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Sample records for banana musa paradisiaca

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Dauter, Z; Sekar, K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    2004-11-01

    The banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca, MW 29.4 kDa, has been isolated, purified and crystallized. The trigonal crystals contain one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement to a resolution of 3 A. The structure of the subunit is similar to that of jacalin-like lectins.

  2. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  3. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  4. Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

    1987-01-01

    Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers.

  5. Characterization of EDTA-soluble polysaccharides from the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana).

    PubMed

    Raju, T S; Jagadish, R L; Anjaneyalu, Y V

    2001-02-01

    The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana) were fractionated into water-soluble (WSP), EDTA-soluble (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and alkali-insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide fractions [Anjaneyalu, Jagadish and Raju (1997) Glycoconj. J. 14, 507-512]. The EDTA-SP was further fractionated by iso-amyl alcohol into EDTA-SP-A and EDTA-SP-B. The homogeneity of these two polysaccharides was established by repeated precipitation with iso-amyl alcohol, gel-filtration chromatography and sedimentation analysis. The polysaccharides were characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation linkage analysis, iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase, gold-electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Data from all of these studies suggest that EDTA-SP-A is a branched amylose-type alpha-D-glucan and that EDTA-SP-B is a highly branched amylopectin-type polymer. The nature of the branching patterns of these polysaccharides suggests that they are unique to M. paradisiaca.

  6. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) and its effect on mucosal resistance.

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Gupta, S; Shankar, R; Sanyal, A K

    1986-10-01

    Orally administered banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) was shown to have significant anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats subjected to aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, prednisolone and cysteamine and in guinea-pigs subjected to histamine. Banana powder not only increased mucosal thickness but also significantly increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal DNA. Relative to untreated control sections, histological studies showed that banana treatment increased staining by alcian blue in the apical cells with staining noted in the deeper layers of the mucosal glands. Banana-treated and control sections were also stained for DNA by the Feulgen reaction. The banana-treated sections showed a greater aggregation and intensity of pink spots when compared to controls. The present study suggests that banana powder treatment not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation.

  7. Purification and characterization of Mn-peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem juice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pratibha; Singh, V K; Yadav, Meera; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadava, Sudha; Yadav, K D S

    2012-02-01

    Mn-peroxidase (MnP), a biotechnologically important enzyme was purified for the first time from a plant source Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem, which is an agro-waste easily available after harvest of banana fruits. MnP was earlier purified only from the fungal sources. The enzyme was purified from stem juice by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange column chromatography on diethylamino ethylcellulose with 8-fold purification and purification yield of 65%. The enzyme gave a single protein band in SDS-PAGE corresponding to molecular mass 43 kDa. The Native-PAGE of the enzyme also gave a single protein band, confirming the purity of the enzyme. The UV/VIS spectrum of the purified enzyme differed from the other heme peroxidases, as the Soret band was shifted towards lower wavelength and the enzyme had an intense absorption band around 250 nm. The K(m) values using MnSO4 and H2O2 as the substrates of the purified enzyme were 21.0 and 9.5 microM, respectively. The calculated k(cat) value of the purified enzyme using Mn(II) as the substrate in 50 mM lactate buffer (pH 4.5) at 25 degrees C was 6.7s(-1), giving a k(cat)/K(m) value of 0.32 microM(-1)s(-1). The k(cat) value for the MnP-catalyzed reaction was found to be dependent of the Mn(III) chelator molecules malonate, lactate and oxalate, indicating that the enzyme oxidized chelated Mn(II) to Mn(III). The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 4.5 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme in combination with H2O2 liberated bromine and iodine in presence of KBr and KI respectively. All these enzymatic characteristics were similar to those of fungal MnP. The enzyme has the potential as a green brominating and iodinating agent in combination with KBr/KI and H2O2.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of process conditions in the manufacturing of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch/natural rubber films.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hernández, A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Reynoso-Meza, G; Carrillo-Ahumada, J

    2017-02-10

    Multi-objective optimization was used to evaluate the effect of adding banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch and natural rubber (cis-1,4-poliisopreno) at different ratios (1-13w/w) to the manufacturing process of biodegradable films, specifically the effect on the biodegradability, crystallinity and moisture of the films. A structural characterization of the films was performed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM, moisture and biodegradability properties were studied. The models obtained showed that degradability vs. moisture tend to be inversely proportional and crystallinity vs. degradability tend to be directly proportional. With respect to crystallinity vs. moisture behavior, it is observed that crystallinity remains constant when moisture values remain between 27 and 41%. Beyond this value there is an exponential increase in crystallinity. These results allow for predictions on the mechanical behavior that can occur in starch/rubber films.

  9. Investigations on the effect of flavonoids from banana, Musa paradisiaca L. on lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of flavonoids extracted from unripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca showed significant hypolipidemic activities in male rats (Sprague Dawley strain) at a dose of 1 mg/100 g body weight (BW)/day. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides showed significant decrease in the serum, liver, kidney, and brain of experimental animals. HMG CoA reductase activity was found to be enhanced, while activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT showed significant enhancement. A significant increase in the concentrations of hepatic and fecal bile acids and fecal neutral sterols was also observed indicating a higher rate of degradation of cholesterol. The present study indicates that although there is an increase in the rate of synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, the process of degradation exceeds the rate of synthesis.

  10. Rheological Behavior, Granule Size Distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Cross-Linked Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Starch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Santiago, María C.; Maristany-Cáceres, Amira J.; Suárez, Francisco J. García; Bello-Pérez, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Rheological behavior at 60 °C, granule size distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were employed to study the effect of diverse reaction conditions: adipic acid concentration, pH and temperature during cross-linking of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. These properties were determined in native banana starch pastes for the purpose of comparison. Rheological behavior from pastes of cross-linked starch at 60 °C did not show hysteresis, probably due the cross-linkage of starch that avoided disruption of granules, elsewhere, native starch showed hysteresis in a thixotropic loop. All pastes exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. In all cases, size distribution showed a decrease in the median diameter in cross-linked starches. This condition produces a decrease in swelling capacity of cross-linked starch. The median diameter decreased with an increase of acid adipic concentration; however, an increase of pH and Temperature produced an increase in this variable. Finally, an increase in gelatinization temperature and entalphy (ΔH) were observed as an effect of cross-linkage. An increase in acid adipic concentration produced an increase in Tonset and a decrease in ΔH. pH and temperature. The cross-linked of banana starch produced granules more resistant during the pasting procedure.

  11. Unusual sugar specificity of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca and its probable evolutionary origin. Crystallographic and modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Surolia, A; Sekar, K; Vijayan, M

    2005-10-01

    The crystal structure of a complex of methyl-alpha-D-mannoside with banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca reveals two primary binding sites in the lectin, unlike in other lectins with beta-prism I fold which essentially consists of three Greek key motifs. It has been suggested that the fold evolved through successive gene duplication and fusion of an ancestral Greek key motif. In other lectins, all from dicots, the primary binding site exists on one of the three motifs in the three-fold symmetric molecule. Banana is a monocot, and the three motifs have not diverged enough to obliterate sequence similarity among them. Two Greek key motifs in it carry one primary binding site each. A common secondary binding site exists on the third Greek key. Modelling shows that both the primary sites can support 1-2, 1-3, and 1-6 linked mannosides with the second residue interacting in each case primarily with the secondary binding site. Modelling also readily leads to a bound branched mannopentose with the nonreducing ends of the two branches anchored at the two primary binding sites, providing a structural explanation for the lectin's specificity for branched alpha-mannans. A comparison of the dimeric banana lectin with other beta-prism I fold lectins, provides interesting insights into the variability in their quaternary structure.

  12. Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

    2001-07-01

    Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity.

  13. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters.

  14. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  15. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts.

    PubMed

    Lyte, M

    1997-09-15

    Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, in direct relation to the content of norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria was not altered by any of the extracts. Supplementation of vehicle and pulp cultures with norepinephrine or dopamine yielded growth equivalent to peel cultures. Total organic analysis of extracts further demonstrated that the differential effects of peel and pulp on bacterial growth was not nutritionally based, but due to norepinephrine and dopamine. These results suggest that neurochemicals contained within foodstuffs may influence the growth of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria through direct neurochemical-bacterial interactions.

  16. Plant defense induced in in vitro propagated banana (Musa paradisiaca) plantlets by Fusarium derived elicitors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Miral; Kothari, I L; Mohan, J S S

    2004-07-01

    Perception of microbial signal molecules is part of the strategy evolved by plants to survive attacks by potential pathogens. To gain a more complete understanding of the early signaling events involved in these responses, we used fungal components of Fusarium under in vitro condition and checked the rise in signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA), and marker enzymes in defense reactions against the pathogen. SA level increased by 21 folds in elicitor treated plantlets as compared to that of control plantlets and there was marked increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), peroxidase(POX), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) along with higher total phenolic content. Present results indicated that use of fungal components had successfully induced systemic resistance in in vitro cultured banana plantlets.

  17. Physicochemical and digestibility properties of double-modified banana ( Musa paradisiaca L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Carlos-Amaya, Fandila; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2011-02-23

    Banana starch was chemically modified using single (esterification or cross-linking) and dual modification (esterification-cross-linking and cross-linking-esterification), with the objective to increase the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) concentrations. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. The degree of substitution of the esterified samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.020. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified samples did not show change; however, an increase in crystallinity level was determined (from 23.79 to 32.76%). The ungelatinized samples had low rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (4.23-9.19%), whereas the modified starches showed an increase in SDS (from 10.79 to 16.79%) and had high RS content (74.07-85.07%). In the cooked samples, the esterified starch increased the SDS content (21.32%), followed by cross-linked starch (15.13%). Dual modified starch (cross-linked-esterified) had the lowest SDS content, but the highest RS amount. The esterified and cross-linked-esterified samples had higher peak viscosity than cross-linked and esterified-cross-linked. This characteristic is due to the fact that in dual modification, the groups introduced in the first modification are replaced by the functional group of the second modification. Temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in modified starches (from 75.37 to 74.02 °C and from 10.42 to 8.68 J/g, respectively), compared with their unmodified starch (76.15 °C and 11.05 J/g). Cross-linked-esterified starch showed the lowest enthalpy of gelatinization (8.68 J/g). Retrogradation temperature decreased in modified starches compared with unmodified (59.04-57.47 °C), but no significant differences were found among the modified samples.

  18. The effects of replacing Dichantium hay with banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaves and pseudo-stem on carcass traits of Ovin Martinik sheep.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; Liméa, Léticia; Etienne, Tatiana; Lallo, Cicero H O; Archimède, Harry; Alexandre, Gisele

    2009-10-01

    A study was done to evaluate banana (Musa paradisiaca) as a forage (leaves and pseudo-stems) for feeding Ovin Martinik lambs (OMK), with the aim to test its impact on carcass quality. Forty four intact OMK male were used after weaning with an initial mean live weight of 14.4 (+/- 3.3) kg, reared in individual pens. Animals were offered either Dichantium hay (control diet, Dh) or cut chopped leaves and pseudo-stems of banana (experimental diet, Blps). They were fed 200-250 g x d(-1) of commercial concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered according to 3 classes of slaughter weight (SW): SW20, SW23 and SW26. Growth and carcass performances of both groups were not significantly different, 77 vs. 81 g x d(-1) and 42% vs. 43% hot carcass yield, for Dh vs. Blps, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease (31.0 vs. 29.7%) for the dry matter content of the shoulder for lambs fed the banana diet. However, there was no effect observed for the other chemical component (CP, lipid and mineral 585, 317 and 95 g x kg(-1) DM, respectively). The shoulder (20% of the carcass whatever the SW) was precocious as demonstrated by the allometry coefficient relative to carcass weight (0.894) significantly (P < 0.01) less than 1. It was concluded that, the use of Blps had no significant effect on growth, carcass weights and yields of the OMK lambs, irrespective of the class of the slaughter weight. From these initial results, the use of banana foliages and pseudo-stems could be recommended as sources of forages.

  19. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854

  20. Effect of dietary fiber from banana (Musa paradisiaca) on metabolism of carbohydrates in rats fed cholesterol free diet.

    PubMed

    Usha, V; Vijayammal, P L; Kurup, P A

    1989-05-01

    Effect of feeding isolated dietary fiber from M. paradisiaca on the metabolism of carbohydrates in the liver has been studied. Fiber fed rats showed significantly lower levels of fasting blood glucose and higher concentration of liver glycogen. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-1-phosphate, uridyl transferase and glycogen synthase was significantly higher while phosphoglucomutase activity showed lower activity. Activity of some glycolytic enzymes, viz. hexokinase and pyruvic kinase was lower. Glucose-6-phosphatase showed higher activity while fructose 1-6 diphosphatase activity was not affected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on the other hand showed higher activity. The changes in these enzyme activities have been attributed due to the effect of higher concentration of bile acids produced in the liver as a result of feeding fiber. Evidence for this has been obtained by studying the in vitro effect of cholic acid and chenodeoxy cholic acid.

  1. Assessment of glycemic potential ofMusa paradisiaca stem juice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2007-09-01

    The present study reveals the effect of Musa paradisiaca stem juice on blood glucose level (BGL) of normal & diabetic rats. The dose of 500 mg/kg bodyweight produces a significant rise of 28.3% in blood glucose level after 6h of oral administration in normal rats. Whereas, in sub diabetic rats the same dose produces a rise of 16.4% in blood glucose levels within 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) and a rise of 16% after 4 h in fasting blood glucose levels of severe diabetic cases. These results were unexpected and important to report as other species of Musa like Musa sapientum has been reported for its hypoglycemic effect.

  2. A natural flavonoid present in unripe plantain banana pulp (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiaca) protects the gastric mucosa from aspirin-induced erosions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D A; Fields, W N; Shaw, G P

    1999-06-01

    The active anti-ulcerogenic ingredient was extracted from unripe plantain banana by solvent fractionation and identified by chromatography, spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography as the flavonoid leucocyanidin. Dried unripe plantain banana powder, the extracted leucocyanidin and a purified synthetic leucocyanidin demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect against aspirin-induced erosions.

  3. Association of a cucumber mosaic virus strain with mosaic disease of banana, Musa paradisiaca--an evidence using immuno/nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Raj, S K; Haq, Q M; Srivastava, K M; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1995-12-01

    Virus causing severe chlorosis/mosaic disease of banana was identified as a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Association of CMV with the disease was established by Western immunoblot using polyclonal antibodies to CMV-T and slot blot hybridization with nucleic acid probe of CMV-P genome.

  4. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa T.; Nurudeen, Quadri O.; Salimon, Saoban S.; Yakubu, Monsurat O.; Jimoh, Rukayat O.; Nafiu, Mikhail O.; Akanji, Musbau A.; Oladiji, Adenike T.; Williams, Felicia E.

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels. PMID:25893000

  5. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  6. Acetylation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) starches using a microwave heating procedure and iodine as catalyst: II. Rheological and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Almanza-Benitez, Sirlen; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Mendez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Núñez-Santiago, María C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Gutierrez-Meráz, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iodine concentration on the acetylation of starches with low and moderate degree of substitution (DS<0.5) and its impact on the physicochemical feature and structural features was evaluated. The acetylated starches were prepared with 0.03 mol anhydroglucose unit, 0.12 mol of anhydride acetic, and 0.6, 0.9 or 1.4 mM of molecular iodine as catalyst in a sealed Teflon vessel using microwave heating (600 W/2 min). Pasting profile and rheological properties were obtained under steady flow; dynamic oscillatory test was used. Structural features were obtained by HPSEC-RI. In acetylated starches, DS and acetyl groups increased when the iodine concentration increased, corn starch showed higher values than banana starch. The viscosity of acetylated starches decreased relative to unmodified starches while, acetylated corn starch had lower value than acetylated banana starch. In the flow curves, a non-Newtonian pattern (shear-thinning) was shown in the pastes of native and modified starches. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") showed low dependence on frequency (G'αω(0.1); G"αω(0.2)) on frequency sweep test, which is characteristic of a viscoelastic gel. Debranched native banana and corn starches presented trimodal chain-length distribution. The pattern was maintained in the acetylated starches, but with different level of short and long chains. The structural differences in native and acetylated samples explain the rheological characteristics in both starches.

  7. Influence of pressure cooking on antioxidant activity of wild (Ensete superbum) and commercial banana (Musa paradisiaca var. Monthan) unripe fruit and flower.

    PubMed

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Maria, Cherian Lintu; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-10-01

    Banana is a highly nutritious fruit crop consumed by many people's worldwide while endangered species are consumed by limited peoples and their health benefits are not explored. The unripe fruits and flowers of wild and commercial banana are consumed by peoples after cooking only. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of pressure cooking on antioxidant activity of wild and commercial banana species. The raw and processed samples were extracted with 70 % acetone. Except wild flower, thermal processing enhanced the content of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, hydroxyl and peroxidation activity than raw. Wild species presented higher phenolics, tannins, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP activity than commercial ones. Except few samples, wild species and commercial species exhibit similar activity in superoxide, hydroxyl and peroxidation activity. FRAP (r (2)  = 0.922; 0.977) and hydroxyl (r (2)  = 0.773; 0.744) activities were dependent on phenolics and tannin content whereas tannins may be responsible for DPPH scavenging activity (r (2)  = 0.745). Thermal processing enhanced the antioxidant activity might be due to the release of bound phenolics from cell wall and oxidation and polymerisation of compounds present in it. This wild species may be an alternative to commercial ones and will be valuable to consumers for protecting from chronic diseases.

  8. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  9. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    PubMed

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  10. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant.

  11. Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.

    PubMed

    Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

    2012-06-08

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 μg/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 μg/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests.

  12. Role of glycemic elements of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Rai, Nilesh K; Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K; Watal, Geeta

    2009-09-01

    The study defined the scientific evaluation of glycemic elements of extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca. A dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of C. dactylon produced maximum falls of 23.2% and 22.8% in blood glucose levels of normoglycemic rats during studies of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, respectively, whereas the same dose of M. paradisiaca produced a rise of 34.9% and 18.4%. In diabetic rats during glucose tolerance tests, a fall of 27.8% and a rise of 17.5% were observed with the same dose of C. dactylon and M. paradisiaca, respectively. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used for detection of glycemic elements present in both the extracts indicated that C. dactylon was rich in magnesium (Mg), whereas M. paradisiaca was rich in potassium (K) and sodium (Na), comparatively, suggesting thereby the defined roles of these elements in diabetes management.

  13. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  14. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  15. Musa paradisiaca stem juice as a source of peroxidase and ligninperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Vernwal, S K; Yadav, R S; Yadav, K D

    2000-10-01

    Musa paradisiaca stem juice has been shown to contain peroxidase activity of the order of 0.1 enzyme unit/ml. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide are 2.4 and 0.28 mM respectively. The pH and temperature optima are 4.5 and 62.5 degrees C respectively. Like other peroxidases, it follows double displacement type mechanism. At low pH, Musa paradisiaca stem juice exhibits ligninperoxidase type activity. The pH optimum for ligninperoxidase type activity is 2.0 and the temperature optimum is 24 degrees C. The Km values for veratryl alcohol and n-propanol are 66 and 78 microM respectively.

  16. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  17. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  18. Isolation, purification and some structural features of the mucilaginous exudate from Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Thakur, S; Ghosal, P K

    2001-03-01

    The water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the vascular gel of Musa paradisiaca, were fractionated via anion exchange chromatography into four fractions. Fractionated polymers contained arabinose, xylose and galacturonic acid as major sugars, together with traces of galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues. Methylation analysis revealed the presence of a highly branched arabinoxylan with a significant amount of terminal arabinopyranosyl units and an arabinogalactan type I pectin. Periodate oxidation studies supported the results of methylation analysis.

  19. Prototheca associated with banana.

    PubMed

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  20. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  1. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Altaf; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Iqbal, Zafar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2011-06-30

    Evaluation of anthelmintic effects of Trianthema (T.) portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) whole plant and Musa (M.) paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) leaves against prevalent gastrointestinal worms of sheep was done that may justify their traditional use in veterinary clinical medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous methanolic extract (CAME) of both the plants was determined using mature female Haemonchus (H.) contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT), respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and CAME in increasing doses (1.0-8.0 g kg(-1)) was determined in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of nematodes using fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval counts. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Fecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity of the plants. CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca showed a strong in vitro anthelmintic activity and pronounced inhibitory effects on H. contortus egg hatching as observed through AMA and EHT, respectively. Both plants exhibited dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well as egg hatching. M. paradisiaca (LC(50)=2.13 μg mL(-1)) was found to be more potent than T. portulacastrum (LC(50)=2.41 μg mL(-1)) in EHT. However, in vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 85.6% and 80.7% with CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca at 8.0 g kg(-1) on 15th day post-treatment, respectively as compared to that of Levamisole (7.5 mg kg(-1)) that caused 97.0% reduction in EPG. All the species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostronglyus spp., Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis which were prevalent, found susceptible (P<0.01) to the different doses of CP and CAME of both plants. The data showed that both T

  3. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes. PMID:27872791

  4. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  5. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  6. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  7. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    PubMed

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  8. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewunmi, C O

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating hormonal disorder in which strict glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are of crucial importance. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of mature, green fruits of Musa paradisiaca (MEMP) in normal (normoglycemic) and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, diabetic (hyperglycemic) mice, using chlorpropamide as the reference antidiabetic agent. MEMP (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) induced significant, dose-related (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of both normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant (p < 0.01-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of normal and diabetic mice. The results of this experimental study indicate that, in the mammalian model used, MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity. Although the precise mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of MEMP is still unclear and will have to await further studies, it could be due, at least in part, to stimulation of insulin production and subsequent glucose utilization. Nevertheless, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetic mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of South-Western Nigeria.

  10. Neutralizing properties of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) juice on phospholipase A2, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and lethal activities of crotalidae venoms.

    PubMed

    Borges, M H; Alves, D L F; Raslan, D S; Piló-Veloso, D; Rodrigues, V M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; de Lima, M E

    2005-04-08

    The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. In this work, we verify the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) against the toxicity of snake venoms. Musa paradisiaca, an important source of food in the world, has also been reported to be popularly used as an anti-venom. Interaction of Musa paradisiaca extract (MsE) with snake venom proteins has been examined in this study. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities, including lethality in mice, induced by crotalidae venoms were significantly inhibited when different amounts of MsE were mixed with these venoms before assays. On the other hand, mice that received MsE and venoms without previous mixture or by separated routes were not protected against venom toxicity. Partial chemical characterization of MsE showed the presence of polyphenols and tannins and they are known to non-specifically inactivate proteins. We suggest that these compounds can be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the toxic effects of snake venoms. In conclusion, according to our results, using mice as experimental model, MsE does not show protection against the toxic effects of snake venoms in vivo, but if was very effective when the experiments were done in vitro.

  11. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  12. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  13. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Venkatesh; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Shimoga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Deeplanaik, Nagaraja; Chandra Pal, Anup; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-01-01

    Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p) and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA) protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG) exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol). The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc) with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (−6.48 kcal/mol) and docking energy (−8.2 kcal/mol) with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases. PMID:28248219

  14. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Venkatesh; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Shimoga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Deeplanaik, Nagaraja; Chandra Pal, Anup; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-02-24

    Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p) and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA) protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG) exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol). The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc) with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (-6.48 kcal/mol) and docking energy (-8.2 kcal/mol) with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  15. Purification and biochemical characterization of ionically unbound polyphenol oxidase from Musa paradisiaca leaf.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Sanjeev Kumar; Mishra, Sarad Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An ionically unbound and thermostable polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from the leaf of Musa paradisiaca. The enzyme was purified 2.54-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 40 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 40 kD and a faint band at around 15 kD, which might be isozymes. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50°C temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0-9.0) and temperature (30-90°C). From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-75°C, the half-life (t(1/2)) values of the enzyme ranged from 17 to 77 min. The inactivation energy (Ea) value of PPO was estimated to be 91.3 kJ mol(-1). It showed higher specificity with catechol (K(m) = 8 mM) as compared to 4-methylcatechol (K(m) = 10 mM). Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K(+), Na(+), Co(2+), kojic acid, ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  17. Functional characterization of secondary wall deposition regulating transcription factors MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2016-03-01

    NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in stress responses and developmental regulation. MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are vascular-related NAC domain-containing genes encoding for nuclear-localized proteins. The transcript level of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are gradually induced after induction of lignification conditions in banana embryogenic cells. Banana embryogenic cells differentiated to tracheary element-like cells after overexpression of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 with a differentiation frequency of 63.5 and 23.4 %, respectively, after ninth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing either of MusaVND2 or MusaVND3 showed ectopic secondary wall deposition as well as transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements. Transdifferentiation to tracheary element-like cells was observed in cortical cells of corm and in epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves of transgenic plants. Elevated levels of lignin and crystalline cellulose were detected in the transgenic banana lines than control plants. The results obtained are useful for understanding the molecular regulation of secondary wall development in banana.

