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Sample records for banana ripening implications

  1. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Clendennen, S K; May, G D

    1997-10-01

    During banana (Musa acuminata L.) fruit ripening ethylene production triggers a developmental cascade that is accompanied by a massive conversion of starch to sugars, an associated burst of respiratory activity, and an increase in protein synthesis. Differential screening of cDNA libraries representing banana pulp at ripening stages 1 and 3 has led to the isolation of 11 nonredundant groups of differentially expressed mRNAs. Identification of these transcripts by partial sequence analysis indicates that two of the mRNAs encode proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, whereas others encode proteins thought to be associated with pathogenesis, senescence, or stress responses in plants. Their relative abundance in the pulp and tissue-specific distribution in greenhouse-grown banana plants were determined by northern-blot analyses. The relative abundance of transcripts encoding starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase, chitinase, lectin, and a type-2 metallothionein decreased in pulp during ripening. Transcripts encoding endochitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, a thaumatin-like protein, ascorbate peroxidase, metallothionein, and a putative senescence-related protein increased early in ripening. The elucidation of the molecular events associated with banana ripening will facilitate a better understanding and control of these processes, and will allow us to attain our long-term goal of producing candidate oral vaccines in transgenic banana plants.

  2. Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of Bananas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.

    2002-04-01

    We have developed an experiment for nutritional/introductory biochemistry courses that focuses on carbohydrate analysis--specifically, the carbohydrates found in bananas and the change in carbohydrate composition as the banana ripens. Pairs of students analyze the starch and reducing sugar content of green, ripe, and overripe bananas. Using the techniques and knowledge gained from these analyses, they then investigate the influence of various storage methods on the ripening process. While this experiment was developed for an introductory-level biochemistry lab, it can easily be adapted for use in other laboratory programs that seek to teach the fundamentals of carbohydrate analysis.

  3. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  4. Banana Ripening: Implications of Changes in Glycolytic Intermediate Concentrations, Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Carbon Flux, and Fructose 2,6-Bisphosphate Concentration 1

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, Randolph M.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.; Kays, Stanley J.

    1989-01-01

    In ripening banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Valery) fruit, the concentration of glycolytic intermediates increased in response to the rapid conversion of starch to sugars and CO2. Glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose 6-phosphate (Fru 6-P), and pyruvate (Pyr) levels changed in synchrony, increasing to a maximum one day past the peak in ethylene synthesis and declining rapidly thereafter. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru 1,6-P2) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) levels underwent changes dissimilar to those of G 6-P, Fru 6-P, and Pyr, indicating that carbon was regulated at the PEP/Pyr and Fru 6-P/Fru 1,6-P2 interconversion sites. During the climacteric respiratory rise, gluconeogenic carbon flux increased 50- to 100-fold while glycolytic carbon flux increased only 4- to 5-fold. After the climacteric peak in CO2 production, gluconeogenic carbon flux dropped dramatically while glycolytic carbon flux remained elevated. The steady-state fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru 2,6-P2) concentration decreased to ½ that of preclimacteric fruit during the period coinciding with the rapid increase in gluconeogenesis. Fru 2,6-P2 concentration increased thereafter as glycolytic carbon flux increased relative to gluconeogenic carbon flux. It appears likely that the initial increase in respiration in ripening banana fruit is due to the rapid influx of carbon into the cytosol as starch is degraded. As starch reserves are depleted and the levels of intermediates decline, the continued enhancement of respiration may, in part, be maintained by an increased steady-state Fru 2,6-P2 concentration acting to promote glycolytic carbon flux at the step responsible for the interconversion of Fru 6-P and Fru 1,6-P2. PMID:16667198

  5. Chlorophyll breakdown as seen in bananas: sign of aging and ripening--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The ripening of bananas is seen by a characteristic change of their color from deep green to bright yellow. Likewise, their over-ripening and eventual rotting are accompanied by the appearance of an unappetizing brown. Chlorophyll breakdown is a major contributor to the visual signs of these processes in bananas. Outlined here are the basic structures of chlorophyll catabolites in higher plants, with particular reference to ripening and aging bananas. In these fruits, unique fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites accumulate and give rise to their fascinating blue luminescence.

  6. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value.

  7. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene.

  8. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhong-qi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fu, Chang-chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Ye, Yu-jie; Lu, Wang-jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-wu; Chen, Jian-ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:27462342

  9. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Fu, Chang-Chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Ye, Yu-Jie; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-Wu; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening.

  10. Lineage-Specific Evolutionary Histories and Regulation of Major Starch Metabolism Genes during Banana Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo Toro, Andrès; Ricci, Julien; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). Using comparative genomics and phylogenetic approaches, these genes were classified into families and sub-families and orthology relationships with functional genes in Eudicots and in grasses were identified. In addition to known ancestral duplications shaping starch metabolism gene families, independent evolution in banana and grasses also occurred through lineage-specific whole genome duplications for specific sub-families of AGPase, SS, SBE, and BAM genes; and through gene-scale duplications for AMY genes. In particular, banana lineage duplications yielded a set of AGPase, SBE and BAM genes that were highly or specifically expressed in banana fruits. Gene expression analysis highlighted a complex transcriptional reprogramming of starch metabolism genes during ripening of banana fruits. A differential regulation of expression between banana gene duplicates was identified for SBE and BAM genes, suggesting that part of starch metabolism regulation in the fruit evolved in the banana lineage. PMID:27994606

  11. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1–MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  12. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  13. Malate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Chandramouli, Sumana; Han, Ping; Liu, Pei

    2003-01-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is a key enzyme responsible for malic acid synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle, which functions to convert stored lipids to carbohydrates, by catalysing the glyoxylate condensation reaction with acetyl-CoA in the peroxisome. In this study, the cloning of an MS cDNA, designated MaMS-1, from the banana fruit is reported. MaMS-1 was 1801 bp in length encoding a single polypeptide of 556 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that MaMS-1 possessed the conserved catalytic domain and a putative peroxisomal targeting signal SK(I/L) at the carboxyl terminal. MaMS-1 also shared an extensive sequence homology (79-81.3%) with other plant MS homologues. Southern analysis indicated that MS might be present as multiple members in the banana genome. In Northern analysis, MaMS-1 was expressed specifically in ripening fruit tissue and transcripts were not detected in other organs such as roots, pseudostem, leaves, ovary, male flower, and in fruit at different stages of development. However, the transcript abundance in fruit was affected by stage of ripening, during which transcript was barely detectable at the early stage of ripening (FG and TY), but the level increased markedly in MG and in other fruits at advanced ripening stages. Furthermore, MaMS-1 expression in FG fruit could be stimulated by treatment with 1 microl l(-1) exogenous ethylene, but the stimulatory effect was abolished by the application of an ethylene inhibitor, norbornadiene. Results of this study clearly show that MS expression in banana fruit is temporally regulated during ripening and is ethylene-inducible.

  14. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  15. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  16. Permeability Characteristics and Amino Acid Incorporation during Senescence (Ripening) of Banana Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Changes in free space of banana tissue during ripening were measured using radioisotopes. Free space increased significantly about 44 hours before the onset of, and rose exponentially during the respiratory climacteric. The increase in free space indicates a progressive increase in the proportion of cells which becomes completely permeable to solutes in the ambient solution by simple diffusion. At the respiratory peak the tissue was essentially 100% free space to mannitol, sucrose, fructose and chloride. The capacity for active uptake of solutes declined about one day before the onset of the respiratory rise and fell to a very low level by the respiratory peak. There was no change in the level of protein or amino acids during ripening. Assays of tissue sections before and after washing indicated an increased rate of leakage of amino acids during ripening. Studies of incorporation of 3 concentrations of 14C-labeled leucine and phenylalanine indicated marked changes in the size and specific activity of the amino acid pool at the site of protein synthesis just prior to and during the climacteric rise, due to a diffusive mixing of the labeled substrate with the previously sequestered endogenous, unlabeled pool of substrate. The use of a high concentration of exogenous substrate (above saturation for uptake) resulted in an apparent constant specific activity of the metabolic pool through the ripening period. Data from these studies indicated a decline in amino acid incorporation during the climacteric. It was concluded that the initiation of permeability changes marks the onset of senescence in banana. The causative relations between alterations in permeability, the respiratory rise and other chemical changes attending fruit ripening are discussed. PMID:16656308

  17. Effects of ripening stage and steaming time on quality attributes of fat free banana snack obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing.

    PubMed

    Prachayawarakorn, Somkiat; Raikham, Chonlada; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2016-02-01

    Healthy snacks have increasingly been interested in consumers. Puffing technique is an alternative to produce healthy snacks. Effects of ripening stage of banana and steaming time on quality of banana slices obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing were investigated. Bananas at the ripening stages 1 and 3 were steamed at 100 °C for 30 s up to 2 min and dried at 90 °C to moisture content of 25 % dry basis (d.b.). The samples were then puffed by fluidized bed dryer at 160 °C for 2 min and dried at the same temperature as the first stage drying. The experimental results showed that shrinkage, drying time, color, glycemic index and textural properties were affected by steaming time and ripening stage. Steaming provided more uniformity of banana color. Steaming positively or negatively affected the degree shrinkage of banana depending on the ripening stage. The banana texture in particular crispiness could be improved by the steaming for the ripening stage 1 banana whilst it did not improve for the ripening stage 3. During steaming, the C-type crystalline structure of banana starch disappeared and thus the value of glycemic index was increased. The ripening stage 1 banana was recommended for producing healthy snack in order to control glycemic response.

  18. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm.

