabinose from doubly substituted xylose. Treatment of water-soluble and water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan with an enzyme cocktail containing a 20%:20%:20%:40% mixture and a 25%:25%:25%:25% mixture, respectively, of the GH43 alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from H. insolens (Abf II), the GH51 alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from M. giganteus (Abf III), a GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from H. insolens (Xyl III), and a GH3 beta-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei (beta-xyl) released 322 mg of arabinose and 512 mg of xylose per gram of water-soluble wheat arabinoxylan dry matter and 150 mg of arabinose and 266 mg of xylose per gram of water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan dry matter after 24 h at pH 5, 50 degrees C. A 10%:40%:50% mixture of Abf II, Abf III, and beta-xyl released 56 mg of arabinose and 91 mg of xylose per gram of vinasse dry matter after 24 h at pH 5, 50 degrees C. The optimal dosages of the "minimal" enzyme cocktails were determined to be 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2 g enzyme protein per kilogram of substrate dry matter for the water-soluble wheat arabinoxylan, the water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan, and the vinasse, respectively. These enzyme

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  6. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Graeme; Cripps, Jemma K.; Wilson, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) occur throughout the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have tagged about half of these kangaroos in a longitudinal study of population dynamics and behavior. A golf course forms the nucleus of this population. Females live on and around the golf course, but males roam across the town in autumn and winter, living in bush reserves, empty blocks and back yards. Most females breed every year, but over half of their young disappear. Vehicles are the major cause of adult deaths, killing a much higher proportion of males than females. Abstract Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha), and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter), many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%), but

  7. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  8. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in Aragonitic Bivalves: Do They Record Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillikin, D. P.; Ulens, H.; Dehairs, F.; Baeyens, W.; Navez, J.; Andre, L.; Keppens, E.; Calmars Group,.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical or isotopic composition of calcareous skeletons have long been recognized as archives of past and present environmental conditions. Oxygen isotopes (d18O) of biogenic carbonates are a powerful proxy of SST, however, although usually dominated by SST, salinity (SSS) also significantly effects the oxygen isotopic signal recorded in the carbonate. This has led researchers to explore new proxies, which are independent of SSS. Generally, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca of seawater remains unchanged above salinities of 10 and marine animals will commonly live in habitats that do not fluctuate below this salinity. To solve the issue of SSS complicating paleotemperature records, these "new" proxies must be at least as reliable as d18O. If an environmental control is dominant, the proxies should be reproducible between specimens growing under the same field conditions. Both Sr and Mg have been used as paleotemperature proxies in corals and foraminifera, whereas a fewer attempts have been made to use these proxies in bivalves. Some report a clear seasonal periodicity in Sr/Ca profiles of bivalves, which covaries with d18O (i.e., temperature), whereas others have found no clear periodicity. We test the robustness of these proxies by analyzing the shell material from three species of aragonitic clams from around the world using a LA-ICP-MS. Three individuals of M. mercenaria from North Carolina, USA, three individuals of Saxidomus giganteus from Washington, USA and one Arctica islandica from Norway have been analyzed. As expected, there is excellent reproducibility of d18O between specimens (both M. mercenaria and S. giganteus) indicating external environmental conditions control this proxy (i.e. SST and SSS). Preliminary data analysis show that Sr and Mg are not reproducible between specimens from the same site nor do they exhibit a clear seasonal cyclicity, indicating individual metabolic effects (i.e., vital effects) dominate the incorporation of these elements. A. islandica

  9. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; de Loyola, Antônio Ignácio; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population. PMID:26039388

  10. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the "signs, meanings, and actions" model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were "nervousness", "sleep problems", and "worry" due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life's problems in old age. Although it relieves the "nerves", the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

  11. Mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults (The ELSA and Bambui cohort ageing studies)

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, Michael G.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Juliana; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare 6-year mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults. This study represents a rare opportunity to approach the subject in two different social and economic contexts. Methods: Data from the data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing (Brazil) were used. Deaths in both cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Risk factors considered in this study were baseline smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Both age–sex adjusted hazard ratios and population attributable risks (PAR) of all-cause mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Participants were 3205 English and 1382 Brazilians aged 60 years and over. First, Brazilians showed much higher absolute risk of mortality than English and this finding was consistent in all age, independently of sex. Second, as a rule, hazard ratios for mortality to smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed more similarities than differences between these two populations. Third, there was strong difference among English and Brazilians on attributable deaths to hypertension. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, despite of being in more recent transitions, the attributable deaths to one or more risk factors was twofold among Brazilians relative to the English. These findings call attention for the challenge imposed to health systems to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic level. PMID:26666869

  12. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  13. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO(2) assimilation is restricted.

    PubMed

    Driever, Steven M; Baker, Neil R

    2011-05-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water-water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO(2) assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O(2) uptake and evolution together with CO(2) uptake in leaves of French bean and maize at CO(2) concentrations saturating for photosynthesis and the CO(2) compensation point. In French bean at high CO(2) and low O(2) concentrations no significant water-water cycle activity was observed. At the CO(2) compensation point and 3% O(2) a low rate of water-water cycle activity was observed, which accounted for 30% of the linear electron flux from water. In maize leaves negligible water-water cycle activity was detected at the compensation point. During induction of photosynthesis in maize linear electron flux was considerably greater than CO(2) assimilation, but no significant water-water cycle activity was detected. Miscanthus × giganteus grown at chilling temperature also exhibited rates of linear electron transport considerably in excess of CO(2) assimilation; however, no significant water-water cycle activity was detected. Clearly the water-water cycle can operate in leaves under some conditions, but it does not act as a major sink for excess excitation energy when CO(2) assimilation is restricted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (p<0.001). Necropsy examinations of all six species from the high-fluoride area near the smelter revealed dental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure.

  15. Dietary flexibility and niche partitioning of large herbivores through the Pleistocene of Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivals, Florent; Lister, Adrian M.

    2016-08-01

    Tooth wear analysis techniques (mesowear and microwear) are employed to analyze dietary traits in proboscideans, perissodactyls and artiodactyls from 33 Pleistocene localities in Britain. The objectives of this study are to examine the variability in each taxon, to track dietary shifts through time, and to investigate resource partitioning among species. The integration of mesowear and microwear results first allowed us to examine dietary variability. We identified differences in variability among species, from more stenotopic species such as Capreolus capreolus to more eurytopic species such as Megaloceros giganteus and Cervus elaphus. Broad dietary shifts at the community level are seen between climatic phases, and are the result of species turnover as well as dietary shifts in the more flexible species. The species present at each locality are generally spread over a large part of the dietary spectrum, and resource partitioning was identified at most of these localities. Mixed feeders always coexist with at least one of the two strict dietary groups, grazers or browsers. Finally, for some species, a discrepancy is observed between meso- and microwear signals and may imply that individuals tended to die at a time of year when their normal food was in short supply.

  16. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  17. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  18. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  19. Shedding Light on the Microbial Community of the Macropod Foregut Using 454-Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Kang, Alicia Y. H.; Maguire, Anita J.; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as ‘shared’ OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales). These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus) was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry. PMID:23626688

  20. The effect of a species-specific avoidance response to predatory starfish on the intertidal distribution of two gastropods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David W

    1976-06-01

    The gastropodsAcmaea (Collisella) limatula andAcmaea (Notoacmea) scutum respond to water flowing over certain predatory starfish (i.e. to the scent of the starfish) by moving rapidly up a submerged, vertical surface. These limpets respond with upward movement to the scent ofPisaster ochraceus, Pisaster giganteus, Pycnopodia helianthoides, andLeptasterias aequalis. All of these starfish are predators on molluscs and at least occasionally inhabit the intertidal. In contrast, the limpets respond weakly or not at all to the scent ofPatiria miniata andPisaster brevispinus. Patiria is an omnivorous scavenger, andP. brevispinus is predaceous but strictly subtidal when it occurs on rocky shores. For the starfish tested, then, the limpets only give avoidance responses to starfish species naturally encountered as predators.The avoidance response ofA. limatula andA. scutum to predatory stafish can also be demonstrated in the field. When onePisaster ochraceus is placed beneath a population of limpets in the intertidal and confined so that contacts between the starfish and limpets are impossible, the limpet population is displaced significantly upward after one tidal cycle. In addition, the closer the limpets are to the starfish, the greater is their upward displacement.

  1. The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration and solid loading on the fractionation of biomass in formic acid.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K; Girisuta, B; Haverty, D; Leahy, J J; Hayes, M H B

    2014-10-13

    This study investigated the fractionation of biomass using a decomposing mixture of hydrogen peroxide-formic acid as a pretreatment for the biorefining of Miscanthus × giganteus and of sugarcane bagasse. The main parameters investigated were the hydrogen peroxide concentration (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%) and biomass loading (5.0 and 10.0 wt%). At the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration used (7.5 wt%), the energy released by the decomposition of the H2O2 could heat the reaction mixture up to 180 °C in a short time (6-16 min). As a result, highly delignified pulps, with lignin removal as high as 92 wt%, were obtained. This delignification process also solubilised a significant amount of pentosan (82-98 wt%) from the initial biomass feedstock, and the resulting pulp had a high cellulosic content (92 wt%). The biomass loading only affected the reaction rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Various analytical methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric and elemental analyses, characterized the lignin obtained.

  2. Examining the impact of land cover change for biofuel production on the Midwestern U.S. hydroclimate using a regional climate model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, K. J.; Twine, T. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Bagley, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been proposed as cellulosic feedstocks for U.S. biofuel production because their high productivity and low inputs could reduce net CO2 emissions. Possible biogeochemical feedbacks of widespread production have been extensively studied, but less attention has been given to the two-way biophysical interactions between the land surface and regional climate. Miscanthus uses significantly more water than maize, resulting in large evapotranspiration (ET) increases upon conversion from maize to Miscanthus that could impact regional precipitation, precipitation recycling, and soil moisture. In this study, we simulate perennial grass production in a fully coupled regional climate model with dynamic vegetation, enabling an investigation into the two-way responses between these potential biofuels and the climate over the Mississippi River Basin. We incorporated algorithms of miscanthus and switchgrass growth and management from the Agro-IBIS model into with WRF-CLM4crop, a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to the Community Land Model with dynamic crop growth and irrigation enabled. Using suggested production regions from the United States Department of Energy, we performed simulations driven with 10 years of NCEP-DOE Reanalysis (NCEP2) data, with 25%, 50%, and 75% of current croplands replaced by perennial grass feedstocks. Our results provide spatially explicit maps of how simulated ET increased with conversion and the resulting regional cooling, greater precipitation, and precipitation recycling over the region.

  3. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

  4. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorous in the Delmarva Peninsula and their biofuels potential.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Akwasi A; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Mullen, Charles A; Dien, Bruce S; Hashem, Fawzy M; Dadson, Robert B

    2015-03-01

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremediators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Four cultivars of sorghum, five cultivars of switchgrass and one miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were grown in soils with two different levels of poultry manure (PM) applications. Little variation was seen in phosphorus uptake in the two different soils indicating that the levels of available phosphorus in the soil already saturated the uptake ability of the plants. However, all plants regardless of trial took up more phosphorus than that measured for the non- PM treated control. Sorghum accumulated greater levels of nutrients including phosphorus and potassium compared to switchgrass and miscanthus. The levels of these nutrients in the biomass did not have an effect on carbohydrate contents. However, the potential yield and composition of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis were affected by both agronomics and differences in mineral concentrations.

  5. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  6. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed.

  7. Miscanthus as cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chien; Kuan, Wei-Chih

    2015-06-01

    The members of the genus Miscanthus are potential feedstocks for biofuels because of the promising high yields of biomass per unit of planted area. This review addresses species, cultivation, and lignocellulose composition of Miscanthus, as well as pretreatment and enzyme saccharification of Miscanthus biomass for ethanol fermentation. The average cellulose contents in dried biomass of Miscanthus floridulus, Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Miscanthus × giganteus (M × G) are 37.2, 37.6, 38.9, and 41.1% wt/wt, respectively. A number of pretreatment methods have been applied in order to enhance digestibility of Miscanthus biomass for enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment of Miscanthus using liquid hot water or alkaline results in a significant release of glucose; while glucose yields can be 90% or higher if a pretreatment like AFEX that combines both chemical and physical processes is used. As ethanol is produced by yeast fermentation of the hydrolysate from enzymatic hydrolysis of residual solids (pulp) after pretreatment, theoretical ethanol yields are 0.211-0.233 g/g-raw biomass if only cellulose is taken into account. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated M × G and M. lutarioriparius results in experimental ethanol yields of 0.13 and 0.15 g/g-raw biomass, respectively. Co-production of value-added products can reduce the overall production cost of bioethanol. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biochars ability to sequester metals in contaminated mine spoils: A greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jeff; Johnson, Mark G.; Ippolito, Jim; Spokas, Kurt; Trippe, Kristin; Ducey, Tom; Sigua, Gilbert

    2017-04-01

    Biochars are under consideration as an amendment to remediate contaminated mine spoils and improving plant growth cover. Scientists from the USDA-ARS, US EPA, and Colorado State University have conducted a greenhouse experiment using Miscanthous (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar produced at 700⁰C to reclaim mine spoils obtained from the Formosa mine site (near Riddle, Oregon, USA). Spoil at this site is acidic and has elevated total and plant available copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus) was planted in mine spoil that was treated with Miscanthus biochar at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w), lime, and N-P-K fertilizer. Mine spoil treated with biochar alone (no lime) along with samples (no lime or biochar) were also included. After almost 60 days of incubation, above ground and below ground wildrye samples were collected. Remaining spoils were then extracted with Mehlich 3 reagent and plant available Cu and Zn concentrations measured. Mehlich 3 extractable Cu and Zn concentrations decreased significantly only in the lime treated samples—their concentrations were not influenced by biochar. Our preliminary findings are that lime is an important amendment to reduce metal concentrations in mine spoils and that choice of biochar type must be carefully considered beforehand.

  9. Recovery of intertidal hardshelled clams in Prince William Sound from Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.P.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.

    1994-12-31

    Native little neck (Protothaca staminea) and butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) were quantitatively surveyed from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydraulic washing of sand and gravel beaches altered beach morphology by transporting material down slope from upper elevations, often burying the lower beach in several centimeters of sediment having a relatively low content of fines and organic carbon. Hydraulically washed beaches showed significant reductions in clam densities in 1989 and 1990. Recruitment of clams was very limited on these beaches through 1993; as a result, clam densities on these hydraulically washed beaches remain very depressed compared to those on beaches that were unoiled or oiled but not washed. Littlenecks transplanted from a reference site to a heavily oiled but untreated site showed significant patterns of increased mortality, decreased growth, and increased bioaccumulation of PAH in response to a gradient in sediment PAH, This same heavily oiled site has consistently had among the highest rates of hardshelled clam recruitment of any of the sites sampled. Littlenecks also were transplanted to another heavily oiled beach that had been hydraulically washed and had little remaining hydrocarbons. These clams showed very high survival, yet this beach has had very little clam recruitment. It is hypothesized that recruitment at this site may be inhibited by the low level of finer sediments and low organic content remaining after washing.

  10. Identification of a novel Afipia species isolated from an Indian flying fox.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Brad S; Tyler, Shaun; Smith, Greg; Burton, Lynn; Li, Mingyi; Dallaire, André; Weingartl, Hana

    2015-01-01

    An old world fruit bat Pteropus giganteus, held in captivity and suffering from necrosis of its wing digits, failed to respond to antibiotic therapy and succumbed to the infection. Samples submitted to the National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease were tested for viral infection. Vero E6 cells exhibited minor but unique cytopathic effects on second blind passage, and full CPE by passage four. Utilizing an unbiased random amplification technique from cell culture supernatant, we identified a bacterium belonging to the Bradyrhizobiaceae. Purification of cell culture supernatant on TY media revealed a slow growing bacterial isolate. In this study using electron microscopy, 16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome sequencing, we identify a novel bacterial species associated with the site of infection belonging to the genus Afipia. This genus of bacteria is very diverse, with only a limited number of species characterized. Afipia felis, previously described as the etiological agent to cause cat scratch disease, and Afipia septicemium, most recently shown to cause disease in humans, highlight the potential for members of this genus to form a branch of opportunistic pathogens within the Bradyrhizobiaceae. Increased utilization of next generation sequencing and genomics will aid in classifying additional members of this intriguing bacterial genera.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, Ángel; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; García-Luna y González-Rubio, Manuel; Gayosso-de-Lucio, Juan A; Morales-González, José A

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in treating illnesses has been reported since ancestral times. In the case of hepatic diseases, several species such as Silybum marianum, Phyllanthus niruri, and Panus giganteus (Berk.) have been shown to ameliorate hepatic lesions. Silymarin is a natural compound derived from the species Silybum marianum, which is commonly known as Milk thistle. This plant contains at least seven flavoligands and the flavonoid taxifolin. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of silymarin is caused by its ability to inhibit the free radicals that are produced from the metabolism of toxic substances such as ethanol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride. The generation of free radicals is known to damage cellular membranes and cause lipoperoxidation. Silymarin enhances hepatic glutathione and may contribute to the antioxidant defense of the liver. It has also been shown that silymarin increases protein synthesis in hepatocytes by stimulating RNA polymerase I activity. A previous study on humans reported that silymarin treatment caused a slight increase in the survival of patients with cirrhotic alcoholism compared with untreated controls. PMID:24672644

  12. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  13. Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.

    PubMed

    Albicócco, Andrea Paola; Carbajo, Aníbal Eduardo; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-12-01

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests.

  14. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: Intestinal symbionts of animals

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Lynn; Jorgensen, Jeremy Z.; Dolan, Sona; Kolchinsky, Rita; Rainey, Frederick A.; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named “Arthromitus” in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225–233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death’s head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats. PMID:9448315

  15. Medicinal and edible lignicolous fungi as natural sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Karaman, M; Jovin, E; Malbasa, R; Matavuly, M; Popović, M

    2010-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of organic extracts of eight fungal species, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Flammulina velutipes, Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panus tigrinus, was evaluated for free radical (DPPH· and OH·) scavenging capacity and an effect on lipid peroxidation, and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar well diffusion method. The highest DPPH· scavenging activity was found in the methanol extract of G. applanatum (12.5 μg/mL, 82.80%) and the chloroform extract of G. lucidum (510.2 μg/mL, 69.12%). The same extracts also showed the highest LP inhibition (91.83%, 85.09%) at 500 μg/mL, while the methanol extracts of G. applanatum and L. sulphureus showed the highest scavenging effect on OH· radicals (68.47%, 57.06%, respectively) at 400 μg/mL. A strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was also manifested. The antioxidative potencies correlated generally with the total phenol content (0.19-9.98 mg/g). The HPLC determination showed that the majority of analysed species contained gallic and protocatechic acids. Consequently, these fungi are shown to be potential sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents.