  18. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  19. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  20. Gibberella musae (Fusarium musae) sp. nov., a recently discovered species from banana is sister to F. verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, François; Waalwijk, Cees; Logrieco, Antonio; Munaut, Françoise; Moretti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Several strains of Fusarium isolated from banana were identified previously as F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg but described as unable to produce fumonisin. Here we report biochemical and morphological evidence, as well as multilocus phylogenetic analyses based on elongation factor (EF-1α), calmodulin, β-tubulin, and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) sequences, indicating that these isolates represent a unique lineage in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex related to but distinct from F. verticillioides. Together with previous results of molecular studies, as well as with results of metabolite analyses, crossing experiments, pathogenicity tests and morphological characterization, these new data indicate that these strains isolated from banana represent a new species, Gibberella musae Van Hove et al. sp. nov. (anamorph: Fusarium musae Van Hove et al. sp. nov.), which is described herein.

  1. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L.

  2. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  3. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  4. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  5. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  6. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  7. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro, and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo, purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro. Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  8. Cu2+ triggers reversible aggregation of a disordered His-rich dehydrin MpDhn12 from Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Mu, Peiqiang; Feng, Dongru; Su, Jianbin; Zhang, Yang; Dai, Jinran; Jin, Honglei; Liu, Bing; He, Yanming; Qi, Kangbiao; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Jinfa

    2011-11-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient, but it is toxic in excess. Here, we cloned and characterized a His-rich low molecular weight dehydrin from Musa paradisiaca, MpDhn12. Analysis by circular dichroism (CD) spectra and a thermal stability assay showed that MpDhn12 is an intrinsically disordered protein, and immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) analysis revealed that MpDhn12 can bind Cu(2+) both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, MpDhn12 aggregated under excess Cu(2+) conditions, and the aggregation was reversible and impaired by histidine modification with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), while the disordered structure of another dehydrin ERD14 (as a control) was not changed. Furthermore, MpDhn12 could complement the copper-sensitive phenotype of yeast mutant Δsod1. These results together suggested that MpDhn12 may take part in buffering copper levels through chelation and formation of aggregates in excess Cu(2+) conditions. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report that a dehydrin interchanged between disordered and aggregated state triggered by copper.

  9. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  10. Constituents of Musa x paradisiaca cultivar with the potential to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae Sik; Park, Eun Jung; Hawthorne, Michael E; Vigo, Jose Schunke; Graham, James G; Cabieses, Fernando; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Fong, Harry H S; Mehta, Rajendra G; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-10-23

    A new bicyclic diarylheptanoid, rel-(3S,4aR,10bR)-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-9-methoxy-4a,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-3H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (1), as well as four known compounds, 1,2-dihydro-1,2,3-trihydroxy-9-(4-methoxyphenyl)phenalene (2), hydroxyanigorufone (3), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)naphthalic anhydride (4), and 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-4(E),6(E)-dien-3-one (5), were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the fruits of Musa x paradisiaca cultivar, using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) in cultured Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structure and relative stereochemistry of compound 1 were elucidated unambiguously by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Isolates 1-5 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties utilizing an in vitro assay to determine quinone reductase induction and a mouse mammary organ culture assay.

  11. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  12. Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Osuji, J O; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Hull, R

    1999-03-15

    Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV and Musa sequences and a complex BSV integrant. In situ hybridization revealed two different BSV sequence locations in Obino l'Ewai chromosomes and a complex arrangement of BSV and Musa sequences was shown by probing stretched DNA fibers. This is the first report of integrated sequences that possibly lead to a plant pararetrovirus episomal infection by a mechanism differing markedly from animal retroviral systems.

  13. In vivo interaction between ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and the pulp of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Sv, Nwafor; Co, Esimone; Ca, Amadi; Cs, Nworu

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of quinolone antibiotics is seriously impaired by polyvalent cations due to the formation of unabsorbable complexes. M. paradisiaca Linn. (Musaceae), an important staple food in most parts of the world, has been demonstrated to contain many polyvalent cations. The aim of the work was to study the influence of concurrent administration of M. paradisiaca and ciprofloxacin HCI on the pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin. The study was carried out in two phases in five healthy male rabbits. Phase one involved oral administration of ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg) to rabbits, withdrawing blood from the marginal ear vein at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h intervals and checking the serum ciprofloxacin concentration. After a one-week drug "wash-out" period, the second phase started with concurrent oral administration of M. paradisiaca (800 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg). Blood was again withdrawn and analyzed for serum ciprofloxacin content. Antimicrobial activity of the serum was also assessed and expressed as reciprocal serum inhibitory titer. Co-administration of both agents resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum concentration of ciprofloxacin at all the time interval except at the 24th hour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (81.53%), peak serum concentration (94.37%), elimination rate constant (42.35%); while increase in half-life (81.08%) and clearance rate (69.64%) were noted. Antimicrobial study showed that the antimicrobial potency against E. coli was also decreased by such concurrent administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and antimicrobial activities of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased when it was given concurrently with pulp of unripe plantain. Complex formation between the drug and the polyvalent cations present in plantain, leading to decrease in absorption and hence bioavailability, may be responsible for the observed antagonistic interactions.

  14. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    PubMed

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  15. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  16. MusaSAP1, a A20/AN1 zinc finger gene from banana functions as a positive regulator in different stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2012-11-01

    A20/AN1 zinc finger domain containing Stress Associated Proteins (SAP) are involved in diverse stress response pathways in plants. In the present study, a novel banana SAP gene, MusaSAP1, was identified from banana EST database and was subsequently characterized by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Expression profiling in native banana plants showed that MusaSAP1 was up-regulated by drought, salt, cold, heat and oxidative stress as well as by treatment with abscisic acid. Cellular localization assay carried out by making a MusaSAP1::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaSAP1 is incompletely translocated to nucleus. Copy number analysis performed using real time PCR and Southern blotting indicated that MusaSAP1 occurs in the banana genome in a single copy per 11 chromosome set. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaSAP1 displayed better stress endurance characteristics as compared to controls in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. Lesser membrane damage as indicated by reduced malondialdehyde levels in transgenic leaves subjected to drought, salt or oxidative stress pointed towards significant role for MusaSAP1 in stress amelioration pathways of banana. Strong up-regulation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) coding transcript in MusaSAP1 overexpressing plants together with induction of MusaSAP1 by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment indicated possible involvement of MusaSAP1 in biotic stress responses where PPOs perform major functions in multiple defense pathways.

  17. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  18. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata) on human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fingolo, Catharina E; Braga, João M A; Vieira, Ana C M; Moura, Mirian R L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2012-12-01

    Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts) has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g) and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses) revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.

  19. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins.

  20. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    PubMed

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  1. Extraction and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa acuminata Grande naine) roots.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Nathalie; De Waele, Dirk; Swennen, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1, monophenol monooxygenase, and EC 1.10.3.2, o-diphenoloxidase) has been extensively studied in banana fruit for its role in enzymatic browning. Rapid discolouration of leaf, stem and root tissue after injury and strong pigmentation of tissue extracts indicate that PPO and phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in vegetative tissue of banana as well. They hamper biochemical and molecular studies in banana, as cumbersome adaptations of extraction protocols are required. On the other hand, PPO and phenolic compounds could be an important part of the plant's defence system against pests and diseases, including root parasitic nematodes. To facilitate future studies in this area, extraction and assay conditions for PPO from roots of banana (Musa acuminata AAA, Grande naine) were optimized. Highest enzyme activities were obtained in a 0.2 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 with 5% insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone and 0.25% Triton X-100. The lowest K(m) values were obtained for dopamine and D-catechin. Monophenolase activity was shown with p-cresol. Banana root PPO was strongly inhibited by dithiothreitol and sodium metabisulfite. In root sections, oxidation of dopamine strongly co-localized with aerenchyma in the cortex. The experiments revealed indications for the involvement of root PPO and dopamine in resistance of banana against the parasitic nematode Radopholus similis.

  2. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p<0.05), whereas asparagine, was poorly correlated (p>0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  3. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system.

  4. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  5. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  6. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  7. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  8. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  9. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  10. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-20

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism.

  11. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Akello, Juliet; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Coyne, Daniel; Nakavuma, Jessica; Paparu, Pamela

    2007-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is considered a virulent pathogen against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. However, current field application techniques for effective control against this pest remain a limitation and an alternative method for effective field application needs to be investigated. Three screenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the ability of B. bassiana to form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana (Musa spp.) plants and to evaluate the plants for possible harmful effects resulting from this relationship. Three Ugandan strains of B. bassiana (G41, S204 and WA) were applied by dipping the roots and rhizome in a conidial suspension, by injecting a conidial suspension into the plant rhizome and by growing the plants in sterile soil mixed with B. bassiana-colonized rice substrate. Four weeks after inoculation, plant growth parameters were determined and plant tissue colonization assessed through re-isolation of B. bassiana. All B. bassiana strains were able to colonize banana plant roots, rhizomes and pseudostem bases. Dipping plants in a conidial suspension achieved the highest colonization with no negative effect on plant growth or survival. Beauveria bassiana strain G41 was the best colonizer (up to 68%, 79% and 41% in roots, rhizome and pseudostem base, respectively) when plants were dipped. This study demonstrated that, depending on strain and inoculation method, B. bassiana can form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana plants, causing no harmful effects and might provide an alternative method for biological control of C. sordidus.

  12. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  13. [Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen partition in process of photosynthetic carbon cycle in Musa paradisiaca].

    PubMed

    Sun, G; Zhao, P; Zeng, X; Peng, S

    2001-06-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of Musa paradisiaca grown under elevated CO2 concentration (700 +/- 56 microliters.L-1) for one week was 5.14 +/- 0.32 mumol.m-2.s-1, 22.1% higher than that under ambient CO2 concentration, while under elevated CO2 concentration for 8 week, the Pn decreased by 18.1%. It can be inferred that the photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration and the Pn inhibition occurred in leaves of M. paradisiaca. The respiration rate in light (Rd) was lower in leaves under higher CO2 concentration, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. If the respiration in light was not included, the difference in CO2 compensation point for the leaves of both plants was not significant. Under higher CO2 concentration for 8 weeks, the maximum carboxylation rate(Vcmax) and electron transportation rate (J) in leaves decreased respectively by 30.5% and 14.8%, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. The calculated apparent quantum yield (alpha) in leaves under elevated CO2 concentration according to the initial slope of Pn/PAR was reduced to 0.014 +/- 0.010 molCO2.mol-1 quanta, compared with the value of 0.025 +/- 0.005 molCO2.mol-1 quanta in the control. The efficiency of light energy conversion also decreased from 0.203 to 0.136 electrons.quanta-1 in plants under elevated CO2 concentration. A lower partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen in Rubisco, bioenergetics and thylakoid light-harvesting components was observed in plants under higher CO2 concentration. The results indicated that the multi-process of photosynthesis was suppressed significantly by a long-term (8 weeks) higher CO2 concentration incubation.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  15. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  16. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Tadini, Carmen Cecília; Tribess, Tatiana Beatris; Zuleta, Angela; Binaghi, Julieta; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Bertolini, Andréa C; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco M

    2011-09-01

    Banana flour obtained from unripe banana (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão) under specific drying conditions was evaluated regarding its chemical composition and nutritional value. Results are expressed in dry weight (dw). The unripe banana flour (UBF) presented a high amount of total dietary fiber (DF) (56.24 g/100 g), which consisted of resistant starch (RS) (48.99 g/100 g), fructans (0.05 g/100 g) and DF without RS or fructans (7.2 g/100 g). The contents of available starch (AS) (27.78 g/100 g) and soluble sugars (1.81 g/100 g) were low. The main phytosterols found were campesterol (4.1 mg/100 g), stigmasterol (2.5 mg/100 g) and β-sitosterol (6.2 mg/100 g). The total polyphenol content was 50.65 mg GAE/100 g. Antioxidant activity, by the FRAP and ORAC methods, was moderated, being 358.67 and 261.00 μmol of Trolox equivalent/100 g, respectively. The content of Zn, Ca and Fe and mineral dialyzability were low. The procedure used to obtain UBF resulted in the recovery of undamaged starch granules and in a low-energy product (597 kJ/100 g).

  17. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  18. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

    2007-02-16

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction.

  19. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  20. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  1. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  2. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Population structure of wild bananas, Musa balbisiana, in China determined by SSR fingerprinting and cpDNA PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Ge, X J; Liu, M H; Wang, W K; Schaal, B A; Chiang, T Y

    2005-04-01

    Both demographic history and dispersal mechanisms influence the apportionment of genetic diversity among plant populations across geographical regions. In this study, phylogeography and population structure of wild banana, Musa balbisiana, one of the progenitors of cultivated bananas and plantains in China were investigated by an analysis of genetic diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprint markers and cpDNA PCR-RFLP. A chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genealogy of 21 haplotypes identified two major clades, which correspond to two geographical regions separated by the Beijiang and Xijiang rivers, suggesting a history of vicariance. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among populations with cpDNA markers, a result consistent with limited seed dispersal in wild banana mediated by foraging of rodents. Nuclear SSR data also revealed significant geographical structuring in banana populations. In western China, however, there was no detected phylogeograpahical pattern, possibly due to frequent pollen flow via fruit bats. In contrast, populations east of the Beijiang River and the population of Hainan Island, where long-range soaring pollinators are absent, are genetically distinct. Colonization-extinction processes may have influenced the evolution of Musa populations, which have a metapopulation structure and are connected by migrating individuals. Effective gene flow via pollen, estimated from the nuclear SSR data, is 3.65 times greater than gene flow via seed, estimated from cpDNA data. Chloroplast and nuclear DNAs provide different insights into phylogeographical patterns of wild banana populations and, taken together, can inform conservation practices.

  4. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana.

  5. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana. PMID:28234982

  6. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana.

  7. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible (< 8 leaves without spots), less susceptible (8-10) and partially resistant (> 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  8. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  9. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm.

  10. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  11. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Sardos, J.; Perrier, X.; Doležel, J.; Hřibová, E.; Christelová, P.; Van den houwe, I.; Kilian, A.; Roux, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. Methods We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. Key Results DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. Conclusions The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal. PMID:27590334

  12. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL(-1). Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL(-1). The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL(-1). This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  13. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  15. Annotation of differentially expressed genes in the somatic embryogenesis of musa and their location in the banana genome.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, José Roberto; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, Rosa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100-4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa.

  16. Annotation of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Somatic Embryogenesis of Musa and Their Location in the Banana Genome

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, José Roberto; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100–4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa. PMID:24027442

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana.

  18. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  19. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions.

  20. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation.

  1. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  2. 16S ribosomal DNA characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril).

    PubMed

    Magalhães Cruz, L; de Souza, E M; Weber, O B; Baldani, J I; Döbereiner, J; Pedrosa, F de O

    2001-05-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria.

  3. Sampling strategies and variability in fruit pulp micronutrient contents of west and central african bananas and plantains (Musa species).

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Stals, Ellen; Ngoh-Newilah, Gérard; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Lusty, Charlotte; Markham, Richard; Swennen, Rony; Keulemans, Johan

    2007-04-04

    The variability in fruit micronutrient contents in a selection of Central and West African Musa varieties cultivated under standardized field conditions was studied. Analysis of the within-fruit, within-hand, and within-plant as well as the between-plant variations demonstrated that both provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs) and mineral micronutrient (Fe, Zn) contents vary significantly across all sample groups. The variations in pVACs contents appear to be at least partly related to differences in the developmental status of the fruit, but the observed trends were genotype-specific. The mean pVACs concentrations per genotype indicated that there is substantial genetic variation in the fruit pVACs contents between Musa cultivars, with orange-fleshed plantain varieties (AAB) having generally higher fruit pVACs contents than dessert bananas (AAA). It was not possible to identify consistent trends between the sampling position and fruit Fe/Zn contents. Once the within-bunch micronutrient variability has been accounted for, the mean variations in fruit micronutrient contents between individual plants of a variety generally fell to within acceptable limits. Results are discussed within the framework of standardizing sampling and developing strategies to screen for the nutritional values of new and existing Musa varieties.

  4. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  5. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  6. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  7. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 2. Thermal and functional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The starch and flour thermal and functional characteristics of 23 cultivated varieties of bananas in Colombia were assessed. Onset temperature for gelatinization of starches measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) varied from 59.7 to 67.8 degrees C, thereby significantly differentiating dessert bananas (63.2 degrees C) from nonplantain cooking bananas (65.7 degrees C) from FHIA hybrids (66.6 degrees C) and plantains (67.1 degrees C). FHIA hybrids are significantly discriminated from dessert banana landraces but not from the cooking group. The starch amylose contents varied from 15.4 to 24.9%; most dessert banana starch amylose contents were below 19%, whereas in cooking banana starches the contents were over 21%. Flour functional properties were assessed by Rapid ViscoAnalyser (RVA) using silver nitrate as alpha-amylase inhibitor. The flour pasting temperature was relevant to differentiate dessert bananas (69.5 degrees C) from FHIA dessert hybrids and nonplantain cooking bananas (72.8 degrees C) from cooking hybrids and plantains (75.8 degrees C). Among other criteria, the cooking ability also helped to differentiate dessert bananas and FHIA hybrids from cooking bananas. A close relation between cultivar genotypes and uses with the thermal and pasting properties were revealed.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of different cultivars of banana flower (Musa paradicicus L.) extracts available in India.

    PubMed

    China, Ratna; Dutta, Sanjukta; Sen, Sauradip; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Bhowmik, Debajit; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali

    2011-01-01

    Six different cultivars of banana flowers (Musa paradicicus) (Kathali, Bichi, Shingapuri, Kacha, Champa, and Kalabou) were analyzed for the content of polyphenol expressed as gallic acid equivalent and flavonoid expressed as quercetein equivalent, and the in vitro total antioxidative activities of the flower extracts were compared with standard and expressed as trolox equivalent. The reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•(+)) scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion system, and liposome peroxidation system were measured and compared with respective standard antioxidants. Iron-mediated Fenton reaction was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the extract of banana flower (Kacha cultivar) against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. The Kacha variety contains the maximum amount of polyphenol (11.94 ± 0.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight) and flavonoid (0.174 ± 0.001 g of quercetin equivalent/g of polyphenol). It also has the highest total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ABTS•(+) radical scavenging activity with a least EC(50) value of 0.051 mg/mL. Hepatic cell damage in iron-mediated Fenton reaction caused by free radicals is reduced by the banana flower extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the banana flowers are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from banana flowers. The study suggests that the flowers of M. paradicicus that are found in India and consumed as vegetable can provide valuable functional ingredients that help in the prevention of oxidative stress.

  9. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  10. Isolation and characterization of BanLec-I, a mannoside-binding lectin from Musa paradisiac (banana).

    PubMed Central

    Koshte, V L; van Dijk, W; van der Stelt, M E; Aalberse, R C

    1990-01-01

    A lectin (BanLec-I) from banana (Musa paradisiac) with a binding specificity for oligomannosidic glycans of size classes higher than (Man)6GlcNAc was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-75 column. It did not agglutinate untreated human or sheep erythrocytes, but it did agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes. BanLec-I stimulated T-cell proliferation. On size-exclusion chromatography, BanLec-I has a molecular mass of approx. 27 kDa, and on SDS/PAGE the molecular mass is approx. 13 kDa. The isoelectric point is 7.2-7.5. BanLec-I was found to be very effective as a probe in detecting glycoproteins, e.g. on nitrocellulose blots. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2268297

  11. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  12. Genetic transformation of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sági, L; Panis, B; Remy, S; Schoofs, H; De Smet, K; Swennen, R; Cammue, B P

    1995-05-01

    We have developed a simple protocol to allow the production of transgenic banana plants. Foreign genes were delivered into embryogenic suspension cells using accelerated particles coated with DNA. Bombardment parameters were optimized for a modified particle gun resulting in high levels of transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene in both banana and plantain cells. Bombarded banana cells were selected with hygromycin and regenerated into plants. Molecular and histochemical characterization of transformants revealed the stable integration of the transferred genes into the banana genome.

  13. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  14. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p < 0.05) was noted for T. colubriformis. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  15. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  16. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  17. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value.

  18. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  19. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  20. Characterization of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes as a potential renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Agricultural residue such as banana waste is one of the biomass categories that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana leaves and pseudo-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana leaves and pseudo-stem are 7.5 mf wt.% and 11.0 mf wt.%, while the carbon content of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 42.4 mf wt.% and 37.9 mf wt.%, respectively. The measured heating value of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 17.7MJ/kg and 15.5MJ/kg, respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The potential of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  2. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  3. A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C; Gońzalez de León, D

    1993-12-01

    A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36% of all loci, mostly favoring the male parent. Chromosome structural rearrangements were believed to be one of the main causes of these distortions. The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.

  4. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P < 0.05) different. Both irrigation regimes resulted in significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, leaf length, leaf area, leaf area index, green leaf colour intensity, plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  5. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  6. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  7. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury.

  8. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury. PMID:26074928

  9. Isolation, characterization and chromosome localization of repetitive DNA sequences in bananas (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Valárik, M; Simková, H; Hribová, E; Safár, J; Dolezelová, M; Dolezel, J

    2002-01-01

    Partial genomic DNA libraries were constructed in Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana and screened for clones carrying repeated sequences, and sequences carrying rDNA. Isolated clones were characterized in terms of copy number, genomic distribution in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, and sequence similarity to known DNA sequences. Ribosomal RNA genes have been the most abundant sequences recovered. FISH with probes for DNA clones Radkal and Radka7, which carry different fragments of Musa 26S rDNA, and Radka14, for which no homology with known DNA sequences has been found, resulted in clear signals at secondary constrictions. Only one clone carrying 5S rDNA, named Radka2, has been recovered. All remaining DNA clones exhibited more or less pronounced clustering at centromeric regions. The study revealed small differences in genomic distribution of repetitive DNA sequences between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, the only exception being the 5S rDNA where the two Musa clones under study differed in the number of sites. All repetitive sequences were more abundant in M. acuminata whose genome is about 12% larger than that of M. balbisiana. While, for some sequences, the differences in copy number between the species were relatively small, for some of them, e.g. Radka5, the difference was almost thirty-fold. These observations suggest that repetitive DNA sequences contribute to the difference in genome size between both species, albeit to different extents. Isolation and characterization of new repetitive DNA sequences improves the knowledge of long-range organization of chromosomes in

  10. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.

    2004-10-01

    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.

  11. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  12. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health.

  13. [Development and application of EST-derived SSR markers for bananas (Musa nana Lour.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Ye-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Liang; Wu, Yao-Ting

    2008-07-01

    A total of 2,284 banana unigene sequences were mined, resulting in the identification of 122 SSRs in 110 sequences. Among them, there were 37 motifs the overall average length of SSRs was 20 bp. The trinucleotide repeats appeared to be the most abundant SSRs (47.6%), followed by dinucleotide repeats (33.1%), whereas the tetranucleotide repeats were less abundant. The rich repeats AG and AGG were predominant, accounting for 75.7% and 36% in dri- and tri-nucleotide repeats respectively. A total of 63 primer pairs were designed and tested against genomic DNA of Brazil. Forty-one primers could be validated as usable markers. Nineteen of these primers revealed moderate to high polymorphism information content (PIC) across 49 accessions. The polymorphic bands were ranged from 4 to 12, averagely 7.58. The mean PIC value was 0.7324, ranging from 0.3572 to 0.8744. Forty-nine banana varieties were separated into two major clusters closely corresponding with the genome composition by UPGMA analysis. The results showed that the EST-SSR markers were of great value in evaluation of banana germplasms.

  14. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd; Miskam, Muhamad Azman

    2015-04-24

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450–650 °C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00–3.00 s. The particle size was set at 224-400 µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  15. Malate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Chandramouli, Sumana; Han, Ping; Liu, Pei

    2003-01-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is a key enzyme responsible for malic acid synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle, which functions to convert stored lipids to carbohydrates, by catalysing the glyoxylate condensation reaction with acetyl-CoA in the peroxisome. In this study, the cloning of an MS cDNA, designated MaMS-1, from the banana fruit is reported. MaMS-1 was 1801 bp in length encoding a single polypeptide of 556 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that MaMS-1 possessed the conserved catalytic domain and a putative peroxisomal targeting signal SK(I/L) at the carboxyl terminal. MaMS-1 also shared an extensive sequence homology (79-81.3%) with other plant MS homologues. Southern analysis indicated that MS might be present as multiple members in the banana genome. In Northern analysis, MaMS-1 was expressed specifically in ripening fruit tissue and transcripts were not detected in other organs such as roots, pseudostem, leaves, ovary, male flower, and in fruit at different stages of development. However, the transcript abundance in fruit was affected by stage of ripening, during which transcript was barely detectable at the early stage of ripening (FG and TY), but the level increased markedly in MG and in other fruits at advanced ripening stages. Furthermore, MaMS-1 expression in FG fruit could be stimulated by treatment with 1 microl l(-1) exogenous ethylene, but the stimulatory effect was abolished by the application of an ethylene inhibitor, norbornadiene. Results of this study clearly show that MS expression in banana fruit is temporally regulated during ripening and is ethylene-inducible.