  19. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  20. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  1. Translating the "Banana Genome" to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Dash, Prasanta K; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit "Banana" remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers' and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  2. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  3. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  5. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  6. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  7. Expression patterns of cell wall-modifying genes from banana during fruit ripening and in relationship with finger drop

    PubMed Central

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D.; Hubert, O.; Baurens, F. C.; Matsumoto, T.; Chillet, M.; Fils-Lycaon, B.; Sidibé-Bocs, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few molecular studies have been devoted to the finger drop process that occurs during banana fruit ripening. Recent studies revealed the involvement of changes in the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in the pedicel rupture area. In this study, the expression of cell-wall modifying genes was monitored in peel tissue during post-harvest ripening of Cavendish banana fruit, at median area (control zone) and compared with that in the pedicel rupture area (drop zone). To this end, three pectin methylesterase (PME) and seven xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were isolated. The accumulation of their mRNAs and those of polygalaturonase, expansin, and pectate lyase genes already isolated from banana were examined. During post-harvest ripening, transcripts of all genes were detected in both zones, but accumulated differentially. MaPME1, MaPG1, and MaXTH4 mRNA levels did not change in either zone. Levels of MaPME3 and MaPG3 mRNAs increased greatly only in the control zone and at the late ripening stages. For other genes, the main molecular changes occurred 1–4 d after ripening induction. MaPME2, MaPEL1, MaPEL2, MaPG4, MaXTH6, MaXTH8, MaXTH9, MaEXP1, MaEXP4, and MaEXP5 accumulated highly in the drop zone, contrary to MaXTH3 and MaXTH5, and MaEXP2 throughout ripening. For MaPG2, MaXET1, and MaXET2 genes, high accumulation in the drop zone was transient. The transcriptional data obtained from all genes examined suggested that finger drop and peel softening involved similar mechanisms. These findings also led to the proposal of a sequence of molecular events leading to finger drop and to suggest some candidates. PMID:19357434

  8. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  9. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  10. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on the ripening and levels of bioactive amines in bananas cv. Prata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.; Adão, Regina C.

    2013-06-01

    Green Prata bananas at the full three-quarter stage were exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 0.0 (control), 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and stored at 16±1 °C and 85% relative humidity. Samples were collected periodically and analyzed for peel color, pulp-to-peel ratio and levels of starch, soluble sugars and bioactive amines. Degradation of starch and formation of fructose and glucose followed first- and zero-order kinetics, respectively. Higher irradiation doses caused increased inhibitory effect on starch degradation and glucose formation. However, doses of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy caused browning of the peel, making the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 1.0 kGy was the most promising dose: it did not affect peel color, the pulp-to-peel ratio or the levels of the amines spermidine, serotonin and putrescine. However, it slowed down starch degradation and the formation and accumulation of fructose and glucose, delaying the ripening of the fruit for 7 days.

  12. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1–MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1–MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  13. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening.

  14. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-04-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1-MaDof25 Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening.

  15. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-01-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1–MaDof25. Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening. PMID:26889012

  16. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  17. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS box protein, a probable constituent of flowering and fruit ripening regulatory system in banana.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ~95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development.

  18. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  19. The transcriptional regulatory network mediated by banana (Musa acuminata) dehydration-responsive element binding (MaDREB) transcription factors in fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Liu, Xun-Cheng; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Shan, Wei; Tang, Yang; Wu, Ke-Qiang; He, Jun-Xian; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process involving the action of critical transcription factors (TFs). Despite the established significance of dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) TFs in plant abiotic stress responses, the involvement of DREBs in fruit ripening is yet to be determined. Here, we identified four genes encoding ripening-regulated DREB TFs in banana (Musa acuminata), MaDREB1, MaDREB2, MaDREB3, and MaDREB4, and demonstrated that they play regulatory roles in fruit ripening. We showed that MaDREB1-MaDREB4 are nucleus-localized, induced by ethylene and encompass transcriptional activation activities. We performed a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiment for MaDREB2 and identified 697 genomic regions as potential targets of MaDREB2. MaDREB2 binds to hundreds of loci with diverse functions and its binding sites are distributed in the promoter regions proximal to the transcriptional start site (TSS). Most of the MaDREB2-binding targets contain the conserved (A/G)CC(G/C)AC motif and MaDREB2 appears to directly regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in fruit ripening. In combination with transcriptome profiling (RNA sequencing) data, our results indicate that MaDREB2 may serve as both transcriptional activator and repressor during banana fruit ripening. In conclusion, our study suggests a hierarchical regulatory model of fruit ripening in banana and that the MaDREB TFs may act as transcriptional regulators in the regulatory network.

  20. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  1. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Elitzur, Tomer; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Friedman, Haya

    2010-01-01

    Six MaMADS-box genes have been cloned from the banana fruit cultivar Grand Nain. The similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns, specifically in fruit and the induction during ripening and in response to ethylene and 1-MCP, suggest that some of these genes may participate in ripening. MaMADS1, 2, and 3, are highly expressed in fruit only, while the others are expressed in fruit as well as in other organs. Moreover, the suites of MaMADS-box genes and their temporal expression differ in peel and pulp during ripening. In the pulp, the increase in MaMADS2, 3, 4, and 5 expression preceded an increase in ethylene production, but coincides with the CO2 peak. However, MaMADS1 expression in pulp coincided with ethylene production, but a massive increase in its expression occurred late during ripening, together with a second wave in the expression of MaMADS2, 3, and 4. In the peel, on the other hand, an increase in expression of MaMADS1, 3, and to a lesser degree also of MaMADS4 and 2 coincided with an increase in ethylene production. Except MaMADS3, which was induced by ethylene in pulp and peel, only MaMADS4, and 5 in pulp and MaMADS1 in peel were induced by ethylene. 1-MCP applied at the onset of the increase in ethylene production, increased the levels of MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 in pulp, while it decreased MaMADS1, 3, 4, and 5 in peel, suggesting that MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 are negatively controlled by ethylene at the onset of ethylene production only in pulp. Only MaMADS2 is neither induced by ethylene nor by 1-MCP, and it is expressed mainly in pulp. Our results suggest that two independent ripening programs are employed in pulp and peel which involve the activation of mainly MaMADS2, 4, and 5 and later on also MaMADS1 in pulp, and mainly MaMADS1, and 3 in peel. Hence, our results are consistent with MaMADS2, a SEP3 homologue, acting in the pulp upstream of the

  2. Benzothiadiazole-Mediated Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum musae and Delayed Ripening of Harvested Banana Fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Huanzhang; Si, Zhenwei; Xia, Yihua; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2016-02-24

    Benzothiadiazole (BTH) works as a plant activator. The effects of different BTH treatments and fungicides SPORGON on fruit ripening and disease incidence were investigated. The results showed that BTH treatment significantly delayed fruit ripening, maintained fruit firmness, color, and good fruit quality, and dramatically reduced the incidence of disease. BTH effectively inhibited the invasion and development of pathogenic bacteria and controlled the occurrence of disease. BTH treatment enhanced the activities of defense-related enzymes, including chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase, increased the content of hydrogen peroxide and total antioxidant capacity, and reduced malondialdehyde content. Cellular structure analysis after inoculation confirmed that BTH treatment effectively maintained the cell structural integrity. SPORGON did not provide benefits for delaying fruit ripening or for the resistance system, while it can control the disease only during the earlier stage and not at later stages.

  3. The abundant class III chitinase homolog in young developing banana fruits behaves as a transient vegetative storage protein and most probably serves as an important supply of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L; Van Damme, Els J M

    2002-10-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas.

  4. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  5. The auxin response factor gene family in banana: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development, ripening, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Zuo, Jiao; Hou, Xiaowan; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Auxin signaling regulates various auxin-responsive genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, Auxin Response Factors (ARF) and Aux/IAA. ARF transcription factors act as critical components of auxin signaling that play important roles in modulating various biological processes. However, limited information about this gene family in fruit crops is currently available. Herein, 47 ARF genes were identified in banana based on its genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from banana, rice, and Arabidopsis suggested that the ARFs could be divided into four subgroups, among which most ARFs from the banana showed a closer relationship with those from rice than those from Arabidopsis. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified MaARFs had typical DNA-binding and ARF domains, but 12 members lacked the dimerization domain. Gene structure analysis showed that the number of exons in MaARF genes ranged from 5 to 21, suggesting large variation amongst banana ARF genes. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaARF genes yielded useful information about their involvement in diverse tissues, different stages of fruit development and ripening, and responses to abiotic stresses in different varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression assays indicated the strong transcriptional response of banana ARFs and ARF-mediated networks in early fruit development for different varieties. Our systematic analysis of MaARFs revealed robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaARF genes for further functional assays in planta. These findings could lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars, and yield new insights into the complexity of the control of MaARF gene expression at the transcriptional level. Finally, they support the hypothesis that ARFs are a crucial component of the auxin signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of physiological processes. PMID:26442055

  6. Gene expression in the pulp of ripening bananas. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products and cDNA cloning of 25 different ripening-related mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Suárez, R; Manning, K; Fletcher, J; Aked, J; Bird, C R; Seymour, G B

    1997-01-01

    mRNA was extracted from the pulp and peel of preclimacteric (d 0) bananas (Musa AAA group, cv Grand Nain) and those exposed to ethylene gas for 24 h and stored in air alone for a further 1 (d 2) and 4 d (d 5). Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products from the pulp and peel of these fruits revealed significant up-regulation of numerous transcripts during ripening. The majority of the changes were initiated by d 2, with the level of these messages increasing during the remainder of the ripening period. Pulp tissue from d 2 was used for the construction of a cDNA library. This library was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using cDNA from d-0 and d-2 pulp by a novel microtiter plate method. In the primary screen 250 up- and down-regulated clones were isolated. Of these, 59 differentially expressed clones were obtained from the secondary screen. All of these cDNAs were partially sequenced and grouped into families after database searches. Twenty-five nonredundant groups of pulp clones were identified. These encoded enzymes were involved in ethylene biosynthesis, respiration, starch metabolism, cell wall degradation, and several other key metabolic events. We describe the analysis of these clones and their possible involvement in ripening. PMID:9342865

  7. Genome-wide analyses of the bZIP family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Lianzhe; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes. However, less information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important fruit crop banana. In this study, 121 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in the banana genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MabZIPs were classified into 11 subfamilies. The majority of MabZIP genes in the same subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis of two banana genotypes revealed the differential expression patterns of MabZIP genes in different organs, in various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salt. Interaction networks and co-expression assays showed that group A MabZIP-mediated networks participated in various stress signaling, which was strongly activated in Musa ABB Pisang Awak. This study provided new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of MabZIP genes and provided robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MabZIP genes for potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:27445085

  8. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  9. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family from banana suggest involvement of specific members in different stages of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Bhambhani, Sweta; Bag, Sumit K; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of the tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade and play an important role in plant growth and development. Although members of the MAPK gene family have been identified in model plants, little information is available regarding this gene family in fruit crops. In this study, we carried out a computational analysis using the Musa Genome database to identify members of the MAPK gene family in banana, an economically important crop and the most popular fruit worldwide. Our analysis identified 25 members of the MAP kinase (MAPK or MPK) gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of MPKs in Arabidopsis, Oryza, and Populus have classified these MPKs into four subgroups. The presence of conserved domains in the deduced amino acid sequences, phylogeny, and genomic organization strongly support their identity as members of the MPK gene family. Expression analysis during ethylene-induced banana fruit ripening suggests the involvement of several MPKs in the ethylene signal transduction pathway that are necessary for banana fruit ripening. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions and the involvement of the identified MPKs in various cellular processes, as analyzed using Pathway Studio, suggest a role for the banana MPK gene family in diverse functions related to growth, development, and the stress response. This report is the first concerning the identification of members of a gene family and the elucidation of their role in various processes using the Musa Genome database.