  16. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  17. The Middle Triassic marine reptile biodiversity in the Germanic Basin, in the centre of the Pangaean world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-03-01

    The Middle Triassic fossil reptile localities near Bayreuth (Bavaria, southern Germany) consist of shallow marine autochthonous glauconitic marls and terebratulid-rich tempestite carbonates of the newly defined Bindlach and Hegnabrunn formations. Single bones and incomplete skeletons of marine reptiles have been recorded in bone beds within in the Illyrian and Fassanian stages. These include the remains of the sauropterygians Neusticosaurus sp., Lariosaurus cf. buzzii [1], Nothosaurus mirabilis [2], Paranothosaurus giganteus [2], Placodus gigas [3], Cyamodus rostratus [4], Cyamodus münsteri [5], Pistosaurus longaevus [6], and ichthyosaurs Omphalosaurus sp., and Shastasaurus sp. or proterosaur Tanystrophaeus conspicuus [7]. New skeletal reconstructions are based on the osteological analysis of three dimensionally preserved bones and skeletal remains. The large number of marine endemic placodont macroalgae feeders ( P. gigas) in the Bayreuth sites coincides with the presence of invertebrate palaeocommunities that are characteristic of macroalgae meadow paleoenvironments. Most of the reptile species and genera from the Bayreuth localities also occur in beds of similar ages from the Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy) or Perledo (Italy) lagoonal areas. Ichthyosaurs and pistosaurs were adapted for open marine conditions, and may have migrated from the Panthalassa Oceans into the shallow marine Germanic Basin to reproduce, whereas placodonts and many other sauropterygians seem to have lived permanently in those shallow marine habitats, with large squamates and thecodont or smaller archosaurs in coastal areas.

  18. The Middle Triassic marine reptile biodiversity in the Germanic Basin, in the centre of the Pangaean world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus

    2012-03-01

    The Middle Triassic fossil reptile localities near Bayreuth (Bavaria, southern Germany) consist of shallow marine autochthonous glauconitic marls and terebratulid-rich tempestite carbonates of the newly defined Bindlach and Hegnabrunn formations. Single bones and incomplete skeletons of marine reptiles have been recorded in bone beds within in the Illyrian and Fassanian stages. These include the remains of the sauropterygians Neusticosaurus sp., Lariosaurus cf. buzzii [1], Nothosaurus mirabilis [2], Paranothosaurus giganteus [2], Placodus gigas [3], Cyamodus rostratus [4], Cyamodus münsteri [5], Pistosaurus longaevus [6], and ichthyosaursOmphalosaurus sp., and Shastasaurus sp. or proterosaur Tanystrophaeus conspicuus [7]. New skeletal reconstructions are based on the osteological analysis of three dimensionally preserved bones and skeletal remains. The large number of marine endemic placodont macroalgae feeders (P. gigas) in the Bayreuth sites coincides with the presence of invertebrate palaeocommunities that are characteristic of macroalgae meadow paleoenvironments. Most of the reptile species and genera from the Bayreuth localities also occur in beds of similar ages from the Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy) or Perledo (Italy) lagoonal areas. Ichthyosaurs and pistosaurs were adapted for open marine conditions, and may have migrated from the Panthalassa Oceans into the shallow marine Germanic Basin to reproduce, whereas placodonts and many other sauropterygians seem to have lived permanently in those shallow marine habitats, with large squamates and thecodont or smaller archosaurs in coastal areas.

  19. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

    PubMed

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  20. Importance of Chemolithoautotrophic Production to Mobile Benthic Predators in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E.; Macavoy, S.; Carney, R.

    2005-05-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by substantial hydrocarbon seepage which provides reduced energy sources, both CH4 and H2S, for chemolithoautotrophs existing as endosymbionts within mussels and tubeworms found in dense colonies that provide habitat for an array of endemic and colonial fauna. The extent of trophic export of chemosynthetic biomass to the seep communities and the surrounding benthic communities in the Gulf, however, remains an open question. To elucidate the nutritional associations between seep residents and the surrounding benthos the carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotope values of the hagfish Eptatretus sp., the giant isopod Bathynomus giganteus and the predatory snail Phymorhyncus sp. were interpreted through a three source, dual isotope mixing model. The model was able to assess the contributions of different isotopic signals to a mixture and thus could distinguish between photosynthetic/phytodetritus based sources, methanotrophic sources and thiotrophic sources. Incorporation of chemosynthetic based food sources was minimal on the whole and species specific; however some of the organisms considered in this study did incorporate nutrition from chemolithoautotrophic sources.

  1. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)-Guided Metabolic Engineering of a Complex Trait.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Matthew J; Sutardja, Lawrence; Pinel, Dominic; Bauer, Stefan; Muehlbauer, Amanda L; Ames, Tyler D; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Arkin, Adam P

    2017-03-17

    Engineering complex phenotypes for industrial and synthetic biology applications is difficult and often confounds rational design. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks is a complex trait that requires multiple host systems to utilize, detoxify, and metabolize a mixture of sugars and inhibitors present in plant hydrolysates. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to discovering and optimizing host factors that impact fitness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of a Miscanthus x giganteus plant hydrolysate. We first used high-resolution Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping and systematic bulk Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis (bRHA) to discover 17 loci that differentiate hydrolysate tolerance between an industrially related (JAY291) and a laboratory (S288C) strain. We then used this data to identify a subset of favorable allelic loci that were most amenable for strain engineering. Guided by this "genetic blueprint", and using a dual-guide Cas9-based method to efficiently perform multikilobase locus replacements, we engineered an S288C-derived strain with superior hydrolysate tolerance than JAY291. Our methods should be generalizable to engineering any complex trait in S. cerevisiae, as well as other organisms.

  3. New permian fusulinids from conglomerate mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Conglomerate Mesa area in the southeastern Inyo Mountains, east-central California, a series of distinctive fusulinid assemblages ranging in age from late Artinskian to Kungurian or Roadian was developed in units 7-10 of the sedimentary rocks of Santa Rosa Flat (part of the Owens Valley Group). The fauna of unit 7 shows some eastern Klamath Mountains affinity, but most of the species in unit 7 and the lower half of unit 8 are highly endemic and comprise three new genera with 12 new species, two unusual unassigned forms, and two other new species assigned to previously described genera. New taxa include: Crenulosepta new genus with five new species, C. inyoensis, C. delicata, C. fusiformis, C. rossi, and C. wahlmani; Nigribaccinus new genus with three new species, N. giganteus, N. elegans, and N. ? nestelli; and the new genus Inyoschwagerina with four new species, I. magnified, I. elayeri, I. elongata, and I.? linderae. Cuniculinella Skinner and Wilde, 1965, is represented by one new species, C. parva, and Skinnerella Coogan, 1960 by one new species, S.? mcallisteri. Faunas from the upper half of unit 8, unit 9, and unit 10 have a strong West Texas affinity. New species from these units are Skinnerella davydovi, S. hexagona, Parafusulina cerrogordoensis, P. complexa, P. halli, P. owensensis, and P. ubehebensis. Copyright ?? 2009, The Paleontological Society.

  4. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  5. Interspecific variation in the diets of herbivores in an industrial environment: implications for exposure to fluoride emissions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Death, Clare E; Coulson, Graeme; Newby, Lora; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric fluorides (gaseous and particulate) are deposited on, and absorbed by, vegetation. Ingested fluoride accumulates in calcified tissues of vertebrates, and if it is excessive, it may lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis. The prevalence, form and severity of the effects vary greatly between species. Foraging strategy can be an important determinant of fluoride exposure in herbivores, because foliar fluoride concentrations vary between plant species, for example, according to vertical and lateral position in the vegetation. We combined microhistological analysis of diet and analysis of foliar fluoride levels to examine interspecific variation in dietary fluoride exposure of macropodid marsupials (swamp wallaby Wallabia bicolor, red-necked wallaby Notamacropus rufogriseus and eastern grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus), in the buffer zone of an aluminium smelter in Victoria, Australia. Dietary niche differentiation between species was evident. The swamp wallaby and the red-necked wallaby were browsers or mixed feeders, depending on the classification system used. The eastern grey kangaroo was a grazer, consuming almost entirely grasses. However, foliar fluoride did not vary significantly between the main plant groups consumed. Our results indicate that interspecific variation in diet at this site is unlikely to explain variation in fluoride exposure.

  6. Use of Cupriavidus basilensis-aided bioabatement to enhance fermentation of acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium beijerinckii.

    PubMed

    Agu, Chidozie Victor; Ujor, Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2016-09-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors (LDMICs) prevent efficient fermentation of Miscanthus giganteus (MG) hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. To address this problem, we explored detoxification of pretreated MG biomass by Cupriavidus basilensis ATCC(®)BAA-699 prior to enzymatic saccharification. We document three key findings from our test of this strategy to alleviate LDMIC-mediated toxicity on Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during fermentation of MG hydrolysates. First, we demonstrate that growth of C. basilensis is possible on furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, vanillin, and ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic and vanillic acid, as sole carbon sources. Second, we report that C. basilensis detoxified and metabolized ~98 % LDMICs present in dilute acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates. Last, this bioabatement resulted in significant payoffs during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by C. beijerinckii: 70, 50 and 73 % improvement in ABE concentration, yield and productivity, respectively. Together, our results show that biological detoxification of acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates prior to fermentation is feasible and beneficial.

  7. Speciation and phylogeography of giant petrels Macronectes.

    PubMed

    Techow, N M S M; O'Ryan, C; Phillips, R A; Gales, R; Marin, M; Patterson-Fraser, D; Quintana, F; Ritz, M S; Thompson, D R; Wanless, R M; Weimerskirch, H; Ryan, P G

    2010-02-01

    We examine global phylogeography of the two forms of giant petrel Macronectes spp. Although previously considered to be a single taxon, and despite debate over the status of some populations and the existence of minimal genetic data (one mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence per form), the current consensus based on morphology is that there are two species, Northern Giant Petrel M. halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. This study examined genetic variation at cytochrome b as well as six microsatellite loci in giant petrels from 22 islands, representing most island groups at which the two species breed. Both markers support separate species status, although sequence divergence in cytochrome b was only 0.42% (corrected). Divergence was estimated to have occurred approximately 0.2mya, but with some colonies apparently separated for longer (up to 0.5 my). Three clades were found within giant petrels, which separated approximately 0.7mya, with the Southern Giant Petrel paraphyletic to a monophyletic Northern Giant Petrel. There was evidence of past fragmentation during the Pleistocene, with subsequent secondary contact within Southern Giant Petrels. The analysis also suggested a period of past population expansion that corresponded roughly to the timing of speciation and the separation of an ancestral giant petrel population from the fulmar Fulmarus clade. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates.

  9. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Shearer, Andrew; Tateno, Mizuki; Ruwaya, Matthew; Nokes, Sue; Brutnell, Tom; Debolt, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize), Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (sorghum), and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane) as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus×giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass). The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet) is a rapid cycling C4 panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient, and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for Setaria viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor response and saccharification dynamics of Setaria viridis are compared with the annual sorghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two developmental stages; (a) metabolically active young tissue and (b) metabolically plateaued (mature) material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  10. Setaria viridis: A Model for C4 Photosynthesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Brutnell, Thomas P.; Wang, Lin; Swartwood, Kerry; Goldschmidt, Alexander; Jackson, David; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Van Eck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis drives productivity in several major food crops and bioenergy grasses, including maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Miscanthus x giganteus, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Gains in productivity associated with C4 photosynthesis include improved water and nitrogen use efficiencies. Thus, engineering C4 traits into C3 crops is an attractive target for crop improvement. However, the lack of a small, rapid cycling genetic model system to study C4 photosynthesis has limited progress in dissecting the regulatory networks underlying the C4 syndrome. Setaria viridis is a member of the Panicoideae clade and is a close relative of several major feed, fuel, and bioenergy grasses. It is a true diploid with a relatively small genome of ~510 Mb. Its short stature, simple growth requirements, and rapid life cycle will greatly facilitate genetic studies of the C4 grasses. Importantly, S. viridis uses an NADP-malic enzyme subtype C4 photosynthetic system to fix carbon and therefore is a potentially powerful model system for dissecting C4 photosynthesis. Here, we summarize some of the recent advances that promise greatly to accelerate the use of S. viridis as a genetic system. These include our recent successful efforts at regenerating plants from seed callus, establishing a transient transformation system, and developing stable transformation. PMID:20693355

  11. Setaria viridis: a model for C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brutnell, Thomas P; Wang, Lin; Swartwood, Kerry; Goldschmidt, Alexander; Jackson, David; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Van Eck, Joyce

    2010-08-01

    C(4) photosynthesis drives productivity in several major food crops and bioenergy grasses, including maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Miscanthus x giganteus, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Gains in productivity associated with C(4) photosynthesis include improved water and nitrogen use efficiencies. Thus, engineering C(4) traits into C(3) crops is an attractive target for crop improvement. However, the lack of a small, rapid cycling genetic model system to study C(4) photosynthesis has limited progress in dissecting the regulatory networks underlying the C(4) syndrome. Setaria viridis is a member of the Panicoideae clade and is a close relative of several major feed, fuel, and bioenergy grasses. It is a true diploid with a relatively small genome of ~510 Mb. Its short stature, simple growth requirements, and rapid life cycle will greatly facilitate genetic studies of the C(4) grasses. Importantly, S. viridis uses an NADP-malic enzyme subtype C(4) photosynthetic system to fix carbon and therefore is a potentially powerful model system for dissecting C(4) photosynthesis. Here, we summarize some of the recent advances that promise greatly to accelerate the use of S. viridis as a genetic system. These include our recent successful efforts at regenerating plants from seed callus, establishing a transient transformation system, and developing stable transformation.

  12. Setaria viridis and Setaria italica, model genetic systems for the Panicoid grasses.

    PubMed

    Li, Pinghua; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are diploid C(4) grasses with small genomes of ∼515 Mb. Both species have attributes that make them attractive as model systems. Setaria italica is a grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India that is closely related to the major food and feed crops maize and sorghum. A large collection of S. italica accessions are available and thus opportunities exist for association mapping and allele mining for novel variants that will have direct application in agriculture. Setaria viridis is the weedy relative of S. italica with many attributes suitable for genetic analyses including a small stature, rapid life cycle, and prolific seed production. Setaria sp. are morphologically similar to most of the Panicoideae grasses, including major biofuel feedstocks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus). They are broadly distributed geographically and occupy diverse ecological niches. The cross-compatibility of S. italica and S. viridis also suggests that gene flow is likely between wild and domesticated accessions. In addition to serving as excellent models for C(4) photosynthesis, these grasses provide novel opportunities to study abiotic stress tolerance and as models for bioenergy feedstocks.

  13. Temperature response of mesophyll conductance in three C4 species calculated with two methods: (18) O discrimination and in vitro Vpmax.

    PubMed

    Ubierna, Nerea; Gandin, Anthony; Boyd, Ryan A; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-04-01

    Mesophyll conductance (gm ) is an important factor limiting rates of C3 photosynthesis. However, its role in C4 photosynthesis is poorly understood because it has been historically difficult to estimate. We use two methods to derive the temperature responses of gm in C4 species. The first (Δ(18) O) combines measurements of gas exchange with models and measurements of (18) O discrimination. The second method (in vitro Vpmax ) derives gm by retrofitting models of C4 photosynthesis and (13) C discrimination with gas exchange, kinetic constants and in vitro Vpmax measurements. The two methods produced similar gm for Setaria viridis and Zea mays. Additionally, we present the first temperature response (10-40°C) of C4 gm in S. viridis, Z. mays and Miscanthus × giganteus. Values for gm at 25°C ranged from 2.90 to 7.85 μmol m(-2)  s(-1)  Pa(-1) . Our study demonstrated that: the two described methods are suitable to calculate gm in C4 species; gm values in C4 are similar to high-end values reported for C3 species; and gm increases with temperature analogous to reports for C3 species and the response is species specific. These results improve our mechanistic understanding of C4 photosynthesis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Shearer, Andrew; Tateno, Mizuki; Ruwaya, Matthew; Nokes, Sue; Brutnell, Tom; DeBolt, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize), Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (sorghum), and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane) as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus×giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass). The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet) is a rapid cycling C4 panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient, and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for Setaria viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor response and saccharification dynamics of Setaria viridis are compared with the annual sorghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two developmental stages; (a) metabolically active young tissue and (b) metabolically plateaued (mature) material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics. PMID:23802002

  15. Community structure of ground-water breeding mosquitoes driven by land use in a temperate wetland of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cardo, María Victoria; Darío, Vezzani; Eduardo, Carbajo Aníbal

    2011-08-01

    Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, but the effect of the land use on their communities has not been thoroughly studied. We characterized the ground-water habitat availability and mosquito species richness and composition during a year-round survey in the predominant land uses (domestic areas, Salicaceae plantations, secondary forests and Scirpus giganteus marshes) of the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. Each land use presented a characteristically different number, composition, and diversity of ground-water habitats, and harboured mosquitoes throughout the year. Nearly half of the 824 habitats examined, consisting of 10 types, were positive for immatures. We identified 23 species from 7 genera, with Culex and Ochlerotatus species accounting for 81.7% of all samples. Species richness was significantly lower in marshes than in the other land uses. Some species such as Culex dolosus s.l. and Ochlerotatus crinifer exhibited no habitat-type restrictions, while Uranotaenia nataliae and Mansonia indubitans presented specific habitat requirements. Our results strongly suggest that land use within temperate wetlands drives species richness and composition of ground-water mosquito communities through larval habitat availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cascading effects of defaunation on the coexistence of two specialized insect seed predators.