  16. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp.) roots.

    PubMed

    Souza, Suzane A; Xavier, Adelica A; Costa, Márcia R; Cardoso, Acleide M S; Pereira, Marlon C T; Nietsche, Silvia

    2013-07-01

    The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX). Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus) and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  17. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects.

  18. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  19. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    PubMed

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  20. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively. Fructosamine and AGEs formed during diabetes were inhibited in treated groups when compared with the diabetic group. The diabetic group showed 11.5 ± 0.64 μg of AGEs/mg protein in kidney, whereas, in banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P < 0.01. These findings suggest that banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  1. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of some cooking banana (Musa spp.) for boiling and frying process.

    PubMed

    Belayneh, M; Workneh, T S; Belew, D

    2014-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to study physicochemical properties of four cooking banana varieties (Cardaba, Nijiru, Matoke and Kitawira) and to determine their suitability for chips processing and boiling quality. A randomized complete block design with three replications was employed. Pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness (before and after), total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, ease of peeling, pulp water absorption, duration of cooking (or boiling) and dry matter are the most important parameters to evaluate the quality of cooking banana including plantain. The different variety affected the fruit physical characteristics significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The Cardaba varieties fruit was found to be the heaviest and the longest. The Kitawira and Nijiru varieties had the smallest, shortest and thinnest fruit. The Cardaba contained 88 % more edible portions per unit fresh weight than the peel. The Nijiru, Matoke and Kitawira contained more pulp weight than peel weight. Most fruit chemical quality parameters were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by the varieties. Similarly, the boiling and chips qualities were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by varieties. Among others, the Cardaba variety was found to have high fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit volume, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, dry matter and low total titratable acidity. Thus, Cardaba provided the best quality boiled pulp which can serve for diversified culinary purposes. Generally, the Nijiru, Kitawira and Matoke varieties were found to be superior to produce acceptable quality chips. These varieties are recommended for chips development by food processors in Ethiopia.

  2. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  3. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  5. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon.

  6. Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer: cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study evaluates the effects of extract of Musa sapientum fruit (MSE) on ulcer index, blood glucose level and gastric mucosal cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β and growth factor, TGF-α (affected in diabetes and chronic ulcer) in acetic acid (AA)-induced gastric ulcer (GU) in diabetic (DR) rat. Methods MSE (100 mg/kg, oral), omeprazole (OMZ, 2.0 mg/kg, oral), insulin (INS, 4 U/kg, sc) or pentoxyphylline (PTX, 10 mg/kg, oral) were given once daily for 10 days in 14 days post-streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats while, the normal/diabetic rats received CMC for the same period after induction of GU with AA. Ulcer index was calculated based upon the product of length and width (mm2/rat) of ulcers while, TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-α were estimated in the gastric mucosal homogenate from the intact/ulcer region. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC analysis of MSE was done following standard procedures. Results An increase in ulcer index, TNF-α and IL-1β were observed in normal (NR)-AA rat compared to NR-normal saline rat, which were further increased in DR-AA rat while, treatments of DR-AA rat with MSE, OMZ, INS and PTX reversed them, more so with MSE and PTX. Significant increase in TGF-α was found in NR-AA rat which did not increase further in DR-AA rat. MSE and PTX tended to increase while, OMZ and INS showed little or no effect on TGF-α in AA-DR rat. Phytochemical screening of MSE showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and alkaloids and HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of eight active compounds. Conclusion MSE showed antidiabetic and better ulcer healing effects compared with OMZ (antiulcer) or INS (antidiabetic) in diabetic rat and could be more effective in diabetes with concurrent gastric ulcer. PMID:24192345

  7. Application of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to determine carotenoid contents in banana (Musa spp.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Saeys, Wouter; Hof, Ellen; Ramon, Herman; Swennen, Rony L; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-03-11

    The analysis of carotenoids is complicated by the tendency of these compounds to react with radical species, leading to oxidative breakdown and isomerization during extraction. Therefore, protocols should be rapid and avoid unnecessary exposure to heat, acids, and so forth. Here, we evaluate the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to measure carotenoid contents in fruit from 28 Musa (banana and plantain) varieties. Carotenoid contents were first quantified using standardized RP-HPLC protocols, and these results were then used to develop algorithms to predict carotenoid contents from Vis/NIR spectra of the same samples. Cross-validation of the predictive algorithms across a genetically diverse group of varieties demonstrated that correlation coefficients between the HPLC measurements and the Vis/NIRS predictions varied from good for the total carotenoids and beta-carotene fractions (r(2)(cv), 0.84, 0.89) to reasonable for alpha-carotene and cis-carotenes (r(2)(cv), 0.61, 0.66), but there was only a poor correlation (r(2)(cv), 0.30) for the minor lutein component. Nonetheless, since approximately 90% of the Musa carotenoids consist of only alpha- and beta-carotene, results indicate that Vis/NIRS can be used for the high-throughput screening of fruit pulp samples for vitamin A nutritional content on the basis of their total carotenoids content.

  8. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  9. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  10. Evidence that the proliferation stage of micropropagation procedure is determinant in the expression of banana streak virus integrated into the genome of the FHIA 21 hybrid (Musa AAAB).

    PubMed

    Dallot, S; Acuña, P; Rivera, C; Ramírez, P; Côte, F; Lockhart, B E; Caruana, M L

    2001-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is causing increasing concern in almost every producing area of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) worldwide. This situation appeared partially linked to some breeding lines and micropropagated hybrids. A complete BSV sequence integrated into the genome of a triploid plantain has been recently characterised and it has been hypothesised that it could give rise to infectious virus via recombination. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a routine micropropagation procedure on the expression of BSV in the FHIA 21 tetraploid hybrid. The widespread presence of integrated sequences and the absence of episomal BSV in thirty FHIA 21 "mother plants" selected for micropropagation were first confirmed by specific PCR and IC-PCR tests. The proliferation stage of the procedure, characterised by an intensive production of neoformed buds, appeared determinant in BSV expression whereas the rooting and acclimatisation stages had little or no effect. The duration in culture and the way of subdividing the clumps of proliferation influenced greatly the percentage of episomal BSV infections, reaching 58% of infected micropropagated lines after six in vitro subcultures. These data suggest that the expression of episomal BSV observed during the in vitro procedure is correlated with the presence of an integrated form.

  11. The transcriptional regulatory network mediated by banana (Musa acuminata) dehydration-responsive element binding (MaDREB) transcription factors in fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Liu, Xun-Cheng; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Shan, Wei; Tang, Yang; Wu, Ke-Qiang; He, Jun-Xian; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process involving the action of critical transcription factors (TFs). Despite the established significance of dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) TFs in plant abiotic stress responses, the involvement of DREBs in fruit ripening is yet to be determined. Here, we identified four genes encoding ripening-regulated DREB TFs in banana (Musa acuminata), MaDREB1, MaDREB2, MaDREB3, and MaDREB4, and demonstrated that they play regulatory roles in fruit ripening. We showed that MaDREB1-MaDREB4 are nucleus-localized, induced by ethylene and encompass transcriptional activation activities. We performed a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiment for MaDREB2 and identified 697 genomic regions as potential targets of MaDREB2. MaDREB2 binds to hundreds of loci with diverse functions and its binding sites are distributed in the promoter regions proximal to the transcriptional start site (TSS). Most of the MaDREB2-binding targets contain the conserved (A/G)CC(G/C)AC motif and MaDREB2 appears to directly regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in fruit ripening. In combination with transcriptome profiling (RNA sequencing) data, our results indicate that MaDREB2 may serve as both transcriptional activator and repressor during banana fruit ripening. In conclusion, our study suggests a hierarchical regulatory model of fruit ripening in banana and that the MaDREB TFs may act as transcriptional regulators in the regulatory network.

  12. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-07

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  13. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C.; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G.; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K.; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Sikora, Richard A.; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L.

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas—one of the most important food crops—is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant–nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques 1H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant’s defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted. PMID:24324151

  14. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) < dessert bananas (des: 29.4%) < nonplantain cooking bananas (cook: 32.0%) < FHIA cooking hybrids (hycook: 34.2%) < plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p banana and FHIA groups with 7.9, 13.6, and 15.6 mEq H(+)/100 g db, respectively (p

  15. Identification, transcriptional and functional analysis of heat-shock protein 90s in banana (Musa acuminata L.) highlight their novel role in melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    As one popular fresh fruit, banana (Musa acuminata) is cultivated in the world's subtropical and tropical areas. In recent years, pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) has been widely and rapidly spread to banana cultivated areas, causing substantial yield loss. However, the molecular mechanism of banana response to Foc remains unclear, and functional identification of disease-related genes is also very limited. In this study, nine 90 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP90s) were genomewide identified. Moreover, the expression profile of them in different organs, developmental stages, and in response to abiotic and fungal pathogen Foc were systematically analyzed. Notably, we found that the transcripts of 9 MaHSP90s were commonly regulated by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and Foc infection. Further studies showed that exogenous application of melatonin improved banana resistance to Fusarium wilt, but the effect was lost when cotreated with HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin, GDA). Moreover, melatonin and GDA had opposite effect on auxin level in response to Foc4, while melatonin and GDA cotreated plants had no significant effect, suggesting the involvement of MaHSP90s in the cross talk of melatonin and auxin in response to fungal infection. Taken together, this study demonstrated that MaHSP90s are essential for melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt, which extends our understanding the putative roles of MaHSP90s as well as melatonin in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt.

  16. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (<1 %) of 14 phyla including several candidate phyla besides the domain Euryarchaeota (0.2 %). Microbiome analysis of single shoot-tips through 16S rRNA V3 region profiling showed similar taxonomic richness and diversity and was less affected by plant sequence interferences. DNA extraction kit ominously influenced the phylogenetic diversity. The study has revealed vast diversity of normally uncultivable endophytic bacteria prevailing in banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant

  17. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  3. Evaluation of different protein extraction methods for banana (Musa spp.) root proteome analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Sarumathi, S; Nandakumar, A; Ravi, I; Mustaffa, M M

    2015-02-01

    Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield.

  4. The banana genome hub.

    PubMed

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D'Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world's favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/

  5. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  6. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs) and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis), and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs), mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs), proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM). This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages) of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP treatment showed

  7. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA).

    PubMed

    Gold, C S; Ragama, P E; Coe, R; Rukazambuga, N D T M

    2005-04-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is an important pest on bananas and plantains. Population build-up is slow and damage becomes increasingly important in successive crop cycles (ratoons). Yield loss results from plant loss, mat disappearance and reduced bunch size. Damage assessment requires destructive sampling and is most often done on corms of recently harvested plants. A wide range of damage assessment methods exist and there are no agreed protocols. It is critical to know what types of damage best reflect C. sordidus pest status through their relationships with yield loss. Multiple damage assessment parameters (i.e. for the corm periphery, cortex and central cylinder) were employed in two yield loss trials and a cultivar-screening trial in Uganda. Damage to the central cylinder had a greater effect on plant size and yield loss than damage to the cortex or corm periphery. In some cases, a combined assessment of damage to the central cylinder and cortex showed a better relationship with yield loss than an assessment of the central cylinder alone. Correlation, logistic and linear regression analyses showed weak to modest correlations between damage to the corm periphery and damage to the central cylinder. Thus, damage to the corm periphery is not a strong predictor of the more important damage to the central cylinder. Therefore, C. sordidus damage assessment should target the central cylinder and cortex.

  8. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop

    PubMed Central

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E.; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    PubMed

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  10. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  11. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  12. Development of a genetic linkage map of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in bananas (Musa spp.) using SSR and DArT markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  13. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng; Häkkinen, Markku; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Musaceae is a small paleotropical family. Three genera have been recognised within this family although the generic delimitations remain controversial. Most species of the family (around 65 species) have been placed under the genus Musa and its infrageneric classification has long been disputed. In this study, we obtained nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, rps16, and trnL-F) DNA sequences of 36 species (42 accessions of ingroups representing three genera) together with 10 accessions of ingroups retrieved from GenBank database and 4 accessions of outgroups, to construct the phylogeny of the family, with a special reference to the infrageneric classification of the genus Musa. Our phylogenetic analyses elaborated previous results in supporting the monophyly of the family and suggested that Musella and Ensete may be congeneric or at least closely related, but refuted the previous infrageneric classification of Musa. None of the five sections of Musa previously defined based on morphology was recovered as monophyletic group in the molecular phylogeny. Two infrageneric clades were identified, which corresponded well to the basic chromosome numbers of x=11 and 10/9/7, respectively: the former clade comprises species from the sections Musa and Rhodochlamys while the latter contains sections of Callimusa, Australimusa, and Ingentimusa.

  15. Banana Blossom (Musa acuminate Colla) Incorporated Experimental Diets Modulate Serum Cholesterol and Serum Glucose Level in Wistar Rats Fed with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Gunasegaram, Saranya; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Weththasinghe, Pabodha; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; Vidanarachchi, Janak Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effect of banana blossom were studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. Experimental groups were fed for 4 weeks, with casein as the basal diet (CN), in comparison with two diets containing 0.5% cholesterol (CD) and 0.5% cholesterol + 21% banana blossom powder (CDB). Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol level, and serum glucose concentrations were lower in CDB fed group compared with CD fed group. Lower serum cholesterol and glucose level (P < 0.05) in CDB fed group were followed by higher faecal weight, caecal weight, caecal Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria population in CDB fed group compared to CD diet fed group. Lower serum AST level in banana blossom fed rats showed the reduction in oxidative stress induced by high cholesterol diet. Based on these data, it could be speculated that banana blossom incorporated experimental diets may modulate the hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic responses in Wistar rats. PMID:28042480

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity in banana cultivars (Musa cvs.) from the South of Oman using AFLP markers and classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses.

    PubMed

    Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Jacobson, Dan; Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar

    2010-05-01

    Banana is an important crop grown in Oman and there is a dearth of information on its genetic diversity to assist in crop breeding and improvement programs. This study employed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to investigate the genetic variation in local banana cultivars from the southern region of Oman. Using 12 primer combinations, a total of 1094 bands were scored, of which 1012 were polymorphic. Eighty-two unique markers were identified, which revealed the distinct separation of the seven cultivars. The results obtained show that AFLP can be used to differentiate the banana cultivars. Further classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed significant differences between the clusters found with molecular markers and those clusters created by previous studies using morphological analysis. Based on the analytical results, a consensus dendrogram of the banana cultivars is presented.

  17. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  18. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Characterisation of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Anthracnose of Banana

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-01-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations. PMID:24575184

  20. Genetic dissimilarity of putative gamma-ray-induced 'Preciosa-AAAB-Pome type' banana (Musa sp) mutants based on multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pestana, R K N; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Oliveira, L S; Ledo, C A S; Silva, S O

    2011-10-25

    Bananas are among the most important fruit crops worldwide, being cultivated in more than 120 countries, mainly by small-scale producers. However, short-stature high-yielding bananas presenting good agronomic characteristics are hard to find. Consequently, wind continues to damage a great number of plantations each year, leading to lodging of plants and bunch loss. Development of new cultivars through conventional genetic breeding methods is hindered by female sterility and the low number of seeds. Mutation induction seems to have great potential for the development of new cultivars. We evaluated genetic dissimilarity among putative 'Preciosa' banana mutants generated by gamma-ray irradiation, using morphoagronomic characteristics and ISSR markers. The genetic distances between the putative 'Preciosa' mutants varied from 0.21 to 0.66, with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8064. We found good variability after irradiation of 'Preciosa' bananas; this procedure could be useful for banana breeding programs aimed at developing short-stature varieties with good agronomic characteristics.

  1. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  2. Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. Banana is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest banana producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of banana into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses.

  3. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  4. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  5. Fungus-Elicited Metabolites from Plants as an Enriched Source for New Leishmanicidal Agents: Antifungal Phenyl-Phenalenone Phytoalexins from the Banana Plant (Musa acuminata) Target Mitochondria of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Martínez, Silvia; Saugar, José María; Izquierdo, Laura R.; Abad, Teresa; Luis, Javier G.; Piñero, José; Valladares, Basilio; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (Musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on Leishmania donovani promastigotes and L. infantum amastigotes. Drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 μg/ml. Their lethal mechanism was found linked to the respiratory chain by a systematic approach, including electron microscopy, measurement of the oxygen consumption rate on digitonin-permeabilized promastigotes, and enzymatic assays on a mitochondrial enriched fraction. Whereas the whole set of compounds inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase in the mitochondrial fraction (50% effective concentration [EC50] between 33.3 and 78.8 μg/ml) and on purified enzyme (EC50 = 53.3 to 115 μg/ml), inhibition for succinate dehydrogenase was only observed for the two phytoalexins with the highest leishmanicidal activity: anigorufone and its natural analogue 2-methoxy-9-phenyl-phenalen-1-one (EC50 = 33.5 and 59.6 μg/ml, respectively). These results provided a new structural motif, phenyl-phenalenone, as a new lead for leishmanicidal activity, and support the use of plant extracts enriched in antifungal phytoalexins, synthesized under fungal challenge, as a more rational and effective strategy to screen for new plant leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:15105102

  6. Rhizobacteria in mycorrhizosphere improved plant health and yield of banana by offering proper nourishment and protection against diseases.

    PubMed

    Phirke, Niteen V; Kothari, Raman M; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2008-12-01

    The corporate R&D banana orchards of Musa paradisiaca (dwarf Cavendish AAA, var. shrimanti) on a medium black alluvial soil with low nutrients harboured diversified species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. These fungi infected the roots severely (69.2%), showed elevated (69.8 g(-1) soil) spore density, increased soil bacterial density (245 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)), produced siderophores (58.2%) and reduced nematode population (2.3 g(-1)) in the mycorrhizosphere of plants for integrated plant nutrition management (IPNM) system as compared to traditional treatment of applying chemical fertilisers alone and other test treatments. The interactions of plant roots with native VAM and local and applied rhizobacteria in the matrix of soil conditioner enabled proper nourishment and protection of crop in IPNM treatment as compared to traditional way. Hence, exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria through judiciously designed IPNM system revealed the (a) relatively increased banana productivity (21.6%, 76 MT ha(-1)), (b) least occurrence of fusarial wilt and negligible evidence of Sigatoka, (c) saving of 50% chemical fertilisers and (d) permitted control over soil fertility in producer's favour over traditional cultivation practices. These findings are discussed in detail.

  7. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  8. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-07

    The content of {sup 40}K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  9. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  10. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  11. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (1.6) as compared to sapodilla peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control than other three treatments. The increase in TBARS from initial day of storage to last day of storage was highest in control (514.3%) as compared to BHT (387.7%), BPE (370.6%) and SPE (383.7%). Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly decreased the TBARS. The average decrease in TBARS values during 8 days of storage was 56.8%, 38.3% and 37.2% values in BHT, BPE and SPE treatments respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  12. Phenylpropanoid enzymes, phenolic polymers and metabolites as chemical defenses to infection of Pratylenchus coffeae in roots of resistant and susceptible bananas (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Ravi, I; Nandakumar, A; Sarumathi, S; Sundararaju, P; Mustaffa, M M

    2014-03-01

    Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant cv. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.

  13. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-06-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suitable for pectinase biosynthesis (LSSF: 400 ± 21.45 Uml(-1); SSF: 6500 ± 1116.21 Ug(-1)). Optimization of process parameters using one-variable-at-a-time method revealed that an initial medium pH of 5.0 at 30 °C and 96 h of incubation along with mannitol, urea, ammonium persulfate and isoleucine have positive influence on pectinase production. Further, K(+) (1 mM), Riboflavin (10 mg 100 ml(-1)) and gibberellic acid (0.025 %, w/v) supported in enhanced pectinase production. Banana peels and AP at a ratio of 9:1, moisture content of 90 % with 2 % inoculum size were suitable combinations for production of pectinase. Similarly, 96 h of soaking time with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) is essential for pectinase recovery. Purification to electrophoretic homogeneity revealed 1.42 fold purification with 8.08 % yield and a molecular weight of 24.6 kDa. Scaling up of various fermentation parameters and supplementing BP as the substrate for pectinase production with better recovery could make it promising for different industrial exploitation.

  14. Evaluation and characterization of a genetically diverse Musa germplasm core subset.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for curating germplasm of several regionally and internationally important agricultural crops. Evaluation and characterization of Musa (bananas) genetic resources are an important component of programmed research. In a global coll...

  15. Effects of N(6)-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Different concentrations of N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1-14 mg L(-1) with or without 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA, or BAP at 7-14 mg L(-1) with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L(-1) (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L(-1) (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L(-1) (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. BAP at 11 mg L(-1) with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak.

  16. Amending Storage Vessel and Media Improves Subculture Interval of Musa sp. Tissue Culture Plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa spp. collection consists of 140 accessions maintained as clonally propagated plants in field plots as well as in tissue culture. Accessions maintained i...

  17. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  18. Effects of inclusion levels of banana (Musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.

    PubMed

    Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Sabiiti, Elly Nyambobo; Bareeba, Felix Budara; Sporndly, Eva; Kabi, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The effect of feeding varying banana peeling (BP) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. The steers were fed BP at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (EG) to constitute four diets. Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and Gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. The nylon bag technique was used to measure BP and EG dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Effective DM, CP, and NDF degradabilities of BP ranged between 574 and 807, 629-802, and 527-689 g/kg, respectively, being lower at higher BP levels. Elephant grass degradability behaved similarly with relatively high effective CP degradability (548-569 g/kg) but low effective DM and NDF degradability (381-403 and 336-373 g/kg, respectively). Rumen pH and VFA reduced with increasing BP in the diets. Rumen pH dropped to 5.8 and 5.9 at the 40 and 60% BP feeding levels, respectively. Banana peelings were better degraded than EG but higher BP levels negatively affected feed degradability and rumen environment.

  19. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Ramith; S. Shirahatti, Prithvi; S., Nanjunda Swamy; Zameer, Farhan; Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura; M. N., Nagendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides

  20. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Ramith; S Shirahatti, Prithvi; S, Nanjunda Swamy; Zameer, Farhan; Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin

    2013-08-15

    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.

  2. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  3. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Piffanelli, Pietro; Ciampi, Ana Y; Ruiz, Manuel; Blanc, Guillaume; Leebens-Mack, Jim; da Silva, Felipe R; Santos, Candice MR; D'Hont, Angélique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Vilarinhos, Alberto D; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ronning, Catherine M; Cheung, Foo; Haas, Brian J; Althoff, Ryan; Arbogast, Tammy; Hine, Erin; Pappas, Georgios J; Sasaki, Takuji; Souza, Manoel T; Miller, Robert NG; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Town, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    Background Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no large-scale analyses of Musa genomic sequence have been conducted. This study compares genomic sequence in two Musa species with orthologous regions in the rice genome. Results We produced 1.4 Mb of Musa sequence from 13 BAC clones, annotated and analyzed them along with 4 previously sequenced BACs. The 443 predicted genes revealed that Zingiberales genes share GC content and distribution characteristics with eudicot and Poaceae genomes. Comparison with rice revealed microsynteny regions that have persisted since the divergence of the Commelinid orders Poales and Zingiberales at least 117 Mya. The previously hypothesized large-scale duplication event in the common ancestor of major cereal lineages within the Poaceae was verified. The divergence time distributions for Musa-Zingiber (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) orthologs and paralogs provide strong evidence for a large-scale duplication event in the Musa lineage after its divergence from the Zingiberaceae approximately 61 Mya. Comparisons of genomic regions from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed highly conserved genome structure, and indicated that these genomes diverged circa 4.6 Mya. Conclusion These results point to the utility of comparative analyses between distantly-related monocot species such as rice and Musa for improving our understanding of monocot genome evolution. Sequencing the genome of M. acuminata would provide a strong foundation for comparative genomics in the monocots. In addition a genome sequence would aid genomic and genetic analyses of cultivated Musa polyploid genotypes in research aimed at localizing and cloning genes controlling important agronomic traits for breeding purposes

  4. Inflorescence proliferation for somatic embryogenesis induction and suspension-derived plant regeneration from banana (Musa AAA, cv. 'Dwarf Cavendish') male flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Rosell-García, Purificación

    2008-06-01

    Availability of explants with adequate embryogenic competence is one of the most important limitations for the development of regenerable cell suspensions in banana. To increase the number and ease of accessibility to potentially embryogenic explants, a novel methodology is described by which young male flower clusters isolated from adult plants are induced to form new flower buds and proliferate in vitro. Different concentrations of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) induced inflorescence proliferation, which could be maintained over time as a continuous source of young flower buds. Intensity of proliferation was evaluated during successive subcultures. At the third cycle of proliferation, the highest multiplication rate (2.89) was obtained on the medium containing 5 microM TDZ. Newly generated floral tissues were assessed for embryogenic competence, resulting in an average embryogenic frequency of 12.5%. The observed embryogenic capacity, together with the recurrent availability of immature flowers, allowed for the direct initiation of cell suspensions from bulked explant cultures. Regular observation and regeneration tests during the development of suspended cell cultures confirmed their embryogenic condition. Produced embryos successfully matured and germinated to regenerate hundreds of somatic in vitro plants.