  10. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    PubMed

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  11. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    PubMed Central

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  12. Banana Transcription Factor MaERF11 Recruits Histone Deacetylase MaHDA1 and Represses the Expression of MaACO1 and Expansins during Fruit Ripening1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan-Chao; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Fu, Chang-Chun; Wang, Jun-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene controls diverse developmental and physiological processes such as fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Our previous study identified that ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR11 (MaERF11), a transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, negatively regulates the ripening of banana, but the mechanism for the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional regulation remains largely unknown. Here we showed that MaERF11 has intrinsic transcriptional repression activity in planta. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that MaERF11 binds to promoters of three ripening-related Expansin genes, MaEXP2, MaEXP7 and MaEXP8, as well as an ethylene biosynthetic gene MaACO1, via the GCC-box motif. Furthermore, expression patterns of MaACO1, MaEXP2, MaEXP7, and MaEXP8 genes are correlated with the changes of histone H3 and H4 acetylation level during fruit ripening. Moreover, we found that MaERF11 physically interacts with a histone deacetylase, MaHDA1, which has histone deacetylase activity, and the interaction significantly strengthens the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional repression of MaACO1 and Expansins. Taken together, these findings suggest that MaERF11 may recruit MaHDA1 to its target genes and repress their expression via histone deacetylation. PMID:27208241

  13. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  14. Postharvest quality of specialty bananas after irradiation for quarantine security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit quality and ripening of 'Dwarf Brazilian' ("apple") bananas were determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. The USDA-approved minimum absorbed dosage for banana exports from Hawaii is either 400 Gy with inspection for the presence of banana moth, or 150 Gy ...

  15. Genome-wide sequencing data reveals virulence factors implicated in banana Xanthomonas wilt.

    PubMed

    Studholme, David J; Kemen, Eric; MacLean, Daniel; Schornack, Sebastian; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Grant, Murray; Smith, Julian; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2010-09-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt is a newly emerging disease that is currently threatening the livelihoods of millions of farmers in East Africa. The causative agent is Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm), but previous work suggests that this pathogen is much more closely related to species Xanthomonas vasicola than to X. campestris. We have generated draft genome sequences for a banana-pathogenic strain of Xcm isolated in Uganda and for a very closely related strain of X. vasicola pathovar vasculorum, originally isolated from sugarcane, that is nonpathogenic on banana. The draft sequences revealed overlapping but distinct repertoires of candidate virulence effectors in the two strains. Both strains encode homologues of the Pseudomonas syringae effectors HopW, HopAF1 and RipT from Ralstonia solanacearum. The banana-pathogenic and non-banana-pathogenic strains also differed with respect to lipopolysaccharide synthesis and type-IV pili, and in at least several thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the core conserved genome. We found evidence of horizontal transfer between X. vasicola and very distantly related bacteria, including members of other divisions of the Proteobacteria. The availability of these draft genomes will be an invaluable tool for further studies aimed at understanding and combating this important disease.

  16. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    PubMed

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  17. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  18. RNA sequencing and functional analysis implicate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs in tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Benzhong; Yang, Yongfang; Li, Ran; Fu, Daqi; Wen, Liwei; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. However, the presence of lncRNAs and how they function in fleshy fruit ripening are still largely unknown because fleshy fruit ripening is not present in the above model plants. Tomato is the model system for fruit ripening studies due to its dramatic ripening process. To investigate further the role of lncRNAs in fruit ripening, it is necessary and urgent to discover and identify novel lncRNAs and understand the function of lncRNAs in tomato fruit ripening. Here it is reported that 3679 lncRNAs were discovered from wild-type tomato and ripening mutant fruit. The lncRNAs are transcribed from all tomato chromosomes, 85.1% of which came from intergenic regions. Tomato lncRNAs are shorter and have fewer exons than protein-coding genes, a situation reminiscent of lncRNAs from other model plants. It was also observed that 490 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated in ripening mutant fruits, and 187 lncRNAs were down-regulated, indicating that lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of fruit ripening. In line with this, silencing of two novel tomato intergenic lncRNAs, lncRNA1459 and lncRNA1840, resulted in an obvious delay of ripening of wild-type fruit. Overall, the results indicated that lncRNAs might be essential regulators of tomato fruit ripening, which sheds new light on the regulation of fruit ripening.

  19. RNA sequencing and functional analysis implicate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs in tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Benzhong; Yang, Yongfang; Li, Ran; Fu, Daqi; Wen, Liwei; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. However, the presence of lncRNAs and how they function in fleshy fruit ripening are still largely unknown because fleshy fruit ripening is not present in the above model plants. Tomato is the model system for fruit ripening studies due to its dramatic ripening process. To investigate further the role of lncRNAs in fruit ripening, it is necessary and urgent to discover and identify novel lncRNAs and understand the function of lncRNAs in tomato fruit ripening. Here it is reported that 3679 lncRNAs were discovered from wild-type tomato and ripening mutant fruit. The lncRNAs are transcribed from all tomato chromosomes, 85.1% of which came from intergenic regions. Tomato lncRNAs are shorter and have fewer exons than protein-coding genes, a situation reminiscent of lncRNAs from other model plants. It was also observed that 490 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated in ripening mutant fruits, and 187 lncRNAs were down-regulated, indicating that lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of fruit ripening. In line with this, silencing of two novel tomato intergenic lncRNAs, lncRNA1459 and lncRNA1840, resulted in an obvious delay of ripening of wild-type fruit. Overall, the results indicated that lncRNAs might be essential regulators of tomato fruit ripening, which sheds new light on the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:25948705

  20. BANANA GEL.

    PubMed

    McGuire, G; Falk, K G

    1922-03-20

    The conditions for the formation of gels from banana extracts were studied. Gels were obtained with extracts more alkaline than pH 7.0 with very small quantities of calcium, strontium, and barium salts, the gel formation with these salts decreasing in the indicated order. In solutions more acid than pH 6.0, no gels were obtained with these salts. Magnesium, lithium, and sodium salts did not cause gel formation either in acid or alkaline solutions. Pancreatine gave a gel on incubation with banana extract at pH 5.0. The gel-forming property of banana extracts was destroyed on boiling.

  1. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  2. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P S; Bird, C; Robinson, S P

    2001-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. Banana flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from banana fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in banana flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in banana peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of banana fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development.

  4. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Caroline; Huisman, Miranda M H; Willats, William G T; van Alebeek, Gert-Jan W M; Schols, Henk A; Seymour, Graham B; Knox, J Paul

    2002-07-01

    The Cnr ( C olourless n on- r ipening) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were found in the solubility and composition of the pectic polysaccharides extracted from the CWM at both stages of development. In comparison with the wild type, the ripening-associated solubilisation of homogalacturonan-rich pectic polysaccharides was reduced in Cnr. The proportion of carbohydrate that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained larger amounts of galactosyl- and arabinosyl-containing polysaccharides that were tightly bound in the cell wall and could only be extracted with 4 M KOH, or remained in the insoluble residue. The complexity of the cell wall alterations that occur during fruit ripening and the significance of different extractable polymer pools from cell walls are discussed in relation to the Cnr phenotype.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965

  7. Changes in resistant starch from two banana cultivars during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two banana cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the banana resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of banana resistant starches.

  8. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programs of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and...

  9. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening.

  10. Let's Go Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  11. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  12. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  13. VIEWPOINT: Bananas go paraelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, A.; Krohns, S.; Hemberger, J.; Lunkenheimer, P.

    2008-05-01

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric.

  14. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-09-15

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in 'senescence associated' dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death.

  15. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  16. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  17. The banana genome hub.

    PubMed

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D'Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world's favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/

  18. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  20. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-07

    The content of {sup 40}K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  1. Fruit ripening mutants yield insight into ripening control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a developmental process exclusive to plants whereby mature seed-bearing organs undergo physiological and metabolic changes promoting seed dispersal. Molecular investigations into ripening control mechanisms have been aided by the recent cloning of tomato ripening genes known previ...

  2. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Charu; R.K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3rd day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  3. Genetic networks influencing fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato is a model for ripening control and the basis of many characterized genes underlying this process. Cloning of the CNR, RIN and NOR genes defined the first ripening-specific transcription factors and provided insight into a ripening control system upstream of ethylene. RIN is a central player ...

  4. Microbiology of ripening honey.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argueso, T; Rodriguez-Navarro, A

    1975-12-01

    Two main groups of bacteria, classified as Gluconobacter and Lactobacillus, are present in ripening honey. A third bacterial group, classified as Zymomonas, and several types of yeast are occasionally isolated. Both in natural honey and in synthetic syrup the bacterial population decreases in the course of the ripening process. Lactobacillus and Gluconobacter disappear after minimum moisture (about 18%) is reached, but the former does so sooner than the latter. The presence of these bacteria in different parts of the bee has been also investigated.

  5. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  6. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  7. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  8. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-09-26

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were 'catalytic activity' (1327, 56.4%), 'heme binding' (65, 2.76%), 'tetrapyrrole binding' (66, 2.81%), and 'oxidoreductase activity' (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis.