    PubMed

    Peguero, Guille; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Jansen, Patrick A; Wright, S Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Identification of the mechanisms enabling stable coexistence of species with similar resource requirements is a central challenge in ecology. Such coexistence can be facilitated by species at higher trophic levels through complex multi-trophic interactions, a mechanism that could be compromised by ongoing defaunation. We investigated cascading effects of defaunation on Pachymerus cardo and Speciomerus giganteus, the specialized insect seed predators of the Neotropical palm Attalea butyracea, testing the hypothesis that vertebrate frugivores and granivores facilitate their coexistence. Laboratory experiments showed that the two seed parasitoid species differed strongly in their reproductive ecology. Pachymerus produced many small eggs that it deposited exclusively on the fruit exocarp (exterior). Speciomerus produced few large eggs that it deposited exclusively on the endocarp, which is normally exposed only after a vertebrate handles the fruit. When eggs of the two species were deposited on the same fruit, Pachymerus triumphed only when it had a long head start, and the loser always succumbed to intraguild predation. We collected field data on the fates of 6569 Attalea seeds across sites in central Panama with contrasting degrees of defaunation and wide variation in the abundance of vertebrate frugivores and granivores. Speciomerus dominated where vertebrate communities were intact, whereas Pachymerus dominated in defaunated sites. Variation in the relative abundance of Speciomerus across all 84 sampling sites was strongly positively related to the proportion of seeds attacked by rodents, an indicator of local vertebrate abundance.

  17. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Second-Generation Lignin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richel, Aurore; Vanderghem, Caroline; Simon, Mathilde; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is evaluated as an elucidation tool for structural features and molecular weights estimation of some extracted herbaceous lignins. Optimization of analysis conditions, using a typical organic matrix, namely α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), in combination with α-cyclodextrin, allows efficient ionization of poorly soluble lignin materials and suppression of matrix-related ions background. Analysis of low-mass fragments ions (m/z 100–600) in the positive ion mode offers a “fingerprint” of starting lignins that could be a fine strategy to qualitatively identify principal inter-unit linkages between phenylpropanoid units. The molecular weights of lignins are estimated using size exclusion chromatography and compared to MALDI-TOF-MS profiles. Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) lignins, recovered after a formic acid/acetic acid/water process or aqueous ammonia soaking, are selected as benchmarks for this study. PMID:23300342

  18. SSR-based genetic maps of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, and their comparison to sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changsoo; Zhang, Dong; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Jakob, Katrin; Kronmiller, Brent; Sacks, Erik J; Deuter, Martin; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-05-01

    We present SSR-based genetic maps from a cross between Miscanthus sacchariflorus Robustus and M. sinensis, the progenitors of the promising cellulosic biofuel feedstock Miscanthus × giganteus. cDNA-derived SSR markers were mapped by the two-way pseudo-testcross model due to the high heterozygosity of each parental species. A total of 261 loci were mapped in M. sacchariflorus, spanning 40 linkage groups and 1,998.8 cM, covering an estimated 72.7% of the genome. For M. sinensis, a total of 303 loci were mapped, forming 23 linkage groups and 2,238.3 cM, covering 84.9% of the genome. The use of cDNA-derived SSR loci permitted alignment of the Miscanthus linkage groups to the sorghum chromosomes, revealing a whole genome duplication affecting the Miscanthus lineage after the divergence of subtribes Sorghinae and Saccharinae, as well as traces of the pan-cereal whole genome duplication. While the present maps provide for many early research needs in this emerging crop, additional markers are also needed to improve map density and to further characterize the structural changes of the Miscanthus genome since its divergence from sorghum and Saccharum.

  19. Does greater leaf-level photosynthesis explain the larger solar energy conversion efficiency of Miscanthus relative to switchgrass?

    PubMed

    Dohleman, F G; Heaton, E A; Leakey, A D B; Long, S P

    2009-11-01

    C(4) perennial grasses are being considered for bioenergy because of their high productivity and low inputs. In side-by-side replicated trials, Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) has previously been found more than twice as productive as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The hypothesis that this difference is attributable to higher leaf photosynthetic rates was tested on established plots of switchgrass and Miscanthus in central Illinois with >3300 individual measurements on 20 dates across the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Seasonally integrated leaf-level photosynthesis was 33% higher in Miscanthus than switchgrass (P < 0.0001). This increase in carbon assimilation comes at the expense of additional transpiration since stomatal conductance was on average 25% higher in Miscanthus (P < 0.0001). Whole-chain electron transport rate, measured simultaneously by modulated chlorophyll fluorescence, was similarly 23% higher in Miscanthus (P < 0.0001). Efficiencies of light energy transduction into whole chain photosynthetic electron transport, leaf nitrogen use and leaf water use were all significantly higher in Miscanthus. These may all contribute to its higher photosynthetic rates, and in turn, productivity. Systematic measurement of photosynthesis over two complete growing seasons in the field provides a unique dataset explaining why the productivity of these two species differs and for validating mechanistic production models for these emerging bioenergy crops.

  20. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  1. A nested PCR for the ssrRNA gene detects Trypanosoma binneyi in the platypus and Trypanosoma sp. in wombats and kangaroos in Australia.

    PubMed

    Noyes, H A; Stevens, J R; Teixeira, M; Phelan, J; Holz, P

    1999-02-01

    Trypanosome infections in their natural hosts are frequently difficult to detect by microscopy, and culture methods are unreliable and not suitable for all species of Trypanosoma. A nested PCR strategy for detecting and identifying Trypanosoma species, suitable for detecting both known and unknown trypanosomes, is presented. Thirty-two blood samples from 23 species of Australian birds and mammals were screened by a nested PCR for the presence of Trypanosoma sp. ssrRNA. Three infections were detected, one in an eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), one in a common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) and one in a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The kangaroo and wombat are new host records for Trypanosoma sp.; the platypus parasite was Trypanosoma hinneyi. The three parasites could be distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the amplified fragment of the ssrRNA gene. The kangaroo and wombat parasites were also isolated in a semi-solid blood agar medium. The culture forms of the kangaroo trypanosome had an expanded flagellar sheath in which structures similar to hemidesmosomes were detected by EM. The nested PCR was at least as sensitive as culture, and analysis of the PCR products gave parasite-specific fingerprints. Therefore this method could be suitable for rapidly screening host animals for the presence of trypanosomes and identifying the infecting strain.

  2. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  3. Effects of sawdust pollution on the germination of fungal spores in Lagos Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Akpata, T V

    1987-01-01

    Four fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus giganteus, Cladosporium oxysporum a and Trichoderma aureoviride, isolated from Lagos Lagoon, were tested for spore germination in aqueous sawdust extract of different hardwood species (Khaya ivorensis, Mitragyna ciliata and Triplochiton scleroxylon). Extracts of M. ciliata were inhibitory to spore germination especially at higher concentrations. Germ tubes of spores decreased in length with increase in extract concentration for C. oxysporum and T. aureoviride, while Aspergillus species showed increase in length up to a peak at 3% sawdust extract concentration, and thereafter germ tube lengths decreased with increasing concentration. Extracts of T. scleroxylon stimulated the spores and percentage germination increased at higher extract concentrations with no significant difference in germ tube length. Similarly, K. ivorensis had a stimulatory effect on spore germination and length of germ tube, especially at higher extract concentrations. Addition of soluble exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources to sawdust extract enhanced spore germination. Apart from A. flavus, which had only 9% germination, all the spores failed to germinate in lagoon water having 21% salinity. The spores were also inhibited by in lagoon water having 21 per thousand salinity. The spores were also inhibited by various inorganic salts, i.e. CaCl(2), KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4) and NaCl, present in Lagos Lagoon. The results suggest that sawdust pollution causes enrichment of the lagoon, thereby enhancing spore germination.

  4. Flowering induction in the bioenergy grass Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a quantitative short-day response, whilst delayed flowering under long days increases biomass accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Donnison, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a fast-growing C4 perennial grass that can naturally hybridize with M. sinensis to produce interspecific hybrids, such as the sterile triploid M.× giganteus. The creation of such hybrids is essential for the rapid domestication of this novel bioenergy crop. However, progress has been hindered by poor understanding of the environmental cues promoting floral transition in M. sacchariflorus, which flowers less readily than M. sinensis. The purpose of this work was to identify the flowering requirements of M. sacchariflorus genotypes in order to expedite the introduction of new germplasm optimized to different environments. Six M. sacchariflorus accessions collected from a range of latitudes were grown under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions, and flowering, biomass, and morphological phenotypic data were captured. Results indicated that M. sacchariflorus, irrespective of origin, is a quantitative short-day plant. Flowering under static long days (15.3h daylength), compared with shorter photoperiods, was delayed by an average 61 d, with an average associated increase of 52% of above-ground biomass (DM plant–1). Timing of floral initiation occurred between photoperiods of 14.2h and 12.1h, and accumulated temperatures of 553–1157 °C above a base temperature of 10 °C. Miscanthus sacchariflorus flowering phenology closely resembles that of Sorghum and Saccharum, indicating potentially similar floral pathways and suggesting that determination of the underlying genetic mechanisms will be facilitated by the syntenic relationships existing between these important C4 grasses. PMID:23183254

  5. Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E M; Nowakowski, D J; Shield, I; Riche, A; Bridgwater, A V; Clifton-Brown, J C; Donnison, I S

    2011-02-01

    Different species and genotypes of Miscanthus were analysed to determine the influence of genotypic variation and harvest time on cell wall composition and the products which may be refined via pyrolysis. Wet chemical, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) methods were used to identify the main pyrolysis products and determine the extent to which genotypic differences in cell wall composition influence the range and yield of pyrolysis products. Significant genotypic variation in composition was identified between species and genotypes, and a clear relationship was observed between the biomass composition, yields of pyrolysis products, and the composition of the volatile fraction. Results indicated that genotypes other than the commercially cultivated Miscanthus x giganteus may have greater potential for use in bio-refining of fuels and chemicals and several genotypes were identified as excellent candidates for the generation of genetic mapping families and the breeding of new genotypes with improved conversion quality characteristics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Siveter, Derek J.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

  7. Spatial correlation of confocal Raman scattering and secondary ion mass spectrometric molecular images of lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Chu, Li-Qiang; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Bohn, Paul W

    2010-04-01

    A detailed chemical and structural understanding of pre-enzymatic processing of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs) is a key objective in the development of renewable energy. Efficient rendering of biomass components into fermentable substrates for conversion into biofuel feedstocks would benefit greatly from the development of new technologies to provide high-quality, spatially resolved chemical information about LCMs during the various processing states. In an effort to realize this important goal, spatially correlated confocal Raman and mass spectrometric images allow the extraction of three-dimensional information from the perennial grass, Miscanthus x giganteus. An optical microscopy-based landmark registry scheme was developed that allows samples to be transferred between laboratories at different institutions, while retaining the capability to access the same physical regions of the samples. Subsequent to higher resolution imaging via confocal Raman microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry was used to place these regions within the overall sample architecture. Excellent sample registry was evident in the highly correlated Raman and SIMS images. In addition, the correlation of vibrational Raman scattering with mass spectra from specific spatial locations allowed confirmation of the assignment of intracellular globular structures to hemicellulose-rich lignin complexes, an assignment which could only be made tentatively from either image alone.

  8. Shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Kang, Alicia Y H; Maguire, Anita J; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V

    2013-01-01

    Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales). These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus) was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.

  9. Overproduction and purification of biologically active native fungal alpha-sarcin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lacadena, J; Martínez del Pozo, A; Barbero, J L; Mancheño, J M; Gasset, M; Oñaderra, M; López-Otín, C; Ortega, S; García, J; Gavilanes, J G

    1994-05-03

    An efficient system was developed to produce, in Escherichia coli, large amounts of native alpha-sarcin (alpha Sar), a cytotoxin from the mold Aspergillus giganteus. The protein has been purified to homogeneity with a yield of 1.5 micrograms/ml of original culture. The constructed expression vector (pINPG alpha S) is based on the synthesis of a fusion protein between alpha Sar and a modified version of the OmpA signal peptide. This peptide seems to favour the postranslational processing of the fusion protein. The purified recombinant alpha-sarcin (re-alpha Sar) is structurally identical to the mature fungal protein according to the following criteria: N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence, aa composition, electrophoretic mobility, chromatographic behaviour, immunoreactivity and spectroscopic features. Indeed, the recombinant protein recovered is completely functional, since it cleaves, in vitro, eukaryotic rRNA and it is able to interact with phospholipid vesicles with the same specificity as the native fungal alpha Sar.

  10. A survey for gregarines (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in arthropods in Spain.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Verdú-Expósito, C; Martin-Pérez, T; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J; Guàrdia-Valle, L; Panisello-Panisello, M

    2017-01-01

    Gregarines thrive in the digestive tract of arthropods and may be deleterious to their hosts, especially when present in high densities. The impact of parasites on these invertebrates may affect both the ecosystem equilibrium and human economic activities. However, information available on gregarines in Spain is limited. Therefore, a microscopic study on prevalence of gregarine infection in 560 insects and crustaceans was undertaken in Madrid and Tarragona.Gregarina ormierei (78 % prevalence), Stylocephalus gigas (56 %), Oocephalus hispanus (13 %) and Actinocephalus permagnus (only one infected out of six beetles examined) were found in coleopteran hosts. Gregarina ovata and G. chelidurellae showed moderate frequency of infection (35 %) in dermapterans. An undescribed Gregarina sp. (76 % prevalence) was observed for the first time in freshwater decapod crustaceans. Interestingly, G. ormierei showed a noticeable phenotypic dimorphism, which justifies its redescription based on modern taxonomic criteria. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene could be obtained only in the presence of highly prevalent gregarines. G. ormierei and Gregarina sp. were related (85 and 94 % identity by BLASTN, respectively) to G. basiconstrictonea and G. cloptoni, respectively, whereas S. gigas was closely related to both Xiphocephalus ellisi and S. giganteus (>97 % identity). Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal sequences unequivocally grouped these new isolates either with the Gregarinidae (G. ormierei and Gregarina sp.) or the Stylocephalidae (S. gigas).

  11. Influence of pretreatment with Fenton's reagent on biogas production and methane yield from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Karina; Miazek, Krystian; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2012-09-01

    Biomass from Miscanthus giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Sorghum Moensch was treated with Fenton's reagent for 2 hours under optimal conditions (pH=3, mass ratio of [Fe(2+)]:[H(2)O(2)] equals 1:25 for Miscanthus and Sorghum and 1:15 for Sida). The degrees of delignification were 30.3%, 62.3% and 48.1% for the three plant species, respectively. The volatile fatty acids concentration after chemical pretreatment was high enough for production of biogas with a high methane content. Combined chemical oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase and cellobiase led to glucose contents of above 4 g/L. Among the tested plants, the highest biogas production (25.2 Ndm(3)/kg TS fed) with a 75% methane content was obtained with Sorghum Moensch. The results of the three-step process of biomass degradation show the necessity of applying a chemical pretreatment such as oxidation with Fenton's reagent. Moreover, the coagulation of residual Fe(3+) ions is not required for high biogas production.

  12. Recommendations for increasing alkaline comet assay reliability in plants.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Pinelli, Eric; Celiz Mendiola, Vanessa; Silvestre, Jérôme; Douay, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In plants, an increasing interest for the comet assay was shown in the last decade. This versatile technique appears to be promising to detect the genotoxic effect of pollutants and to monitor the environment. However, the lack of a standardised protocol and the low throughput of the assay limit its use in plants. The aims of this paper are to identify key factors affecting comet assay performance and to improve its reliability and reproducibility. We examined the effect of varying several parameters on four different plant species: broad bean (Vicia faba), white clover (Trifolium repens), English ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). The influence of both internal (different nucleus isolation methods, presence or absence of filtration and lysis steps) and external (room temperature, light intensity) parameters were evaluated. Results clearly indicate that short chopping is more efficient to isolate nuclei than the standard slicing method. Filtration and lysis steps were shown to be unnecessary and thus should be skipped. Data also demonstrate that high room temperatures and light could induce DNA damage in isolated nuclei. Calibration tests with H2O2 or ethyl methanesulfonate revealed that a special attention should be paid to plant growing stage, leaf position and exposure duration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mutagenesis Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  14. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  15. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

  17. The Hunsrück biota: A unique window into the ecology of Lower Devonian arthropods.

    PubMed

    Rust, Jes; Bergmann, Alexandra; Bartels, Christoph; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Sedlmeier, Stephanie; Kühl, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    The approximately 400-million-year old Hunsrück biota provides a unique window into Devonian marine life. Fossil evidence suggests that this biota was dominated by echinoderms and various classes of arthropods, including Trilobita, stem lineage representatives of Euarthropoda, Chelicerata and Eucrustacea, as well as several crown group Chelicerata and Eucrustacea. The Hunsrück biota's exceptional preservation allows detailed reconstructions and description of key-aspects of its fauna's functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Morphological and stratigraphic data are used for a critical interpretation of the likely habitats, mode of life and nutritional characteristics of this diverse fauna. Potential predators include pycnogonids and other chelicerates, as well as the now extinct stem arthropods Schinderhannes bartelsi, Cambronatus brasseli and Wingertshellicus backesi. Mainly the deposit feeding Trilobita, Marrellomorpha and Megacheira, such as Bundenbachiellus giganteus, represents scavengers. Possibly, opportunistic scavenging was also performed by the afore-mentioned predators. Most of the studied arthropods appear to have been adapted to living in relatively well-illuminated conditions within the photic zone. Fossil evidence for associations amongst arthropods and other classes of metazoans is reported. These associations provide evidence of likely community structures.

  18. Impact of different bioenergy crops on N-cycling bacterial and archaeal communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Davis, Sarah C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-03-01

    Biomass production for bioenergy may change soil microbes and influence ecosystem properties. To explore the impact of different bioenergy cropping systems on soil microorganisms, the compositions and quantities of soil microbial communities (16S rRNA gene) and N-cycling functional groups (nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA and nosZ genes) were assessed under maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus at seven sites representing a climate gradient (precipitation and temperature) in Illinois, USA. Overall, the site-to-site variation in community composition surpassed the variation due to plant type, and microbial communities under each crop did not converge on a 'typical' species assemblage. Fewer than 5% of archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nifH and nosZ OTUs were significantly different among these crops, but the largest differences observed at each site were found between maize and the two perennial grasses. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of the nifH gene was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in maize, and we also found significantly higher total N in the perennial grass soils than in maize. Thus, we conclude that cultivation of these perennial grasses, instead of maize, as bioenergy feedstocks can improve soil ecosystem nitrogen sustainability by increasing the population size of N-fixing bacteria.