  5. Number and accuracy of T-DNA insertions in transgenic banana (Musa spp.) plants characterized by an improved anchored PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-04-01

    Nineteen transgenic banana plants, produced via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, were analyzed for the integration of T-DNA border regions using an improved anchored PCR technique. The method described is a relatively fast, three-step procedure (restriction digestion of genomic DNA, ligation of 'vectorette'-type adaptors, and a single round of suppression PCR) for the amplification of specific T-DNA border-containing genomic fragments. Most transgenic plants carried a low number of inserts and the method was suitable for a detailed characterization of the integration events, including T-DNA border integrity as well as the insertion of non-T-DNA vector sequences, which occurred in 26% of the plants. Furthermore, the particular band pattern generated by four enzyme/primer combinations for each individual plant served as a fingerprint, allowing the identification of plants representing identical transformation events. Genomic Southern hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis of amplification products confirmed the data obtained by anchored PCR. Sequencing of seven right or left border junction regions revealed different T-DNA processing events for each plant, indicating a relatively low frequency of precisely nicked T-DNA integration among the plants studied.

  6. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-06-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the relative water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 130 mm rainfall depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow and to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to calibrate the runoff volume on

  7. Protein and hematological evaluations of infant formulated from cooking banana fruits (Musa spp, ABB genome) and fermented bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. Verdc) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is regarded as one of the public health problems in developing countries as a result of poor feeding practices due to poverty. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating nutritional quality of a potential weaning food formulated from locally available food materials. The cooking banana fruit (CB) and bambara groundnut seeds (BG) were purchased from local market in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The CB and BG were processed into flours, mixed in ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 and subjected into proximate, sensory and biochemical analyses using standard procedures. Nutrend (a commercial formula) and ogi (corn gruel, a traditional weaning food) were used as control. The nutritient composition (g/100 g) of the food samples were ranged as follows: moisture 2.94-6.94, protein 7.02-16.0, ash 1.76-2.99, fat 0.76-8.45, fibre 1.52-3.75, carbohydrate 63.84-88.43 and energy 1569.8-1665.7 kcal. The biological value (BV), net protein retention (NPR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the experimental food samples were significantly (p<0.05) lower than nutrend, but higher than ogi. The haematological variables of rats fed with formulated food samples, commercial formula (nutrend) and traditional weaning food (ogi) were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment. However, the values obtained for red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), pack cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were higher in the experimental food samples than the commercial food. The growth rate of animals fed with experimental food samples were lower than those fed with the nutrend, but higher than those fed with ogi. In conclusion, the nutritional quality of CB and fermented BG mix of 60:40 ratio was better than ogi; and comparable to the nutrend. This implies that it can be used to replace low quality traditional weaning food and the expensive commercial weaning formula. PMID:20126602

  8. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-11-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to

  9. Effects of pretreatments of banana (Musa AAA,Omini) on the composition, rheological properties, and baking quality of its flour and composite blends with wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Ogunbowale, Olukemi D; Adegunwa, Mojisola O; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2017-03-01

    Effects of chemical and heat pretreatments on the protein, gluten, and alpha-amylase activity, pasting (Peak [P], Final [F] setback [S] viscosity, pasting temperature [PT] and time [T]) and alveogram (Energy [E], maximum inflation [MI], P/L, and elasticity index [EI]) properties of flour from the pretreated bananas and its composite with wheat flour (WF) were examined. The baking (water absorption [WA] and specific volume [SV]) and sensory properties of bread produced from the flour were also examined. Protein, gluten, and alpha-amylase activity ranged from 4.75 ± 0.07%, 30.25 ± 0.05%, and 4.00 ± 0.05 min to 13.75 ± 0.06%, 35.64 ± 0.06%, and 39.61 ± 1.18 min with WF:PTBF/95:05, WF:CTBF/00:100, WF:BBF/80:20, WF:100 and WF:CTBF/00:100, WF:PTBF/95:05, WF:100, WF:PTBF/00:100 having lowest and highest values, respectively. P, F, S viscosities, PT and T ranged from 186.17 ± 0.71, 217.08 ± 1.41, 38.92 ± 5.42 RVU, 84.70 ± 0.28°C, 5.04 ± 0.05 min to 461.0 ± 5.07, 348.5 ± 8.84, 88.83 ± 0.24 RVU, 87.20 ± 0.00°C, 6.24 ± 0.05 min, respectively. E, MI, P/L, and EI ranged from 141.50 ± 0.71 × 10(-4)J, 15.35 ± 0.07, 0.59 ± 0.83 and 35.85 ± 0.07 to 325.00 ± 1.4 × 10(-4)J, 22.55 ± 0.07, 2.75 ± 0.07, and 70.50 ± 0.71, respectively. WA and SV were 48.12 ± 0.07 to 52.60 ± 0.14 and 2.850 ± 0.07 to 5.635 ± 0.18 with the WF having significantly (P < 0.05) higher values than other blends and the most acceptable in terms of appearance and taste.

  10. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  11. Sap phytochemical compositions of some bananas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Savasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn

    2010-08-11

    Banana sap has some special properties relating to various phenomena such as browning of fruits after harvesting, permanent staining of cloth and fibers, and antioxidant and antibleeding properties. Analysis of banana sap using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) indicated the presence of phenolic and aromatic amino compounds of interest due to their special properties. With the online positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI), the possible structures of specific compounds were determined from the fragmentation patterns of each particular ion appearing in the mass spectra. The major compounds revealed from the sap of banana accessions, namely, Musa balbisiana , Musa laterita , Musa ornata , and Musa acuminata , and some cultivars were apigenin glycosides, myricetin glycoside, myricetin-3-O-rutinoside, naringenin glycosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, dopamine, and N-acetylserotonin. The results indicated that there was a variety of phenolic and aromatic amino contents in many banana species. These compounds were reported to relate with biological activities. Moreover, the identities of these phytochemical compositions may be used as markers for banana diet, the assessment of physiochemical status, or the classification of banana clones.

  12. Heteroatom-enriched and renewable banana-stem-derived porous carbon for the electrochemical determination of nitrite in various water samples

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, high-surface-area (approximately 1465 m2 g−1), highly porous and heteroatom-enriched activated carbon (HAC) was prepared from banana stems (Musa paradisiaca, Family: Musaceae) at different carbonization temperatures of 700, 800 and 900°C (HAC) using a simple and eco-friendly method. The amounts of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in the HAC are 61.12, 2.567, 0.4315, and 0.349%, respectively. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CHNS elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, the prepared activated carbon appears amorphous and disordered in nature. Here, we used HAC for an electrochemical application of nitrite (NO2−) sensor to control the environmental pollution. In addition, HAC exhibits noteworthy performance for the highly sensitive determination of nitrite. The limit of detection (LODs) of the nitrite sensor at HAC-modified GCE is 0.07 μM. In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine nitrite in various water samples with acceptable results. PMID:24755990

  13. Heteroatom-enriched and renewable banana-stem-derived porous carbon for the electrochemical determination of nitrite in various water samples.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-04-23

    For the first time, high-surface-area (approximately 1465 m(2) g(-1)), highly porous and heteroatom-enriched activated carbon (HAC) was prepared from banana stems (Musa paradisiaca, Family: Musaceae) at different carbonization temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 °C (HAC) using a simple and eco-friendly method. The amounts of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in the HAC are 61.12, 2.567, 0.4315, and 0.349%, respectively. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CHNS elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, the prepared activated carbon appears amorphous and disordered in nature. Here, we used HAC for an electrochemical application of nitrite (NO2(-)) sensor to control the environmental pollution. In addition, HAC exhibits noteworthy performance for the highly sensitive determination of nitrite. The limit of detection (LODs) of the nitrite sensor at HAC-modified GCE is 0.07 μM. In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine nitrite in various water samples with acceptable results.

  14. Heteroatom-enriched and renewable banana-stem-derived porous carbon for the electrochemical determination of nitrite in various water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-04-01

    For the first time, high-surface-area (approximately 1465 m2 g-1), highly porous and heteroatom-enriched activated carbon (HAC) was prepared from banana stems (Musa paradisiaca, Family: Musaceae) at different carbonization temperatures of 700, 800 and 900°C (HAC) using a simple and eco-friendly method. The amounts of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in the HAC are 61.12, 2.567, 0.4315, and 0.349%, respectively. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CHNS elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, the prepared activated carbon appears amorphous and disordered in nature. Here, we used HAC for an electrochemical application of nitrite (NO2-) sensor to control the environmental pollution. In addition, HAC exhibits noteworthy performance for the highly sensitive determination of nitrite. The limit of detection (LODs) of the nitrite sensor at HAC-modified GCE is 0.07 μM. In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine nitrite in various water samples with acceptable results.

  15. How endogenous plant pararetroviruses shed light on Musa evolution

    PubMed Central

    Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Perrier, Xavier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Banana genomes harbour numerous copies of viral sequences derived from banana streak viruses (BSVs) – dsDNA viruses belonging to the family Caulimoviridae. These viral integrants (eBSVs) are mostly defective, probably as a result of ‘pseudogenization’ driven by host genome evolution. However, some can give rise to infection by releasing a functional viral genome following abiotic stresses. These distinct infective eBSVs correspond to the three main widespread BSV species (BSOLV, BSGFV and BSIMV), fully described within the Musa balbisiana B genomes of the seedy diploid ‘Pisang Klutuk Wulung’ (PKW). Methods We characterize eBSV distribution among a Musa sampling including seedy BB diploids and interspecific hybrids with Musa acuminata exhibiting different levels of ploidy for the B genome (ABB, AAB, AB). We used representative samples of the two areas of sympatry between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana species representing the native area of the most widely cultivated AAB cultivars (in India and in East Asia, ranging from the Philippines to New Guinea). Seventy-seven accessions were characterized using eBSV-related PCR markers and Southern hybridization approaches. We coded both sets of results to create a common dissimilarity matrix with which to interpret eBSV distribution. Key Results We propose a Musa phylogeny driven by the M. balbisiana genome based on a dendrogram resulting from a joint neighbour-joining analysis of the three BSV species, showing for the first time lineages between BB and ABB/AAB hybrids. eBSVs appear to be relevant phylogenetic markers that can illustrate the M. balbisiana phylogeography story. Conclusion The theoretical implications of this study for further elucidation of the historical and geographical process of Musa domestication are numerous. Discovery of banana plants with B genome non-infective for eBSV opens the way to the introduction of new genitors in programmes of genetic banana improvement. PMID

  16. Domestication, Genomics and the Future for Banana

    PubMed Central

    Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas and plantains are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic so the fruit develops without seed. The cultivated hybrids and species are mostly triploid (2n = 3x = 33; a few are diploid or tetraploid), and most have been propagated from mutants found in the wild. With a production of 100 million tons annually, banana is a staple food across the Asian, African and American tropics, with the 15 % that is exported being important to many economies. Scope There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars and their genetic diversity is high, indicating multiple origins from different wild hybrids between two principle ancestral species. However, the difficulty of genetics and sterility of the crop has meant that the development of new varieties through hybridization, mutation or transformation was not very successful in the 20th century. Knowledge of structural and functional genomics and genes, reproductive physiology, cytogenetics, and comparative genomics with rice, Arabidopsis and other model species has increased our understanding of Musa and its diversity enormously. Conclusions There are major challenges to banana production from virulent diseases, abiotic stresses and new demands for sustainability, quality, transport and yield. Within the genepool of cultivars and wild species there are genetic resistances to many stresses. Genomic approaches are now rapidly advancing in Musa and have the prospect of helping enable banana to maintain and increase its importance as a staple food and cash crop through integration of genetical, evolutionary and structural data, allowing targeted breeding, transformation and efficient use of Musa biodiversity in the future. PMID:17766312

  17. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. PMID:23443573

  18. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  19. Sectional relationships in the genus Musa L. inferred from the PCR-RFLP of organelle DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Nwakanma, D C; Pillay, M; Okoli, B E; Tenkouano, A

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular phylogeny of the genus Musa using restriction-site polymorphisms of the chloroplast (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Six cpDNA and two mtDNA sequences were amplified individually in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments in 13 species representing the four sections of Musa. Ensete ventricosum (W.) Ch. was used as the outgroup. The amplified products were digested with ten restriction endonucleases. A total of 79 restriction-site changes were scored in the sample. Wagner parsimony using the branch and bound option defined two lines of evolution in Musa. One lineage comprised species of the sections Australimusa and Callimusa which have a basic number of x = 10 chromosomes, while most species of sections Eumusa and Rhodochlamys ( x = 11) formed the other lineage. Musa laterita Cheesman ( Rhodochlamys) had identical organellar genome patterns as some subspecies of the Musa acuminata Colla complex. The progenitors of the cultivated bananas, M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana Colla, were evolutionarily distinct from each other. Musa balbisiana occupied a basal position in the cladogram indicating an evolutionarily primitive status. The close phylogenetic relationship between M. laterita and M. acuminata suggests that species of the section Rhodochlamys may constitute a secondary genepool for the improvement of cultivated bananas.

  20. Anthocyanin composition of wild bananas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Svasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn

    2008-11-26

    Anthocyanins were isolated from male bracts of 10 wild species of bananas (Musa spp. and Ensete spp.) distributed in Thailand. Six major anthocyanin pigments were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). They are delphinidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 611.2), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 595.8), petunidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 624.9), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 579.4), peonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 608.7), and malvidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 638.8). On the basis of the types of pigment present, the wild bananas can be divided into 5 groups. The first group comprises M. itinerans, Musa sp. one, Musa sp. two, and M. acuminata accessions, which contain almost or all anthocyanin pigments except for pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, including both nonmethylated and methylated anthocyanins. The second group, M. acuminata subsp. truncata, contains only malvidin-3-rutinoside while the third group, M. coccinea, contains cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside. The forth group, M. acuminata yellow bract and E. glaucum do not appear to contain any anthocyanin pigment. The fifth group consists of M. balbisiana, M. velutina, M. laterita, and E. superbum which contain only nonmethylated anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Total anthocyanin content in the analyzed bracts ranged from 0-119.70 mg/100 g bract fresh weight. The differences in the type of anthocyanin and variation in the amounts present indicate that wild bananas show biochemical diversity, which may be useful for identifying specific groups of bananas or for clarifying the evolution of flavonoid metabolism in each banana group.

  1. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  2. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, Ines; Häkkinen, Markku; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC) in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region

  3. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species.

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, Ines; Häkkinen, Markku; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC) in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region

  4. DEBDOM: Database Exploring Banana Diversity of Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Warepam Amuchou; Gopalrao, Somkuwar Bharat; Gourshyam, Thingnam; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2013-01-01

    Being poor man's apple, banana has a wide popularity worldwide. It's one of the important horticultural crops used irrespective of rich and poor alike. Manipur along with the other states of Northeast India harboured with plenty of wild and cultivated species of banana that are not fully explored. A data base named DEBDOM has been developed here describing the diversity of banana resources of Manipur and it comprises twenty eight genotypes of Musaceae. The database DEBDOM provides a sophisticated web base access to the details of the taxonomy, morphological characteristics, utility as well as sites of collection of Musa genotypes, and it would have contribute as a potential gene pool sources for the conservation, sustainability as well as for crop improvement in the future breeding programmes. Availability http://ibsd.gov.in/debdom/ PMID:23516335

  5. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  6. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  7. Ploidy level and genomic composition of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa sp. Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant germplasm collections serve as repositories for important genes. However, insufficient and inaccurate characterization of the genetic diversity in a collection slows and can prevent full utilization of these collections to maximum potential. Bananas and plantains (Musa sp., Colla) are some o...

  8. Genomes, diversity and resistance gene analogues in Musa species.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-01-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) in plants are abundant and may represent more than 1% of all the genes. Their diversity is critical to the recognition and response to attack from diverse pathogens. Like many other crops, banana and plantain face attacks from potentially devastating fungal and bacterial diseases, increased by a combination of worldwide spread of pathogens, exploitation of a small number of varieties, new pathogen mutations, and the lack of effective, benign and cheap chemical control. The challenge for plant breeders is to identify and exploit genetic resistances to diseases, which is particularly difficult in banana and plantain where the valuable cultivars are sterile, parthenocarpic and mostly triploid so conventional genetic analysis and breeding is impossible. In this paper, we review the nature of R genes and the key motifs, particularly in the Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) gene class. We present data about identity, nature and evolutionary diversity of the NBS domains of Musa R genes in diploid wild species with the Musa acuminata (A), M. balbisiana (B), M. schizocarpa (S), M. textilis (T), M. velutina and M. ornata genomes, and from various cultivated hybrid and triploid accessions, using PCR primers to isolate the domains from genomic DNA. Of 135 new sequences, 75% of the sequenced clones had uninterrupted open reading frames (ORFs), and phylogenetic UPGMA tree construction showed four clusters, one from Musa ornata, one largely from the B and T genomes, one from A and M. velutina, and the largest with A, B, T and S genomes. Only genes of the coiled-coil (non-TIR) class were found, typical of the grasses and presumably monocotyledons. The analysis of R genes in cultivated banana and plantain, and their wild relatives, has implications for identification and selection of resistance genes within the genus which may be useful for plant selection and breeding and also for defining relationships and genome evolution

  9. Nuclear DNA content and base composition in 28 taxa of Musa.

    PubMed

    Kamaté, K; Brown, S; Durand, P; Bureau, J M; De Nay, D; Trinh, T H

    2001-08-01

    The nuclear DNA content of 28 taxa of Musa was assessed by flow cytometry, using line PxPC6 of Petunia hybrida as an internal standard. The 2C DNA value of Musa balbisiana (BB genome) was 1.16 pg, whereas Musa acuminata (AA genome) had an average 2C DNA value of 1.27 pg, with a difference of 11% between its subspecies. The two haploid (IC) genomes, A and B, comprising most of the edible bananas, are therefore of similar size, 0.63 pg (610 million bp) and 0.58 pg (560 million bp), respectively. The genome of diploid Musa is thus threefold that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sizes in a set of triploid Musa cultivars or clones were quite different, with 2C DNA values ranging from 1.61 to 2.23 pg. Likewise, the genome sizes of tetraploid cultivars ranged from 1.94 to 2.37 pg (2C). Apparently, tetraploids (for instance, accession I.C.2) can have a genome size that falls within the range of triploid genome sizes, and vice versa (as in the case of accession Simili Radjah). The 2C values estimated for organs such as leaf, leaf sheath, rhizome, and flower were consistent, whereas root material gave atypical results, owing to browning. The genomic base composition of these Musa taxa had a median value of 40.8% GC (SD = 0.43%).

  10. BANANA GEL.

    PubMed

    McGuire, G; Falk, K G

    1922-03-20

    The conditions for the formation of gels from banana extracts were studied. Gels were obtained with extracts more alkaline than pH 7.0 with very small quantities of calcium, strontium, and barium salts, the gel formation with these salts decreasing in the indicated order. In solutions more acid than pH 6.0, no gels were obtained with these salts. Magnesium, lithium, and sodium salts did not cause gel formation either in acid or alkaline solutions. Pancreatine gave a gel on incubation with banana extract at pH 5.0. The gel-forming property of banana extracts was destroyed on boiling.

  11. Changes in resistant starch from two banana cultivars during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two banana cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the banana resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of banana resistant starches.

  12. “A draft Musa balbisiana genome sequence for molecular genetics in polyploid, inter- and intra-specific Musa hybrids”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern banana cultivars are primarily interspecific triploid hybrids of two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, which respectively contribute the A- and B-genomes. The M. balbisiana genome has been associated with improved vigour and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and is thus a target for Musa breeding programs. However, while a reference M. acuminata genome has recently been released (Nature 488:213–217, 2012), little sequence data is available for the corresponding B-genome. To address these problems we carried out Next Generation gDNA sequencing of the wild diploid M. balbisiana variety ‘Pisang Klutuk Wulung’ (PKW). Our strategy was to align PKW gDNA reads against the published A-genome and to extract the mapped consensus sequences for subsequent rounds of evaluation and gene annotation. Results The resulting B-genome is 79% the size of the A-genome, and contains 36,638 predicted functional gene sequences which is nearly identical to the 36,542 of the A-genome. There is substantial sequence divergence from the A-genome at a frequency of 1 homozygous SNP per 23.1 bp, and a high degree of heterozygosity corresponding to one heterozygous SNP per 55.9 bp. Using expressed small RNA data, a similar number of microRNA sequences were predicted in both A- and B-genomes, but additional novel miRNAs were detected, including some that are unique to each genome. The usefulness of this B-genome sequence was evaluated by mapping RNA-seq data from a set of triploid AAA and AAB hybrids simultaneously to both genomes. Results for the plantains demonstrated the expected 2:1 distribution of reads across the A- and B-genomes, but for the AAA genomes, results show they contain regions of significant homology to the B-genome supporting proposals that there has been a history of interspecific recombination between homeologous A and B chromosomes in Musa hybrids. Conclusions We have generated and annotated a draft reference Musa B-genome and

  13. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  14. A possible scenario for the evolution of Banana streak virus in banana.

    PubMed

    Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Muller, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-24

    Outbreaks of Banana streak virus (BSV) have been recorded worldwide where Musa spp. is grown during the last 20 years with no convincing evidence of epidemics. Epidemics were previously reported in Uganda where BSV is currently endemic. BSV is a plant pararetrovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus it causes chlorosis leaf streak disease. The information currently available on banana streak disease makes it possible to identify a complex of distinct BSV species each causing the same disease. BSV exists in two states: one as an episomal form, infecting plant cells; the other as viral DNA integrated within the B genome of banana (endogenous BSV-eBSV) forming a viral genome for de novo viral particles. Both forms can be infectious in banana plants. The BSV phylogeny is polyphyletic with BSV distributed in two clades. Clade 1 clusters BSV species that occur worldwide and may have an eBSV counterpart, whereas Clade 3 only comprises BSV species from Uganda. Clearly, two distinct origins explain such BSV diversity. However, the epidemiology/outbreaks of BSV remains unclear and the role of eBSV needs to be clarified. In this review, the biodiversity of BSV is explained and discussed in the light of field and molecular epidemiology data. A scheme is proposed for the co-evolution of BSV and banana based on old or recent infection hypotheses related to African domestication sites and banana dissemination to explain the disease context.

  15. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Clendennen, S K; May, G D

    1997-10-01

    During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene production triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of respiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant groups of differentially expressed mRNAs. Identification of these transcripts by partial sequence analysis indicates that two of the mRNAs encode proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas others encode proteins thought to be associated with pathogenesis, senescence, or stress responses in plants. Their relative abundance in the pulp and tissue-specific distribution in greenhouse-grown banana plants were determined by northern-blot analyses. The relative abundance of transcripts encoding starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase, chitinase, lectin, and a type-2 metallothionein decreased in pulp during ripening. Transcripts encoding endochitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, a thaumatin-like protein, ascorbate peroxidase, metallothionein, and a putative senescence-related protein increased early in ripening. The elucidation of the molecular events associated with banana ripening will facilitate a better understanding and control of these processes, and will allow us to attain our long-term goal of producing candidate oral vaccines in transgenic banana plants.

  16. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

  17. Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

    2006-12-01

    The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection.

  18. Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

    2000-09-01

    One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.

  19. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R; Studholme, David J

    2016-02-11

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants.

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants. PMID:26868395

  2. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  3. Possible Involvement of α-Farnesene in the Development of Chilling Injury in Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Ron B. H.; Bailey, Wilf Mc.; Scott, Kevin J.

    1975-01-01

    The levels of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, α-farnesene were found to be higher in green bananas (Musa accuminata AAA) that were more susceptible to the development of chilling injury. The levels of α-farnesene were further increased by storage of the fruit at low temperature. PMID:16659343

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and sectional relationships in Musa using AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.