  9. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  10. Regulation of BZR1 in fruit ripening revealed by iTRAQ proteomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and genetically programmed process. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. As a central component of BR signaling, the transcription factor BZR1 is involved in fruit development in tomato. However, the transcriptional network through which BZR1 regulates fruit ripening is mostly unknown. In this study, we use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology to explore important proteins regulated by BZR1 in two independent tomato transgenic lines over-expressing BZR1-1D at four ripening stages, identifying 411 differentially expressed proteins. These proteins were implicated in light reaction, plant hormone pathways and cell-wall-related metabolism, etc. The ‘light reaction’ metabolic pathway was identified as a markedly enhanced pathway by BZR1 during tomato fruit ripening. The protein level of a probable 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase 2-ODD2, involved in gibberellin biosynthesis was significantly increased at all four developmental and ripening stages. The results reveal molecular links between BR signaling pathway and downstream components involved in multiple ripening-associated events during tomato fruit ripening, which will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tomato ripening regulatory networks, and be potential in understanding BR-regulated fruit ripening. PMID:27680870

  11. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  12. Environment effect on fruit ripening related gene to develop a new post harvest technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivany, Fenny; Esyanti, Rizkita Rahmi; Robertlee, Jekson; Paramaputra, Indra Chandra; Permatadewi, Rinda Kania; Tambun, Dina Hermawaty; Handayani, Resnanti Utami; Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Zaskia, Herafi

    2014-03-01

    Ripening process of fruits is a very complex process, which involves ethylene production, causing alteration on molecular and physiology level. Environmental stress caused by biotic and abiotic stress conditions (such as pathogen, mechanical stress, physical and physiology stress) can stimulate ethylene production. High levels of ethylene in turn can also inhibit growth, cause premature ripening and induce the onset of senescence, which then potentially reduce plant productivity. The ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) genes are genes that have role in the ethylene production. By regulating those genes, especially ethylene biosynthesis genes, we might improve the quality of fruit at post harvest condition. Therefore, in this research we studied fruit ripening related genes expression on banana such as MaACS family at different environment condition. The result of study can give contributions in developing of new plants with desired traits or new post harvest technologies.

  13. Prototheca associated with banana.

    PubMed

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  14. Grapes on Steroids. Brassinosteroids Are Involved in Grape Berry Ripening1

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Gregory M.; Davies, Christopher; Shavrukov, Yuri; Dry, Ian B.; Reid, James B.; Thomas, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a unique plant developmental process with direct implications for our food supply, nutrition, and health. In contrast to climacteric fruit, where ethylene is pivotal, the hormonal control of ripening in nonclimacteric fruit, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), is poorly understood. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones, essential for normal plant growth and development but not previously implicated in the ripening of nonclimacteric fruit. Here we show that increases in endogenous BR levels, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or GA levels, are associated with ripening in grapes. Putative grape homologs of genes encoding BR biosynthesis enzymes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1) and the BR receptor (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) were isolated, and the function of the grape BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE gene was confirmed by transgenic complementation of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extreme dwarf (dx/dx) mutant. Expression analysis of these genes during berry development revealed transcript accumulation patterns that were consistent with a dramatic increase in endogenous BR levels observed at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, we show that application of BRs to grape berries significantly promoted ripening, while brassinazole, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, significantly delayed fruit ripening. These results provide evidence that changes in endogenous BR levels influence this key developmental process. This may provide a significant insight into the mechanism controlling ripening in grapes, which has direct implications for the logistics of grape production and down-stream processing. PMID:16361521

  15. Ostwald ripening theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Ostwald-ripening theory is deduced and discussed starting from the fundamental principles such as Ising model concept, Mayer cluster expansion, Langer condensation point theory, Ginzburg-Landau free energy, Stillinger cutoff-pair potential, LSW-theory and MLSW-theory. Mathematical intricacies are reduced to an understanding version. Comparison of selected works, from 1949 to 1984, on solution of diffusion equation with and without sink/sources term(s) is presented. Kahlweit's 1980 work and Marqusee-Ross' 1954 work are more emphasized. Odijk and Lekkerkerker's 1985 work on rodlike macromolecules is introduced in order to simulate interested investigators.

  16. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  17. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  18. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  19. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  20. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  1. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  2. Degradation of Methyldopa by Banana.

    PubMed

    Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Kiminori

    2010-03-02

    Methyldopa, an antihypertensive, is a very close analogue of DOPA. Drug interaction accompanied by degradation in a banana juice mixture was reported for DOPA. However, the effect of banana on methyldopa has not been reported. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of banana juice on methyldopa. The drug and supernatant of banana pulp were mixed, and the mixture was observed for changes in color, drug concentration, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at 30 °C. The originally clear and colorless mixture started to acquire a yellow coloration after about 30 seconds after the mixing. The color tone increasingly deepened, then blistered solid particles that do not dissolve were observed after 3 hours. Concentration of methyldopa in the mixture decreased by 60% after 5 min, to 0.5% after 30 min of the mixing. From these findings, it was suggested that the drastic alterations were caused by banana polyphenol oxidase that plays a role in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment from levodopa in banana pulp. Because the degradation of methyldopa occurs extremely fast, it was suggested concomitant use of this anti-hypertensive and banana juice consumption should be avoided in clinical practice.

  3. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in banana fruit under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Hai-ying; Kuang, Jian-fei; Li, Jian-guo; Lu, Wang-jin; Chen, Jian-ye

    2011-08-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, but its success depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Only a few studies on validation of reference genes have been conducted in fruit trees and none in banana yet. In the present work, 20 candidate reference genes were selected, and their expression stability in 144 banana samples were evaluated and analyzed using two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. The samples consisted of eight sample sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, stresses (chilling, high temperature, and pathogen), and hormone treatments. Our results showed that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be selected depending on the experimental conditions. The RPS2 and UBQ2 genes were validated as the most suitable reference genes across all tested samples. More importantly, our data further showed that the widely used reference genes, ACT and GAPDH, were not the most suitable reference genes in many banana sample sets. In addition, the expression of MaEBF1, a gene of interest that plays an important role in regulating fruit ripening, under different experimental conditions was used to further confirm the validated reference genes. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection under different experimental conditions and a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in banana.

  4. [The effect of ethylene biosynthesis regulators on metabolic processes in the banana fruits in various physiological states].

    PubMed

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguyen Tien; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Protsenko, M A; Korableva, N P

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ethylene-evolving preparations-2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (2-CEPA), the new generation binary preparation ethacide, and the specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)--on the ethylene evolution by banana (Musa sp.) fruits at various ripening stages and the content of protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG), associated with prevention of fruit tissue softening, were studied. It was demonstrated that the ripening stage was of significant importance for the results of treatment with the mentioned preparations. Their effects were most pronounced in the fruits of medium ripeness. 2-CEPA and ethacide increased the ethylene evolution in banana fruits on the average by 25-30%. AOA treatment decreased the ethylene evolution in these fruits by 30%. The PIPG content in fruit pulp was insignificant; 2-CEPA almost did not change its content in banana skin, while ethacide and AOA somewhat decreased it. Consequently, the regulators of ethylene biosynthesis have a potential for optimizing the state of banana fruits during storage and sale.

  5. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis.

  6. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Graham B; Ryder, Carol D; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available.

  7. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Graham B.; Ryder, Carol D.; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P.; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J.; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available. PMID:21115665

  8. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  9. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas.

  10. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon.

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  12. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. PMID:23443573

  13. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of MaCOL1, a CONSTANS-like gene in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Chen, Jian-Ye; Wang, Jun-Ning; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Shan, Wei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2012-04-01

    CONSTANS (CO) gene is a key transcription regulator that controls the long-day induction of flowering in Arabidopsis plant. However, CO gene involved in fruit ripening and stress responses is poorly understood. In the present study, a novel cDNA encoding CONSTANS-like gene, designated as MaCOL1 was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. The full length cDNA sequence was 1887bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1242bp, encoding 414 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46.20kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.40. Sequence alignment showed that MaCOL1 contained two B-box zinc finger motifs and a CCT domain. In addition, MaCOL1 showed transcriptional activity in yeast and was a nucleus-localized protein. Real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCOL1 was differentially expressed among various banana plant organs, with higher expression in flower. Expression of MaCOL1 in peel changed slightly, while accumulation of MaCOL1 transcripts in pulp obviously increased during natural or ethylene-induced fruit ripening, suggesting that MaCOL1 might be associated with the pulp ripening of banana fruit. Moreover, accumulation of MaCOL1 transcript was obviously enhanced by abiotic and biotic stresses, such as chilling and pathogen Colletotrichum musae infection. Taken together, our results suggest that MaCOL1 is a transcription activator and may be involved in fruit ripening and stress responses.

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... picked while green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest. If the green bananas will be... bananas in a cluster of otherwise green bananas) may be harvested or packed for shipment; (3) The...

  20. Fruit ripening mutants reveal cell metabolism and redox state during ripening.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-03-01

    Ripening which leads to fruit senescence is an inimitable process characterized by vivid changes in color, texture, flavor, and aroma of the fleshy fruits. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of fruit ripening and senescence is far from complete. Molecular and biochemical studies on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening mutants such as ripening inhibitor (rin), nonripening (nor), and never ripe (Nr) have been useful in our understanding of fruit development and ripening. The MADS-box transcription factor RIN, a global regulator of fruit ripening, is vital for the broad aspects of ripening, in both ethylene-dependent and independent manners. Here, we have carried out microarray analysis to study the expression profiles of tomato genes during ripening of wild type and rin mutant fruits. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed the role of RIN in regulation of several molecular and biochemical events during fruit ripening including fruit specialized metabolism and cellular redox state. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during fruit ripening and senescence was further examined by determining the changes in ROS level during ripening of wild type and mutant fruits and by analyzing expression profiles of the genes involved in maintaining cellular redox state. Taken together, our findings suggest an important role of ROS during fruit ripening and senescence, and therefore, modulation of ROS level during ripening could be useful in achieving desired fruit quality.

  1. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  2. Physiological aspects of fruit ripening: the mitochondrial connection.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Moreno, Alejandra S; Podestá, Florencio E

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process which leads to an assortment of physiological and metabolic changes that irreversibly alter its characteristics. Depending on the species, fruit maturation can be either climacteric or non-climacteric. In both cases there is a metabolic shift from normal development conditions toward the fully mature state, but climacteric fruit is characterized by a sharp increase in respiration. In non-climacteric fruit, that generally does not display this feature, respiration changes can be affected by processes related to postharvest storage. This review describes some of the many ways in which mitochondrial metabolism is implicated in this crucial reproductive stage, such as the connection between ethylene production and respiration rate, the involvement of alternative oxidase (AOX) and plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) during the ripening and the common alterations of this organelle in fruits affected by different stress conditions.