  19. Effect of thermal and alkaline pretreatment of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Li, Yongqiang; Hao, Xiying

    2016-01-01

    Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Chinese fountaingrass (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng), cultivated for landscaping and soil conservation, are potential energy crops. The study investigated the effect of combined thermal and alkaline pretreatments on biogas production of these energy crops. The pretreatment included two types of alkali (6% CaO and 6% NaOH) at 22, 70 and 100 °C. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in a greater breakdown of the hemicellulose fraction, with CaO more effective than NaOH. Pretreatment of giant miscanthus with 6% CaO at 100 °C for 24 h produced a CH4 yield (313 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS)) that was 1.7 times that of the untreated sample (186 mL g(-1) VS). However, pretreatment of Chinese fountaingrass with 6% CaO or 6% NaOH at 70 °C for 24 h resulted in similar CH4 yields (328 and 302 mL g(-1) VS for CaO and NaOH pretreatments) as the untreated sample (311 mL g(-1) VS). Chinese fountaingrass was more easily digestible but had a low overall CH4 yield per hectare (1,831 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)) compared to giant miscanthus (6,868 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)). This study demonstrates the potential of thermal/alkaline pretreatment and the use of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass for biogas production.

  20. Managing Multiple Mandates: A System of Systems Model to Analyze Strategies for Producing Cellulosic Ethanol and Reducing Riverine Nitrate Loads in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Housh, Mashor; Yaeger, Mary A; Cai, Ximing; McIsaac, Gregory F; Khanna, Madhu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Al-Qadi, Imad; Jain, Atul K

    2015-10-06

    Implementing public policies often involves navigating an array of choices that have economic and environmental consequences that are difficult to quantify due to the complexity of multiple system interactions. Implementing the mandate for cellulosic biofuel production in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and reducing hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico by reducing riverine nitrate-N loads represent two such cases that overlap in the Mississippi River Basin. To quantify the consequences of these interactions, a system of systems (SoS) model was developed that incorporates interdependencies among the various subsystems, including biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crop/ethanol markets. The model allows examination of the impact of imposing riverine nitrate-N load limits on the biofuel production system as a whole, including land use change and infrastructure needs. The synergies of crop choice (first versus second generation biofuel crops), infrastructure development, and environmental impacts (streamflow and nitrate-N load) were analyzed to determine the complementarities and trade-offs between environmental protection and biofuel development objectives. For example, the results show that meeting the cellulosic biofuel target in the RFS using Miscanthus x giganteus reduces system profits by 8% and reduces nitrate-N loads by 12% compared to the scenario without a mandate. However, greater water consumption by Miscanthus is likely to reduce streamflow with potentially adverse environmental consequences that need to be considered in future decision making.

  1. Bioethanol production from dedicated energy crops and residues in Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Burner, David M; Xu, Jianfeng; Phillips, Gregory C; Sivakumar, Ganapathy

    2011-01-01

    Globally, one of the major technologic goals is to achieve cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol production from biomass feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass of four dedicated energy crops [giant reed (Arundo donax L.), elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach), Miscanthus × giganteus (Illinois clone), and (clone Q42641) {hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim)}, Hack. called giant miscanthus, and sugarcane clone US 84-1028 (Saccharum L. spp. hybrid)] and residues from two crops [soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) litter and rice (Oryza sativa L.) husk] were tested for bioethanol production using cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (CSLF) pretreatment and enzymatic (cellulase) hydrolysis. Giant miscanthus (Illinois), giant reed, giant miscanthus (Q42641), elephantgrass, and sugarcane all yielded higher amount of glucose on a biomass dry weight basis (0.290-0.331 g/g), than did rice husk (0.181 g/g) and soybean litter (0.186 g/g). To reduce the capital investment for energy consumption in fermentation, we used a self-flocculating yeast strain (SPSC01) to ferment the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Bioethanol production was ∼0.1 g/g in dedicated energy crops and less in two crop residues. These methods and data can help to develop a cost-effective downstream process for bioethanol production.

  2. Closing the Carbon Budget in Perennial Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, I. B.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Bernacchi, C.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Masters, M. D.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    At present, some 40% of corn grown in the United States, accounting for more than 26 million acres of farmland, is processed for bioethanol. Interest has arisen in converting biofuel production from corn grain ethanol to cellulosic ethanol, derived primarily from cellulose from dedicated energy crops. As many cellulosic biofuel feedstocks are perennial grasses, conversion from annual corn cropping to perennials represents a substantial change in farming practices with the potential to alter the plant-soil relationship in the Midwestern United States. Elimination of annual tillage preserves soils structure, conserving soil carbon and maintaining plant root systems. Five years of perennial grass establishment in former agricultural land in Illinois has shown a significant change in soil carbon pools and fluxes. Atmospheric carbon exchange monitoring combined with vegetation and soil sampling and respiration measurements confirm that in the first 3 years (establishment phase), perennial giant grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum rapidly increased belowground carbon allocation >400% and belowground biomass 400-750% compared to corn. Following establishment, perennial grasses maintained below- and aboveground annual biomass production, out-performing corn in both average and drought conditions. Here we offer a quantitative comparison of the carbon allocation pathways of corn and perennial biofuel crops in Midwestern landscapes, demonstrating the carbon benefits of perennial cropping through increased C allocation to root and rhizome structures. Long rotation periods in perennial grasses combined with annual carbon inputs to the soil system are expected to convert these agricultural soils from atmospheric carbon sources to carbon sinks.

  3. Computer-aided pattern recognition of large reptiles as a noninvasive application to identify individuals.

    PubMed

    Moro, Dorian; MacAulay, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    For large species, the capture and handling of individuals in capture-mark-recapture studies introduces nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with handling, physical marking, and possible wounding due to tag loss. The use of photographic identification for these species offers an alternative and less invasive marking technique. This study investigated the opportunity offered by photo identification to individually mark individuals of a large reptile, the perentie (Varanus giganteus), in Australia and therefore avoid the stress of physically capturing and handling. Photographs submitted by a remotely located community were first validated to confirm whether perenties could be individually identified from their spots electronically using a computer program. Computer-aided selection of unique patterns was found to be appropriate for the identification of individuals and confirmed 38 individuals during the sampling period. The value of this approach is 2-fold: There is a benefit to animal welfare in that handling an animal is not required to capture him or her, thus reducing capture-related stress; and confirmation that photo identification of distinctive patterns of the perentie is valid and offers a useful option to identify individuals of this large species.

  4. Loss of photosynthetic efficiency in the shade. An Achilles heel for the dense modern stands of our most productive C4 crops?

    PubMed Central

    Pignon, Charles P.; Jaiswal, Deepak; McGrath, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The wild progenitors of major C4 crops grew as individuals subjected to little shading. Today they are grown in dense stands where most leaves are shaded. Do they maintain photosynthetic efficiency in these low light conditions produced by modern cultivation? The apparent maximum quantum yield of CO2 assimilation (ΦCO2max,app), a key determinant of light-limited photosynthesis, has not been systematically studied in field stands of C4 crops. ΦCO2max,app was derived from the initial slope of the response of leaf CO2 uptake (A) to photon flux (Q). Leaf fractional light absorptance (α) was measured to determine the absolute maximum quantum yield of CO2 assimilation on an absorbed light basis (ΦCO2max,abs). Light response curves were determined on sun and shade leaves of 49 field plants of Miscanthus × giganteus and Zea mays following canopy closure. ΦCO2max,app and ΦCO2max,abs declined significantly by 15–27% (P<0.05) with canopy depth. Experimentally, leaf age was shown unlikely to cause this loss. Modeling canopy CO2 assimilation over diurnal courses suggested that the observed decline in ΦCO2max,app with canopy depth costs 10% of potential carbon gain. Overcoming this limitation could substantially increase the productivity of major C4 crops. PMID:28110277

  5. Watershed-scale impacts of bioenergy crops on hydrology and water quality using improved SWAT model

    DOE PAGES

    Cibin, Raj; Trybula, Elizabeth; Chaubey, Indrajeet; ...

    2016-01-08

    Cellulosic bioenergy feedstock such as perennial grasses and crop residues are expected to play a significant role in meeting US biofuel production targets. Here, we used an improved version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to forecast impacts on watershed hydrology and water quality by implementing an array of plausible land-use changes associated with commercial bioenergy crop production for two watersheds in the Midwest USA. Watershed-scale impacts were estimated for 13 bioenergy crop production scenarios, including: production of Miscanthus 9 giganteus and upland Shawnee switchgrass on highly erodible landscape positions, agricultural marginal land areas and pastures, removal ofmore » corn stover and combinations of these options. We also measured water quality as erosion and sediment loading; this was forecasted to improve compared to baseline when perennial grasses were used for bioenergy production, but not with stover removal scenarios. Erosion reduction with perennial energy crop production scenarios ranged between 0.2% and 59%. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced between 0 and 8% across these bioenergy crop production scenarios compared to baseline across the study watersheds. Our results indicate that bioenergy production scenarios that incorporate perennial grasses reduced the nonpoint source pollutant load at the watershed outlet compared to the baseline conditions (0–20% for nitrate-nitrogen and 3–56% for mineral phosphorus); but, the reduction rates were specific to site characteristics and management practices.« less

  6. Experimental manipulation reveals few subclinical impacts of a parasite community in juvenile kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Ploeg, Richard; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. In many host species, these helminths cause clinical disease and may trigger conspicuous mortality events. However, they may also have subclinical impacts, reducing fitness as well as causing complex changes to host growth patterns and body condition. Theoretically, juveniles should experience significantly greater costs from parasites, being immunologically naive and undergoing a significant growth phase. The aims of our study were to quantify the subclinical effects of helminths in juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), which commonly harbour large burdens of gastrointestinal nematodes and are susceptible to associated mass mortality during cold, wet conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging kangaroos, removing nematodes from one group of juveniles using an anthelmintic treatment. We then compared growth parameters (body condition and growth rates) and haematological parameters of this group with an age-matched, parasitised (untreated) control group. Treated juvenile kangaroos had significantly higher levels of plasma protein (albumin) but, contrary to our predictions, showed negligible changes in all the other parameters measured. Our results suggest that juvenile kangaroos are largely unaffected by their gastrointestinal helminth burdens, and may be able to compensate for the costs of parasites. PMID:25161906

  7. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert I. Fossil hyphomycetes associated with the early Eocene aquatic angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii.

    PubMed

    Klymiuk, Ashley A; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Eocene (~ 48.7 Ma, Ypresian-Lutetian) Princeton Chert of British Columbia, Canada, has long been recognized as a significant paleobotanical locality, and a diverse assemblage of anatomically preserved fossil plants has been extensively documented. Co-occurring fossil fungi also have been observed, but the full scope of their diversity has yet to be comprehensively assessed. Here, we present the first of a series of investigations of fossilized fungi associated with the silicified plants of the Princeton Chert. This report focuses on saprotrophic, facultative-aquatic hyphomycetes observed in cortical aerenchyma tissue of an enigmatic angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii. Our use of paleontological thin sections provides the opportunity to observe and infer developmental features, making it possible to more accurately attribute two hyphomycetes that were observed in previous studies. These comprise multiseptate, holothallic, chlamydospore-like phragmoconidia most similar to extant Xylomyces giganteus and basipetal phragmospore-like chains of amerospores like those of extant Thielaviopsis basicola. We also describe a third hyphomycete that previously has not been recognized from this locality; biseptate, chlamydosporic phragmoconidia are distinguished by darkly melanized, inflated apical cells and are morphologically similar to Brachysporiella rhizoidea or Culcitalna achraspora.

  8. The role of sulfur- and phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria in biochar-induced growth promotion of Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron; Kwapinski, Witold; Griffiths, Bryan S; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Plants rely on microorganisms to mobilize organically and inorganically bound sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in which the plant can then readily utilize. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of S- and P-mobilizing bacteria in plant growth promotion in biochar-amended soil, which has been rarely investigated so far. Pot experiments of Lolium perenne were established on S and P limited soil with 1% or 2% biochar (Miscanthus × giganteus) or without biochar (control) for a period of 126 days. Both biochar amendments resulted in significant plant growth promotion. Rhizobacteria capable of growing with (1) S from aromatic sulfonates, (2) P from phosphate esters, (3) P from phosphonates, and (4) P from tri-calcium phosphates as sole source of S or P, respectively, were significantly more abundant in the biochar treatments. 16S rRNA gene-based rhizobacteria community analysis revealed a significant biochar treatment effect. Abundance of nematodes feeding on bacteria was also significantly increased in the biochar treatments. Diversity analysis of rhizospheric asfA and phnJ genes revealed broad sequence diversities in bacterial sulfonate and phosphonate-mineralizing capabilities. These findings suggest that biochar amendment enhances microbially mediated nutrient mobilization of S and P resulting in improved plant growth.

  9. A deimmunised form of the ribotoxin, α-sarcin, lacking CD4+ T cell epitopes and its use as an immunotoxin warhead.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim D; Hearn, Arron R; Holgate, Robert G E; Kozub, Dorota; Fogg, Mark H; Carr, Francis J; Baker, Matthew P; Lacadena, Javier; Gehlsen, Kurt R

    2016-08-29

    Fungal ribotoxins that block protein synthesis can be useful warheads in the context of a targeted immunotoxin. α-Sarcin is a small (17 kDa) fungal ribonuclease produced by Aspergillus giganteus that functions by catalytically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond in the sarcin-ricin loop of the large ribosomal subunit, thus making the ribosome unrecognisable to elongation factors and leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Peptide mapping using an ex vivo human T cell assay determined that α-sarcin contained two T cell epitopes; one in the N-terminal 20 amino acids and the other in the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Various mutations were tested individually within each epitope and then in combination to isolate deimmunised α-sarcin variants that had the desired properties of silencing T cell epitopes and retention of the ability to inhibit protein synthesis (equivalent to wild-type, WT α-sarcin). A deimmunised variant (D9T/Q142T) demonstrated a complete lack of T cell activation in in vitro whole protein human T cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors with diverse HLA allotypes. Generation of an immunotoxin by fusion of the D9T/Q142T variant to a single-chain Fv targeting Her2 demonstrated potent cell killing equivalent to a fusion protein comprising the WT α-sarcin. These results represent the first fungal ribotoxin to be deimmunised with the potential to construct a new generation of deimmunised immunotoxin therapeutics.

  10. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  11. Geochemistry and Isotope Stratigraphy (C, O, Sr, Nd, Cr) of the Ediacaran Sete Lagoas Cap Carbonate, Bambui Group, Brazil: Insights into Earth's Oceanic and Atmosphere Geochemical Cycles After a Snowball Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Frei, R.; Uhlein, G. J.; Uhlein, A.

    2016-12-01

    We studied a basal Ediacaran cap carbonate profile pertaining to the base of the Bambuí Group (Sete Lagoas Formation) in the central portion of the São Francisco basin, east central Brazil. The section begins with a two-meter thick pink dolostone which grades upward into a reddish limestone. The basal dolostone preserves a drop of δ13C values from -3.8 to -4.2‰, and δ18O values from -4.5 to -5.1‰. The red laminated limestone yielded δ13C values averaging -5‰ for about 60 m up section. Above 60 m, the δ13C values shift abruptly to around -0.5‰. The section is capped by black calcarenites with positive δ13C (+0.9‰); these high [Sr] carbonates (>1000 ppm) yield 87Sr/86Sr around 0.7076. Overall, there is an upwards-decreasing trend of ɛNd(630 Ma) values, from -6.0 in the base to -7.2 towards the top, and also upwards-decreasing trends of trace metal concentrations, especially for Cr (10-4 ppm), Sc (4.3-1.7 ppm), Co (3.7-0.8 ppm), Cu (4-0.3 ppm), Zn (29-0.6 ppm), and Ti (80-10 ppm). δ53Cr values of the basal pink cap dolostone are about -0.3‰, with an upwards-increasing trend to about +0.2‰ at the topmost carbonates. Thus, the cap carbonate is characterized by upwards-decreasing trends of ɛNd(630 Ma) and trace metal concentrations and upwards-increasing trends of δ13C, δ18O and δ53Cr. These fluctuations can be interpreted to reflect increased continentally-derived input into the shallow seawater. The higher ɛNd(630 Ma) and trace metal contents, as well as negative δ13C and δ53Cr of the basal cap dolostone all point to a higher contribution of less-fractionated sources to seawater geochemical composition, probably due to the fact that oceanic geochemical cycles were not yet fully restored after isolation by ice caps from atmospheric and continental weathering inputs. Upwards, in the limestone section, decreasing ɛNd(630 Ma), increasing δ13C and increasingly positively fractionated δ53Cr values suggest a recovery of Earth

  12. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  13. Chemostratigraphy of stable chromium isotopes in cap carbonate sequences - tracing the aftermath of Earth's Neoproterozoic icehouse climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; de Andrade Caxito, F.; Gaucher, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1000-542 Ma) was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe. Of special interest are often occurring associations of glacial deposits with warm climate carbonate platforms, features which are preferentially explained to have resulted from extreme icehouse-greenhouse fluctuations unprecedented in the Phanerozoic record. Despite local differences in the sedimentation regime (clastic, mixed or carbonate), these events are represented by glacial deposits of diverse nature, overlain by distinctive "cap carbonate" sequences. The chemostratigraphy (particularly of δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr signatures) of carbonate sequences has been invoked as a promising alternative tool for regional and global correlation., and these signatures provide proxies for seawater composition at the time of deposition, and may indirectly signalize climatic fluctuations on land. We studied a cap carbonate profile pertaining to the Bambuí Group (Sete Lagoas Formation; Correntina section; previously studied by Caxito et al., 2012)) in the north central part of the São Franciso basin in Brazil. This section lies atop Archean to Paleoproterozoic gneisses of the São Francisco craton basement. The section begins with two-metre thick massive to finely laminated pink dolostone which grade upward into a reddish to purple limestone rhythmite. δ53Cr values of the cap dolostone are within the range typical of magmatic inventory signatures (δ53Cr = 0.1 +/- 0.1 permil; Schoenberg et al., 2008). Our preliminary few first data from the sequence above the cap dolostones show magmatic values also for samples from within the first 20 metres of laminated limestones, which then tend to increase to δ53Cr values of ~+0.3 permil in the following ca. 100 metres of carbonates. Although our data set at this stage is sparse, we note a trend that δ53Cr values correlate with fluctuations of δ13C and δ18O values (Caxito et al., 2012). These