    2002-06-01

    The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic diversity and sectional relationships in 39 accessions representing the four main sections of the genus Musa. Eight AFLP + 3 primer pairs produced 260 polymorphic bands that were used in cluster and PCO analysis. A wide range of variability was observed among the species within the sections of the genus Musa. AFLP data was useful in separating the different sections of the genus as well as differentiating the different genomic groups of section Eumusa. Section Rhodochlamys ( x = 11) appeared as a distinct entity and clustered closely with the Musa acuminata Colla complex of section Eumusa that has the same basic chromosome number. This relationship is congruent with previous studies. However, unlike previous proposals that questioned the identity of Rhodochlamys as a separate taxonomic unit, PCO analysis of the AFLP data showed that it is a distinct entity. Musa laterita Cheesman ( Rhodochlamys) and Musa schizocarpa Simmonds clustered with the M. acuminata complex suggesting that they may be sources of useful genes for the improvement of the cultivated bananas. Callimusa formed a distinct unit and was closer to Australimusa than to the other sections. Although both sections share the same basic chromosome number of x = 10 these sections are genetically distinct

  5. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    PubMed

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  6. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  7. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  8. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    PubMed

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  9. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I.; Miranda-Ham, María L.; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Ku-Cauich, José R.; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  10. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    PubMed

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  11. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  12. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  13. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  14. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  15. Fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in Sri Lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi

    2004-01-01

    The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays.

  16. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Hippolyte, I.; Jenny, C.; Gardes, L.; Bakry, F.; Rivallan, R.; Pomies, V.; Cubry, P.; Tomekpe, K.; Risterucci, A. M.; Roux, N.; Rouard, M.; Arnaud, E.; Kolesnikova-Allen, M.; Perrier, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The production of triploid banana and plantain (Musa spp.) cultivars with improved characteristics (e.g. greater disease resistance or higher yield), while still preserving the main features of current popular cultivars (e.g. taste and cooking quality), remains a major challenge for Musa breeders. In this regard, breeders require a sound knowledge of the lineage of the current sterile triploid cultivars, to select diploid parents that are able to transmit desirable traits, together with a breeding strategy ensuring final triploidization and sterility. Highly polymorphic single sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, the allelic distribution of each of 22 SSR loci across 561 Musa accessions is analysed. Key Results and Conclusions We determine the closest diploid progenitors of the triploid ‘Cavendish’ and ‘Gros Michel’ subgroups, valuable information for breeding programmes. Nevertheless, in establishing the likely monoclonal origin of the main edible triploid banana subgroups (i.e. ‘Cavendish’, ‘Plantain’ and ‘Mutika-Lujugira’), we postulated that the huge phenotypic diversity observed within these subgroups did not result from gamete recombination, but rather from epigenetic regulations. This emphasizes the need to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of genome expression on a unique model in the plant kingdom. We also propose experimental standards to compare additional and independent genotyping data for reference. PMID:22323428

  17. Homoeologous chromosome pairing between the A and B genomes of Musa spp. revealed by genomic in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Jeridi, Mouna; Bakry, Frédéric; Escoute, Jacques; Fondi, Emmanuel; Carreel, Françoise; Ferchichi, Ali; D'Hont, Angélique; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most cooking banana and several desert bananas are interspecific triploid hybrids between Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome). In addition, M. balbisiana has agronomical characteristics such as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that could be useful to improve monospecific acuminata cultivars. To develop efficient breeding strategies for improving Musa cultivars, it is therefore important to understand the possibility of chromosome exchange between these two species. Methods A protocol was developed to prepare chromosome at meiosis metaphase I suitable for genomic in situ hybridization. A series of technical challenges were encountered, the main ones being the hardness of the cell wall and the density of the microsporocyte's cytoplasm, which hampers accessibility of the probes to the chromosomes. Key parameters in solving these problems were addition of macerozyme in the enzyme mix, the duration of digestion and temperature during the spreading phase. Results and Conclusions This method was applied to analyse chromosome pairing in metaphase from triploid interspecific cultivars, and it was clearly demonstrated that interspecific recombinations between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana chromosomes do occur and may be frequent in triploid hybrids. These results provide new insight into Musa cultivar evolution and have important implications for breeding. PMID:21835815

  18. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling.

    PubMed

    Till, Bradley J; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-11-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches.

  19. Structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in banana.

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle M; Carpentier, Sebastien C; Pampurova, Suzana; Van Hoylandt, Anais; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2011-10-01

    Abscisic acid, stress, ripening proteins (ASR) are a family of plant-specific small hydrophilic proteins. Studies in various plant species have highlighted their role in increased resistance to abiotic stress, including drought, but their specific function remains unknown. As a first step toward their potential use in crop improvement, we investigated the structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in Musa species (bananas and plantains). We determined that the Musa Asr gene family contained at least four members, all of which exhibited the typical two exons, one intron structure of Asr genes and the "ABA/WDS" (abscisic acid/water deficit stress) domain characteristic of Asr genes. Phylogenetic analyses determined that the Musa Asr genes were closely related to each other, probably as the product of recent duplication events. For two of the four members, two versions corresponding to the two sub-genomes of Musa, acuminata and balbisiana were identified. Gene expression and protein analyses were performed and Asr expression could be detected in meristem cultures, root, pseudostem, leaf and cormus. In meristem cultures, mAsr1 and mAsr3 were induced by osmotic stress and wounding, while mAsr3 and mAsr4 were induced by exposure to ABA. mASR3 exhibited the most variation both in terms of amino acid sequence and expression pattern, making it the most promising candidate for further functional study and use in crop improvement.

  20. Musa genetic diversity revealed by SRAP and AFLP.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Muhammad; James, Andrew C; Rivera-Madrid, Renata; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa María

    2011-03-01

    The sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) technique, aimed for the amplification of open reading frames (ORFs), vis-â-vis that of the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to analyze the genetic variation and relationships among forty Musa accessions; which include commercial cultivars and wild species of interest for the genetic enhancement of Musa. A total of 403 SRAP and 837 AFLP amplicons were generated by 10 SRAP and 15 AFLP primer combinations, of which 353 and 787 bands were polymorphic, respectively. Both cluster analysis of unweighted pair-grouping method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal coordinate (PCO) analysis separated the forty accessions into their recognized sections (Eumusa, Australimusa, Callimusa and Rhodochlamys) and species. The percentage of polymorphism amongst sections and species and the relationships within Eumusa species and subspecies varied between the two marker systems. In addition to its practical simplicity, SRAP exhibited approximately threefold more specific and unique bands than AFLP, 37 and 13%, respectively. SRAP markers are demonstrated here to be proficient tools for discriminating amongst M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. schizocarpa in the Eumusa section, as well as between plantains and cooking bananas within triploid cultivars.

  1. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    PubMed

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  2. Hypoglycaemic effect of Musa sapientum L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Maheswari, J U

    1999-12-15

    Musa sapientum L. ('Ney Poovan') commonly known as 'banana' is mainly used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg of chloroform extract of the Musa sapientum flowers (MSFEt) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin, but in the case of 0.25 g/kg the effect was highly significant. It also prevents decrease in body weight. Oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in animals treated with MSFEt and the effect was compared with glibenclamide. Thus the study shows that MSFEt has hypoglycaemic action.

  3. Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.

    PubMed

    Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.

    2002-06-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccard's similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. burmannica Simmonds, malaccensis Simmonds, and microcarpa Simmonds). 'Tjau Lagada' (ssp. microcarpa), 'Truncata' [ssp truncata (Ridl.) Shepherd] and 'SF247' [ssp. banksii (F.Muell) Simmonds] clustered very closely with 'Gros Michel' and 'Km 5', indicating that more than one M. acuminata subspecies may be involved in the origin of triploid AAA bananas. 'Calcutta 4' (ssp. burmannicoides De Langhe & Devreux) and 'Long Tavoy' (ssp. burmannica) were closely related and could be together in the same subspecies. This study also showed that there is much more genetic diversity within M. balbisiana that was split into two groups: (1) 'I-63' and 'HND' and (2) 'Los Banos', 'MPL' (Montpellier), '10852', 'Singapuri', 'Etikehel', and 'Butohan 1' as the other.

  4. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  5. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  6. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  7. Phenylphenalenones protect banana plants from infection by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and are deactivated by metabolic conversion.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, William; Chandran, Jima N; Menezes, Riya C; Otálvaro, Felipe; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the black leaf Sigatoka disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly because of specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here, we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defence of Musa plants.

  8. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  9. Antioxidant capacity of crude extracts from clones of banana and plane species.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Padilla, Nayalet; Medina-Ramírez, Gerardo; Dávila, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Banana and plane are the most important fruits in world trade, behind citric plants. In this work we studied the antioxidant capacity of banana and plane varieties of fruits obtained from interspecies crossed varieties of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, named Harton plane, Cavendish banana, and Manzano banana. With this purpose we evaluated banana and plane crude extracts using the ferrous ion oxidation with xylenol orange method, the thiobarbituric acid method, determination of antioxidant activity, and effect on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. The experiments showed that all extracts have the capacity to decrease the concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde, produced in the lipid peroxidation process, in a manner comparable to that of other widely studied antioxidants like melatonin and vitamin E. Moreover, all extracts had the capacity to inhibit the generation of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. When antioxidant activity was calculated, a value was found that was equivalent to a concentration of uric acid between 0.20 and 0.30 mM at the highest concentration of extract used, with uric acid being a potent antioxidant at 1 mM.

  10. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening.

  11. Let's Go Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  12. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, P.; Karpagam, Thirunethiran; Varalakshmi, B.; Packiavathy, A. Sohna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research. PMID:22224045

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P S; Bird, C; Robinson, S P

    2001-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. Banana flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from banana fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in banana flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in banana peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of banana fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development.

  14. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

    PubMed Central

    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  15. Antihyperglycaemic activity of Musa sapientum flowers: effect on lipid peroxidation in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Umamaheswari, J

    2000-03-01

    Musa sapientum commonly known as 'banana' is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg body weight of the chloroform extract of the flowers for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin. The extract prevented a decrease in body weight, and also resulted in a decrease in free radical formation in the tissues. Thus the study shows that banana flower extract (BFEt) has an antihyperglycaemic action. The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly shows the antioxidant property of BFEt. The effect of BFEt was more prominently seen in the case of animals given 0.25 g/kg body weight. BFEt was more effective than glibenclamide.

  16. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

    1999-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement.

  17. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene.

  18. Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial banana cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam IO; Mchau, Godwin A

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars––Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) ––were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions. PMID:25987997

  19. Comparative susceptibility of two banana cultivars to Banana bunchy top virus under laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Hooks, C R R; Manandhar, R; Perez, E P; Wang, K H; Almeida, R P P

    2009-06-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out on the island of Oahu, HI, to compare the susceptibility of the two most commonly grown banana (Musa sp.) cultivars in the state ('Dwarf Brazilian' or Santa Catarina [locally known as dwarf apple] and 'Williams') to the aphid-borne Banana bunchy top virus (genus Babuvirus, family Nanoviridae, BBTV). Several morphological and physiological features of the two cultivars were monitored to determine whether the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), transmits BBTV to both cultivars at a similar rate; and whether after successful inoculation, does each cultivar respond similarly to viral infection. Results from the laboratory experiment showed that a similar percentage of both cultivars were infected with BBTV by aphid vectors (> 90% for both cultivars). However, field results showed a significantly lower percentage of dwarf apple (39%) infected with BBTV compared with Williams (79%). We also found that all physiological and morphological features measured (i.e., plant height, leaf area, canopy, chlorophyll level, and moisture content) for both cultivars were impacted similarly by BBTV. The incubation period, or the time between plant infection and initial appearance of disease symptoms, was similar for both cultivars. Results also showed that BBTV transmission efficiency was lower in the field than in the laboratory, despite that more aphids per plant were used for field than laboratory inoculation tests. The results highlight the potential use of less susceptible cultivars to help manage BBTV and the importance of screening banana varieties in the field to determine their response to vectors and associated diseases.

  20. [Genetic variability of the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (Burkholderiales: Burholderiaceae) in the banana-growing region of Uraba (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Carolina; Rodríguez, Paola; Cotes, José Miguel; Marín, Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    The banana moko disease, caused by the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most important phytopathological problems of the banana agribusiness in tropical countries. In Uraba and Magdalena (Colombia), the main exporting regions of banana in Colombia, this disease causes a destruction estimated in 16.5 ha/year. The bacterium presents an extremely high level of genetic variation that affects control measures. This is the first study of its variation in Colombia and was done with AFLP molecular markers on a population of 100 isolates from banana plants, soils and "weeds". The high level of genetic diversity, with Nei and Shannon indexes of h=0.32 and I=0.48, respectively, and the AMOVA, showed that this population is subestructured (Fst=0.66): the host is the main factor of differentiation. Even so, previous tests show that all varieties have pathogenicity on Musa.

  1. Micropropagation by tissue culture triggers differential expression of infectious endogenous Banana streak virus sequences (eBSV) present in the B genome of natural and synthetic interspecific banana plantains.

    PubMed

    Côte, François X; Galzi, Serge; Folliot, Michel; Lamagnère, Yannick; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Musa balbisiana spp. contains several infectious endogenous sequences of Banana streak virus (eBSV). We have shown previously that in vitro micropropagation triggers the activation of infectious eBSOLV (endogenous sequences of Banana streak Obino l'Ewai virus) in the synthetic tetraploid interspecific hybrid FHIA21 (AAAB). In this work, we show that another synthetic tetraploid (AAAB) hybrid and two natural triploid (AAB) plantains are equally prone to the activation of infectious eBSOLV during tissue culture. These results are a strong indication that such activation is a general phenomenon in interspecific Musa cultivars, whether synthetic or natural. We also report the first in-depth study of the correlation between the duration of tissue culture and the level of activation of infectious eBSOLV, and show that specific and common activation patterns exist in these banana plants. We hypothesize that these patterns result from the concomitant activation of infectious eBSOLV and a decrease in the virus titre in neoformed plantlets, resulting from cell multiplication outcompeting virus replication. We provide experimental data supporting this hypothesis. No activation of infectious eBSGFV (endogenous sequences of Banana streak Goldfinger virus) by tissue culture was observed in the two natural AAB plantain cultivars studied here, whereas such activation occurred in the AAAB synthetic hybrid studied. We demonstrate that this differential activation does not result from differences in the structure of eBSGFV, as all banana genomes harbour eaBSGFV-7.

  2. Cytogenetic evidence of mixed disomic and polysomic inheritance in an allotetraploid (AABB) Musa genotype

    PubMed Central

    Jeridi, Mouna; Perrier, Xavier; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Ferchichi, Ali; D'Hont, Angélique; Bakry, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Edible bananas originated mainly from two wild species, Musa acuminata Colla (AA) and Musa balbisiana Colla (BB), and triploid cultivars with an AAA, AAB or ABB genome are the most widely used. In the present study, chromosome pairing affinities are investigated in a sterile AB Indian variety and in its fertile colchicine-induced allotetraploid (AABB) derivative to determine the inheritance pattern of the tetraploid genotype. The potential implications of interspecific recombination and chromosomal composition of diploid gametes for Musa improvement are presented. Methods The pairing of different chromosome sets at diploid and tetraploid levels was investigated through a combination of conventional cytogenetic and genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH) analyses of meiotic chromosomes, leading to a likelihood model of the pairing behaviour. GISH analysis of mitotic chromosomes was also conducted to reveal the chromosome constitution of hybrids derived from crosses involving the allotetraploid genotype. Key Results Analysis of chromosome associations at both ploidy levels suggested that the newly formed allotetraploid behaves as a ‘segmental allotetraploid’ with three chromosome sets in a tetrasomic pattern, three sets in a likely disomic pattern and the five remaining sets in an intermediate pattern. Balanced and unbalanced diploid gametes were detected in progenies, with the chromosome constitution appearing to be more homogenous in pollen than in ovules. Conclusions Colchicine-induced allotetraploids in Musa provide access to the genetic background of natural AB varieties. The segmental inheritance pattern exhibited by the AABB allotetraploid genotype implies chromosome exchanges between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana species and opens new horizons for reciprocal transfer of valuable alleles. PMID:23087127

  3. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling

    PubMed Central

    Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A.; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-01-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1395-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20589365

  4. Spatial and temporal effects on seed dispersal and seed predation of Musa acuminata in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzeng; Gao, Xiuxia; Chen, Jin; Martin, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Wild bananas are abundant in tropical areas and many ecologists have observed that the succession process is quicker following increased disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze animal-seed interactions and their effects on the seed fate of a wild banana species (Musa acuminata) in tropical southern Yunnan (China) through experiments considering spatial (site and habitat) and temporal (seasons) variation. The largest proportion of fruits (81%) was removed by frugivorous seed dispersers, especially by bats at nighttime. Only 13% of the fruits were removed by climbing seed predators (different species of rats). In the exclosure treatment, rodents accounted for a significantly higher total artificially exposed seed removal number than ants, but with spatial and temporal differences. The highest seed predation rate by rodents (70%) was found in forest with wild banana stands, corresponding with the highest rodent diversity (species numbers and abundance) among the habitat types. In contrast, the seed removal number by ants (57%) was highest in the open land habitats, but there was no close correlation with ant diversity. Seed removal numbers by ants were significantly higher in the dry compared to the rainy season, but rodent activity showed no differences between seasons. The overall results suggest that the largest proportion of seeds produced by wild banana are primarily dispersed by bats. Primary seed dispersal by bats at nighttime is essential for wild banana seeds to escape seed predation.

  5. Local phytochemical response of Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. 'Bluggoe' (ABB) to colonization by Sternorrhyncha.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Vollrath, Antje; Kai, Marco; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthaguntalam; Menezes, Riya C; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of two Sternorrhyncha species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae)), vector of the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), and the latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Diaspidinae)) with Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) 'Bluggoe' (Musaceae) was investigated by a combination of conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques, (1)H NMR, UHPLC-MS, and matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization MS imaging. After infestation, the feeding sites of P. nigronervosa on the pseudostem and the exocarp of banana fruit developed a red tinge, in which tissue-specific accumulations of phenylphenalenones were discovered. Phenylphenalenones were also detected in the black mats of sooty molds growing on the banana aphid exudates and in the dorsal scales of H. lataniae. This suggests that although these secondary metabolites play a role in the reaction of banana plants towards attack by sucking insects, an aphid and an armored scale have established mechanisms to exude these metabolites before they deploy their deleterious effect.

  6. VIEWPOINT: Bananas go paraelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, A.; Krohns, S.; Hemberger, J.; Lunkenheimer, P.

    2008-05-01

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric.

  7. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  8. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-09-15

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in 'senescence associated' dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death.

  9. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  10. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  11. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  12. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    PubMed

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  13. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  14. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    PubMed

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  16. Expression and distribution of extensins and AGPs in susceptible and resistant banana cultivars in response to wounding and Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunli; Fan, Wei; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Fabrice, Musana Rwalinda; Xie, Ling; Ma, Juan; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation. Extensins mainly appeared in the root cap and meristematic cells. AGPs recognized by JIM13, JIM8, PN16.4B4 and CCRC-M134 antibodies located in root hairs, xylem and root cap. Individual AGPs and extensins showed specific radial distribution in banana roots. At the transcript level, seven extensins and 23 AGPs were differentially expressed between two banana cultivars before and after treatments. Two extensins and five AGPs responded to the treatments at the protein level. Most extensins and AGPs were up-regulated by wounding and pathogen inoculation of intact plants but down-regulated by pathogen attack of wounded plants. Main components responsible for the resistance of banana were MaELP-2 and MaPELP-2. Our data revealed that AGPs and extensins represent dynamic cell wall components involved in wounding and Foc resistance. PMID:28218299

  17. Genetic Diversity Among Banana streak virus Isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Geering, A D; McMichael, L A; Dietzgen, R G; Thomas, J E

    2000-08-01

    ABSTRACT Banana streak virus (BSV) is an important pathogen of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) throughout the world. We have cloned and sequenced part of the genomes of four isolates of BSV from Australia, designated BSV-RD, BSV-Cav, BSV-Mys, and BSV-GF. These isolates originated from banana cvs. Red Dacca, Williams, Mysore, and Goldfinger, respectively. All clones contained a sequence covering part of open reading frame III and the intergenic region of the badnavirus genome. The sequences were compared with those of other badnaviruses, including BSV-Onne, a previously characterized isolate from Nigeria. The BSV-RD sequence was virtually identical to that of BSV-Onne, differing by only two nucleotides over 1,292 bp. However, BSV-Cav, -Mys, and -GF were divergent in nucleotide sequence. Phylogenetic analyses using conserved sequences in the ribonuclease H domain revealed that all BSV isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other badnavirus. BSV-Cav was most closely related to BSV-Onne, and there was 95.1% identity between the two amino acid sequences. Other relationships between the BSV isolates were less similar, with sequence identities ranging from 66.4 to 78.2%, which is a magnitude comparable to the distance between some of the recognized badnavirus species. Immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed, allowing specific detection and differentiation of the four isolates of BSV.

  18. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  19. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions.

  20. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  3. Detection of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from banana by one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Shi, Minjing; Xia, Zihao; Huang, Junsheng; Fan, Zaifeng

    2012-11-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most devastating threats to the banana industry. A single-tube, one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of CMV-infected banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The reaction was performed in a single tube at 63 °C for 90 min using a real-time turbidimeter, with an improved closed-tube visual detection system in which fluorescent dye was added to the inside of the lid prior to amplification. This RT-LAMP assay is an alternative method for the rapid detection of CMV in banana plants and tissue culture materials.

  4. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  5. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  6. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  7. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  8. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  9. Efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD markers in assessment of genetic variability and population structure of wild Musa acuminata colla.

    PubMed

    Lamare, Animos; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2015-07-01

    North east India is considered as one of the major biodiversity hotspots worldwide and centre of origin of several plant species including Musa. Musa acuminata Colla is known to be one of the wild progenitors of cultivated bananas and plantains. Three single primer based DNA marker techniques viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and directed amplification of minisatellites DNA (DAMD) were used for diversity diagnostics among 25 genotypes of wild M. acuminata collected from Meghalaya province of north east India. A total of 58 primers (26-RAPD, 21-ISSR, and11-DAMD) yielded 451 DNA fragments, of which 395 (87.58 %) were found to be polymorphic in nature. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values were almost identical for each marker system. The resolving power of the marker system was found to be highest in RAPD (3.96) whereas ISSR resolved highest marker index (16.39) in the study. Selected amplicon data obtained through single primer amplification reactions were utilized for determination of diversity within and among the populations of M. acuminata. Nei's genetic differentiation (Gst) value (0.451) indicated higher proportion of the genetic variation within the populations which is supported by the AMOVA analysis (88 %). The study provides insight into the efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD to analyse the genetic variation existing in the wild Musa germplasm, which can further be exploited for quality trait improvement and domestication of such important horticultural crops. The genetic diversity based population structure may shed light on the genetic basis of speciation and evolution of various species within the genus Musa.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Musa accessions in ex situ conservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banana cultivars are mostly derived from hybridization between wild diploid subspecies of Musa acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome), and they exhibit various levels of ploidy and genomic constitution. The Embrapa ex situ Musa collection contains over 220 accessions, of which only a few have been genetically characterized. Knowledge regarding the genetic relationships and diversity between modern cultivars and wild relatives would assist in conservation and breeding strategies. Our objectives were to determine the genomic constitution based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions polymorphism and the ploidy of all accessions by flow cytometry and to investigate the population structure of the collection using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci as co-dominant markers based on Structure software, not previously performed in Musa. Results From the 221 accessions analyzed by flow cytometry, the correct ploidy was confirmed or established for 212 (95.9%), whereas digestion of the ITS region confirmed the genomic constitution of 209 (94.6%). Neighbor-joining clustering analysis derived from SSR binary data allowed the detection of two major groups, essentially distinguished by the presence or absence of the B genome, while subgroups were formed according to the genomic composition and commercial classification. The co-dominant nature of SSR was explored to analyze the structure of the population based on a Bayesian approach, detecting 21 subpopulations. Most of the subpopulations were in agreement with the clustering analysis. Conclusions The data generated by flow cytometry, ITS and SSR supported the hypothesis about the occurrence of homeologue recombination between A and B genomes, leading to discrepancies in the number of sets or portions from each parental genome. These phenomenons have been largely disregarded in the evolution of banana, as the “single-step domestication” hypothesis had long predominated. These findings will have an

  11. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Charu; R.K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3rd day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  12. High genetic variability and evidence for plant-to-plant transfer of Banana mild mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Laboureau, Nathalie; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Candresse, Thierry

    2005-11-01

    A total of 154 partial nucleotide sequences within the Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) ORF1, which encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), was obtained from 68 distinct infected banana accessions originating from various locations worldwide. The 310 nt sequences displayed a high level of variability with a mean pairwise nucleotide sequence divergence level of 20.4 %. This situation resulted essentially from a high rate of synonymous mutations. A similar analysis was performed for a limited selection of 10 banana accessions (30 sequences) on the region comprising approximately the last 310 nt of the BanMMV genome. This region corresponds to the 3' end of ORF5, which encodes the coat protein (234 nt), and to the 3' non-coding region. This analysis confirmed the high level of diversity observed in the RdRp dataset, characterized by a high level of synonymous mutations. Analysis of intra-host diversity indicated the existence of two distinct situations, with some plants containing only closely related sequence variants, whereas others contained widely divergent isolates. Analyses indicated that BanMMV genetic diversity is not structured by the geographical origin of the infected Musa accessions or by their genotype. This situation may be, in part, explained by the exchange of banana germplasm between different parts of the world and also by plant-to-plant transfer of virus isolates, the evidence for which is, for the first time, provided by this study.