  3. A cDNA clone highly expressed in ripe banana fruit shows homology to pectate lyases.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Puigjaner, E; LLop, I; Vendrell, M; Prat, S

    1997-07-01

    A cDNA clone (Ban17), encoding a protein homologous to pectate lyase, has been isolated from a cDNA library from climacteric banana fruit by means of differential screening. Northern analysis showed that Ban17 mRNA is first detected in early climacteric fruit, reaches a steady-state maximum at the climacteric peak, and declines thereafter in overripe fruit. Accumulation of the Ban17 transcript can be induced in green banana fruit by exogenous application of ethylene. The demonstrates that expression of this gene is under hormonal control, its induction being regulated by the rapid increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening. The deduced amino acid sequence derived from the Ban17 cDNA shares significant identity with pectate lyases from pollen and plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Erwinia. Similarity to bacterial pectate lyases that were proven to break down the pectic substances of the plant cell wall suggest that Ban17 might play a role in the loss of mesocarp firmness during fruit ripening.

  4. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  5. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  6. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  7. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system.

  8. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  9. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  10. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  11. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  12. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  13. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  14. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  15. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  16. Physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions: influence of ripening inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-05

    Thyme oil-in-water nanoemulsions (pH 3.5) were prepared as potential antimicrobial delivery systems. The nanoemulsions were highly unstable to droplet growth and phase separation, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening due to the relatively high water solubility of thyme oil. Ostwald ripening could be inhibited by mixing thyme oil with a water-insoluble ripening inhibitor (≥60 wt % corn oil or ≥50 wt % MCT in the lipid phase) before homogenization, yielding nanoemulsions with good physical stability. Physically stable thyme oil nanoemulsions were examined for their antimicrobial activities against an acid-resistant spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ZB). Oil phase composition (ripening inhibitor type and concentration) had an appreciable influence on the antimicrobial activity of the thyme oil nanoemulsions. In general, increasing the ripening inhibitor levels in the lipid phase reduced the antimicrobial efficacy of nanoemulsions. For example, for nanoemulsions containing 60 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil to inhibit ZB growth was 375 μg/mL, while for nanoemulsions containing 90 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, even 6000 μg/mL thyme oil could not inhibit ZB growth. This effect is also dependent on ripening inhibitor types: at the same concentration in the lipid phase, MCT decreased the antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil more than corn oil. For instance, when the level of ripening inhibitor in the lipid phase was 70 wt %, the MICs of thyme oil for nanoemulsions containing corn oil and MCT were 750 and 3000 μg/mL, respectively. The results of this study have important implications for the design and utilization of nanoemulsions as antimicrobial delivery systems in the food and other industries.

  17. Structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in banana.

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle M; Carpentier, Sebastien C; Pampurova, Suzana; Van Hoylandt, Anais; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2011-10-01

    Abscisic acid, stress, ripening proteins (ASR) are a family of plant-specific small hydrophilic proteins. Studies in various plant species have highlighted their role in increased resistance to abiotic stress, including drought, but their specific function remains unknown. As a first step toward their potential use in crop improvement, we investigated the structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in Musa species (bananas and plantains). We determined that the Musa Asr gene family contained at least four members, all of which exhibited the typical two exons, one intron structure of Asr genes and the "ABA/WDS" (abscisic acid/water deficit stress) domain characteristic of Asr genes. Phylogenetic analyses determined that the Musa Asr genes were closely related to each other, probably as the product of recent duplication events. For two of the four members, two versions corresponding to the two sub-genomes of Musa, acuminata and balbisiana were identified. Gene expression and protein analyses were performed and Asr expression could be detected in meristem cultures, root, pseudostem, leaf and cormus. In meristem cultures, mAsr1 and mAsr3 were induced by osmotic stress and wounding, while mAsr3 and mAsr4 were induced by exposure to ABA. mASR3 exhibited the most variation both in terms of amino acid sequence and expression pattern, making it the most promising candidate for further functional study and use in crop improvement.

  18. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  19. Molecular and genetic regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...

  20. Polyamines and regulation of ripening and senescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyamines (PAs) are small polycationic, biogenic amines that influence many biochemical and physiological processes such as cell division, cell elongation, flowering, fruit set and development, fruit ripening and senescence. Significant information about PA action has emerged from indirect studies ...

  1. Structure function calculations for Ostwald Ripening processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1990-01-01

    A program for computing the structure function for configurations involved in Ostwald Ripening was written. The basic algorithms are derived from a mathematical analysis of a two-dimensional model system developed by Bortz, et. al. (1974). While it is expected that the values form the computer simulations will reflect Ostwald Ripening, at this point the program is still being tested. Some preliminary runs seem to justify the expectations.

  2. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  3. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants. PMID:27486844

  4. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peiguang; Miao, Hongxia; Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants.

  5. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  6. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  7. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts.

    PubMed

    Lyte, M

    1997-09-15

    Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, in direct relation to the content of norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria was not altered by any of the extracts. Supplementation of vehicle and pulp cultures with norepinephrine or dopamine yielded growth equivalent to peel cultures. Total organic analysis of extracts further demonstrated that the differential effects of peel and pulp on bacterial growth was not nutritionally based, but due to norepinephrine and dopamine. These results suggest that neurochemicals contained within foodstuffs may influence the growth of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria through direct neurochemical-bacterial interactions.

  8. Auxin inhibition of ripening in bartlett pears.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C; Dyck, R

    1973-01-01

    The effect of indoleacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the ripening of intact mature-green pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett) was investigated using a vacuum infiltration technique.The effects of indoleacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm each were studied on softening, degreening, and on ethylene and CO(2) evolution. Softening and degreening were inhibited increasingly in response to increased concentrations of indoleacetic acid. This inhibitory property was amplified by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at concentrations comparable to those of indoleacetic acid. Application of the auxins also prevented the climacteric rise in respiration, but stimulated ethylene synthesis. Despite the presence of elevated ethylene levels, the inhibitory auxin effect was predominant.It is proposed that endogenous auxins in fruit represent a resistance factor in ripening and must be inactivated before ripening can occur.

  9. Ostwald Ripening of β-Carotene Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Kathan, Kendra; Saad, Walid; Prud'Homme, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Ostwald ripening, the interfacial-energy-driven dissolution and reprecipitation of solutes, becomes an increasingly significant problem for nanoparticle formulations. We present the first quantitative study of Ostwald ripening for nanoparticle dispersions. The Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory of particle growth driven by diffusion is applied to study β-carotene nanoparticles with sizes of O(100nm) formed by our block-copolymer protected Flash Nanoprecipitation process. A numerical implementation of the LSW theory that accounts for the original particle size distribution is presented. The predicted particle sizes from the numerical simulation are compared with the experimental results measured by dynamical light scattering. The results show quantitative agreement with no adjustable parameters. The addition of antisolvent results in the reduction of the ripening rate by dramatically decreasing bulk solubility.

  10. Ostwald ripening of beta-carotene nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Kathan, Kendra; Saad, Walid; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2007-01-19

    Ostwald ripening, the interfacial-energy-driven dissolution and reprecipitation of solutes, becomes an increasingly significant problem for nanoparticle formulations. We present the first quantitative study of Ostwald ripening for nanoparticle dispersions. The Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory of particle growth driven by diffusion is applied to study beta-carotene nanoparticles with sizes of O(100 nm) formed by our block-copolymer protected Flash Nanoprecipitation process. A numerical implementation of the LSW theory that accounts for the original particle size distribution is presented. The predicted particle sizes from the numerical simulation are compared with the experimental results measured by dynamical light scattering. The results show quantitative agreement with no adjustable parameters. The addition of antisolvent results in the reduction of the ripening rate by dramatically decreasing bulk solubility.

  11. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  12. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals.

    PubMed

    Eberl, D D; Sacuterodonacute, J; Kralik, M; Taylor, B E; Peterman, Z E

    1990-04-27

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  13. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  14. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  15. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  16. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    PubMed

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  17. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.

    PubMed

    Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the content of biogenic amines throughout ripening time. It was lower in the batches made with an autochthonous starter culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum.

  18. Suppression of Ostwald Ripening by Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable and coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Ostwald ripening must thus be suppressed to stabilize emulsions, e.g. to control the properties of pharmaceuticals, food, or cosmetics. Suppression of Ostwald ripening is also important in biological cells, which contain stable liquid-like compartments, e.g. germ granules, Cajal-bodies, and centrosomes. Such systems are often driven away from equilibrium by chemical reactions and can thus be called active emulsions. Here, we show that non-equilibrium chemical reactions can suppress Ostwald Ripening, leading to stable, monodisperse emulsions. We derive analytical approximations of the typical droplet size, droplet count, and time scale of the dynamics from a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics. We also compare these results to numerical simulations of the continuous concentration fields. Generally, we thus show how chemical reactions can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties in technology and nature.

  19. Fruit ripening: physiology, signalling and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...

  20. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions.

  1. DEBDOM: Database Exploring Banana Diversity of Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Warepam Amuchou; Gopalrao, Somkuwar Bharat; Gourshyam, Thingnam; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2013-01-01

    Being poor man's apple, banana has a wide popularity worldwide. It's one of the important horticultural crops used irrespective of rich and poor alike. Manipur along with the other states of Northeast India harboured with plenty of wild and cultivated species of banana that are not fully explored. A data base named DEBDOM has been developed here describing the diversity of banana resources of Manipur and it comprises twenty eight genotypes of Musaceae. The database DEBDOM provides a sophisticated web base access to the details of the taxonomy, morphological characteristics, utility as well as sites of collection of Musa genotypes, and it would have contribute as a potential gene pool sources for the conservation, sustainability as well as for crop improvement in the future breeding programmes. Availability http://ibsd.gov.in/debdom/ PMID:23516335

  2. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    PubMed

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  3. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 101–103 cfu/cm2 L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 103/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 108 or 1 × 109 pfu/cm2. With Scott A (103 cfu/cm2) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 108 pfu/cm2) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 109 pfu/cm2) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (101–102 cfu/cm2), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  4. Breakdown of Chlorophyll in Higher Plants—Phyllobilins as Abundant, Yet Hardly Visible Signs of Ripening, Senescence, and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fall colors have always been fascinating and are still a remarkably puzzling phenomenon associated with the breakdown of chlorophyll (Chl) in leaves. As discovered in recent years, nongreen bilin‐type Chl catabolites are generated, which are known as the phyllobilins. Collaborative chemical‐biological efforts have led to the elucidation of the key Chl‐breakdown processes in senescent leaves and in ripening fruit. Colorless and largely photoinactive phyllobilins are rapidly produced from Chl, apparently primarily as part of a detoxification program. However, fluorescent Chl catabolites accumulate in some senescent leaves and in peels of ripe bananas and induce a striking blue glow. The structural features, chemical properties, and abundance of the phyllobilins in the biosphere suggest biological roles, which still remain to be elucidated. PMID:26919572

  5. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  6. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  7. A possible scenario for the evolution of Banana streak virus in banana.