  14. The impacts of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on biochar properties and the effects of biochar application on the properties of a sandy loam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Steve; Doerr, Stefan; Street-Perrott, Alayne

    2013-04-01

    The production of biochar and its application to soil has the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation whilst simultaneously improving soil fertility, crop yield and soil water-holding capacity. Biochar is produced from various biomass feedstock materials at varying pyrolysis temperatures, but relatively little is known about how these parameters affect the properties of the resultant biochars and their impact on the properties of the soils to which they are subsequently applied. Salix viminalis, M. giganteus and Picea sitchensis feedstocks were chipped then sieved to 2 - 5 mm, oven dried to constant weight, then pyrolyzed at 350, 500, 600 and 800° C in a nitrogen-purged tube furnace. Biochar yields were measured by weighing the mass of each sample before and after pyrolysis. Biochar hydrophobicity was assessed by using a goniometer to measure water-droplet contact-angles. Cation-exchange-capacity (CEC) was measured using the ammonium acetate method. Biochars were also produced in a rotary kiln from softwood pellets at 400, 500, 600 and 700° C then ground to 0.4 - 1 mm and applied to a sandy loam at a rate of 50 g kg-1. Bulk densities of these soil-biochar mixtures were measured on a tapped, dry, basis. The water-holding-capacity (WHC) of each mixture was measured gravimetrically following saturation and free-draining. The filter paper method was used to assess how pyrolysis temperature influences the effect of biochar application on matric suction. For all feedstocks, large decreases in biochar yield were observed between the pyrolysis temperatures of 350° C and 500° C. For Salix viminalis and M. giganteus feedstocks, subsequent reductions in the yield with increasing pyrolysis temperature were much lower. There were significant differences in hydrophobicity between biochars produced from different biomass and mean biochar hydrophobicity decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. Results for CEC and WHC

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Change from Cotton to Perennial Bioenergy Grasses on Hydrological Fluxes and Water Quality in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using the APEX Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Ale, S.; Rajan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) region, where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in vast acreage, has the potential to grow perennial bioenergy grasses. A change in land use from cotton cropping systems to perennial grasses such as Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. [Poaceae]) can significantly affect regional hydrologic cycle and water quality. Assessing the impacts of this potential land use change on hydrology and water quality enables the environmental assessment of feasibility to grow perennial grasses in this region to meet the U.S. national bioenergy target of 2022. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used in this study to assess the impacts of replacing cotton with switchgrass and Miscanthus on water and nitrogen balances in the upstream subwatershed of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP, which contains 52% cotton land use. The APEX model was initially calibrated against observed streamflow and crop yield data. Since observed data on nitrogen loads in streamflow was not available for this subwatershed, we calibrated the APEX model against the SWAT-simulated nitrogen loads at the outlet of this subwatershed, which were obtained in a parallel study. The calibrated APEX model was used to simulate the impacts of land use change from cotton to Miscanthus and switchgrass on surface and subsurface water and nitrogen balances. Preliminary results revealed that the average (1994-2009) annual surface runoff decreased by 84% and 66% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios compared to the baseline scenarios. Average annual percolation increased by 106% and 57% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios relative to the baseline scenarios. Preliminary results also indicated Miscanthus and switchgrass appeared to be superior to cotton in terms of better water conservation and water quality, and minimum crop management requirements.

  16. Candidatus Bartonella antechini: a novel Bartonella species detected in fleas and ticks from the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), an Australian marsupial.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Owen, Helen; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-05-05

    Bartonella are fastidious, Gram-negative, aerobic bacilli belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria group. In the last ten years, the discovery of new Bartonella species from a variety of mammalian hosts, arthropod vectors and geographical areas has increased. More than 20 species of Bartonella have been identified, of which approximately thirteen are associated with disease in humans and animals. Recently, four novel species of Bartonella were isolated from mammalian hosts in Australia: Bartonella australis from eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and Bartonella rattaustraliani, Bartonella queenslandensis and Bartonella coopersplainsensis from rodents. Bartonella-like organisms have also been detected from Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). However, very little is known about Bartonella spp. in other marsupials in Australia. We report the identification of a novel Bartonella species detected from fleas (Acanthopsylla jordani) and ticks (Ixodes antechini) collected from a small carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes (Mardos or Yellow-footed antechinus) in the southwest of Western Australia. New nested-PCRs targeting the gltA gene and the ribosomal ITS region were developed as part of the present study. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ftsZ and rpoB genes and the ribosomal ITS region revealed that this detection is a distinct Bartonella species and is related to B. australis isolated from kangaroos. This is the first report of two different possible arthropod vectors in Australia (ticks and fleas) being infected with the same species of Bartonella. We propose the name Candidatus Bartonella antechini n. sp. for the recently characterized organism.

  17. A deimmunised form of the ribotoxin, α-sarcin, lacking CD4+ T cell epitopes and its use as an immunotoxin warhead

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tim D.; Hearn, Arron R.; Holgate, Robert G.E.; Kozub, Dorota; Fogg, Mark H.; Carr, Francis J.; Baker, Matthew P.; Lacadena, Javier; Gehlsen, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal ribotoxins that block protein synthesis can be useful warheads in the context of a targeted immunotoxin. α-Sarcin is a small (17 kDa) fungal ribonuclease produced by Aspergillus giganteus that functions by catalytically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond in the sarcin–ricin loop of the large ribosomal subunit, thus making the ribosome unrecognisable to elongation factors and leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Peptide mapping using an ex vivo human T cell assay determined that α-sarcin contained two T cell epitopes; one in the N-terminal 20 amino acids and the other in the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Various mutations were tested individually within each epitope and then in combination to isolate deimmunised α-sarcin variants that had the desired properties of silencing T cell epitopes and retention of the ability to inhibit protein synthesis (equivalent to wild-type, WT α-sarcin). A deimmunised variant (D9T/Q142T) demonstrated a complete lack of T cell activation in in vitro whole protein human T cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors with diverse HLA allotypes. Generation of an immunotoxin by fusion of the D9T/Q142T variant to a single-chain Fv targeting Her2 demonstrated potent cell killing equivalent to a fusion protein comprising the WT α-sarcin. These results represent the first fungal ribotoxin to be deimmunised with the potential to construct a new generation of deimmunised immunotoxin therapeutics. PMID:27578884

  18. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    PubMed

    Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  19. Regional Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Production--Scaling Biogeochemical Cycles in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloocke, A.; Bernacchi, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recently there has been increasing socio-economic and scientific interest in the use of alternative sources of energy to offset the negative effects of current fossil fuel dependence and consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, one of the most popular alternatives is to use ethanol produced from domestically grown crops for use as fuel in the transportation sector. In 2007, over 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in the U.S. from corn, a traditional food crop. Recent research indicates that it may be logistically impractical, ecologically counterproductive (i.e. a net carbon source), and economically devastating to produce ethanol from crops previously grown to produce food. The EBI (Energy Biosciences Institute, at University of California Berkley and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) is now conducting research to assess the ability of traditional crops as well as dedicated biofuel feedstocks (e.g. Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus), and Saccharum spp (sugar cane)) to provide a productive and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. This is an important step to take before implementing the large-scale growth necessary to meet U.S. energy needs .A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Agricultural Integrated Biosphere Simulator) was adapted to simulate the growth of Miscanthus. The model was calibrated using data collected from sites at the University of Illinois south farms. Simulations indicated significant implications on the regional carbon and water budgets. Next this locally validated method will be extrapolated to simulate the regional scale growth of Miscanthus in the Midwestern U.S. and sugarcane in Brazil and a similar analysis will be conducted for switchgrass. The results should provide insight on optimal land-use decisions and legislation that regard meeting energy demands and mitigating climate change in the near future.

  20. Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of eleven Cameroonian spices on a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including MDR strains. Methods The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by standard tests meanwhile the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins in all plants extracts. The results of the antibacterial assays indicated that all tested extracts exert antibacterial activities, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varying from 32 to 1024 μg/ml. The extracts from Dichrostachys glomerata, Beilschmiedia cinnamomea, Aframomum citratum, Piper capense, Echinops giganteus, Fagara xanthoxyloïdes and Olax subscorpioïdea were the most active. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, PAßN, the activity of the extract from D. glomerata significantly increased on 69.2% of the tested MDR bacteria. At MIC/5, synergistic effects were noted with the extract of D. glomerata on 75% of the tested bacteria for chloramphenicol (CHL), tetracycline (TET) and norfloxacin (NOR). With B. cinnamomea synergy were observed on 62.5% of the studied MDR bacteria with CHL, cefepime (FEP), NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 75% with erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The overall results provide information for the possible use of the studied extracts of the spices in the control of bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes. PMID:22044718

  1. Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today

    PubMed Central

    Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

  2. A simple framework for a complex problem? Predicting wildlife-vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Casey; van der Ree, Rodney; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Collisions of vehicles with wildlife kill and injure animals and are also a risk to vehicle occupants, but preventing these collisions is challenging. Surveys to identify problem areas are expensive and logistically difficult. Computer modeling has identified correlates of collisions, yet these can be difficult for managers to interpret in a way that will help them reduce collision risk. We introduce a novel method to predict collision risk by modeling hazard (presence and movement of vehicles) and exposure (animal presence) across geographic space. To estimate the hazard, we predict relative traffic volume and speed along road segments across southeastern Australia using regression models based on human demographic variables. We model exposure by predicting suitable habitat for our case study species (Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus) based on existing fauna survey records and geographic and climatic variables. Records of reported kangaroo-vehicle collisions are used to investigate how these factors collectively contribute to collision risk. The species occurrence (exposure) model generated plausible predictions across the study area, reducing the null deviance by 30.4%. The vehicle (hazard) models explained 54.7% variance in the traffic volume data and 58.7% in the traffic speed data. Using these as predictors of collision risk explained 23.7% of the deviance in incidence of collisions. Discrimination ability of the model was good when predicting to an independent dataset. The research demonstrates that collision risks can be modeled across geographic space with a conceptual analytical framework using existing sources of data, reducing the need for expensive or time-consuming field data collection. The framework is novel because it disentangles natural and anthropogenic effects on the likelihood of wildlife-vehicle collisions by representing hazard and exposure with separate, tunable submodels.

  3. Experimental manipulation of female reproduction demonstrates its fitness costs in kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When resources are scarce, female mammals should face a trade-off between lactation and other life-history traits such as growth, survival and subsequent reproduction. Kangaroos are ideal to test predictions about reproductive costs because they may simultaneously lactate and carry a young, and have indeterminate growth and a long breeding season. An earlier study in three of our five study populations prevented female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from reproducing during one reproductive season by either inserting contraceptive implants or removing very small pouch young. We explored how individual and environmental variables affect the costs of reproduction over time, combining this experimental reduction of reproductive effort with multi-year monitoring of 270 marked females. Experimental manipulation should control for individual heterogeneity, revealing the costs of reproduction and their likely sources. We also examined the fitness consequences of reproductive effort and offspring sex among unmanipulated individuals to test whether sex allocation strategies affected trade-offs. Costs of reproduction included longer inter-birth intervals and lower probability of producing a young that survived to 7 months in the subsequent reproductive event. Weaning success, however, did not differ significantly between manipulated and control females. By reducing reproductive effort, manipulation appeared to increase individual condition and subsequent reproductive success. Effects of offspring sex upon subsequent reproductive success varied according to year and study population. Mothers of sons were generally more likely to have a young that survived to 7 months, compared to mothers of daughters. The fitness costs of reproduction arise from constraints in both acquisition and allocation of resources. To meet these costs, females delay subsequent parturition and may manipulate offspring sex. Reproductive tactics thus vary according to the amount of resource

  4. Suitability of Miscanthus species for managing inorganic and organic contaminated land and restoring ecosystem services. A review.

    PubMed

    Nsanganwimana, Florien; Pourrut, Bertrand; Mench, Michel; Douay, Francis

    2014-10-01

    The mitigation of potential health hazards and land scarcity due to land use change can be addressed by restoring functional and ecosystem services of contaminated land. Physico-chemical remediation options are criticized as being costly and not providing environment-friendly solutions. The use of plants and associated microorganisms could be a sustainable, cost-effective option to reduce pollutant exposure. Phytomanagement aims at using valuable non-food crops to alleviate environmental and health risks induced by pollutants, and at restoring ecosystem services. Suitable plant species must be tolerant to contaminants, reduce their transfer into the food chain, and efficiently produce marketable biomass. Based on Miscanthus' capacity to sequestrate inorganic contaminants into the root system and to induce dissipation of persistent organic contaminants in soil, these plant species are favorable for phytostabilization and phytodegradation. Among Miscanthus species, the noninvasive hybrid Miscanthus × giganteus, with a high lignocellulosic content, is a promising biomass crop for the bio-economy, notably the biorefinery and bioenergy industries. Planting this species on contaminated and marginal land is a promising option to avoid changes in arable land use to mitigate the food vs. biofuel controversy. Key issues in promoting sustainable management of Miscanthus sp. on contaminated land are: (a) crop suitability, integration, and sustainability in a region with a potential local market; (b) site suitability in relation to the species' requirements and potential, (c) biotic interactions in the landscape diversity; and (d) increase in shoot yields in line with various stressors (e.g., pollutants, drought, cold temperatures), and with minimal inputs.

  5. Interactions among social monitoring, anti-predator vigilance and group size in eastern grey kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, François-René; Goldizen, Anne W.; Pays, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Group size is known to affect both the amount of time that prey animals spend in vigilance and the degree to which the vigilance of group members is synchronized. However, the variation in group-size effects reported in the literature is not yet understood. Prey animals exhibit vigilance both to protect themselves against predators and to monitor other group members, and both forms of vigilance presumably influence group-size effects on vigilance. However, our understanding of the patterns of individual investment underlying the time sharing between anti-predator and social vigilance is still limited. We studied patterns of variation in individual vigilance and the synchronization of vigilance with group size in a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) subject to predation, in particular focusing on peripheral females because we expected that they would exhibit both social and anti-predator vigilance. There was no global effect of group size on individual vigilance. The lack of group-size effect was the result of two compensating effects. The proportion of time individuals spent looking at other group members increased, whereas the proportion of time they spent scanning the environment decreased with group size; as a result, overall vigilance levels did not change with group size. Moreover, a degree of synchrony of vigilance occurred within groups and that degree increased with the proportion of vigilance time peripheral females spent in anti-predator vigilance. Our results highlight the crucial roles of both social and anti-predator components of vigilance in the understanding of the relationship between group size and vigilance, as well as in the synchronization of vigilance among group members. PMID:20219737

  6. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge.

  7. A spatial modeling framework to evaluate domestic biofuel-induced potential land use changes and emissions.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Joshua; Sharma, Bhavna; Best, Neil; Glotter, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Foster, Ian; Miguez, Fernando; Mueller, Steffen; Wang, Michael

    2014-02-18

    We present a novel bottom-up approach to estimate biofuel-induced land-use change (LUC) and resulting CO2 emissions in the U.S. from 2010 to 2022, based on a consistent methodology across four essential components: land availability, land suitability, LUC decision-making, and induced CO2 emissions. Using high-resolution geospatial data and modeling, we construct probabilistic assessments of county-, state-, and national-level LUC and emissions for macroeconomic scenarios. We use the Cropland Data Layer and the Protected Areas Database to characterize availability of land for biofuel crop cultivation, and the CERES-Maize and BioCro biophysical crop growth models to estimate the suitability (yield potential) of available lands for biofuel crops. For LUC decision-making, we use a county-level stochastic partial-equilibrium modeling framework and consider five scenarios involving annual ethanol production scaling to 15, 22, and 29 BG, respectively, in 2022, with corn providing feedstock for the first 15 BG and the remainder coming from one of two dedicated energy crops. Finally, we derive high-resolution above-ground carbon factors from the National Biomass and Carbon Data set to estimate emissions from each LUC pathway. Based on these inputs, we obtain estimates for average total LUC emissions of 6.1, 2.2, 1.0, 2.2, and 2.4 gCO2e/MJ for Corn-15 Billion gallons (BG), Miscanthus × giganteus (MxG)-7 BG, Switchgrass (SG)-7 BG, MxG-14 BG, and SG-14 BG scenarios, respectively.

  8. Evidence of hidden biodiversity, ongoing speciation and diverse patterns of genetic structure in giant Antarctic amphipods.