  13. Translating the "Banana Genome" to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Dash, Prasanta K; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit "Banana" remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers' and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  14. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt.

  15. Heat shock transcription factors in banana: genome-wide characterization and expression profile analysis during development and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Xia, Feiyu; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most popular fresh fruits. However, the rapid spread of fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in tropical areas severely affected banana growth and production. Thus, it is very important to identify candidate genes involved in banana response to abiotic stress and pathogen infection, as well as the molecular mechanism and possible utilization for genetic breeding. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are widely known for their common involvement in various abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interaction. However, no MaHsf has been identified in banana, as well as its possible role. In this study, genome-wide identification and further analyses of evolution, gene structure and conserved motifs showed closer relationship of them in every subgroup. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaHsfs revealed the tissue- and developmental stage-specific or dependent, as well as abiotic and biotic stress-responsive expressions of them. The common regulation of several MaHsfs by abiotic and biotic stress indicated the possible roles of them in plant stress responses. Taken together, this study extended our understanding of MaHsf gene family and identified some candidate MaHsfs with specific expression profiles, which may be used as potential candidates for genetic breeding in banana. PMID:27857174

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Crous, Pedro W.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  17. Detection of Banana mild mosaic virus and Banana virus X by polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Acina, Isabelle; Lockhart, Benham E L; Candresse, Thierry

    2007-06-01

    Viruses are important constraints to the movement and propagation of plant germplasm, especially for vegetatively propagated crops such as banana and plantain. Their control relies primarily on the use of virus-free plant material, whose production and certification requires sensitive and reliable detection methods. An existing polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR) assay was adapted to the detection of Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) and Banana virus X, two Flexiviridae infecting Musa spp. PDO inosine-containing primers were found to be well suited to the detection of BanMMV, despite its high molecular diversity, but not to that of the highly conserved BVX, for which species-specific primers were designed. Sampling and sample processing steps were optimized in order to avoid nucleic acid purification prior to the reverse transcription step. A polyclonal anti-BanMMV antiserum was raised and successfully used for the immunocapture (IC) of BanMMV viral particles from leaf extracts, leading to the development of a PDO-IC-RT-nested PCR assay. Although the anti-BanMMV antiserum could to some extent recognize BVX viral particles, direct binding (DB) was shown to be a more efficient method for processing BVX-infected samples and a PDO-DB-RT-nested PCR assay was developed for the detection of BVX from leaf extracts.

  18. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  19. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  20. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  1. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  2. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  3. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance

  4. Oral administration of banana lectin modulates cytokine profile and abundance of T-cell populations in mice.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Ana Claudia Miranda Brito; Sansone, Marcelo; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Banana lectin (BanLec) is a dimeric protein occurring in fruit pulp that modulates immune cell functioning in vitro. In order to assess the immune response in vivo, BanLec from ripe banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was purified and orally given to mice for seven days. The analysis of cytokines in the mice peripheral blood revealed increased IL-10, IL-17 and TNFα, and a reduction of IFNγ and IL-6. In the thymus, an increase of CD4+ and a decrease of CD8+ T-cells were observed after oral administration of BanLec. The modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and T-cells in the peripheral blood and thymus of mice demonstrated the immunomodulatory properties of natural BanLec in vivo. This research brings new data on a protein from a fresh fruit consumed worldwide that may act as an immunomodulator, potentially affecting the host response to infections, immune diseases and cancer.

  5. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA.

  6. Degradation of Methyldopa by Banana.

    PubMed

    Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Kiminori

    2010-03-02

    Methyldopa, an antihypertensive, is a very close analogue of DOPA. Drug interaction accompanied by degradation in a banana juice mixture was reported for DOPA. However, the effect of banana on methyldopa has not been reported. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of banana juice on methyldopa. The drug and supernatant of banana pulp were mixed, and the mixture was observed for changes in color, drug concentration, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at 30 °C. The originally clear and colorless mixture started to acquire a yellow coloration after about 30 seconds after the mixing. The color tone increasingly deepened, then blistered solid particles that do not dissolve were observed after 3 hours. Concentration of methyldopa in the mixture decreased by 60% after 5 min, to 0.5% after 30 min of the mixing. From these findings, it was suggested that the drastic alterations were caused by banana polyphenol oxidase that plays a role in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment from levodopa in banana pulp. Because the degradation of methyldopa occurs extremely fast, it was suggested concomitant use of this anti-hypertensive and banana juice consumption should be avoided in clinical practice.

  7. Use of competitive PCR to assay copy number of repetitive elements in banana.

    PubMed

    Baurens, F C; Noyer, J L; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1996-11-27

    Banana is one of the most important subtropical fruit crops. Genetic improvement by traditional breeding strategies is difficult and better knowledge of genomic structure is needed. Repeated sequences are powerful markers for genetic fingerprinting. The method proposed here to determine the copy number of nuclear repetitive elements is based on competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and can also be used for quantifying cytosolic sequences. The reliability of this method was investigated on crude preparations of total DNA. Variations due to the heterogeneity of crude DNA extracts showed that a single locus reference is needed for accurate quantification. A mapped microsatellite locus was used to normalize copy number measurements. Copy number assay of repetitive elements using this method clearly distinguishes between the two banana subspecies investigated: Musa acuminata spp. banskii and M. acuminata spp. malaccensis. Two repetitive sequence families, pMaCIR1115 and pA9-26, were assayed that cover up to 1% of the M. acuminata genome. Their copy number varied up to six fold between the two subspecies. Furthermore, sequence quantification showed that mitochondrial genomes are present in crude leaf-extracted banana DNA at up to 40 copies per cell.

  8. Transcriptomic Changes of Drought-Tolerant and Sensitive Banana Cultivars Exposed to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Muthusamy; Uma, Subbaraya; Backiyarani, Suthanthiram; Saraswathi, Marimuthu Somasundaram; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    In banana, drought responsive gene expression profiles of drought-tolerant and sensitive genotypes remain largely unexplored. In this research, the transcriptome of drought-tolerant banana cultivar (Saba, ABB genome) and sensitive cultivar (Grand Naine, AAA genome) was monitored using mRNA-Seq under control and drought stress condition. A total of 162.36 million reads from tolerant and 126.58 million reads from sensitive libraries were produced and mapped onto the Musa acuminata genome sequence and assembled into 23,096 and 23,079 unigenes. Differential gene expression between two conditions (control and drought) showed that at least 2268 and 2963 statistically significant, functionally known, non-redundant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from tolerant and sensitive libraries. Drought has up-regulated 991 and 1378 DEGs and down-regulated 1104 and 1585 DEGs respectively in tolerant and sensitive libraries. Among DEGs, 15.9% are coding for transcription factors (TFs) comprising 46 families and 9.5% of DEGs are constituted by protein kinases from 82 families. Most enriched DEGs are mainly involved in protein modifications, lipid metabolism, alkaloid biosynthesis, carbohydrate degradation, glycan metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acid, cofactor, nucleotide-sugar, hormone, terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Several, specific genotype-dependent gene expression pattern was observed for drought stress in both cultivars. A subset of 9 DEGs was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results will provide necessary information for developing drought-resilient banana plants. PMID:27867388

  9. Callus cell, shoot and stem proliferation data from pineapple crown and banana inflorescence in vitro: Biochemical and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Abm Sharif; Uddin, Musamma M

    2017-02-01

    The data article contains the experimental data and images on the callus cell, shoot and stem proliferation from pineapple crown slice and banana inflorescence in vitro. Investigated data are related to the research article "Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on proliferation and shoot growth of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) in vitro" Alsaif et al. (2011) [1] and "Plantlet Production through Development of Competent Multiple Meristem Cultures from Male Inflorescence of Banana, Musa acuminta cv. ׳Pisang Mas׳(AA)" Wirakarnain et al. (2008) [2]. In the experimental data 1, physiological, (shoot weight, number length and stem proliferation) biochemical (total sugar and chlorophyll) and nutritional ((K(+) and NO3(-)) data using BAP, MS medium and NAA growth regulators in pineapple have been explored. In the experimental data 2, physiological, (callus weight, shoot number and length) biochemical (total sugar, chlorophyll, total phenol, DPPH) and nutritional (K(+) and NO3(-)) data employing BAP +IAA, MS medium and NAA growth regulators in banana have been exhibited. Overall quantitative measurement was observed by Spectrophotometer. In the experimental data, BAP was shown the best effective hormone for the both pineapple and banana explants regeneration.

  10. Diversity and genetic stability in banana genotypes in a breeding program using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Silva, A V C; Nascimento, A L S; Vitória, M F; Rabbani, A R C; Soares, A N R; Lédo, A S

    2017-02-23

    Banana (Musa spp) is a fruit species frequently cultivated and consumed worldwide. Molecular markers are important for estimating genetic diversity in germplasm and between genotypes in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 banana genotypes (FHIA 23, PA42-44, Maçã, Pacovan Ken, Bucaneiro, YB42-47, Grand Naine, Tropical, FHIA 18, PA94-01, YB42-17, Enxerto, Japira, Pacovã, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, PV79-34, Caipira, Princesa, Garantida, and Thap Maeo), by using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Material was generated from the banana breeding program of Embrapa Cassava & Fruits and evaluated at Embrapa Coastal Tablelands. The 12 primers used in this study generated 97.5% polymorphism. Four clusters were identified among the different genotypes studied, and the sum of the first two principal components was 48.91%. From the Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram, it was possible to identify two main clusters and subclusters. Two genotypes (Garantida and Thap Maeo) remained isolated from the others, both in the UPGMA clustering and in the principal cordinate analysis (PCoA). Using ISSR markers, we could analyze the genetic diversity of the studied material and state that these markers were efficient at detecting sufficient polymorphism to estimate the genetic variability in banana genotypes.

  11. Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the curative and residual efficacy of avermectins at controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when injected into the pseudostem of banana, Musa acuminata cv. Cavendish. In addition, we determined the lowest concentration of avermectins that provided satisfactory efficacy as protectants when injected into banana pseudostems. Experiments were conducted with a root-knot nematode, Meleidogyne javanica, and the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Injections (1 ml) of ≥ 100 μg a.i./plant of abamectin into pseudostems were effective at controlling M. javanica and R. similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nemaficide, fenamiphos, in a protectant assay. Abamecfin injections of 250 and 500 μg a.i./plant were effective at reducing nematode infections 28 to 56 days after inoculation. Abamectin was more effective than ivermectin at controlling nematodes after nematode populations were established in banana roots. Injections of between 100 and 1,000 μg a.i./plant were effective at controlling nematodes for at least 56 days after treatment. These studies confirmed earlier results and demonstrated that abamecfin has potential for controlling nematode parasites on banana when injected into the pseudostem. PMID:19274271

  12. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  13. [The effect of ethylene biosynthesis regulators on metabolic processes in the banana fruits in various physiological states].

    PubMed

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguyen Tien; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Protsenko, M A; Korableva, N P

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ethylene-evolving preparations-2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (2-CEPA), the new generation binary preparation ethacide, and the specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)--on the ethylene evolution by banana (Musa sp.) fruits at various ripening stages and the content of protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG), associated with prevention of fruit tissue softening, were studied. It was demonstrated that the ripening stage was of significant importance for the results of treatment with the mentioned preparations. Their effects were most pronounced in the fruits of medium ripeness. 2-CEPA and ethacide increased the ethylene evolution in banana fruits on the average by 25-30%. AOA treatment decreased the ethylene evolution in these fruits by 30%. The PIPG content in fruit pulp was insignificant; 2-CEPA almost did not change its content in banana skin, while ethacide and AOA somewhat decreased it. Consequently, the regulators of ethylene biosynthesis have a potential for optimizing the state of banana fruits during storage and sale.

  14. Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana.

    PubMed

    Jansson, R K; Rabatin, S

    1997-12-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the curative and residual efficacy of avermectins at controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when injected into the pseudostem of banana, Musa acuminata cv. Cavendish. In addition, we determined the lowest concentration of avermectins that provided satisfactory efficacy as protectants when injected into banana pseudostems. Experiments were conducted with a root-knot nematode, Meleidogyne javanica, and the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Injections (1 ml) of >/= 100 mug a.i./plant of abamectin into pseudostems were effective at controlling M. javanica and R. similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nemaficide, fenamiphos, in a protectant assay. Abamecfin injections of 250 and 500 mug a.i./plant were effective at reducing nematode infections 28 to 56 days after inoculation. Abamectin was more effective than ivermectin at controlling nematodes after nematode populations were established in banana roots. Injections of between 100 and 1,000 mug a.i./plant were effective at controlling nematodes for at least 56 days after treatment. These studies confirmed earlier results and demonstrated that abamecfin has potential for controlling nematode parasites on banana when injected into the pseudostem.

  15. Isolation and characterization of nucleotide-binding site and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat-resistance gene candidates in bananas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Xu, W H; Xie, Y X; Zhang, X; Pu, J J; Qi, Y X; Li, H P

    2011-12-15

    Commercial banana varieties are highly susceptible to fungal pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens, nematodes, viruses, and insect pests. The largest known family of plant resistance genes encodes proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for the isolation of candidate genes in banana that may be involved in plant defense. Six degenerate PCR primers were designed to target NBS and additional domains were tested on commercial banana species Musa acuminata subsp malaccensis and the Musa AAB Group propagated in vitro and plants maintained in a greenhouse. Total DNA was isolated by a modified CTAB extraction technique. Four resistance gene analogs were amplified and deposited in GenBank and assigned numbers HQ199833-HQ199836. The predicted amino acid sequences compared to the amino acid sequences of known resistance genes (MRGL1, MRGL2, MRGL3, and MRGL4) revealed significant sequence similarity. The presence of consensus domains, namely kinase-1a, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain, provided evidence that the cloned sequences belong to the typical non-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like domain NBS-LRR gene family.

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family from banana suggest involvement of specific members in different stages of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Bhambhani, Sweta; Bag, Sumit K; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of the tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and play an important role in plant growth and development. Although members of the MAPK gene family have been identified in model plants, little information is available regarding this gene family in fruit crops. In this study, we carried out a computational analysis using the Musa Genome database to identify members of the MAPK gene family in banana, an economically important crop and the most popular fruit worldwide. Our analysis identified 25 members of the MAP kinase (MAPK or MPK) gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of MPKs in Arabidopsis, Oryza, and Populus have classified these MPKs into four subgroups. The presence of conserved domains in the deduced amino acid sequences, phylogeny, and genomic organization strongly support their identity as members of the MPK gene family. Expression analysis during ethylene-induced banana fruit ripening suggests the involvement of several MPKs in the ethylene signal transduction pathway that are necessary for banana fruit ripening. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions and the involvement of the identified MPKs in various cellular processes, as analyzed using Pathway Studio, suggest a role for the banana MPK gene family in diverse functions related to growth, development, and the stress response. This report is the first concerning the identification of members of a gene family and the elucidation of their role in various processes using the Musa Genome database.

  17. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  18. Benzothiadiazole-Mediated Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum musae and Delayed Ripening of Harvested Banana Fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Huanzhang; Si, Zhenwei; Xia, Yihua; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2016-02-24

    Benzothiadiazole (BTH) works as a plant activator. The effects of different BTH treatments and fungicides SPORGON on fruit ripening and disease incidence were investigated. The results showed that BTH treatment significantly delayed fruit ripening, maintained fruit firmness, color, and good fruit quality, and dramatically reduced the incidence of disease. BTH effectively inhibited the invasion and development of pathogenic bacteria and controlled the occurrence of disease. BTH treatment enhanced the activities of defense-related enzymes, including chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase, increased the content of hydrogen peroxide and total antioxidant capacity, and reduced malondialdehyde content. Cellular structure analysis after inoculation confirmed that BTH treatment effectively maintained the cell structural integrity. SPORGON did not provide benefits for delaying fruit ripening or for the resistance system, while it can control the disease only during the earlier stage and not at later stages.

  19. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  20. Screening the banana biodiversity for drought tolerance: can an in vitro growth model and proteomics be used as a tool to discover tolerant varieties and understand homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Vanhove, Anne-Catherine; Vermaelen, Wesley; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Carpentier, Sebastien C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for research aimed at understanding drought tolerance, screening for drought tolerant varieties and breeding crops with an improved water use efficiency. Bananas and plantains are a major staple food and export product with a worldwide production of over 135 million tonnes per year. Water however is the most limiting abiotic factor in banana production. A screening of the Musa biodiversity has not yet been performed. We at KU Leuven host the Musa International Germplasm collection with over 1200 accessions. To screen the Musa biodiversity for drought tolerant varieties, we developed a screening test for in vitro plants. Five varieties representing different genomic constitutions in banana (AAAh, AAA, AAB, AABp, and ABB) were selected and subjected to a mild osmotic stress. The ABB variety showed the smallest stress induced growth reduction. To get an insight into the acclimation and the accomplishment of homeostasis, the leaf proteome of this variety was characterized via 2D DIGE. After extraction of the leaf proteome of six control and six stressed plants, 2600 spots could be distinguished. A PCA analysis indicates that control and stressed plants can blindly be classified based on their proteome. One hundred and twelve proteins were significantly more abundant in the stressed plants and 18 proteins were significantly more abundant in control plants (FDR α 0.05). Twenty four differential proteins could be identified. The proteome analysis clearly shows that there is a new balance in the stressed plants and that the respiration, metabolism of ROS and several dehydrogenases involved in NAD/NADH homeostasis play an important role. PMID:22876254

  1. Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Wang, Dong; Tripathi, Jaindra; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-10-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose a severe constraint on plantain and banana productivity; however, the sterile nature of many cultivars precludes conventional breeding for resistance. Transgenic plantain cv. Gonja manjaya (Musa AAB) plants, expressing a maize cystatin that inhibits nematode digestive cysteine proteinases and a synthetic peptide that disrupts nematode chemoreception, were assessed for their ability to resist nematode infection. Lines were generated that expressed each gene singly or both together in a stacked defence. Nematode challenge with a single species or a mixed population identified 10 lines with significant resistance. The best level of resistance achieved against the major pest species Radopholus similis was 84% ± 8% for the cystatin, 66% ± 14% for the peptide and 70% ± 6% for the dual defence. In the mixed population, trial resistance was also demonstrated to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. A fluorescently labelled form of the chemodisruptive peptide underwent retrograde transport along certain sensory dendrites of R. similis as required to disrupt chemoreception. The peptide was degraded after 30 min in simulated intestinal fluid or boiling water and after 1 h in nonsterile soil. In silico sequence analysis suggests that the peptide is not a mammalian antigen. This work establishes the mode of action of a novel nematode defence, develops the evidence for its safe and effective deployment against multiple nematode species and identifies transgenic plantain lines with a high level of resistance for a proposed field trial.

  2. Effect of chemical modification on molecular structure and functional properties of Musa AAB starch.

    PubMed

    Koteswara Reddy, Chagam; Vidya, P V; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-11-01

    Starch extracted from Musa AAB (poovan banana) was subjected to acetylation, acid-thinning and oxidation. The effect of the treatments on molecular structure and functional properties of starch were analysed. Chemical composition revealed that non-starch components were reduced after chemical treatment. Amylose content of starch decreased on acetylation from 24.16% to 20.90%, whereas it increased to 24.50% and 25.5% on oxidation and acid-thinning, respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern of modified starches showed B-type crystalline structure with peaks at 2θ=5.5°, 15.0°, 17.1° and 23.5°; which were parallel with the pattern observed in case of native starch. Swelling capacity of starch granules was found to reduce by acid-thinning and oxidation but acetylation induced to increase it. The percentage of colour (L*, a* and b*), solubility and water absorption capacities varied significantly from native starch after chemical modification. Changes in gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpy value of starches were observed in modified starches and it is varied according to reaction conditions. Pasting properties of the starches was increased by acetylation and oxidation while acid-thinning reduced it (P<0.05).

  3. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  4. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  5. Aggressiveness and Damage Potential of Central American and Caribbean Populations of Radopholus spp. in Banana.

    PubMed

    Marin, D H; Barker, K R; Kaplan, D T; Sutton, T B; Opperman, C H

    1999-12-01

    Monoxenic cultures of burrowing nematode populations extracted from banana roots from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica were established on carrot discs. Cultures of Radopholus spp. were also obtained from Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Ivory Coast. The aggressiveness (defined as reproductive fitness and root necrosis) of these populations was evaluated by inoculating banana plants (Musa AAA, cv. Grande Naine) with 200 nematodes/plant. Banana plants produced by tissue culture were grown in 0.4-liter styrofoam cups, containing a 1:1 mix of a coarse and a fine sand, at ca. 27 degrees C and 80% RH. Banana plants were acclimated and allowed to grow for 4 weeks prior to inoculation. Plant height, fresh shoot and root weights, root necrosis, and nematode population densities were determined 8 weeks after inoculation. Burrowing-nematode populations varied in aggressiveness, and their reproductive fitness was generally related to damage reported in the field. Plant height and fresh shoot and root weight did not reflect damage caused by nematodes under our experimental conditions. Necrosis of primary roots was closely related to the reproductive fitness of the nematode populations. Variation in aggressiveness among nematode populations followed a similar trend in the two susceptible hosts tested, Grande Naine and Pisang mas. All nematode populations had a low reproductive factor (Rf

  6. Aggressiveness and Damage Potential of Central American and Caribbean Populations of Radopholus spp. in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Marin, D. H.; Barker, K. R.; Kaplan, D. T.; Sutton, T. B.; Opperman, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Monoxenic cultures of burrowing nematode populations extracted from banana roots from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica were established on carrot discs. Cultures of Radopholus spp. were also obtained from Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Ivory Coast. The aggressiveness (defined as reproductive fitness and root necrosis) of these populations was evaluated by inoculating banana plants (Musa AAA, cv. Grande Naine) with 200 nematodes/plant. Banana plants produced by tissue culture were grown in 0.4-liter styrofoam cups, containing a 1:1 mix of a coarse and a fine sand, at ca. 27 °C and 80% RH. Banana plants were acclimated and allowed to grow for 4 weeks prior to inoculation. Plant height, fresh shoot and root weights, root necrosis, and nematode population densities were determined 8 weeks after inoculation. Burrowing-nematode populations varied in aggressiveness, and their reproductive fitness was generally related to damage reported in the field. Plant height and fresh shoot and root weight did not reflect damage caused by nematodes under our experimental conditions. Necrosis of primary roots was closely related to the reproductive fitness of the nematode populations. Variation in aggressiveness among nematode populations followed a similar trend in the two susceptible hosts tested, Grande Naine and Pisang mas. All nematode populations had a low reproductive factor (Rf ≤2.5) in the resistant host except for the Ivory Coast population which had a moderate reproductive factor (Rf ≤ 5) on Pisang Jari Buaya. This is the first report of a burrowing nematode population parasitizing this important source of resistance to R. similis. PMID:19270910

  7. Quantitative Digital Imaging of Banana Growth Suppression by Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  8. Genetic diversity of carotenoid-rich bananas evaluated by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Edson P; Vilarinhos, Alberto D; Cohen, Kelly O; Amorim, Vanusia B O; Dos Santos-Serejo, Janay A; Silva, Sebastião Oliveira E; Pestana, Kátia N; Dos Santos, Vânia J; Paes, Norma S; Monte, Damares C; Dos Reis, Ronaldo V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the carotenoid content and genetic variability of banana accessions from the Musa germplasm collection held at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Brazil. Forty-two samples were analyzed, including 21 diploids, 19 triploids and two tetraploids. The carotenoid content was analyzed spectrophotometrically and genetic variability was estimated using 653 DArT markers. The average carotenoid content was 4.73 μg.g (-1) , and ranged from 1.06 μg.g (-1) for the triploid Nanica (Cavendish group) to 19.24 μg.g (-1) for the triploid Saney. The diploids Modok Gier and NBA-14 and the triploid Saney had a carotenoid content that was, respectively, 7-fold, 6-fold and 9-fold greater than that of cultivars from the Cavendish group (2.19 μg.g (-1)). The mean similarity among the 42 accessions was 0.63 (range: 0.24 to 1.00). DArT analysis revealed extensive genetic variability in accessions from the Embrapa Musa germplasm bank.