    PubMed

    Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Muller, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-24

    Outbreaks of Banana streak virus (BSV) have been recorded worldwide where Musa spp. is grown during the last 20 years with no convincing evidence of epidemics. Epidemics were previously reported in Uganda where BSV is currently endemic. BSV is a plant pararetrovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus it causes chlorosis leaf streak disease. The information currently available on banana streak disease makes it possible to identify a complex of distinct BSV species each causing the same disease. BSV exists in two states: one as an episomal form, infecting plant cells; the other as viral DNA integrated within the B genome of banana (endogenous BSV-eBSV) forming a viral genome for de novo viral particles. Both forms can be infectious in banana plants. The BSV phylogeny is polyphyletic with BSV distributed in two clades. Clade 1 clusters BSV species that occur worldwide and may have an eBSV counterpart, whereas Clade 3 only comprises BSV species from Uganda. Clearly, two distinct origins explain such BSV diversity. However, the epidemiology/outbreaks of BSV remains unclear and the role of eBSV needs to be clarified. In this review, the biodiversity of BSV is explained and discussed in the light of field and molecular epidemiology data. A scheme is proposed for the co-evolution of BSV and banana based on old or recent infection hypotheses related to African domestication sites and banana dissemination to explain the disease context.

  8. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  9. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  10. Inhibition of pear fruit ripening by mannose.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C B; Frenkel, C

    1987-09-01

    Softening of the flesh and the rise in ethylene evolution and respiration associated with ripening in pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit was delayed when mannose was vacuum infiltrated into intact fruit. The extent of delay could be modified by altering the concentration or the volume of mannose applied to the fruit. Inhibition of ripening was associated with phosphorylation of mannose to mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), and accumulation of M6P was associated with lowered levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and ATP in the fruit tissue. Subsequently, however, as the M6P was metabolized, the levels of Pi, G6P, and ATP increased and ripening processes were concomitantly released from inhibition. Hence, the degree of inhibition by mannose or the release from inhibition was related to the level of M6P in the fruit and its rate of metabolism. The data provide correlative evidence to support a view that one inhibitory effect of mannose is depletion of Pi in the cell as a result of phosphorylation of mannose to M6P. Inhibition of ripening by mannose was not alleviated by co-application of glucose as a competitive substrate for the hexokinase(s), or by Pi, presumably the depleted metabolite. Also, incubation of tissue disks with M6P resulted in inhibition of ethylene production and respiration. The structural analogs of mannose, glucosamine, and 2-deoxyglucose, which have been shown to mimic mannose action in several plant tissues, did not cause inhibition of ripening of pear fruit comparable with that associated with mannose. Both analogs stimulated respiration, and glucosamine caused only a small inhibition of softening and ethylene evolution. Another mannose analog, alpha-methylmannoside, did inhibit fruit ripening though to a lesser extent than mannose. Its influence was also associated with accumulation of M6P and a decrease of Pi levels. We conclude that the mannose effect may, in part, be due to M6P toxicity, as well as by depletion of Pi.

  11. Effect of Acupressure on Cervical Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Ghobadi, Khadighe; Heshmat, Reza; Shakeri, Nezhat; Jalali Aria, Katayoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical ripening is one of the main stages of initiation labor. Acupressure in Chinese medicine is considered as an invasive technique, which through reliving oxytocin ripens the cervix. Acupoint Sanyinjiao (SP6) was selected in this study because it is the acupoint selected in gynecology and it is easy for women to locate and apply pressure without medical assistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acupressure on cervical ripening. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 150 primigravida with term pregnancy who had referred to Deziani hospital in Gorgan were chosen and divided to three groups: in the first group acupressure was done by the researcher while in the second groups this was performed by the mother her self, and the third group served as a control and only received routine care. For both intervention groups the pressure was applied on Sp6 for about 20 minutes during one to five days. Elements were checked from cervical ripening at 48 and 96 hours after intervention and at the time of hospitalization. The tools for gathering information included demographic characteristics and midwifery history questionnaire, daily records and follow up forms. Content validity was used for validity of tools. Reliability of the observation check-list and physical examination was confirmed by inter-rater scores (inter observer), and daily records by test-re-test. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests (P ≤ 0.05). Results: There was a significant difference between mothers’ educations in the three groups. Most of the mothers (59.5%) in the researcher-performed acupressure group had secondary education. Cervical ripening was significantly different between the three groups after 48 hours (P ≤ 0.05), yet there was no significant difference after 96 hours and at the time of admission. Mean Bishop score was enhanced after 48 hours in the researcher

  12. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  13. Anthocyanin composition of wild bananas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Svasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn

    2008-11-26

    Anthocyanins were isolated from male bracts of 10 wild species of bananas (Musa spp. and Ensete spp.) distributed in Thailand. Six major anthocyanin pigments were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). They are delphinidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 611.2), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 595.8), petunidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 624.9), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 579.4), peonidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 608.7), and malvidin-3-rutinoside (m/z 638.8). On the basis of the types of pigment present, the wild bananas can be divided into 5 groups. The first group comprises M. itinerans, Musa sp. one, Musa sp. two, and M. acuminata accessions, which contain almost or all anthocyanin pigments except for pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, including both nonmethylated and methylated anthocyanins. The second group, M. acuminata subsp. truncata, contains only malvidin-3-rutinoside while the third group, M. coccinea, contains cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside. The forth group, M. acuminata yellow bract and E. glaucum do not appear to contain any anthocyanin pigment. The fifth group consists of M. balbisiana, M. velutina, M. laterita, and E. superbum which contain only nonmethylated anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Total anthocyanin content in the analyzed bracts ranged from 0-119.70 mg/100 g bract fresh weight. The differences in the type of anthocyanin and variation in the amounts present indicate that wild bananas show biochemical diversity, which may be useful for identifying specific groups of bananas or for clarifying the evolution of flavonoid metabolism in each banana group.

  14. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  15. Simulations of Soft Glassy Matter with Ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert; Crocker, John

    2015-03-01

    Soft glassy matter (SGM) such as foams, emulsions, and colloids, exhibit interesting rheological properties that have long defied explanation. In particular, the shear modulus of these materials displays weak power law frequency dependence. To understand the origin of this property in more depth, we have built a three-dimensional, modified Bubble Dynamics model. The bubbles interact with a purely repulsive harmonic potential and ripen according to diffusion-based governing equations. An energy minimizer is implemented to quasi-statically relax topological rearrangements in the system as ripening proceeds. Preliminary results show that the model displays expected intermittent particle rearrangements and a weakly frequency-dependent shear modulus behaving like a power law fluid. We find that the anomalous relaxation properties and avalanche-like nature of the rearrangements can be related to different measures of the systems potential energy landscape.

  16. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  17. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  18. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  19. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 2. Thermal and functional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The starch and flour thermal and functional characteristics of 23 cultivated varieties of bananas in Colombia were assessed. Onset temperature for gelatinization of starches measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) varied from 59.7 to 67.8 degrees C, thereby significantly differentiating dessert bananas (63.2 degrees C) from nonplantain cooking bananas (65.7 degrees C) from FHIA hybrids (66.6 degrees C) and plantains (67.1 degrees C). FHIA hybrids are significantly discriminated from dessert banana landraces but not from the cooking group. The starch amylose contents varied from 15.4 to 24.9%; most dessert banana starch amylose contents were below 19%, whereas in cooking banana starches the contents were over 21%. Flour functional properties were assessed by Rapid ViscoAnalyser (RVA) using silver nitrate as alpha-amylase inhibitor. The flour pasting temperature was relevant to differentiate dessert bananas (69.5 degrees C) from FHIA dessert hybrids and nonplantain cooking bananas (72.8 degrees C) from cooking hybrids and plantains (75.8 degrees C). Among other criteria, the cooking ability also helped to differentiate dessert bananas and FHIA hybrids from cooking bananas. A close relation between cultivar genotypes and uses with the thermal and pasting properties were revealed.

  20. Energy conservation and dissipation in mitochondria isolated from developing tomato fruit of ethylene-defective mutants failing normal ripening: the effect of ethephon, a chemical precursor of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Navet, Rachel; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka; Sluse-Goffart, Claudine; Sluse, Francis E

    2003-04-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP) are present simultaneously in tomato fruit mitochondria. In a previous work, it has been shown that protein expression and activity of these two energy-dissipating systems exhibit large variations during tomato fruit development and ripening on the vine. It has been suggested that AOX and UCP could be responsible for the respiration increase at the end of ripening and that the cytochrome pathway could be implicated in the climacteric respiratory burst before the onset of ripening. In this study, the use of tomato mutants that fail normal ripening because of deficiencies in ethylene perception or production as well as the treatment of one selected mutant with a chemical precursor of ethylene have revealed that the bioenergetics of tomato fruit development and ripening is under the control of this plant hormone. Indeed, the evolution pattern of bioenergetic features changes with the type of mutation and with the introduction of ethylene into an ethylene-synthesis-deficient tomato fruit mutant during its induced ripening.