    PubMed

    Baird, Helena P; Miller, Karen J; Stark, Jonathan S

    2011-08-01

    Recent molecular research on Antarctic benthic organisms has challenged traditional taxonomic classifications, suggesting that our current perceptions of Antarctic biodiversity and species distributions must be thoroughly revised. Furthermore, genetic differentiation at the intraspecific level remains poorly understood, particularly in eastern Antarctica. We addressed these issues using DNA sequence data for two sibling amphipod species that could be collected on a circum-Antarctic scale: Eusirus perdentatus and Eusirus giganteus. Haplotype networks and Bayesian phylogenies based on mitochondrial (COI, CytB) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA provided strong evidence of multiple cryptic species of Eusirus, with several occurring in sympatry and at least one likely to have a true circum-Antarctic distribution. Within species, gene flow was often highly restricted, consistent with a brooding life history and in some cases suggestive of current or future allopatric speciation. Patterns of genetic structure were not always predictable: one cryptic species showed preliminary evidence of high genetic differentiation across ∼150 km in eastern Antarctica (F(ST) > 0.47, P < 0.01), yet another was remarkably homogenous across ∼5000 km (F(ST) = 0.00, P = 1.00). Genetic diversity also varied among cryptic species, independent of sample size (π = 0.00-0.99). These results indicate several hidden levels of genetic complexity in these Antarctic amphipods that are neither apparent from previous taxonomic or ecological studies nor predictable from their life history. Such genetic diversity and structure may reflect different modes of survival for Antarctic benthic organisms during historic glacial cycles, and/or subsequent re-establishment of populations on the shelf, and highlight our misunderstanding of Antarctic marine species diversity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Investigating Differences in Vigilance Tactic Use within and between the Sexes in Eastern Grey Kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Blanchard, Pierrick; Martin, Julien G. A.; Favreau, François-René; Goldizen, Anne W.; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation is thought to enhance an animal’s security through effective predator detection and the dilution of risk. A decline in individual vigilance as group size increases is commonly reported in the literature and called the group size effect. However, to date, most of the research has only been directed toward examining whether this effect occurs at the population level. Few studies have explored the specific contributions of predator detection and risk dilution and the basis of individual differences in the use of vigilance tactics. We tested whether male and female (non-reproductive or with young) eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) adopted different vigilance tactics when in mixed-sex groups and varied in their reliance on predator detection and/or risk dilution as group size changed. This species exhibits pronounced sexual dimorphism with females being much smaller than males, making them differentially vulnerable toward predators. We combined field observations with vigilance models describing the effects of detection and dilution on scanning rates as group size increased. We found that females with and without juveniles relied on predator detection and risk dilution, but the latter adjusted their vigilance to the proportion of females with juveniles within their group. Two models appeared to equally support the data for males suggesting that males, similarly to females, relied on predator detection and risk dilution but may also have adjusted their vigilance according to the proportion of mothers within their group. Differential vulnerability may cause sex differences in vigilance tactic use in this species. The presence of males within a group that do not, or only partially, contribute to predator detection and are less at risk may cause additional security costs to females. Our results call for reexamination of the classical view of the safety advantages of grouping to provide a more detailed functional interpretation of gregariousness. PMID

  10. A spatial modeling framework to evaluate domestic biofuel-induced potential land use changed and emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, Joshua; Sharma, Bhavna; Best, Neil; Glotter, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Foster, Ian; Miguez, Fernando; Mueller, Steffen; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel bottom-up approach to estimate biofuel-induced land-use change (LUC) and resulting CO2 emissions in the U.S. from 2010 to 2022, based on a consistent methodology across four essential components: land availability, land suitability, LUC decision-making, and induced CO2 emissions. Using highresolution geospatial data and modeling, we construct probabilistic assessments of county-, state-, and national-level LUC and emissions for macroeconomic scenarios. We use the Cropland Data Layer and the Protected Areas Database to characterize availability of land for biofuel crop cultivation, and the CERES-Maize and BioCro biophysical crop growth models to estimate the suitability (yield potential) of available lands for biofuel crops. For LUC decisionmaking, we use a county-level stochastic partial-equilibrium modeling framework and consider five scenarios involving annual ethanol production scaling to 15, 22, and 29 BG, respectively, in 2022, with corn providing feedstock for the first 15 BG and the remainder coming from one of two dedicated energy crops. Finally, we derive high-resolution above-ground carbon factors from the National Biomass and Carbon Data set to estimate emissions from each LUC pathway. Based on these inputs, we obtain estimates for average total LUC emissions of 6.1, 2.2, 1.0, 2.2, and 2.4 gCO2e/MJ for Corn-15 Billion gallons (BG), Miscanthus × giganteus (MxG)-7 BG, Switchgrass (SG)-7 BG, MxG-14 BG, and SG-14 BG scenarios, respectively.

  11. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  12. Semen collection, ejaculate characteristics and in vitro manipulation of spermatozoa from six species of captive flying-fox (Pteropus spp.).

    PubMed

    Melville, D F; Crichton, E G; Johnston, S D

    2015-11-01

    Seminal characteristics are described in six Pteropus species including the critically endangered P. rodricensis. Spermic ejaculates (~40μL) were collected using electro-ejaculation on 406 of 413 attempts. All flying-fox species had mean percentages of acrosome- and plasma-membrane (PM)-intact spermatozoa of >66% and >73%, respectively; the predominant sperm abnormalities found across all species were damaged, folded or missing acrosomes, bent midpieces and coiled tails. Seminal pH ranged from a low of 7.5 in P. giganteus to a high of 8.2 in P. alecto with the other species in between. Electro-ejaculates recovered in short succession from P. alecto revealed no differences in sperm quality, allowing spermatozoa to be utilised for multi-treatment experiments that evaluated the effects of transportation, incubation temperature and in vitro physico-chemical environments on acrosome and PM integrity. Pteropus alecto spermatozoa were successfully held at ~27°C and 37°C for up to 6h before a reduction in PM integrity (P=0.003) was observed. Acrosome and PM integrity decreased (P<0.000) when P. alecto spermatozoa were incubated at 37°C for 30min in a Tris-citrate buffer of pH 9.0 but remained stable at pH 5.0 to 8.0. Pteropus alecto mean (± s.e.m.) seminal osmolality was 307.0±2.5mOsmkg(-1); nevertheless, spermatozoa were tolerant of media ranging from 160 to 1190mOsmkg(-1) but exposure to media of ≤160mOsmkg(-1) resulted in increased acrosome damage (P<0.000).

  13. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

  14. Carbon and Water Fluxes of Crops Exposed to the Sequence of Naturally Occurring Heat Stress, Drought and Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Miller, J. N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    As a consequence of global climate change the occurrence of extreme weather events (heat waves, cold spells, drought, etc) are predicted to become more frequent and/or intense, which will likely have a large impact on crop production. In the winter of 2013/2014 several polar vortexes were experienced in Illinois, US, resulting in periods of extreme low temperatures between -20°C and -35°C. Prior to the extreme cold winter of 2013/2014 the region experienced drought over a hot summer in 2012. Four established fields of three perennial biofuel crops (Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum L., and a mixture of native prairie species) and Zea mays/Glycine max agroecosystem have been studied since 2009 in order to investigate the effect of climate change and land-use change on carbon and water fluxes using the eddy covariance technique, as well as biomass production of these species. The combined effect of the heat and drought stress in 2012 resulted in severe water deficit of all species (up to -360 mm for miscanthus), which resulted in reduced net ecosystem exchange (NEE) during the drought for all species other than miscanthus. In the following year, during the recovery of these species from drought, miscanthus showed decreased NEE but the other species did not appear to be negatively influenced. As a consequence of the environmental stresses (heat and drought stress followed by extreme freezing), the water and carbon exchanges (such as ET, NEE, GPP, Reco) as well as growth parameters (LAI, biomass production) are shown to vary based on the stress tolerance of these species.

  15. Follow your nose: leaf odour as an important foraging cue for mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Rebecca S; Banks, Peter B; Proschogo, Nicholas; McArthur, Clare

    2016-11-01

    Studies of odour-driven foraging by mammals focus on attractant cues emitted by flowers, fruits, and fungi. Yet, the leaves of many plant species worldwide produce odour, which could act as a cue for foraging mammalian herbivores. Leaf odour may thus improve foraging efficiency for such herbivores in many ecosystems by reducing search time, particularly but not only, for plants that are visually obscured. We tested the use of leaf odour by a free-ranging mammalian browser, the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) to find and browse palatable tree seedlings (Eucalyptus pilularis). Wallabies visited patches non-randomly with respect to the presence of seedlings. In the absence of visual plant cues, they used leaf odour (cut seedlings in vials) to find patches earlier, and visited and investigated them more often than control patches (empty vials), supporting the hypothesis that wallabies used seedling odour to enhance search efficiency. In contrast, the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), a grazer, showed no response to seedling odour. When the availability of seedling visual and olfactory cues was manipulated, wallabies browsed seedlings equally quickly in all treatments: upright (normal cues), pinned to the ground (reduced visual cues), and upright plus pinned seedlings (double olfactory cues). Odour cues play a critical role in food-finding by swamp wallabies, and these animals are finely tuned to detecting these cues with their threshold for detection reached by odours from only a single plant. The global significance of leaf odour in foraging by mammalian herbivores consuming conifers, eucalypts, and other odour-rich species requires greater attention.

  16. Manganese toxicity to fungi: influence of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1981-10-01

    The effects of Mn on mycelial proliferation of fungi and the effect of pH on Mn toxicity were evaluated. Results indicated that the fungi exhibited wide differences in their sensitivities to Mn. Incipient inhibition (i.e., the level of Mn at which growth inhibition was noted initially, P < 0.05) for Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus giganteus occurred at 100 ppM Mn; for Rhizopus stolonifer, Arthrobotrys conoides, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium vermiculatum at 500 ppM Mn; for Cephalosporium sp. at 1000 ppM Mn; and for Gliocladium sp. at 1000 to 1500 ppM Mn; growth of Aspergillus clavatus was not inhibited even at 2000 ppM Mn. No growth of S. brevicaulis occurred at 500 ppM Mn and of R. stolonifer at 1500 ppM Mn. The levels of Mn causing incipient and/or total inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungi studied were comparable to the levels reported to inhibit mycelial proliferation of some phylloplane fungi. Only A. conoides showed significant (P < 0.5) stimulation of mycelial growth by Mn; 10, 50, and 100 ppM Mn increased growth rates over control (0 ppM Mn) values. There was no consistent trend in the effect of pH on Mn toxicity to the fungi. However, each fungus showed a definitive response to Mn at the different pH levels. Thus, increasing the pH from 5.5 to 8.5 did not significantly affect the toxicity of Mn to Gliocladium sp., P. vermiculatum, or A. niger. The toxicity of Mn to R. stolonifer and T. viride was not different at pH 5.5 and 6.5, but increasing the pH to 7.5 or 8.5 significantly enhanced the toxicity.

  17. Rapid soil organic carbon re-accumulation after bamboo invasion on recovering landslide scars in a subtropical forest ecosystem of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehetner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Jien, Shih-Hao; Lin, Zan Liang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Li-Chin; Mentler, Axel; Hein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced landslides occasionally strip parts of the landscape off its vegetative cover and soil layer and export large amounts of biomass and soil organic carbon (OC). The resulting landslide scars remain low in OC and vulnerable for re-activation for several years until closed vegetation is re-established. In the subtropical mountains of Taiwan and in other parts of the world, bamboo species may invade at a certain point in the succession of recovering landslide scars. Bamboo has a high potential for carbon sequestration because of its fast growth and dense rooting system. However, it is still largely unknown how these properties translate into soil OC re-accumulation rates after landslide disturbance. In this study, we investigated a chronosequence with 5 different sites on former landslide scars in the Alishan area in Central Taiwan, ranging in age from 6 to 53 years post disturbance. The younger landslide scars were colonized by Miscanthus giganteus, while after approx. 15 to 20 years of succession, bamboo (Phyllostachys) species were dominating. Biomass and soil OC stocks were measured on the recovering landslide scars and compared to an old-growth Cryptomeria japonica forest stand in the same area. Humic acids were extracted from the newly formed soils of the recovering landslide scars and analyzed for molecular characteristics. Biomass carbon accumulated rapidly in bamboo stands but was significantly lower compared to the old-growth coniferous forest. However, soil OC stocks on the recovering landslide scars approached the levels of the old-growth forest after only few decades of succession. Similarly, humic acid characteristics (obtained from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy) rapidly changed in the early phase of succession but seemed to stabilize during the later phase of landslide recovery. Our results demonstrate the high potential of bamboo for below-ground OC sequestration and storage, and show that the fresh OC inputs are rapidly converted to

  18. Saccharification Performances of Miscanthus at the Pilot and Miniaturized Assay Scales: Genotype and Year Variabilities According to the Biomass Composition.

    PubMed

    Belmokhtar, Nassim; Arnoult, Stéphanie; Chabbert, Brigitte; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Biomass production and cell wall composition are differentially impacted by harvesting year and genotypes, influencing then cellulose conversion in miniaturized assay.Using a high-throughput miniaturized and semi-automated method for performing the pretreatment and saccharification steps at laboratory scale allows for the assessment of these factors on the biomass potential for producing bioethanol before moving to the industrial scale. The large genetic diversity of the perennial grass miscanthus makes it suitable for producing cellulosic ethanol in biorefineries. The saccharification potential and year variability of five genotypes belonging to Miscanthus × giganteus and Miscanthus sinensis were explored using a miniaturized and semi-automated method, allowing the application of a hot water treatment followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis. The studied genotypes highlighted distinct cellulose conversion yields due to their distinct cell wall compositions. An inter-year comparison revealed significant variations in the biomass productivity and cell wall compositions. Compared to the recalcitrant genotypes, more digestible genotypes contained higher amounts of hemicellulosic carbohydrates and lower amounts of cellulose and lignin. In contrast to hemicellulosic carbohydrates, the relationships analysis between the biomass traits and cellulose conversion clearly showed the same negative effect of cellulose and lignin on cellulose digestion. The miniaturized and semi-automated method we developed was usable at the laboratory scale and was reliable for mimicking the saccharification at the pilot scale using a steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, this miniaturized method will allow the reliable screening of many genotypes for saccharification potential. These findings provide valuable information and tools for breeders to create genotypes combining high yield, suitable biomass composition, and high saccharification yields.

  19. A footprint of past climate change on the diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Brummer, Joe E.; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Hall, Megan C.; Heo, Kweon; Peng, Junhua; Yamada, Toshihiko; Yoo, Ji Hye; Yu, Chang Yeon; Zhao, Hua; Long, Stephen P.; Sacks, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Miscanthus is a perennial C4 grass that is a leading potential feedstock crop for the emerging bioenergy industry in North America, Europe and China. However, only a single, sterile genotype of M. × giganteus (M×g), a nothospecies derived from diploid M. sinensis (Msi) and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus (Msa), is currently available to farmers for biomass production. To facilitate breeding of Miscanthus, this study characterized genetic diversity and population structure of Msi in its native range of East Asia. Methods A total of 767 accessions were studied, including 617 Msi from most of its native range in China, Japan and South Korea, and 77 ornamental cultivars and 43 naturalized individuals from the USA. Accessions were evaluated with 21 207 restriction site-associated DNA sequencing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, 424 GoldenGate SNPs and ten plastid microsatellite markers. Key Results Six genetic clusters of Msi from geographically distinct regions in Asia were identified. Genetic data indicated that (1) south-eastern China was the origin of Msi populations found in temperate eastern Asia, which is consistent with this area probably having been a refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM); (2) Msi migrated directly from south-eastern China to Japan before migrating to the same latitudes in China and Korea, which is consistent with the known sequence of warming post-LGM; (3) ornamental Msi cultivars were derived from the southern Japan population, and US naturalized populations were derived from a sub-set of the ornamental cultivars; and (4) many ornamental cultivars previously described as Msi have hybrid ancestry from Msa and Msi, whereas US naturalized populations of Msi do not. Conclusions Population structure of Msi was driven by patterns of warming since the LGM, and secondarily by geographical barriers. This study will facilitate germplasm conservation, association analyses and identification of potential heterotic

  20. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  1. Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

    PubMed

    Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical.

  2. ESTIMATING WATER FOOTPRINT AND MANAGING BIOREFINERY WASTEWATER IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-BASED RENEWABLE DIESEL BLENDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, May M.; Sawyer, Bernard M

    2016-12-01

    This analysis covers the entire biorefinery operation. The study focuses on net water consumed for the production of a unit of biofuel: blue, green, and grey water footprint. Blue water is defined as the water consumed in the biorefinery that is withdrawn from surface and ground water. Blue water footprint includes enzyme cultivation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, bioreactor, cooling system, boiler, fuel upgrading, combustor track, and on-site WWT. Grey water is defined as wastewater generated from the biorefinery and was evaluated based on the wastewater treatment plant design. Green water, defined as rainwater consumed for the production, is not required in the RDB process. Approximately 7–15 gal of water are required to produce a gallon of RDB when corn stover or non-irrigated perennial grasses, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus), serve as the feedstock in the contiguous United States. Bioelectricity generation from the biorefinery resulted in a net water credit, which reduced the water footprint. The life cycle grey water footprint for nitrogen is primarily from nitrogen in the feedstock production stage because no wastewater is discharged into the environment in the RDB process. Perennial grasses-based RDB production shows a promising grey water footprint, while corn stover-based RDB production has a relatively low green water footprint. Results from the study can help improve our understanding of the water sustainability of advanced biofuel technology under development. Make-up water for cooling and boiling remains a major demand in the biorefinery. The work revealed a key issue or trade-off between achieving zero liquid discharge to maximize water resource use and potentially increasing cost of fuel production. Solid waste disposal was identified as a management issue, and its inverse relationship with wastewater management could affect economic sustainability.

  3. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observational and model based approaches have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biogeophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo (α), which could alter the local energy balance and cause local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. Here, we established paired fields of Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional annual row crops in the highly productive "Corn-belt". Our results show that miscanthus did and switchgrass did not have an overall higher α than current row crops but a strong seasonal pattern existed. Both perennials had consistently higher growing season α than row crops and winter α did not differ. The lack of observed differences in winter α, however, masked an interaction between snow cover and species differences, with the perennial species, compared with the row crops, having a higher α when snow was absent and a much lower α when snow was present. Overall, these changes resulted in an average net reduction in annual absorbed energy of about 5 W/m2 for switchgrass and about 8 W/m2 for miscanthus relative to annual crops. Therefore, the conversion from annual row to perennial crops alters the radiative balance of the surface via changes in α and could lead to regional cooling.