  9. Genetic diversity of carotenoid-rich bananas evaluated by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the carotenoid content and genetic variability of banana accessions from the Musa germplasm collection held at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Brazil. Forty-two samples were analyzed, including 21 diploids, 19 triploids and two tetraploids. The carotenoid content was analyzed spectrophotometrically and genetic variability was estimated using 653 DArT markers. The average carotenoid content was 4.73 μg.g -1 , and ranged from 1.06 μg.g -1 for the triploid Nanica (Cavendish group) to 19.24 μg.g -1 for the triploid Saney. The diploids Modok Gier and NBA-14 and the triploid Saney had a carotenoid content that was, respectively, 7-fold, 6-fold and 9-fold greater than that of cultivars from the Cavendish group (2.19 μg.g -1). The mean similarity among the 42 accessions was 0.63 (range: 0.24 to 1.00). DArT analysis revealed extensive genetic variability in accessions from the Embrapa Musa germplasm bank. PMID:21637652

  10. Changes in the content and biosynthesis of phytoalexins in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamo, T; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    2000-10-01

    Changes in the phytoalexin content in unripe fruit of banana, Musa acuminata, were analyzed after various treatments. The results show that level of hydroxyanigorufone started to increase 1-2 day after either wounding or inoculation with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. Inoculation followed by wounding induced the formation of many other phenylphenalenones. The accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone decreased, after its transient maximum, on ripening by exposure of the wounded fruit to ethylene. The level of production of hydroxyanigorufone in ripe fruit treated by wounding and/or by inoculation was much lower than that in unripe fruit. 2-Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), inhibited the accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone in wounded fruit, and the PAL activity increased after wounding and ethylene treatment, respectively. Feeding experiments with [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C]cinnamic acids, and [2-(13)C]malonate show that two molecules of cinnamic acid and one of malonate were incorporated into each molecule of hydroxyanigorufone. The phytoalexins isolated from fruit to which deuterated hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone had been administered revealed that 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthalic anhydride was biosynthesized from hydroxyanigorufone rather than from irenolone.

  11. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  12. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  13. Genome-wide analyses of the bZIP family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Lianzhe; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes. However, less information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important fruit crop banana. In this study, 121 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in the banana genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MabZIPs were classified into 11 subfamilies. The majority of MabZIP genes in the same subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis of two banana genotypes revealed the differential expression patterns of MabZIP genes in different organs, in various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salt. Interaction networks and co-expression assays showed that group A MabZIP-mediated networks participated in various stress signaling, which was strongly activated in Musa ABB Pisang Awak. This study provided new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of MabZIP genes and provided robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MabZIP genes for potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:27445085

  14. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS box protein, a probable constituent of flowering and fruit ripening regulatory system in banana.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ~95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development.

  15. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  17. Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 μg/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 μg/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine. PMID:24124283

  18. Effect of Musa sapientum Stem Extract on Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aditya J.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Shukla, Rimi; Ahmed, Qazi Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE) in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group) of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM]), decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM), decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P < 0.05) respectively, when compared with the control group in both the tests. Conclusion: A significant antidepressant-like activity was found in MSSE, which could be a potential natural compound for use in depression. SUMMARY The five groups – vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of Musa sapientum stem extract (MSSE), respectivelyThe duration of immobility decreased in the treated groups as compared to the control group on both

  19. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    PubMed

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  20. Applicability of the use of waste from different banana cultivars for the cultivation of the oyster mushroom

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Cristiane Suely Melo; de Aguiar, Lorena Vieira Bentolila; Sales-Campos, Ceci; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus- (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. cultivation in substrates based on different combinations of wastes (leaf, pseudo-stem and pseudo-stem + leaf) and banana cultivars - Musa spp. (Thap Maeo, Prata AnãPelipita and Caipira) during 49 days. Organic matter loss in the substrate by action of the fungus was also evaluated during that period. It was verified that the pseudo-stem waste provided the best averages of biological efficiency among all cultivars tested and best rates were obtained by Thap Maeo (61.5%). The highest organic matter loss (OML) was obtained from pseudo-stem + leaf wastes (Prata Anã 78.6%; Thap Maeo - 67.6%; Pelipita - 64.8%; Caipira - 60.6%). Therefore, the use of those wastes showed itself viable for P. ostreatus cultivation due to its availability and low cost, besides decreasing discards to environment. PMID:24031895

  1. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  2. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  3. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  4. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  5. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  6. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  7. Evaluation of microsatellite loci from libraries derived from the wild diploid 'Calcutta 4' and 'Ouro' banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R O; Jesus, O N J; Creste, S; Figueira, A; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, C F

    2015-09-25

    Microsatellite markers have been widely used in the quantification of genetic variability and for genetic breeding in Musa spp. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers derived from 'Calcutta 4' and 'Ouro' genomic libraries, and to analyze the genetic variability among 30 banana accessions. Thirty-eight markers were used: 15 from the 'Ouro' library and 23 from the 'Calcutta 4' library. Genetic diversity was evaluated by considering SSR markers as both dominant markers because of the presence of triploid accessions, and co-dominant markers. For the dominant analysis, polymorphism information content (PIC) values for 44 polymorphic markers ranged from 0.063 to 0.533, with a mean value of 0.24. A dendrogram analysis separated the BGB-Banana accessions into 4 groups: the 'Ouro' and 'Muísa Tia' accessions were the most dissimilar (93% dissimilarity), while the most similar accessions were 'Pacovan' and 'Walha'. The mean genetic distance between samples was 0.74. For the analysis considering SSR markers as co-dominants, using only diploid accessions, two groups were separated based on their genome contents (A and B). The PIC values for the markers from the 'Calcutta 4' library varied from 0.4836 to 0.7886, whereas those from the 'Ouro' library ranged from 0.3800 to 0.7521. Given the high PIC values, the markers from both the libraries showed high discriminatory power, and can therefore be widely applied for analysis of genetic diversity, population structures, and linkage mapping in Musa spp.

  8. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  9. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F; V de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C; Lindquist, Erika A; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A J; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Kema, Gert H J

    2016-08-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  10. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Xanthomonas sacchari and Two Banana-Associated Xanthomonads Reveal Insights into the Xanthomonas Group 1 Clade

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, David J.; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray

    2011-01-01

    We present draft genome sequences for three strains of Xanthomonas species, each of which was associated with banana plants (Musa species) but is not closely related to the previously sequenced banana-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum. Strain NCPPB4393 had been deposited as Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum but in fact falls within the species Xanthomonas sacchari. Strain NCPPB1132 is more distantly related to Xanthomonas sacchari whilst strain NCPPB 1131 grouped in a distinct species-level clade related to X. sacchari, along with strains from ginger, rice, cotton and sugarcane. These three newly sequenced strains share many genomic features with the previously sequenced Xanthomonas albilineans, for example possessing an unsual metE allele and lacking the Hrp type III secretion system. However, they are distinct from Xanthomonas albilineans in many respects, for example showing little evidence of genome reduction. They also lack the SPI-1 type III secretion system found in Xanthomonas albilineans. Unlike X. albilineans, all three strains possess a gum gene cluster. The data reported here provide the first genome-wide survey of non-Hrp Xanthomonas species other than Xanthomonas albilineans, which is an atypical member of this group. We hope that the availability of complete sequence data for this group of organisms is the first step towards understanding their interactions with plants and identifying potential virulence factors. PMID:24710305

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Xanthomonas sacchari and Two Banana-Associated Xanthomonads Reveal Insights into the Xanthomonas Group 1 Clade.

    PubMed

    Studholme, David J; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray

    2011-12-02

    We present draft genome sequences for three strains of Xanthomonas species, each of which was associated with banana plants (Musa species) but is not closely related to the previously sequenced banana-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum. Strain NCPPB4393 had been deposited as Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum but in fact falls within the species Xanthomonas sacchari. Strain NCPPB1132 is more distantly related to Xanthomonas sacchari whilst strain NCPPB 1131 grouped in a distinct species-level clade related to X. sacchari, along with strains from ginger, rice, cotton and sugarcane. These three newly sequenced strains share many genomic features with the previously sequenced Xanthomonas albilineans, for example possessing an unsual metE allele and lacking the Hrp type III secretion system. However, they are distinct from Xanthomonas albilineans in many respects, for example showing little evidence of genome reduction. They also lack the SPI-1 type III secretion system found in Xanthomonas albilineans. Unlike X. albilineans, all three strains possess a gum gene cluster. The data reported here provide the first genome-wide survey of non-Hrp Xanthomonas species other than Xanthomonas albilineans, which is an atypical member of this group. We hope that the availability of complete sequence data for this group of organisms is the first step towards understanding their interactions with plants and identifying potential virulence factors.

  13. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  14. The abundant class III chitinase homolog in young developing banana fruits behaves as a transient vegetative storage protein and most probably serves as an important supply of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L; Van Damme, Els J M

    2002-10-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas.

  15. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  16. Cryopreservation of scalps of Malaysian bananas using a pre-growth method.

    PubMed

    Sipen, Philip; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of preculture with different sugars and mannitol on cryopreservation of scalps of the banana (Musa) cvs. Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak was investigated. Scalps (0.3 square cm) were precultured on semi-solid MS-based medium, containing 0.4 or 0.5 M sucrose, glucose, fructose, trehalose or mannitol, for 14 days under a 16 h light and 8 h dark photoperiod prior to rapid cooling and storage in liquid nitrogen. Explants were rewarmed rapidly in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min, followed by recovery on two layers of sterile filter paper overlaying 25 ml aliquots of semi-solid MS-based medium with 5 mg per liter benzylaminopurine, 0.2 mg per liter indole acetic acid and 10 mg per liter ascorbic acid (PM8 medium) for 2 days in the dark. Subsequently, scalps were transferred onto 25 ml aliquots of semi-solid PM8 medium and incubated in the dark for 1 week prior to incubation in the light. Shoot regeneration from 5 - 48 percent of cryopreserved scalps of all the banana cvs., was observed only following preculture with 0.4 or 0.5 M glucose or fructose, and with 0.4 M trehalose for the cvs. Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. Preculture with 0.4 M glucose resulted in maximum shoot regeneration of cryopreserved scalps of 10 percent, 13 percent, 42 percent and 48 percent for the cvs. Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak, respectively. Concentrations of 0.5 M trehalose, or 0.4 and 0.5 M sucrose or mannitol were extremely toxic to scalps of all the cvs. investigated.

  17. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of MaCOL1, a CONSTANS-like gene in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Chen, Jian-Ye; Wang, Jun-Ning; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Shan, Wei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2012-04-01

    CONSTANS (CO) gene is a key transcription regulator that controls the long-day induction of flowering in Arabidopsis plant. However, CO gene involved in fruit ripening and stress responses is poorly understood. In the present study, a novel cDNA encoding CONSTANS-like gene, designated as MaCOL1 was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. The full length cDNA sequence was 1887bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1242bp, encoding 414 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46.20kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.40. Sequence alignment showed that MaCOL1 contained two B-box zinc finger motifs and a CCT domain. In addition, MaCOL1 showed transcriptional activity in yeast and was a nucleus-localized protein. Real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCOL1 was differentially expressed among various banana plant organs, with higher expression in flower. Expression of MaCOL1 in peel changed slightly, while accumulation of MaCOL1 transcripts in pulp obviously increased during natural or ethylene-induced fruit ripening, suggesting that MaCOL1 might be associated with the pulp ripening of banana fruit. Moreover, accumulation of MaCOL1 transcript was obviously enhanced by abiotic and biotic stresses, such as chilling and pathogen Colletotrichum musae infection. Taken together, our results suggest that MaCOL1 is a transcription activator and may be involved in fruit ripening and stress responses.

  19. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  20. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-04

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  1. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  2. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Bactrocera musae, B. occipitalis, and B. philippinensis to establish low-prevalence places of production... designed to prevent the introduction of the following quarantine pests: Bactrocera musae (Tryon), Bactrocera occipitalis (Bezzi), and Bactrocera philippinensis (Drew and Hancock), fruit flies;...

  3. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  4. Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress.

    PubMed

    Mahouachi, Jalel; López-Climent, María F; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. "Grand Nain") subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  5. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of <212, 212-315, 316-500 and 501-700μm were characterized for their physical, functional and antioxidant properties. Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed.

  6. Two banana cultivars differ in composition of potentially immunomodulatory mannan and arabinogalactan.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tânia M; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi-Lysenko, Beatriz Rosana

    2017-05-15

    Banana (Musa acuminata and M. acuminata x M. balbisiana) fruit cell walls are rich in mannans, homogalacturonans and xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, and arabinogalactans, certain forms of which is considered to have immunomodulatory activity. The cultivars Nanicão and Thap Maeo represent two widely variants with respect to compositional differences in the forms of these polysaccharides. Nanicão has low amounts of mannan in the water-insoluble and water-soluble fraction. Both cultivars have high amounts of water-soluble arabinogalactan. These commelinoid monocots lack the (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucans of grasses, but Thap Maeo has higher amounts of non-starch glucans associated with wild species than does Nanicão. High amount of callose was found in both cultivars. As immunomodulatory activity is associated with the fine structure and interaction of these polysaccharides, breeding programs to introgress disease resistance from wild species must account for these special structural features in retaining fruit quality and beneficial properties.

  7. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    López-Climent, María F.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain”) subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress. PMID:24977208

  8. Patterns of variability in the diameter of lateral roots in the banana root system.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, François; Pagès, Loïc; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2005-09-01

    The relative importance of root system structure, plant carbon status and soil environment in the determination of lateral root diameter remains unclear, and was investigated in this study. Banana (Musa acuminata) plants were grown at various moderate levels of soil compaction in two distinct experiments, in a field experiment (FE) and in a glasshouse experiment (GE). Radiant flux density was 5 times lower in GE. The distribution of root diameter was measured for several root branching orders. Root diameters ranged between 0.09 and 0.52 mm for secondary roots and between 0.06 and 0.27 mm for tertiary roots. A relationship was found between the diameter of the parent bearing root and the median diameter of its laterals, which appears to be valid for a wide range of species. Mean lateral root diameter increased with distance to the base of the root and decreased with branching density [number of lateral roots per unit length of bearing root (cm(-1))]. Typical symptoms of low light availability were observed in GE. In this case, lateral root diameter variability was reduced. Although primary root growth was affected by soil compaction, no effects on lateral root diameter were observed.

  9. A 3-Vinyl Cephem Derivative, a Useful Intermediate in the Synthesis of Cepham Antibiotics, from Aspergillus awamori Associated with Banana Fruit.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M S K H; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Masubuti, Hironori; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus awamori was isolated from a diseased banana fruit, Musa acuminata cv. Ambul. The fungus was fermented in potato dextrose broth and on potato dextrose agar media and the fungal media were extracted with EtOAc. Chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extracts furnished 4-methoxybenzyl 7-phenylacetamido-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate (1), along with three naphtho-γ-pyrones, flavasperone (2), foncesinone A (3) and aurasperone A (4), and three alkaloids, aspernigrin A (5), pestalamide C (6) and nigragillin (7). Compound 1, a known key intermediate in the chemical synthesis of cepham antibiotics, was isolated from a natural source for the first time. Compound 1 is the first 3-vinyl cephem derivative of microbial origin.

  10. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  11. Postharvest quality of specialty bananas after irradiation for quarantine security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit quality and ripening of 'Dwarf Brazilian' ("apple") bananas were determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. The USDA-approved minimum absorbed dosage for banana exports from Hawaii is either 400 Gy with inspection for the presence of banana moth, or 150 Gy ...

  12. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments.

  13. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  14. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    PubMed

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  15. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  16. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  17. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L.; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F.; Amorim, Edson P.; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F.; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J.; Pignolet, Luc; Abadie, Catherine; Ciampi, Ana Y.; Piffanelli, Pietro; Miller, Robert N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement. Methodology cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-infected leaves from BLSD-resistant M. acuminata ssp. burmaniccoides Calcutta 4 (MAC4) and susceptible M. acuminata cv. Cavendish Grande Naine (MACV). Clones were 5′-end Sanger sequenced, ESTs assembled with TGICL and unigenes annotated using BLAST, Blast2GO and InterProScan. Mreps was used to screen for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with markers evaluated for polymorphism using 20 diploid (AA) M. acuminata accessions contrasting in resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases. Principal results A total of 9333 high-quality ESTs were obtained for MAC4 and 3964 for MACV, which assembled into 3995 unigenes. Of these, 2592 displayed homology to genes encoding proteins with known or putative function, and 266 to genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Gene ontology (GO) classification identified 543 GO terms, 2300 unigenes were assigned to EuKaryotic orthologous group categories and 312 mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 624 SSR loci were identified, with trinucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant in MAC4 (54.1 %) and MACV (57.6 %). Polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions was observed with 75 markers. Alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, totalling 289. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.81. Conclusions This EST collection offers a resource for studying functional genes, including

  18. Silicon Isotope Fractionation by Banana Under Continuous Nutrient and Silica Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Henriet, C.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon is absorbed by plants as aqueous H4SiO4 with other essential nutrients, and precipitates in aerial parts of the plant as phytolith, a biogenic opal. Phytoliths are restored to the soil by decomposition of organic debris from plant material. The role of higher plants in the biogeochemical cycle of silicon is therefore major although it is still poorly studied. Biomineralization processes are known to fractionate the three stable silicon isotopes with a preferential uptake of light isotopes. Therefore, following some preliminary results from Douthitt (1982), and studies presented in recent conferences (Ziegler et al., 2002; Ding et al., 2003), we suspect that phytolith production by plants could also fractionate the silicon isotopes. Inversely, intensity of phytolith-related isotopic fractionations might contribute to a better understanding of the soil-plant silicon cycle. Our study focused on banana, a silicon accumulating plant (>1% Si, dry weight).Musa acuminata cv Grande Naine has been grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions (light, temperature, humidity, nutrients) during six weeks. The nutrient supply was kept constant: three batches of five plants were grown with a continuous nutrient solution flow of 5, 50 and 100 ppm SiO2 respectively. Si isotopic compositions were measured in the source solution, and in silica extracted from the various parts of banana (roots, pseudostems, midribs and petioles, leaves), using a Nu Plasma multicollector mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) operating in dry plasma mode. The results are expressed as δ 29Si relatively to the NBS28 standard, with an average precision of ± 0.03‰ . Silicon contents and morphological studies of phytoliths were also achieved. Banana δ 29Si varied between -0.18 and -0.76‰ with a source solution at -0.02‰ . Values of δ 29Si were less fractionated, relatively to the nutrient solution, in roots, where no phytoliths have been observed until now, than in upper parts of banana where

  19. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  20. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  1. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  2. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-04-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1-MaDof25 Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening.

  3. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-01-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1–MaDof25. Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening. PMID:26889012

  4. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  5. Development and assessment of Diversity Arrays Technology for high-throughput DNA analyses in Musa.

    PubMed

    Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Xia, Ling; Caig, Vanessa; Evers, Margaret; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a DNA hybridisation-based molecular marker technique that can detect simultaneously variation at numerous genomic loci without sequence information. This efficiency makes it a potential tool for a quick and powerful assessment of the structure of germplasm collections. This article demonstrates the usefulness of DArT markers for genetic diversity analyses of Musa spp. genotypes. We developed four complexity reduction methods to generate DArT genomic representations and we tested their performance using 48 reference Musa genotypes. For these four complexity reduction methods, DArT markers displayed high polymorphism information content. We selected the two methods which generated the most polymorphic genomic representations (PstI/BstNI 16.8%, PstI/TaqI 16.1%) to analyze a panel of 168 Musa genotypes from two of the most important field collections of Musa in the world: Cirad (Neufchateau, Guadeloupe), and IITA (Ibadan, Nigeria). Since most edible cultivars are derived from two wild species, Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), the study is restricted mostly to accessions of these two species and those derived from them. The genomic origin of the markers can help resolving the pedigree of valuable genotypes of unknown origin. A total of 836 markers were identified and used for genotyping. Ten percent of them were specific to the A genome and enabled targeting this genome portion in relatedness analysis among diverse ploidy constitutions. DArT markers revealed genetic relationships among Musa genotype consistent with those provided by the other markers technologies, but at a significantly higher resolution and speed and reduced cost.

  6. Numerical assessment of nutrient assimilative capacity of Khur-e-Musa in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, A; Zaker, N Hadjizadeh; Niksokhan, M H

    2015-01-01

    Khur-e-Musa is a predominantly tide-driven marine creek located in the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf. The port city of Mahshahr and several important industrial enterprises are located in the vicinity of this marine creek. Therefore, marine pollution due to discharge from regional industries into this water body has been a matter of interest for environmental studies. In this paper, nutrient assimilative capacity of the Khur-e-Musa during the summer time was studied. In order to perform any engineering project or marine environment study related to Khur-e-Musa, the prediction of currents is an essential task. Therefore, MIKE 3-FM hydrodynamic and quality model was used to simulate nutrients and chlorophyll a concentrations. OECD open boundary index was used to determine the trophic status probabilities. Different scenarios were defined and simulated to find the minimum nutrient load that causes eutrophication in all parts of Khur-e-Musa simultaneously. The results showed assimilative capacity of 7,180 kg/day TN and 1,305 kg/day TP for Khur-e-Musa.

  7. Allergy to banana in a 5-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2004-06-01

    Food proteins can sensitize the infants via different sources. A 5-month-old boy suffered three episodes of generalized urticaria 20 min after the ingestion of a fruit purée containing apple, banana and orange. Skin testing showed positive results to banana and chestnut. Other tests were negative. The value of specific immunoglobulin E (Pharmacia CAP-FEIA, Uppsala, Sweden) to banana was 58 KU/l, to orange was 9.7 KU/l, to chestnut was 5.6 KU/l and to latex was 1.6 KU/l. Orange, apple and latex products were well tolerated. He never had eaten chestnut. The parents rejected a banana challenge test. The route of sensitization in our case might be via placenta, breast-milk, and inadvertent oral intake of food or even via inhalation. An early frequent exposure to banana allergens was considered a possibility factor for the development of banana sensitization. We found that the banana consumption during pregnancy and lactation by the mother of our patient was greater than usual. It is not frequent to find so high levels of sensitization to any fruit in first year of life. In our case, latex, chestnut and orange sensitizations did not seem to be clinically relevant. However, latex and foods known to cross-react with banana antigens should be given to banana-sensitive individuals with great caution.

  8. Fruit physical characteristics, proximate, mineral and starch characterization of FHIA 19 and FHIA 20 plantain and FHIA 03 cooking banana hybrids.

    PubMed

    Annor, George Amponsah; Asamoah-Bonti, Prudence; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cooking banana and plantain (Musa spp. AAB and ABB groups), have over the years been affected by pest and diseases, resulting in various organizations developing disease resistant hybrids with superior agronomic potential. The characteristics of these improved varieties needs to be studied to ascertain their suitability for use in various food systems. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics, proximate and minerals composition, and characterizing the starch of plantain and a cooking banana hybrid release by Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola (FHIA), and comparing them to a local landrace in Ghana. FHIA 19 and FHIA 20 plantain, Apentu pa (a local landrace) and FHIA 03 cooking banana hybrid were used for the study. Their physical characteristics, proximate and mineral composition were determined at the proximal, midsection and distal hand positions. Starch granules and cells were then examined under light microscope. Ranges obtained for protein content for FHIA 20, FHIA 03 and FHIA 19 were 3.01-3.40, 2.66-2.91 and 2.81-2.91 %. Potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral in all the cultivars. The highest mean value of 982.5-1013.76 mg/100 g was obtained for FHIA 19. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the proximate and mineral composition of the varieties, however no significant difference exited between the hand positions. The largest starch granule size was found in FHIA 19 hybrid. FHIA 03 was also composed predominantly of two types: longitudinal and rounded granules with each type grouped together. The new plantain hybrids compared very well with the local landrace hence making them suitable to be incorporated into local food systems.

  9. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  10. A lectin isolated from bananas is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Michael D; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Markovitz, David M

    2010-03-19

    BanLec is a jacalin-related lectin isolated from the fruit of bananas, Musa acuminata. This lectin binds to high mannose carbohydrate structures, including those found on viruses containing glycosylated envelope proteins such as human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that BanLec might inhibit HIV-1 through binding of the glycosylated HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. We determined that BanLec inhibits primary and laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates of different tropisms and subtypes. BanLec possesses potent anti-HIV activity, with IC(50) values in the low nanomolar to picomolar range. The mechanism for BanLec-mediated antiviral activity was investigated by determining if this lectin can directly bind the HIV-1 envelope protein and block entry of the virus into the cell. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed direct binding of BanLec to gp120 and indicated that BanLec can recognize the high mannose structures that are recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2G12. Furthermore, BanLec is able to block HIV-1 cellular entry as indicated by temperature-sensitive viral entry studies and by the decreased levels of the strong-stop product of early reverse transcription seen in the presence of BanLec. Thus, our data indicate that BanLec inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to the glycosylated viral envelope and blocking cellular entry. The relative anti-HIV activity of BanLec compared favorably to other anti-HIV lectins, such as snowdrop lectin and Griffithsin, and to T-20 and maraviroc, two anti-HIV drugs currently in clinical use. Based on these results, BanLec is a potential component for an anti-viral microbicide that could be used to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1.