  1. Allergy to banana in a 5-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2004-06-01

    Food proteins can sensitize the infants via different sources. A 5-month-old boy suffered three episodes of generalized urticaria 20 min after the ingestion of a fruit purée containing apple, banana and orange. Skin testing showed positive results to banana and chestnut. Other tests were negative. The value of specific immunoglobulin E (Pharmacia CAP-FEIA, Uppsala, Sweden) to banana was 58 KU/l, to orange was 9.7 KU/l, to chestnut was 5.6 KU/l and to latex was 1.6 KU/l. Orange, apple and latex products were well tolerated. He never had eaten chestnut. The parents rejected a banana challenge test. The route of sensitization in our case might be via placenta, breast-milk, and inadvertent oral intake of food or even via inhalation. An early frequent exposure to banana allergens was considered a possibility factor for the development of banana sensitization. We found that the banana consumption during pregnancy and lactation by the mother of our patient was greater than usual. It is not frequent to find so high levels of sensitization to any fruit in first year of life. In our case, latex, chestnut and orange sensitizations did not seem to be clinically relevant. However, latex and foods known to cross-react with banana antigens should be given to banana-sensitive individuals with great caution.

  2. Domestication, Genomics and the Future for Banana

    PubMed Central

    Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas and plantains are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic so the fruit develops without seed. The cultivated hybrids and species are mostly triploid (2n = 3x = 33; a few are diploid or tetraploid), and most have been propagated from mutants found in the wild. With a production of 100 million tons annually, banana is a staple food across the Asian, African and American tropics, with the 15 % that is exported being important to many economies. Scope There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars and their genetic diversity is high, indicating multiple origins from different wild hybrids between two principle ancestral species. However, the difficulty of genetics and sterility of the crop has meant that the development of new varieties through hybridization, mutation or transformation was not very successful in the 20th century. Knowledge of structural and functional genomics and genes, reproductive physiology, cytogenetics, and comparative genomics with rice, Arabidopsis and other model species has increased our understanding of Musa and its diversity enormously. Conclusions There are major challenges to banana production from virulent diseases, abiotic stresses and new demands for sustainability, quality, transport and yield. Within the genepool of cultivars and wild species there are genetic resistances to many stresses. Genomic approaches are now rapidly advancing in Musa and have the prospect of helping enable banana to maintain and increase its importance as a staple food and cash crop through integration of genetical, evolutionary and structural data, allowing targeted breeding, transformation and efficient use of Musa biodiversity in the future. PMID:17766312

  3. Low-Cost Gas Sensors Produced by the Graphite Line-Patterning Technique Applied to Monitoring Banana Ripeness

    PubMed Central

    Manzoli, Alexandra; Steffens, Clarice; Paschoalin, Rafaella T.; Correa, Alessandra A.; Alves, William F.; Leite, Fábio L.; Herrmann, Paulo S. P.

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost sensor array system for banana ripeness monitoring is presented. The sensors are constructed by employing a graphite line-patterning technique (LPT) to print interdigitated graphite electrodes on tracing paper and then coating the printed area with a thin film of polyaniline (PANI) by in-situ polymerization as the gas-sensitive layer. The PANI layers were used for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including ethylene, emitted during ripening. The influence of the various acid dopants, hydrochloric acid (HCl), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), p-toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), on the electrical properties of the thin film of PANI adsorbed on the electrodes was also studied. The extent of doping of the films was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and tests showed that the type of dopant plays an important role in the performance of these low-cost sensors. The array of three sensors, without the PANI-HCl sensor, was able to produce a distinct pattern of signals, taken as a signature (fingerprint) that can be used to characterize bananas ripeness. PMID:22163963

  4. Chip electrophoresis of active banana ingredients with label-free detection utilizing deep UV native fluorescence and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohla, Stefan; Schulze, Philipp; Fritzsche, Stefanie; Belder, Detlev

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, we report on a rapid and straightforward approach for the determination of biologically active compounds in bananas applying microchip electrophoresis (MCE). For this purpose, we applied label-free detection utilizing deep UV fluorescence detection with excitation at 266 nm. Using this approach, we could identify dopamine and serotonin, their precursors tryptophan and tyrosine and also the isoquinoline alkaloid salsolinol in less than 1 min. In bananas, after 10 days of ripening, we additionally found the compound levodopa which is a metabolite of the tyrosine pathway. Quantitative analysis of extracts by external calibration revealed concentrations of serotonin, tryptophan, and tyrosine from 2.7 to 7.6 μg/mL with relative standard deviations of less than 3.5%. The corresponding calibration plots showed good linearity with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985. For reliable peak assignment, the compounds were also analyzed by coupling chip electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. This paper demonstrates exemplarily the applicability of MCE with native fluorescence detection for rapid analysis of natural compounds in fruits and reveals the potential of chip-based separation systems for the analysis of complex mixtures.

  5. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  6. Morphological ripening of fluid inclusions and coupled zone-refining in quartz crystals revealed by cathodoluminescence imaging: Implications for CL-petrography, fluid inclusion analysis and trace-element geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Glenn; Diamond, Larryn William

    2014-09-01

    not associated with dark-CL zone-refined patches. This new understanding has implications for the interpretation of solids within fluid inclusions (e.g., Ti- and Al-minerals) and for the elemental analysis of hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz and its fluid inclusions by microbeam methods such as LA-ICPMS and SIMS. As Ti is a common trace element in quartz, its sequestration by fluid inclusions and its depletion in zone-refined patches impacts on applications of the Ti-in-quartz geothermometer.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  8. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work shows that active DNA demethylation governs ripening, an important plant developmental process. Our work defines a molecular mechanism, which has until now been missing, to explain the correlation between genomic DNA demethylation and fruit ripening. It demonstrates a direct cause-and-effe...

  9. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    PubMed

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  10. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  11. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  12. Using banana to generate lactic acid through batch process fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chan-Blanco, Y; Bonilla-Leiva, A R; Velázquez, A C

    2003-12-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of waste banana for generating lactic acid through batch fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei under three treatments. Two treatments consisted of substrates of diluted banana purée, one of which was enriched with salts and amino acids. The control treatment comprised a substrate suitable for L. casei growth. When fermentation was evaluated over time, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in the three treatments for each of five variables analyzed (generation and productivity of lactic acid, and consumption of glucose, fructose, and sucrose). Maximum productivity was (in g l(-1) h(-1)) 0.13 for the regular banana treatment, 1.49 for the enriched banana, and 1.48 for the control, with no significant differences found between the latter two treatments. Glucose consumption curves showed that L. casei made greater use of the substrate in the enriched banana and control treatments than in the regular banana treatment. For fructose intake, the enriched banana treatment showed significantly better (P<0.05) results than the regular one. Sucrose consumption was insignificant (P<0.05), probably because fermentation time was too short. Even when enriched, diluted banana purée is an ineffective substrate for L. casei, probably because it lacks nutrients.

  13. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  14. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  15. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  16. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  17. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  18. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  19. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  20. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  1. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  2. Banana streak virus is very diverse in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hart, Darren; Moult, Sarah; Hull, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a badnavirus that causes a viral leaf streak disease of banana and plantain (Musa spp.). Identified in essentially all Musa growing areas of the world, it has a deleterious effect on the productivity of infected plants as well as being a major constraint to Musa breeding programmes and germplasm dissemination. Banana is a staple food in Uganda which is, per capita, one of the worlds largest banana producers and consumers. BSV was isolated from infected plants sampled across the Ugandan Musa growing area and the isolates were analysed using molecular and serological techniques. These analyses showed that BSV is very highly variable in Uganda. They suggest that the variability is, in part, due to a series of introductions of banana into Uganda, each with a different complement of infecting viruses.

  3. Bananas, pesticides and health in southwestern Ecuador: A scalar narrative approach to targeting public health responses.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Public health responses to agricultural pesticide exposure are often informed by ethnographic or other qualitative studies of pesticide risk perception. In addition to highlighting the importance of structural determinants of exposure, such studies can identify the specific scales at which pesticide-exposed individuals locate responsibility for their health issues, with implications for study and intervention design. In this study, an ethnographic approach was employed to map scalar features within explanatory narratives of pesticides and health in Ecuador's banana-producing El Oro province. Unstructured observation, 14 key informant interviews and 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out during 8 months of fieldwork in 2011-2013. Analysis of interview data was informed by human geographic literature on the social construction of scale. Individual-focused narratives of some participants highlighted characteristics such as carelessness and ignorance, leading to suggestions for educational interventions. More structural explanations invoked farm-scale processes, such as uncontrolled aerial fumigations on plantations owned by elites. Organization into cooperatives helped to protect small-scale farmers from 'deadly' banana markets, which in turn were linked to the Ecuadorian nation-state and actors in the banana-consuming world. These scalar elements interacted in complex ways that appear linked to social class, as more well-off individuals frequently attributed the health problems of other (poorer) people to individual behaviours, while providing more structural explanations of their own difficulties. Such individualizing narratives may help to stabilize inequitable social structures. Research implications of this study include the possibility of using scale-focused qualitative research to generate theory and candidate levels for multi-level models. Equity implications include a need for public health researchers planning interventions to engage with

  4. Molecular Analysis of the Developmental and Hormonal Systems Regulating Fruit Ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ripening and development of fleshy fruits is regulated by environmental, hormonal and developmental cues. Ethylene is the key ripening hormone of climacteric fruits and can influence ripening in many non-climacteric fruits. Our laboratory uses tomato as a model system to understand ripening re...

  5. Effects of ripening duration and rosemary powder addition on salchichon modified sausage quality.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Shim, Kwan-Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2015-05-01

    The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i) 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii) 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii) 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv) 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS) ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw) of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  6. Hormonal changes during non-climacteric ripening in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to climacteric fruits, where ethylene is known to be pivotal, the regulation of ripening in non-climacteric fruits is not well understood. In the non-climacteric strawberry (Fragaria anannassa), auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) are thought to be important, but the roles of other hormones suggested to be involved in fruit development and ripening are not clear. Here changes in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ABA, GA1, and castasterone from anthesis to fully ripened fruit are reported. The levels of IAA and GA1 rise early in fruit development before dropping to low levels prior to colour accumulation. Castasterone levels are highest at anthesis and drop to very low levels well before ripening commences, suggesting that brassinosteroids do not play an important role in ripening in strawberry. ABA levels are low at anthesis and gradually rise through development and ripening. The synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), can delay ripening, but the application of GA3, the gibberellin biosythesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, and ABA had no significant effect. IAA and ABA levels are higher in the developing achenes than in the receptacle tissue and may be important for receptacle enlargement and ripening, and seed maturation, respectively. Contrary to a recent report, the biologically active GA4 was not detected. The pattern of changes in the levels of the hormones are different from those reported in another well studied non-climateric fruit, grape, suggesting that a single consistent pattern of hormone changes does not occur in this group of fruit during ripening. PMID:22791823

  7. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchun; Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro E P; Frasse, Pierre; Maza, Elie; Zouine, Mohamed; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pirrello, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening.