  4. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K; Gilkerson, James R; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  6. Biofuel Induced Land Use Change effects on Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Frankenberger, J.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Volenec, J. J.; Brouder, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    High yielding perennial grasses such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and crop residues such as corn stover are expected to play a significant role in meeting US biofuel production targets. We have evaluated the potential impacts of biofuel induced land use changes on hydrology, water quality, and ecosystem services. The bioenergy production scenarios, included: production of Miscanthus × giganteus and switchgrass on highly erodible landscape positions, agricultural marginal land areas, and pastures; removal of corn stover at various rates; and combinations of these scenarios. The hydrology and water quality impacts of land use change scenarios were estimated for two watersheds in Midwest USA (1) Wildcat Creek watershed (drainage area of 2,083 km2) located in north-central Indiana and (2) St. Joseph River watershed (drainage area of 2,809 km2) located in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. We have also simulated the impacts of climate change and variability on environmental sustainability and have compared climate change impacts with land use change impacts. The study results indicated improved water quality with perennial grass scenarios compared to current row crop production impacts. Erosion reduction with perennial energy crop production scenarios ranged between 0.2% and 59%. Stream flow at the watershed outlet were reduced between 0.2 and 8% among various bioenergy crop production scenarios. Stover removal scenarios indicated increased erosion compared to baseline condition due reduced soil cover after stover harvest. Stream flow and nitrate loading were reduced with stover removal due to increased soil evaporation and reduced mineralization. A comparison of land use and climate change impacts indicates that land use changes will have considerably larger impacts on hydrology, water quality and environmental sustainability compared to climate change and variability. Our results indicate that production of biofuel crops can be optimized at the landscape level to provide

  7. Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fankam, Aimé G; Kuete, Victor; Voukeng, Igor K; Kuiate, Jules R; Pages, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of eleven Cameroonian spices on a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including MDR strains. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by standard tests meanwhile the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins in all plants extracts. The results of the antibacterial assays indicated that all tested extracts exert antibacterial activities, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varying from 32 to 1024 μg/ml. The extracts from Dichrostachys glomerata, Beilschmiedia cinnamomea, Aframomum citratum, Piper capense, Echinops giganteus, Fagara xanthoxyloïdes and Olax subscorpioïdea were the most active. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, PAßN, the activity of the extract from D. glomerata significantly increased on 69.2% of the tested MDR bacteria. At MIC/5, synergistic effects were noted with the extract of D. glomerata on 75% of the tested bacteria for chloramphenicol (CHL), tetracycline (TET) and norfloxacin (NOR). With B. cinnamomea synergy were observed on 62.5% of the studied MDR bacteria with CHL, cefepime (FEP), NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 75% with erythromycin (ERY). The overall results provide information for the possible use of the studied extracts of the spices in the control of bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes.

  8. Saccharification Performances of Miscanthus at the Pilot and Miniaturized Assay Scales: Genotype and Year Variabilities According to the Biomass Composition

    PubMed Central

    Belmokhtar, Nassim; Arnoult, Stéphanie; Chabbert, Brigitte; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Biomass production and cell wall composition are differentially impacted by harvesting year and genotypes, influencing then cellulose conversion in miniaturized assay.Using a high-throughput miniaturized and semi-automated method for performing the pretreatment and saccharification steps at laboratory scale allows for the assessment of these factors on the biomass potential for producing bioethanol before moving to the industrial scale. The large genetic diversity of the perennial grass miscanthus makes it suitable for producing cellulosic ethanol in biorefineries. The saccharification potential and year variability of five genotypes belonging to Miscanthus × giganteus and Miscanthus sinensis were explored using a miniaturized and semi-automated method, allowing the application of a hot water treatment followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis. The studied genotypes highlighted distinct cellulose conversion yields due to their distinct cell wall compositions. An inter-year comparison revealed significant variations in the biomass productivity and cell wall compositions. Compared to the recalcitrant genotypes, more digestible genotypes contained higher amounts of hemicellulosic carbohydrates and lower amounts of cellulose and lignin. In contrast to hemicellulosic carbohydrates, the relationships analysis between the biomass traits and cellulose conversion clearly showed the same negative effect of cellulose and lignin on cellulose digestion. The miniaturized and semi-automated method we developed was usable at the laboratory scale and was reliable for mimicking the saccharification at the pilot scale using a steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, this miniaturized method will allow the reliable screening of many genotypes for saccharification potential. These findings provide valuable information and tools for breeders to create genotypes combining high yield, suitable biomass composition, and high saccharification yields. PMID

  9. Chemical composition and properties of ashes from combustion plants using Miscanthus as fuel.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Miscanthus giganteus is one of the energy crops considered to show potential for a substantial contribution to sustainable energy production. In the literature there is little data available about the chemical composition of ashes from the combustion of Miscanthus and practically no data about their physical properties. However, for handling, treatment and utilization of the ashes this information is important. In this study ashes from two biomass combustion plants using Miscanthus as fuel were investigated. The density of the ashes was 2230±35kg/m(3), which was similar to the density of ashes from straw combustion. Also the bulk densities were close to those reported for straw ashes. The flowability of the ashes was a little worse than the flowability of ashes from wood combustion. The measured heavy metal concentrations were below the usual limits for utilization of the ashes as soil conditioner. The concentrations in the bottom ash were similar to those reported for ash from forest residue combustion plants. In comparison with cyclone fly ashes from forest residue combustion the measured heavy metal concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were considerably lower. Cl(-), S and Zn were enriched in the cyclone fly ash which is also known for ashes from wood combustion. In comparison with literature data obtained from Miscanthus plant material the concentrations of K, Cl(-) and S were lower. This can be attributed to the fact that the finest fly ash is not collected by the cyclone de-dusting system of the Miscanthus combustion plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Eaten Out of House and Home: Impacts of Grazing on Ground-Dwelling Reptiles in Australian Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J.; Manning, Adrian D.; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  11. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, 'Ornithocheirus' capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., 'Ornithocheirus' polyodon, 'Ornithocheirus' platystomus, 'Pterodactylus' daviesii, and 'Ornithocheirus' denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here named Anhangueria, which also

  12. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  13. Evidence for pyroelectric and piezoelectric sensory mechanisms in the insect integument.

    PubMed Central

    Athenstaedt, H; Claussen, H

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative pyroelectric (PE) and piezoelectric (PZE) measurements were carried out on the insect integument of live Blaberus giganteus (cockroach) and on dry integument preparations of the same species. Voltage responses to optical pulses of 10--500 ms, absorbed in the live integument, were PE: interference filter measurements showed the responses to be proportional to the absorbed thermal radiation flux and independent of the wavelength. The voltage/time-course of the responses was in agreement with theoretically calculated PE signals. Voltage responses to mechanical pulses were PZE. The responses of the inner and outer integument surfaces always had opposite electric signs. The polar character of the integument was confirmed by means of a separate dielectric heating method. To explain these results, we hypothesize that the PE properties are for the most part localized in the two outermost layers (outer and inner epicuticle) of the integument, which consists mainly of polar lipids and proteins. Parallel alignment of these polar molecules perpendicular to the integument surface is very likely. PE and PZE responses, therefore, will not only occur in live insects but will also be measurable in dead, dry integument preparations as long as the polar tissue texture remains intact. Due to its polar texture, the insect integument will react to rapid changes in temperature, illumination, or uniaxial pressure in the same way as nonbiological PE materials, where the voltage responses depend on dX/dt (X, pressure or temperature). It seems clear, therefore, that the well-known physiological reactions of various arthropods to such physical outside influences may be related to the PE property of their integument. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7272444

  14. Lack of Impacts during Early Establishment Highlights a Short-Term Management Window for Minimizing Invasions from Perennial Biomass Crops.

    PubMed

    West, Natalie M; Matlaga, David P; Muthukrishnan, Ranjan; Spyreas, Greg; Jordan, Nicholas R; Forester, James D; Davis, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    Managing intentional species introductions requires evaluating potential ecological risks. However, it is difficult to weigh costs and benefits when data about interactions between novel species and the communities they are introduced to are scarce. In anticipation of expanded cultivation of perennial biomass crops, we experimentally introduced Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus × giganteus (two non-native candidate biomass crops) into two different non-crop habitats (old field and flood-plain forest) to evaluate their establishment success and impact on ambient local communities. We followed these controlled introductions and the composition dynamics of the receiving communities over a 5-year period. Habitats differed widely in adult Miscanthus survival and reproduction potential between species, although seed persistence and seedling emergence were similar in the two biomass crops in both habitats. Few introductions survived in the floodplain forest habitat, and this mortality precluded analyses of their potential impacts there. In old field habitats, proportional survival ranged from 0.3 to 0.4, and plant survival and growth increased with age. However, there was no evidence of biomass crop species effects on community richness or evenness or strong impacts on the resident old field constituents across 5 years. These results suggest that Miscanthus species could establish outside of cultivated fields, but there will likely be a lag in any impacts on the receiving communities. Local North American invasions by M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus display the potential for Miscanthus species to develop aggressively expanding populations. However, the weak short-term community-level impacts demonstrated in the current study indicate a clear management window in which eradicating species footholds is easily achieved, if they can be detected early enough. Diligent long-term monitoring, detection, and eradication plans are needed to successfully minimize harmful

  15. Assessing the impacts of the establishment of Miscanthus on soil organic carbon on two contrasting land-use types in Ireland using soil fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; Dondini, Marta; Jones, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the use of biomass for energy production has become an increasingly important measure for mitigating global change. However, the scientific debate has been inconclusive with regard to the risks and benefits of bioenergy use. There is particular concern that land-use change to bioenergy production can lead to increased CO2 emissions. These emissions result from the loss of vegetation and the soil disturbance. The use of perennial crops such as Miscanthus x giganteus as a feedstock for bioenergy production offers a possible solution, as it shows a large soil carbon (C) sequestration potential across Europe. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impacts of land-use change from arable farming and grasslands to Miscanthus on soil fractions and associated soil organic carbon (SOC). Four three to four year old commercial Miscanthus sites, as well as adjacent control sites representing the former land-use, in SE Ireland were analysed for changes in SOC stocks and newly sequestered Miscanthus-derived C. The soil samples were fractionated using a combination of physical and chemical methods. The fraction with which the SOC is associated significantly influenced its decomposability and turnover time. Using the 13C natural abundance method, we found that newly sequestered C was found mainly as particulate organic matter (79.7% of Miscanthus-derived C) and therefore in a labile state with short turnover times. No significant differences were found in the distribution of the different soil fractions and SOC between the Miscanthus and the control sites, and it was shown that the share of fractions on the bulk soil as well as the proportion of the SOC associated with these fractions in young Miscanthus sites depends mainly on the previous land-use. It was therefore concluded that soil disturbance linked to the introduction of Miscanthus does not lead to a significant loss of soil organic carbon or a disruption of stable aggregates.

  16. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Microascaceae with emphasis on synnematous fungi.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, M; Guarro, J; Cano-Lira, J F; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; de Hoog, G S; Abbott, S P; Decock, C; Sigler, L; Gené, J

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin). The results demonstrate that Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus are congeneric and the genus Cephalotrichum is accepted here with Echinobotryum as a further synonym. The genera Acaulium and Fairmania, typified by A. albonigrescens and F. singularis, respectively, are distinct from Microascus and Scopulariopsis, Gamsia is distinct from Wardomyces, and Wardomycopsis is confirmed as a separate genus in the Microascaceae. Two new species of Cephalotrichum are described as C. brevistipitatum and C. hinnuleum. Nine new combinations are proposed, i.e. Acaulium acremonium, A. caviariforme, Cephalotrichum asperulum, C. columnare, C. cylindricum, C. dendrocephalum, C. gorgonifer, Gamsia columbina and Wardomyces giganteus. A neotype is designed for C. stemonitis. Lectotypes and epitypes are designated for A. acremonium, A. albonigrescens, C. gorgonifer, C. nanum and W. anomalus. Cephalotrichum cylindricum, C. microsporum, F. singularis and Gamsia columbina are also epitypified with new specimens. Descriptions of the phenotypic features and dichotomous keys for identification are provided for accepted species in the different genera.

  17. A review of molecular-clock calibrations and substitution rates in liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, and a timeframe for a taxonomically cleaned-up genus Nothoceros.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-09-01

    Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) to facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rates. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C. Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C. Villarreal, and we also

  18. Changes in N-transforming archaea and bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-01-01

    Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR) and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing) of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ) and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop), in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) not bacteria (AOB), indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community.

  19. Modeling Miscanthus in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate its water quality effects as a bioenergy crop.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Miguez, Fernando

    2010-09-15

    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the potential effects on riverine nitrate load of cultivating Miscanthus x giganteus in place of conventional crops. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model miscanthus growth and streamwater quality in the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois. SWAT has a built-in crop growth component, but, as miscanthus is relatively new as a potentially commercial crop, data on the SWAT crop growth parameters for the crop are lacking. This leads to the second objective of this study, which is to estimate those parameters to facilitate the modeling of miscanthus in SWAT. Results show a decrease in nitrate load that depends on the percent land use change to miscanthus and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the miscanthus. Specifically, assuming a nitrogen fertilization rate for miscanthus of 90 kg-N/ha, a 10%, 25%, and 50% land use change to miscanthus will lead to decreases in nitrate load of about 6.4%, 16.5%, and 29.6% at the watershed outlet, respectively. Likewise, nitrate load may be reduced by lowering the fertilizer application rate, but not proportionately. When fertilization drops from 90 to 30 kg-N/ha the difference in nitrate load decrease is less than 1% when 10% of the watershed is miscanthus and less than 6% when 50% of the watershed is miscanthus. It is also found that the nitrate load decrease from converting less than half the watershed to miscanthus from corn and soybean in 1:1 rotation surpasses that from converting the whole watershed to just soybean.

  20. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    PubMed

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  1. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge.

  2. Bundle sheath leakiness and light limitation during C4 leaf and canopy CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Schepers, Hans E; Albanito, Fabrizio; Fitton, Nuala; Carroll, Faye; Jones, Michael B; Finnan, John; Lanigan, Gary J; Griffiths, Howard

    2008-12-01

    Perennial species with the C(4) pathway hold promise for biomass-based energy sources. We have explored the extent that CO(2) uptake of such species may be limited by light in a temperate climate. One energetic cost of the C(4) pathway is the leakiness () of bundle sheath tissues, whereby a variable proportion of the CO(2), concentrated in bundle sheath cells, retrodiffuses back to the mesophyll. In this study, we scale from leaf to canopy level of a Miscanthus crop (Miscanthus x giganteus hybrid) under field conditions and model the likely limitations to CO(2) fixation. At the leaf level, measurements of photosynthesis coupled to online carbon isotope discrimination showed that leaves within a 3.3-m canopy (leaf area index = 8.3) show a progressive increase in both carbon isotope discrimination and as light decreases. A similar increase was observed at the ecosystem scale when we used eddy covariance net ecosystem CO(2) fluxes, together with isotopic profiles, to partition photosynthetic and respiratory isotopic flux densities (isofluxes) and derive canopy carbon isotope discrimination as an integrated proxy for at the canopy level. Modeled values of canopy CO(2) fixation using leaf-level measurements of suggest that around 32% of potential photosynthetic carbon gain is lost due to light limitation, whereas using determined independently from isofluxes at the canopy level the reduction in canopy CO(2) uptake is estimated at 14%. Based on these results, we identify as an important limitation to CO(2) uptake of crops with the C(4) pathway.

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  4. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae.

    PubMed

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  5. Importance of biophysical effects on climate warming mitigation potential of biofuel crops over the conterminous United States

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Peng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Eva, Joo; ...

    2016-06-21

    Current quantification of climate warming mitigation potential (CWMP) of biomass-derived energy has focused primarily on its biogeochemical effects. This study used site-level observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes of biofuel crops to parameterize and evaluate the community land model (CLM) and estimate CO2 fluxes, surface energy balance, soil carbon dynamics of corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) ecosystems across the conterminous United States considering different agricultural management practices and land-use scenarios. Here, we find that neglecting biophysical effects underestimates the CWMP of transitioning from croplands and marginal lands to energy crops. Biogeochemical effects alonemore » result in changes in carbon storage of -1.9, 49.1, and 69.3 g C m-2 y-1 compared to 20.5, 78.5, and 96.2 g C m-2 y-1 when considering both biophysical and biogeochemical effects for corn, switchgrass, and miscanthus, respectively. The biophysical contribution to CWMP is dominated by changes in latent heat fluxes. Using the model to optimize growth conditions through fertilization and irrigation increases the CWMP further to 79.6, 98.3, and 118.8 g C m-2 y-1, respectively, representing the upper threshold for CWMP. Results also show that the CWMP over marginal lands is lower than that over croplands. Our study highlights that neglecting the biophysical effects of altered surface energy and water balance underestimates the CWMP of transitioning to bioenergy crops at regional scales.« less

  6. The impact of extreme drought on the biofuel feedstock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hussain, M.; Zeri, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been identified as the primary targets for second-generation cellulosic biofuel crops. Prairie managed for biomass is also considered as one of the alternative to conventional biofuel and promised to provide ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. These perennial grasses possess a number of traits that make them desirable biofuel crops and can be cultivated on marginal lands or interspersed with maize and soybean in the Corn Belt region. The U.S. Corn Belt region is the world's most productive and expansive maize-growing region, approximately 20% of the world's harvested corn hectares are found in 12 Corn Belt states. The introduction of a second generation cellulosic biofuels for biomass production in a landscape dominated by a grain crop (maize) has potential implications on the carbon and water cycles of the region. This issue is further intensified by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation to the climate change induced drought periods, as was seen during the extreme droughts of 2011 and 2012 in the Midwest. The 2011 and 2012 growing seasons were considered driest since the 1932 dust bowl period; temperatures exceeded 3.0 °C above the 50- year mean and precipitation deficit reached 50 %. The major objective of this study was to evaluate the drought responses (2011 and 2012) of corn and perennial species at large scale, and to determine the seasonability of carbon and water fluxes in the response of controlling factors. We measured net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) and water fluxes of maize-maize-soybean, and perennial species such as miscanthus, switchgrass and mixture of prairie grasses, using eddy covariance in the University of Illinois energy farm at Urbana, IL. The data presented here were for 5 years (2008- 2012). In the first two years, higher NEE in maize led to large CO2 sequestration. NEE however, decreased in dry years, particularly in 2012. On the other

  7. Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; van der Linden, Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.-L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation

  8. Validation of an electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry method for quantification of total chromium and chromium(VI) in wild mushrooms and underlying soils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Estela; Soares, M Elisa; Baptista, Paula; Castro, Marisa; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2007-08-22