  11. Functional Characterization of Enzymes Forming Volatile Esters from Strawberry and Banana[w

    PubMed Central

    Beekwilder, Jules; Alvarez-Huerta, Mayte; Neef, Evert; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Aharoni, Asaph

    2004-01-01

    Volatile esters are flavor components of the majority of fruits. The last step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by alcohol acyltransferases (AATs), which link alcohols to acyl moieties. Full-length cDNAs putatively encoding AATs were isolated from fruit of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and banana (Musa sapientum) and compared to the previously isolated SAAT gene from the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). The potential role of these enzymes in fruit flavor formation was assessed. To this end, recombinant enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli, and their activities were analyzed for a variety of alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. When the results of these activity assays were compared to a phylogenetic analysis of the various members of the acyltransferase family, it was clear that substrate preference could not be predicted on the basis of sequence similarity. In addition, the substrate preference of recombinant enzymes was not necessarily reflected in the representation of esters in the corresponding fruit volatile profiles. This suggests that the specific profile of a given fruit species is to a significant extent determined by the supply of precursors. To study the in planta activity of an alcohol acyltransferase and to assess the potential for metabolic engineering of ester production, we generated transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants overexpressing the SAAT gene. While the expression of SAAT and the activity of the corresponding enzyme were readily detected in transgenic plants, the volatile profile was found to be unaltered. Feeding of isoamyl alcohol to explants of transgenic lines resulted in the emission of the corresponding acetyl ester. This confirmed that the availability of alcohol substrates is an important parameter to consider when engineering volatile ester formation in plants. PMID:15326278

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags derived from a compatible Mycosphaerella fijiensis-banana interaction.

    PubMed

    Portal, Orelvis; Izquierdo, Yovanny; De Vleesschauwer, David; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Milady; Acosta-Suárez, Mayra; Ocaña, Bárbara; Jiménez, Elio; Höfte, Monica

    2011-05-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, a hemibiotrophic fungus, is the causal agent of black leaf streak disease, the most serious foliar disease of bananas and plantains. To analyze the compatible interaction of M. fijiensis with Musa spp., a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed to identify transcripts induced at late stages of infection in the host and the pathogen. In addition, a full-length cDNA library was created from the same mRNA starting material as the SSH library. The SSH procedure was effective in identifying specific genes predicted to be involved in plant-fungal interactions and new information was obtained mainly about genes and pathways activated in the plant. Several plant genes predicted to be involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and detoxification compounds were identified, as well as pathogenesis-related proteins that could be involved in the plant response against M. fijiensis infection. At late stages of infection, jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling transduction pathways appear to be active, which corresponds with the necrotrophic life style of M. fijiensis. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that antifungal genes encoding PR proteins and GDSL-like lipase are only transiently induced 30 days post inoculation (dpi), indicating that the fungus is probably actively repressing plant defense. The only fungal gene found was induced 37 dpi and encodes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of trehalose. Trehalose biosynthesis was probably induced in response to prior activation of plant antifungal genes and may act as an osmoprotectant against membrane damage.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the DNA-binding with one zinc finger (Dof) transcription factor family in bananas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-12-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) domain proteins are a multigene family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we report a genome-wide search for Musa acuminata Dof (MaDof) genes and their expression profiles at different developmental stages and in response to various abiotic stresses. In addition, a complete overview of the Dof gene family in bananas is presented, including the gene structures, chromosomal locations, cis-regulatory elements, conserved protein domains, and phylogenetic inferences. Based on the genome-wide analysis, we identified 74 full-length protein-coding MaDof genes unevenly distributed on 11 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis with Dof members from diverse plant species showed that MaDof genes can be classified into four subgroups (StDof I, II, III, and IV). The detailed genomic information of the MaDof gene homologs in the present study provides opportunities for functional analyses to unravel the exact role of the genes in plant growth and development.

  14. The diversification and activity of hAT transposons in Musa genomes.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Heitkam, Tony; Seibt, Kathrin M; Nouroz, Faisal; Müller-Stoermer, Manuela; Heslop-Harrison, John S; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing of plant genomes often identified the hAT superfamily as the largest group of DNA transposons. Nevertheless, detailed information on the diversity, abundance and chromosomal localization of plant hAT families are rare. By in silico analyses of the reference genome assembly and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences, respectively, we performed the classification and molecular characterization of hAT transposon families in Musa acuminata. Musa hAT transposons are organized in three families designated MuhAT I, MuhAT II and MuhAT III. In total, 70 complete autonomous elements of the MuhAT I and MuhAT II families were detected, while no autonomous MuhAT III transposons were found. Based on the terminal inverted repeat (TIR)-specific sequence information of the autonomous transposons, 1722 MuhAT I- and MuhAT II-specific miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MuhMITEs) were identified. Autonomous MuhAT I and MuhAT II elements are only moderately abundant in the sections of the genus Musa, while the corresponding MITEs exhibit an amplification in Musa genomes. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), autonomous MuhAT transposons as well as MuhMITEs were localized in subtelomeric, most likely gene-rich regions of M. acuminata chromosomes. A comparison of homoeologous regions of M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana BACs revealed the species-specific mobility of MuhMITEs. In particular, the activity of MuhMITEs II showing transduplications of genomic sequences might indicate the presence of active MuhAT transposons, thus suggesting a potential role of MuhMITEs as modulators of genome evolution of Musa.

  15. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  16. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  17. Using banana to generate lactic acid through batch process fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chan-Blanco, Y; Bonilla-Leiva, A R; Velázquez, A C

    2003-12-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of waste banana for generating lactic acid through batch fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei under three treatments. Two treatments consisted of substrates of diluted banana purée, one of which was enriched with salts and amino acids. The control treatment comprised a substrate suitable for L. casei growth. When fermentation was evaluated over time, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in the three treatments for each of five variables analyzed (generation and productivity of lactic acid, and consumption of glucose, fructose, and sucrose). Maximum productivity was (in g l(-1) h(-1)) 0.13 for the regular banana treatment, 1.49 for the enriched banana, and 1.48 for the control, with no significant differences found between the latter two treatments. Glucose consumption curves showed that L. casei made greater use of the substrate in the enriched banana and control treatments than in the regular banana treatment. For fructose intake, the enriched banana treatment showed significantly better (P<0.05) results than the regular one. Sucrose consumption was insignificant (P<0.05), probably because fermentation time was too short. Even when enriched, diluted banana purée is an ineffective substrate for L. casei, probably because it lacks nutrients.

  18. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  19. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  20. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  1. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  2. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  3. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  4. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Subfamily IV (HDZ IV) Gene Family from Musa accuminata

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Alok, Anshu; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Shivani; Lakhwani, Deepika; Asif, Mehar H.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP) of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV) has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV encoding genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana, and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV encoding genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV encoding genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs. PMID:26870050

  6. Laser photoacoustic system for characterization of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits in postharvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, G.; Lai, A.; Piccinelli, D.; Puiu, A.

    2005-06-01

    The emission of ethylene from climacteric fruit banana (Musa x paradisiaca L.) and non climacteric fruits lemon (Citrus limon Burm. F.) at different stages of ripening (from a few days after setting to full maturity stage) by the Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy System, developed in ENEA Frascati, was measured. A high ethylene production rate from mature banana fruit was found, as expected for climacteric fruit. Significant differences between ethylene emitted by the lemon after setting stage and by the young fruit were observed. Also ethylene emission from lemon fruits at different ripening stages (from light green to turning and full ripe) was detected. Depending on the ripening stage, differences in ethylene emission rates were found, although the emissions were low as expected for non-climacteric fruit.

  7. Diploid Musa acuminata genetic diversity assayed with sequence-tagged microsatellite sites.

    PubMed

    Grapin, A; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Dambier, D; Baurens, F C; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1998-06-01

    The sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) discrimination potential was explored using nine microsatellite primer pairs. STMS polymorphism was assayed by nonradioactive urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genetic relationships were examined among 59 genotypes of wild or cultivated accessions of diploid Musa acuminata. The organization of the subspecies was confirmed and some clone relationships were clarified.

  8. Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Musa sapientum Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul

    2011-01-01

    Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of banana streak virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hull, R

    1998-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of the Badnavirus group of plant viruses, causes severe problems in banana cultivation, reducing fruit yield and restricting plant breeding and the movement of germplasm. Current detection methods are relatively insensitive. In order to develop a PCR-based diagnostic method that is both reliable and sensitive, the genome of a Nigerian isolate of BSV has been sequenced and shown to comprise 7389 bp and to be organized in a manner characteristic of badnaviruses. Comparison of this sequence with those of other badnaviruses showed that BSV is a distinct virus. PCR with primers based on sequence data indicated that BSV sequences are present in the banana genome.

  10. An improved choice of oscillator basis for banana shaped nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The question of the appropriate choice of oscillator basis functions for studying exotic nuclear shapes is raised. Difficulties with the conventional choice of oscillator basis states are noted for shapes having a large banana component. A prescription for an improved oscillator basis to study these shapes is given. It can be applied in a more general context. New calculations with this improved basis are presented for the banana deformation mode. The change of basis gives results that improve the prospects of finding states in the banana minimum for many isotopes of Tl, Pb and Bi.

  11. Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of Bananas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.

    2002-04-01

    We have developed an experiment for nutritional/introductory biochemistry courses that focuses on carbohydrate analysis--specifically, the carbohydrates found in bananas and the change in carbohydrate composition as the banana ripens. Pairs of students analyze the starch and reducing sugar content of green, ripe, and overripe bananas. Using the techniques and knowledge gained from these analyses, they then investigate the influence of various storage methods on the ripening process. While this experiment was developed for an introductory-level biochemistry lab, it can easily be adapted for use in other laboratory programs that seek to teach the fundamentals of carbohydrate analysis.

  12. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  13. Mining of EST-SSR markers of Musa and their transferability studies among the members of order the Zingiberales.

    PubMed

    Backiyarani, S; Uma, S; Varatharj, P; Saraswathi, M S

    2013-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases of 11 Musa complementary DNA libraries were retrieved from National Center of Biotechnology Information and used for mining simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Out of 21,056 unique ESTs, SSR regions were found only in 5,158 ESTs. Among these SSR containing ESTs, the occurrence of trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant followed by mono-, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and pentanucleotides. Moreover, this study showed that the rate of class II SSRs (<20 nucleotides) was higher than the class I SSRs (<20 nucleotides), and proportion of class I and II SSRs as abundant for tri-repeats. As a representative sample, primers were synthesized for 24 ESTs, carrying >12 nucleotides of SSR region, and tested among the various genomic group of Musa accessions. The result showed that 88 % of primers were functional primers, and 43 % are showing polymorphism among the Musa accessions. Transferability studies of Musa EST-SSRs among the genera of the order Zingiberales exhibited 100 and 58 % transferability in Musaceae and Zingiberaceae, respectively. The sequence comparison of SSR regions among the different Musa accessions confirmed that polymorphism is mainly due to the variation in repeat length. High percentage of cross-species, cross-genera, and cross-family transferability also suggested that these Musa EST-SSR markers will be a valuable resource for the comparative mapping by developing COS markers, in evolutionary studies and in improvement of the members of Zingiberaceae and Musaceae.

  14. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  15. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    PubMed

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  16. Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Mohan Kumar, M; Joshi, M C; Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K

    2006-04-01

    Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect

  17. Banana Ripening: Implications of Changes in Glycolytic Intermediate Concentrations, Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Carbon Flux, and Fructose 2,6-Bisphosphate Concentration 1

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, Randolph M.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.; Kays, Stanley J.

    1989-01-01

    In ripening banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Valery) fruit, the concentration of glycolytic intermediates increased in response to the rapid conversion of starch to sugars and CO2. Glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose 6-phosphate (Fru 6-P), and pyruvate (Pyr) levels changed in synchrony, increasing to a maximum one day past the peak in ethylene synthesis and declining rapidly thereafter. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru 1,6-P2) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) levels underwent changes dissimilar to those of G 6-P, Fru 6-P, and Pyr, indicating that carbon was regulated at the PEP/Pyr and Fru 6-P/Fru 1,6-P2 interconversion sites. During the climacteric respiratory rise, gluconeogenic carbon flux increased 50- to 100-fold while glycolytic carbon flux increased only 4- to 5-fold. After the climacteric peak in CO2 production, gluconeogenic carbon flux dropped dramatically while glycolytic carbon flux remained elevated. The steady-state fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru 2,6-P2) concentration decreased to ½ that of preclimacteric fruit during the period coinciding with the rapid increase in gluconeogenesis. Fru 2,6-P2 concentration increased thereafter as glycolytic carbon flux increased relative to gluconeogenic carbon flux. It appears likely that the initial increase in respiration in ripening banana fruit is due to the rapid influx of carbon into the cytosol as starch is degraded. As starch reserves are depleted and the levels of intermediates decline, the continued enhancement of respiration may, in part, be maintained by an increased steady-state Fru 2,6-P2 concentration acting to promote glycolytic carbon flux at the step responsible for the interconversion of Fru 6-P and Fru 1,6-P2. PMID:16667198

  18. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  19. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  20. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  1. Assessment of the Validity of the Sections in Musa (Musaceae) using AFLP

    PubMed Central

    WONG, CAROL; KIEW, RUTH; ARGENT, GEORGE; SET, OHN; LEE, SING KONG; GAN, YIK YUEN

    2002-01-01

    Musa L. (Musaceae) is currently separated into five sections (Musa, Rhodochlamys, Callimusa, Australimusa and Ingentimusa) based on chromosome numbers and morphological characters. However, the validation of this classification system is questioned due to the common occurrence of hybridizations across sections and the system not accommodating anomalous species. This study employed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in a phenetic examination of the relationships among four sections (material of sect. Ingentimusa was not available) to evaluate whether their genetic differences justify distinction into separate groups. Using eight primer combinations, a total of 276 bands was scored, of which 275 were polymorphic. Among the monomorphic bands, 11 unique markers were identified that revealed the distinct separation of the 11‐chromosome species from the 10‐chromosome species. AFLP results suggest that species of sect. Rhodochlamys should be combined into a single section with species of sect. Musa, and likewise for species of sect. Australimusa to be merged with those of sect. Callimusa. PMID:12197520

  2. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  3. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  4. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States. The... INFORMATION: Background In a proposed rule \\1\\ titled ``Importation of Fresh Bananas from the Philippines...

  5. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  6. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event.

  7. Aseptic Culture Systems of Radopholus similis for In Vitro Assays on Musa spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Elsen, A; Lens, K; Nguyet, D T; Broos, S; Stoffelen, R; De Waele, D

    2001-06-01

    Radopholus similis is one of the most damaging nematodes in bananas. Chemical control is currently the most-used method, but nematode control through genetic improvement is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to establish an aseptic culture system for R. similis and determine whether R. similis can infect and reproduce on in vitro banana plantlets and in vitro Arabidopsis thaliana. In the study's first part, a suitable aseptic culture system was developed using alfalfa callus. Radopholus similis could penetrate and reproduce in the callus. Six weeks after inoculation with 25 females, the reproduction ratio was 26.3 and all vermiform stages were present. The reproduction ratio increased to 223.2 after 12 weeks. Results of a greenhouse test showed that R. similis did not lose its pathogenicity after culturing on alfalfa callus. In the study's second part, the infection and reproduction of the nematodes cultured on the callus were studied on both in vitro banana plantlets and A. thaliana. Radopholus similis infected and reproduced on both banana and A. thaliana. Furthermore, nematode damage was observed in the root systems of both hosts. These successful infections open new perspectives for rapid in vitro screening for resistance in banana cultivars and anti-nematode proteins expressed in A. thaliana.

  8. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs.

  9. Genetic variants of Banana streak virus in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y; Khorugdharry, Ashwin; Harper, Glyn

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variations among isolates of Banana streak virus (BSV) were assessed using two sets of primers. The virus, found in banana accessions in Mauritius, was compared to a Nigerian isolate from cultivar Obino l'Ewai (BSOEV). On the basis of the observed size of amplicons, some Mauritius strains were different from l'Ewai BSOEV. Both Southern blot hybridization and the nucleotide sequences of the PCR products confirmed that they were of episomal BSV origin. An isolate of sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV) was found to be also very similar to the BSV isolated from banana samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that even the same size PCR products had differing sequences. The dendrogram placed the isolates from Mauritius in a cluster separate from BSV and SCBV from other geographical locations.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  11. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    PubMed

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  12. Visualization of internal structure of banana starch granule through AFM.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2015-09-05

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from bananas and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green bananas showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe bananas showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits.

  13. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  14. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  15. Evaluation of Musa spp. hybrids for resistance to black Sigatoka, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas and plantains are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black and yellow Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola respectively, are responsible for significant losses of these crops ...

  16. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  17. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  18. Digestion of waste bananas to generate energy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Radnidge, P; Lai, T E; Jensen, P D; Hardin, M T

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory studies to measure the methane yield and rate of digestion of reject bananas. These parameters were determined in experiments that took into account the likely configuration of a full-scale plant in the banana growing region of north Queensland. The digestion was conducted in a 200-l reactor using fed-batch operation, relying entirely on the natural microbial consortia on the reject bananas to avoid reliance on external inocula such as sludge, an undesirable material around food packaging facilities. An enrichment culture was first established in a highly buffered 200-l batch digestion unit. The fed-batch digester was then started by exchanging leachate with the mature batch reactor. Under loading conditions of 0.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) over 70 days where the average working volume was 160 l, the digester produced 398+/-20 l CH4 kg VS(-1). Increasing the loading rate to 1.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) resulted in a reduced methane yield of 210 l CH4 kg VS(-1) over 23 days of operation, with a concomitant accumulation of banana waste in the digester. The leachate at the end of digestion contained over 4000 mg l(-1)K, 200 mg l(-1) N and 75 mg l(-1), levels that exceed acceptable limits for general agricultural irrigation.

  19. Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-06-25

    Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality.

  20. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G B Sunil; Ganapathi, T R; Revathi, C J; Srinivas, L; Bapat, V A

    2005-10-01

    Embryogenic cells of bananan cv. Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the 's' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Four different expression cassettes (pHBS, pHER, pEFEHBS and pEFEHER) were utilized to optimize the expression of HBsAg in banana. The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. Maximum expression level of 38 ng/g F.W. of leaves was noted in plants transformed with pEFEHBS grown under in vitro conditions, whereas pHER transformed plants grown in the green house showed the maximum expression level of 19.92 ng/g F.W. of leaves. Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. The buoyant density in CsCl of HBsAg derived from transgenic banana leaves was determined and found to be 1.146 g/ml. HBsAg obtained from transgenic banana plants is similar to human serum derived one in buoyant density properties. The transgenic plants were grown up to maturity in the green house and the expression of HBsAg in the fruits was confirmed by RT-PCR. These transgenic plants were multiplied under in vitro using floral apex cultures. Attempts were also made to enhance the expression of HBsAg in the leaves of transgenic banana plants by wounding and/or treatment with plant growth regulators. This is the first report on the expression of HBsAg in transgenic banana fruits.

  1. Utility of selected non-coding chloroplast DNA sequences for lineage assessment of Musa interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Swangpol, Sasivimon; Volkaert, Hugo; Sotto, Rachel C; Seelanan, Tosak

    2007-07-31

    Single-copy chloroplast loci are used widely to infer phylogenetic relationship at different taxonomic levels among various groups of plants. To test the utility of chloroplast loci and to provide additional data applicable to hybrid evolution in Musa, we sequenced two introns, rpl16 and ndhA, and two intergenic spacers, psaA-ycf3 and petA-psbJ-psbL-psbF and combined these data. Using these four regions, Musa acuminata Colla (A)- and M. balbisiana Colla (B)-containing genomes were clearly distinguished. Some triploid interspecific hybrids contain A-type chloroplasts (the AAB/ABB) while others contain B-type chloroplasts (the BBA/BBB). The chloroplasts of all cultivars in 'Namwa' (BBA) group came from the same wild maternal origin, but the specific parents are still unrevealed. Though, average sequence divergences in each region were little (less than 2%), we propose that petA-psbJ intergenic spacer could be developed for diversity assessment within each genome. This segment contains three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two indels which could distinguish diversity within A genome whereas this same region also contains one SNP and an indel which could categorize B genome. However, an inverted repeat region which could form hairpin structure was detected in this spacer and thus was omitted from the analyses due to their incongruence to other regions. Until thoroughly identified in other members of Musaceae and Zingiberales clade, utility of this inverted repeat as phylogenetic marker in these taxa are cautioned.

  2. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents

    PubMed Central

    Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration. PMID:23900937

  3. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  4. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species.

  5. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  6. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  7. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  8. The diversity of Banana streak virus isolates in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hart, D; Moult, S; Hull, R; Geering, A; Thomas, J

    2005-12-01

    In a study of the variation among isolates of Banana streak virus (BSV) in Uganda, 140 sequences were obtained from 49 samples by PCR across the conserved reverse transcriptase/RNaseH region of the genome. Pairwise comparison of these sequences suggested that they represented 15 different species and phylogenetic analyses showed that all species fell into three major clades based on 28% sequence difference. In addition to the Ugandan sequences, clade I also contained BSV species that are known as both integrated sequences and episomal viruses; clade II also contained integrated BSV sequences but which have not previously been identified as episomal viruses. Clade III comprised of Sugarcane bacilliform virus isolates and Ugandan BSV sequences and for which there is no evidence of integration. The possible reasons for the extraordinary levels of virus sequence variation and the potential origins and epidemiology of these viruses causing banana streak disease are discussed.

  9. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  10. Molecular characterisation of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Imran; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Ilyas, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2008-02-01

    Banana bunchy top disease is caused by a single-stranded circular DNA virus, banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is a member of the genus Babuvirus (family Nanoviridae). We have cloned and sequenced five components (DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C) of a BBTV isolate originating from Pakistan. In addition, the DNA-R and several other components of five further isolates, originating from geographically distinct sites across the banana-growing area of Sindh province, Pakistan, were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences indicates that BBTV present in Pakistan belongs to the "South Pacific" group of isolates and that the genetic diversity of the virus in the country is very low. The virus shows the highest levels of sequence identity to BBTV isolates originating from Egypt, India and Australia. The significance of these results with respect to the possible origin of the virus in Pakistan and the prospects for obtaining genetically engineered resistance to the virus are discussed.

  11. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    PubMed

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  12. Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Harding, R M; Dale, J L

    1994-12-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and compared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence difference within each group was 1.9 to 3.0% and between isolates from the two groups was approximately 10%, but some parts of the sequences differed more than others. However, the protein encoded by the major open reading frame, which is probably a replicase, differed by approximately 5%. The region from the beginning of the stem-loop sequence to the potential TATA box was identical in all isolates except for a two nucleotide change in the Western Samoan isolate and a single change in that of the NSW isolate. These results, together with other evidence, suggest that BBTV has spread to bananas after the initial movement of bananas from the Asian Pacific regions to Africa and the Americas.

  13. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  14. Gene expression in the pulp of ripening bananas. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products and cDNA cloning of 25 different ripening-related mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Suárez, R; Manning, K; Fletcher, J; Aked, J; Bird, C R; Seymour, G B

    1997-01-01

    mRNA was extracted from the pulp and peel of preclimacteric (d 0) bananas (Musa AAA group, cv Grand Nain) and those exposed to ethylene gas for 24 h and stored in air alone for a further 1 (d 2) and 4 d (d 5). Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products from the pulp and peel of these fruits revealed significant up-regulation of numerous transcripts during ripening. The majority of the changes were initiated by d 2, with the level of these messages increasing during the remainder of the ripening period. Pulp tissue from d 2 was used for the construction of a cDNA library. This library was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using cDNA from d-0 and d-2 pulp by a novel microtiter plate method. In the primary screen 250 up- and down-regulated clones were isolated. Of these, 59 differentially expressed clones were obtained from the secondary screen. All of these cDNAs were partially sequenced and grouped into families after database searches. Twenty-five nonredundant groups of pulp clones were identified. These encoded enzymes were involved in ethylene biosynthesis, respiration, starch metabolism, cell wall degradation, and several other key metabolic events. We describe the analysis of these clones and their possible involvement in ripening. PMID:9342865

  15. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro-vitamin A from the exp