    An ETAAS method was validated to quantify total Cr and Cr(VI) in mushrooms and the underlying soils. The method includes a sample pretreatment for total Cr dissolution using a wet acid digestion procedure and a selective alkaline extraction for Cr(VI). The limits of detection were, expressed in microg/L, 0.15 and 0.17 for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.15-25.0 and 0.17-20.0 microg/L for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The limits of quantification were, expressed in microg/g of dry weight, 0.0163 and 0.0085 for total and hexavalent chromium, respectively. The precision of the instrumental method for total Cr and Cr(VI) was lower than 1.6%, and for the analytical method, it was lower than 10%. The accuracy of the method for Cr(VI) quantification was evaluated by the standard additions method, with the recoveries being higher than 90% for all of the added concentrations. For total Cr, certified reference materials (lichen CRM 482 and soil sample NCS ZC73001) were used. An interference study was also carried out in a mushroom simulated matrix, and it was verified that the deviations of the expected values were lower than 4.0% for both total Cr and Cr(VI). The validated method was applied to the evaluation of total Cr and Cr(VI) in 34 wild mushrooms and 34 respective underlying soil samples collected in two different regions of Portugal (Beira Interior and TrAs-os-Montes), with different locations regarded as noncontaminated or contaminated areas. The species were identified by a mycologist and subdivided into 10 genera and 15 species: Amanita (rubescens, muscaria, and ponderosa), Boletus (regius), Lactarius (deliciosus, vellereus, and piperatus), Suillus (granulatus and luteus), Tricholoma (acerbum), Agaricus (sylvicola), Volvariella (gloiocephala), Lecopaxillus (giganteus), Macrolepiota (procera), and Psilocybe (fascicularis). The mean values found for total Cr were 1.14 and 1.11 microg/g of dry weight

  9. Evolutionary implications of the divergent long bone histologies of Nothosaurus and Pistosaurus (Sauropterygia, Triassic)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosauropterygians consist of two major clades, the Nothosauroidea of the Tethysian Middle Triassic (e.g., Nothosaurus) and the Pistosauroidea. The Pistosauroidea include rare Triassic forms (Pistosauridae) and the Plesiosauria of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Long bones of Nothosaurus and Pistosaurus from the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) of Germany and France and a femur of the Lower Jurassic Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus were studied histologically and microanatomically to understand the evolution of locomotory adaptations, patterns of growth and life history in these two lineages. Results We found that the cortex of adult Nothosaurus long bones consists of lamellar zonal bone. Large Upper Muschelkalk humeri of large-bodied Nothosaurus mirabilis and N. giganteus differ from the small Lower Muschelkalk (Nothosaurus marchicus/N. winterswijkensis) humeri by a striking microanatomical specialization for aquatic tetrapods: the medullary cavity is much enlarged and the cortex is reduced to a few millimeters in thickness. Unexpectedly, the humeri of Pistosaurus consist of continuously deposited, radially vascularized fibrolamellar bone tissue like in the Plesiosaurus sample. Plesiosaurus shows intense Haversian remodeling, which has never been described in Triassic sauropterygians. Conclusions The generally lamellar zonal bone tissue of nothosaur long bones indicates a low growth rate and suggests a low basal metabolic rate. The large triangular cross section of large-bodied Nothosaurus from the Upper Muschelkalk with their large medullary region evolved to withstand high bending loads. Nothosaurus humerus morphology and microanatomy indicates the evolution of paraxial front limb propulsion in the Middle Triassic, well before its convergent evolution in the Plesiosauria in the latest Triassic. Fibrolamellar bone tissue, as found in Pistosaurus and Plesiosaurus, suggests a high growth rate and basal metabolic rate. The presence of fibrolamellar bone tissue in

  10. Effect of soil weathering degree on the increase of cotton biomass and silicon mineralomass after amendment with biochar highly concentrated in phytoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Yans, Johan; Dufour, Nicolas; Houben, David; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plants, but not essential. It plays a crucial role in improving the yields of Si-accumulator crops through alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses. The demand of Si fertilizers will likely increase due to soil desilication and removal of harvested biomass. Since plants accumulate Si in the form of readily soluble phytoliths, plant-derived biochar is considered as a Si source for Si accumulator crops. In addition to its beneficial effects on soil fertility and carbon sequestration, biochar is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional Si amendments. Here, we study the impact of biochar materials with different phytolith concentrations on the bioavailability of Si in soils differing in weathering stage, and its effect on cotton biomass and Si mineralomass. Two biochar materials were used: Miscanthus x giganteus (Si concentration: 34.6 g/kg) and soft woody material (Si concentration: 0.9 g/kg). A conventional wollastonite (CaSiO3) treatment was carried for comparison purpose. The concentration of bioavailable Si was determined through 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction. Biochars were incorporated at the rate of 3% (w/w) in two soils: a slightly weathered Cambisol and a highly weathered Nitisol. The Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si in the Cambisol (CaCl2 extractable Si/total Si concentration) is significantly smaller (0.9%) than the one of wollastonite (5.2%). In the highly weathered Nitisol, the Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si is much larger (1.4%) than that of wollastonite (0.7%). Miscanthus biochar significantly increases the cotton biomass and Si mineralomass relative to soft wood biochar. The increase is larger in the highly weathered Nitisol than in the slightly weathered Cambisol. Principal component analyses and linear regression show that both the larger release rate of bioavailable Si and CEC are the main factors responsible for the increase of

  11. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Astley; Mos, Michal; Yesufu, Jalil A.; McCalmont, Jon; Schwarz, Kai; Shafei, Reza; Ashman, Chris; Nunn, Chris; Schuele, Heinrich; Cosentino, Salvatore; Scalici, Giovanni; Scordia, Danilo; Wagner, Moritz; Clifton-Brown, John

    2017-01-01

    Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes). The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha-1. Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM)]-1), respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha-1 y-1, which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha-1 in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg-1 km-1) and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is more economic

  12. Landscape patterns of bioenergy in a changing climate: implications for crop allocation and land-use competition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rose A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2016-03-01

    Rural landscapes face changing climate, shifting development pressure, and loss of agricultural land. Perennial bioenergy crops grown on existing agricultural land may provide an opportunity to conserve rural landscapes while addressing increased demand for biofuels. However, increased bioenergy production and changing land use raise concerns for tradeoffs within the food-energy-environment trilemma. Heterogeneity of climate, soils, and land use complicate assessment of bioenergy potential in complex landscapes, creating challenges to evaluating future tradeoffs. The hypothesis addressed herein is that perennial bioenergy production can provide an opportunity to avoid agricultural land conversion to development. Using a process-based crop model, we assessed potential bioenergy crop growth through 2100 in a southern Appalachian Mountain region and asked: (1) how mean annual yield differed among three crops (switchgrass Panicum virgatum, giant miscanthus Miscanthus x giganteus, and hybrid poplar Populus x sp.) under current climate and climate change scenarios resulting from moderate and very high greenhouse gas emissions; (2) how maximum landscape yield, spatial allocation of crops, and bioenergy hotspots (areas with highest potential yield) varied among climate scenarios; and (3) how bioenergy hotspots overlapped with current crop production or lands with high development pressure. Under both climate change scenarios, mean annual yield of perennial grasses decreased (-4% to -39%), but yield of hybrid poplar increased (+8% to +20%) which suggests that a switch to woody crops would maximize bioenergy crop production. In total, maximum landscape yield increased by up to 90 000 Mg/yr (6%) in the 21st century due to increased poplar production. Bioenergy hotspots (> 18 Mg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) consistently overlapped with high suburban/exurban development likelihood and existing row crop production. If bioenergy production is constrained to marginal (non-crop) lands

  13. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here

  14. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.

    PubMed

    Kpoviessi, Salomé; Bero, Joanne; Agbani, Pierre; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Kpadonou-Kpoviessi, Bénédicta; Sinsin, Brice; Accrombessi, Georges; Frédérich, Michel; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, β-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by β-citronellal, nerol, β-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and β-eudesmol. Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can

  15. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Astley; Mos, Michal; Yesufu, Jalil A; McCalmont, Jon; Schwarz, Kai; Shafei, Reza; Ashman, Chris; Nunn, Chris; Schuele, Heinrich; Cosentino, Salvatore; Scalici, Giovanni; Scordia, Danilo; Wagner, Moritz; Clifton-Brown, John

    2017-01-01

    Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes). The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha(-1). Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM)](-1)), respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha(-1) y(-1), which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha(-1) in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg(-1) km(-1)) and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is

  16. Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors

  17. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  18. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  19. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  20. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  1. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, D.; Chaoka, S.; Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Second generation bioenergy crops, such as miscanthus (Miscantus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), are regarded as clean energy sources, and are an attractive option to mitigate the human-induced climate change. However, the global climate change and the expansion of perennial grass bioenergy crops have the power to alter the biogeochemical cycles in soil, especially, soil carbon storages, over long time scales. In order to develop a predictive understanding, this study develops a coupled hydrological-soil nutrient model to simulate soil carbon responses under different climate scenarios such as: (i) current weather condition, (ii) decreased precipitation by -15%, and (iii) increased temperature up to +3C for four different crops, namely miscanthus, switchgrass, maize, and natural prairie. We use Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS), version 5.4.0, to capture biophysical and hydrological components coupled with a multilayer carbon and ¬nitrogen cycle model. We apply the model at daily time scale to the Energy Biosciences Institute study site, located in the University of Illinois Research Farms, in Urbana, Illinois. The atmospheric forcing used to run the model was generated stochastically from parameters obtained using available data recorded in Bondville Ameriflux Site. The model simulations are validated with observations of drainage and nitrate and ammonium concentrations recorded in drain tiles during 2011. The results of this study show (1) total soil carbon storage of miscanthus accumulates most noticeably due to the significant amount of aboveground plant carbon, and a relatively high carbon to nitrogen ratio and lignin content, which reduce the litter decomposition rate. Also, (2) the decreased precipitation contributes to the enhancement of total soil carbon storage and soil nitrogen concentration because of the reduced microbial biomass pool. However, (3) an opposite effect on the cycle is introduced by the increased

  2. Three-source-partitioning of soil carbon pools and fluxes and priming effects induced by carbohydrates of different availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Khomyakov, N.; Myachina, O.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is not uniform and includes: 1) fresh input of plant-derived organics, i.e. root exudates and rhizodeposits, 2) partially decomposed plant residues and 3) old humus material. The partitioning of these three carbon sources in soil C pools (microbial biomass and dissolved organic matter) and quantification of their contributions in soil CO2 ?uxes is a current challenge in soil science aiming to reveal the C pathways and drivers in terrestrial ecosystems. We applied uniformly labeled 14C-cellulose and 14C-glucose (as low and easily available substrates, respectively) in Ap of loamy Haplic Luvisol developed under C3 vegetation. Miscanthus x giganteus (Greef et Deu) - a perennial C4 plant - was grown for 12 years before the experiment with glucose/cellulose addition. Natural differences in the abundance of 13C between C4 and C3 plants were used to distinguish between old SOC (> 12 years) and recent Miscanthus-derived C (< 12 years). This enabled us to estimate mechanisms and sources of priming effects (PE) during decomposition of applied substrates with varying availability. The real and apparent priming effects were distinguished by partitioning of microbial C for substrate-C and SOM-derived C. Microbial specific growth rates and activity of hydrolytic enzymes were determined to reveal the mechanisms of real PEs. Both short-term apparent and long-term real PEs were induces by glucose, while the cellulose input caused only real PE. Remarkably, the shift to the domination of slow-growing microorganisms was observed during real PEs independently of substrate quality. This is the first direct confirmation of the hypothesized presumable contribution of K-strategists to real priming. 2.5-3 times increase in beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activity coupled with real PE in soil treated with glucose indicated that strong limitation and microbial starvation after glucose consumption caused the PE. Contrary to that the 75% increase in cellobiohydrolase

  3. Regional Impacts of Miscanthus Biofuel Feedstock Production on the Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloocke, A. D.; Twine, T. E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Socio-economic and scientific interest toward the use of renewable energy to offset fossil fuel dependence and greenhouse gas emissions is increasing. Currently, the majority of the US renewable energy production is focused on replacing gasoline with corn ethanol. In 2008, 18% of the US corn yield was used to displace ~5% of US gasoline consumption. This represents progress toward meeting the goals of offsetting 30% of liquid fossil fuel consumption by 2030 as established by the US government in the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI). However, a growing body of research indicates that it may not be beneficial or even possible for corn ethanol alone to meet the AEI goals. Highly productive bioenergy feedstocks requiring fewer inputs such as Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) are ideal candidates, relative to maize, to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. It is anticipated that Miscanthus is likely to have minimal environmental impacts and could be potentially beneficial to the environment. In order to meet the AEI goals, Miscanthus production on the scale of 1x10<6> ha would be needed. Before this level of production occurs, uncertainty over the environmental impacts of large-scale implementation should be addressed particularly with regards to the hydrologic cycle. We calibrated and evaluated a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version), to simulate the impacts of land-use-change from current land-use practices to Miscanthus production on the hydrologic cycle. Simulations for the Midwestern US (0.5°grid cell resolution) were generated using the same climate forcing for current land cover and additional scenarios where Miscanthus was planted in varying densities (10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Analyses indicate that for most of the Midwestern US, large increases in evapotranspiration (~100 to 250 mm/yr) and decreases in drainage (~ -100 to -250 mm/yr) occur when high

  4. Characterization of the seascape used by juvenile and wintering adult Southern Giant Petrels from Patagonia Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of the seascape used by marine top predators provides a wide perspective of pelagic habitat use and it is necessary to understand the functioning of marine systems. The goal of this study was to characterize the oceanographic and biological features of marine areas used by adult and first year juvenile southern giant petrels (SGP, Macronectes giganteus) from northern Patagonian colonies (Isla Arce and Gran Robredo) during the austral fall and winter (2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008). The marine environment exploited by the SGP was characterized using sea surface temperature (SST), SST gradients, chlorophyll-a concentration, water depth, oceanographic regimes, and ocean surface winds. In addition, the biological seascape was defined by considering the distribution of squid during the months of study. Juveniles SGP exploited a wide range of environments focusing mainly on productive neritic waters using a variety of oceanographic regimes. Juveniles were exposed to eutrophic and enriched waters, probably because of the frequent presence of thermal fronts in their utilization areas. Adults' environments lacked of thermal fronts remaining the majority of their time within the oceanographic regime "Continental Shelf", in water depths of 100-200 m, exploiting mesotrophic and eutrophic environments, and remaining in areas of known food resources related to the presence of squid. For the most part, juveniles were exposed to westerly winds, which may have helped them in their initial flight to the shelf break, east of the colony. Wintering adults SGP also explored areas characterized by westerly winds but this did not play a primary role in the selection of their residence areas. Juveniles during their first year at sea have to search for food exploring a variety of unknown environments. During their search, they remained in productive environments associated to fronts and probably also associated to fisheries operating in their foraging areas. The

  5. The radiative and hydrologic effects of a local switch from maize to miscanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gavin R.

    Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), a lush, dense grass that grows to be 3-4 meters tall, has been proven to be a substantially more productive biofuel crop than maize (Zea mays) due to its higher biomass output per unit area for conversion into ethanol. Moreover, Miscanthus is a perennial, biogeochemically sustainable crop, returning most of its nutrients to the soil each fall and needing less year-to-year maintenance than maize after its initial planting. Due to these potential benefits, a switch to Miscanthus as a viable biofuel alternative to maize has been suggested as a way to meet the current US energy goal of 30% displacement of domestic petroleum use by ethanol in the transportation sector by 2030, a goal that the existing US maize crop alone cannot achieve. Because maize and Miscanthus have significantly different vegetation characteristics, however, it is hypothesized that such a switch will lead to changes in the local surface radiation budget and hydrology. This study seeks to evaluate these changes. Perennial agriculture such as Miscanthus contributes to a greener surface earlier in the spring and later in the fall than maize (annual agriculture), subsequently leading to higher year-round albedo and water usage. Due to the denser growth of Miscanthus, evapotranspiration and thus absolute water usage are also higher than maize, especially during the summer. However, Miscanthus exhibits a deeper rooting depth than maize and therefore has access to deeper soil water. In this study, representative shifts in year-round albedo, green vegetation fraction, rooting depth, and leaf area index are parameterized and their combined radiative and hydrologic effects evaluated through uncoupled retrospective runs of a well-tested land surface model over an existing area of maize in the US Corn Belt. Sensitivity experiments are undertaken that likewise evaluate the individual contributions of each shifted parameterization scheme. It is found that the combination of

  6. Water Use Efficiency for Establishing Biofuel Crops in Central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacchi, C. J.; Zeri, M.; Hussain, M. Z.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Masters, M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    The production of biofuels from cellulosic plant material is expected to increase worldwide as countries look for alternative sources of energy. The choice of feedstocks suitable for ethanol production from cellulosic material must take into account several factors, such as productivity, response to local climate, and environmental impacts on the carbon, nitrogen and water cycles. With regards to the carbon cycle, the best options for biofuel crops are species that are highly productive in terms of harvestable biomass, but without depleting the soil carbon pools by requiring annual tillage before planting, as is the case of corn (Zea mays), the current dominant biofuel in the US. Perennial species such as miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) have many advantages over annual crops due to the reduced use of fertilizer and less irrigation requirements relative to maize. The efficiency of plants in using water while accumulating biomass is an important factor when choosing the best biofuel crop to be planted in a certain location. Water use efficiency (WUE) is the term generally used to refer to the ratio of carbon accumulated over water used during a certain period of time. Water use efficiency is an important metric when cellulosic biofuels are considered, since it takes into account the benefits (carbon accumulated in soils or harvested) and the environmental impact (the use of water). This quantity is derived in many ways based on the metric of carbon for an ecosystem. Net ecosystem production (NEP) is the net balance of carbon derived from GPP - Re, where GPP is the gross primary production and Re is the ecosystem respiration. The ratio of NEP over total water used during the year (TWU) will be referred as EWUE, from "ecosystem" WUE. The value of EWUE represents ecological benefit of the feedstock, since it accounts for the carbon that might be accumulated in soils. Another metric is the HWUE, after "harvest" WUE, which

  7. Implications of Biofuel-Induced Land Use Change and Management on Irrigated Agriculture in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, S.; Chen, Y.; Rajan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Texas High Plains (THP) is one of the important cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growing regions in the US. Agriculture in the THP faces several challenges from declining groundwater levels and deteriorating groundwater quality in the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, and recurring droughts and severe wind erosion. Groundwater conservation districts in the THP have started setting up limits on annual allowable groundwater pumping for irrigation. Introducing cover crops in to the cotton production systems in the THP and/or changing land use from cotton to perennial bioenergy crops could not only address the above challenges, but also assist in meeting the national biofuel target. The overall goal of this study is to assess the implications of biofuel-indced land use managemt (growing winter wheat as a cover crop along with cotton) and land use change (replacing cotton with Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus)) on hydrology, water quality, wind erosion and biofuel production potential in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. Results showed that, in comparison to the base