  8. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening. PMID:26739234

  9. Changes in the content and biosynthesis of phytoalexins in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamo, T; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    2000-10-01

    Changes in the phytoalexin content in unripe fruit of banana, Musa acuminata, were analyzed after various treatments. The results show that level of hydroxyanigorufone started to increase 1-2 day after either wounding or inoculation with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. Inoculation followed by wounding induced the formation of many other phenylphenalenones. The accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone decreased, after its transient maximum, on ripening by exposure of the wounded fruit to ethylene. The level of production of hydroxyanigorufone in ripe fruit treated by wounding and/or by inoculation was much lower than that in unripe fruit. 2-Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), inhibited the accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone in wounded fruit, and the PAL activity increased after wounding and ethylene treatment, respectively. Feeding experiments with [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C]cinnamic acids, and [2-(13)C]malonate show that two molecules of cinnamic acid and one of malonate were incorporated into each molecule of hydroxyanigorufone. The phytoalexins isolated from fruit to which deuterated hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone had been administered revealed that 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthalic anhydride was biosynthesized from hydroxyanigorufone rather than from irenolone.

  10. Adatom emission from nanoparticles: Implications for Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Tyne Richele

    To achieve clean air in our cities, all modern means of ground transportation make use of catalytic converters. Precious metal-based catalysts such as Pt and Pd are currently used in catalytic converters. To achieve higher fuel efficiency, combustion can be carried out in excess air resulting in a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reduction of these emissions has emerged as a major challenge. Most of the pollutants are emitted within the first 30 seconds after starting an engine because the catalyst is cold. The development of catalysts which achieve high activity at low temperatures will improve fuel efficiency and therefore reduce the nation's dependence on foreign fossil fuels. The supplies of precious metals are limited worldwide, but there is increasing demand for clean energy. Therefore, there is a need to develop more active catalysts that provide long-term stable performance at elevated temperatures with minimal use of precious metals such as platinum. A major problem is that catalysts lose activity during use. Pt particles sinter, leading to poor stability. There is universal agreement that addition of Pd improves the catalytic performance as well as the durability of the Pt catalysts; however, the mechanisms by which Pd improves the performance of Pt are less clear. Conventional supported catalysts (Pt, Pd, and Pt-Pd) have been used to explore the microstructure of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in their working state (i.e. under oxidizing conditions). Model catalysts have been used to study the evolution of platinum and palladium nanoparticles. Both a statistical and a microscopic approach have been used to understand the ways in which Pd affects Pt. The catalytic activity and kinetics of various monometallic as well as bimetallic powder catalysts aged under different conditions has also been studied. NO oxidation in the presence of NO, O2, and NO2 was the probe reaction used to distinguish between the differing activities of Pt/Al2O3 and Pt-Pd/Al2O 3. The work described here focuses on important problems in the field of catalysis. A fundamental understanding of the role of palladium on both the catalytic activity and long-term performance of platinum catalysts has been gained.

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of banana streak virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hull, R

    1998-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of the Badnavirus group of plant viruses, causes severe problems in banana cultivation, reducing fruit yield and restricting plant breeding and the movement of germplasm. Current detection methods are relatively insensitive. In order to develop a PCR-based diagnostic method that is both reliable and sensitive, the genome of a Nigerian isolate of BSV has been sequenced and shown to comprise 7389 bp and to be organized in a manner characteristic of badnaviruses. Comparison of this sequence with those of other badnaviruses showed that BSV is a distinct virus. PCR with primers based on sequence data indicated that BSV sequences are present in the banana genome.

  12. An improved choice of oscillator basis for banana shaped nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The question of the appropriate choice of oscillator basis functions for studying exotic nuclear shapes is raised. Difficulties with the conventional choice of oscillator basis states are noted for shapes having a large banana component. A prescription for an improved oscillator basis to study these shapes is given. It can be applied in a more general context. New calculations with this improved basis are presented for the banana deformation mode. The change of basis gives results that improve the prospects of finding states in the banana minimum for many isotopes of Tl, Pb and Bi.

  13. Methods of cervical ripening and labor induction: pharmacologic.

    PubMed

    Goetzl, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Over the years, multiple forms and doses of pharmacologic agents have been used for cervical ripening and labor induction. This chapter will review potential criteria and article situations for choosing a particular pharmacologic agent. The discussion in this chapter will be limited to comparisons between pharmacologic agents; direct comparisons between mechanical agents and pharmacologic agents will largely be reviewed in the accompanying article: Methods of cervical ripening and labor induction: mechanical. For the purposes of this discussion, the term labor induction will be limited to patients with a "favorable cervix" by Bishop's score <6, whereas the term cervical ripening will be limited to patients with an unfavorable cervix and includes subsequent induction or augmentation of labor. Although the pharmacologic agent used for the initial cervical ripening process is the focus of this discussion, subsequent treatment with oxytocin may or may not be required for delivery.

  14. Solvent: A Key in Digestive Ripening for Monodisperse Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Xuan; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Yunong; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Jun; Fu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work has mainly investigated the influence of the solvent on the nanoparticles distribution in digestive ripening. The experiments suggested that the solvents played a key role in digestive ripening of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). For the benzol solvents, the resulting size distribution of Au NPs was inversely related to the solvent polarity. It may be interpreted by the low Gibbs free energy of nanoparticles in the high polarity medium, which was supposedly in favor of reducing the nanoparticles distribution. Through digestive ripening in the highly polar benzol solvent of p-chlorotoluene, monodisperse Au NPs with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% were achieved. This indicated that digestive ripening was an effective and practical way to prepare high-quality nanoparticles, which holds great promise for the nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  15. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  16. Fruit cuticle lipid composition during development in tomato ripening mutants.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Isaacson, Tal; Lü, Shiyou; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Jenks, Matthew A

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that fruit cuticle is an important contributing factor to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit shelf life and storability. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that variation in fruit cuticle composition may underlie differences in traits such as fruit resistance to desiccation and microbial infection. To gain a better understanding of cuticle lipid composition diversity during fruit ontogeny and to assess if there are common features that correlate with ripening, we examined developmental changes in fruit cuticle wax and cutin monomer composition of delayed-ripening tomato fruit mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin) and non-ripening (nor) and delayed-ripening landrace Alcobaça. Previous reports show that fruit ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production, cell wall degradation and color change are significantly delayed, or do not occur, in these lines. In the study presented here, however, we show that fruits from rin, nor and Alcobaça have cuticle lipid compositions that differ significantly from normal fruits of Ailsa Craig (AC) even at very early stages in fruit development, with continuing impacts throughout ripening. Moreover, rin, nor and the Alcobaça lines show quite different wax profiles from AC and each other throughout fruit development. Although cutin monomer composition differed much less than wax composition among the genotypes, all delayed-ripening lines possessed higher relative amounts of C(18) monomers than AC. Together, these results reveal new genetic associations between cuticle and fruit development processes and define valuable genetic resources to further explore the importance of cuticle in fruit shelf life.

  17. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  18. Kinetics of a Multilamellar Lipid Vesicle Ripening: Simulation and Theory.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; He, Xuehao

    2016-03-10

    Lipid vesicle ripening via unimolecular diffusion and exchange greatly influences the evolution of complex vesicle structure. However, this behavior is difficult to capture using conventional experimental technology and molecular simulation. In the present work, the ripening of a multilamellar lipid vesicle (MLV) is effectively explored using a mesoscale coarse-grained molecular model. The simulation reveals that a small MLV evolves into a unilamellar vesicle over a very long time period. In this process, only the outermost bilayer inflates, and the inner bilayers shrink. With increasing MLV size, the ripening process becomes complex and depends on competition between a series of adjacent bilayers in the MLV. To understand the diffusion behavior of the unimolecule, the potentials of mean force (PMFs) of a single lipid molecule across unilamellar vesicles with different sizes are calculated. It is found that the PMF of lipid dissociation from the inner layer is different than that of the outer layer, and the dissociation energy barrier sensitively depends on the curvature of the bilayer. A kinetics theoretical model of MLV ripening that considers the lipid dissociation energy for curved bilayers is proposed. The model successfully interprets the MLV ripening process with various numbers of bilayers and shows potential to predict the ripening kinetics of complex lipid vesicles.

  19. Comparative susceptibility of two banana cultivars to Banana bunchy top virus under laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Hooks, C R R; Manandhar, R; Perez, E P; Wang, K H; Almeida, R P P

    2009-06-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out on the island of Oahu, HI, to compare the susceptibility of the two most commonly grown banana (Musa sp.) cultivars in the state ('Dwarf Brazilian' or Santa Catarina [locally known as dwarf apple] and 'Williams') to the aphid-borne Banana bunchy top virus (genus Babuvirus, family Nanoviridae, BBTV). Several morphological and physiological features of the two cultivars were monitored to determine whether the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), transmits BBTV to both cultivars at a similar rate; and whether after successful inoculation, does each cultivar respond similarly to viral infection. Results from the laboratory experiment showed that a similar percentage of both cultivars were infected with BBTV by aphid vectors (> 90% for both cultivars). However, field results showed a significantly lower percentage of dwarf apple (39%) infected with BBTV compared with Williams (79%). We also found that all physiological and morphological features measured (i.e., plant height, leaf area, canopy, chlorophyll level, and moisture content) for both cultivars were impacted similarly by BBTV. The incubation period, or the time between plant infection and initial appearance of disease symptoms, was similar for both cultivars. Results also showed that BBTV transmission efficiency was lower in the field than in the laboratory, despite that more aphids per plant were used for field than laboratory inoculation tests. The results highlight the potential use of less susceptible cultivars to help manage BBTV and the importance of screening banana varieties in the field to determine their response to vectors and associated diseases.

  20. Pectic polysaccharides are attacked by hydroxyl radicals in ripening fruit: evidence from a fluorescent fingerprinting method

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Many fruits soften during ripening, which is important commercially and in rendering the fruit attractive to seed-dispersing animals. Cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolases may contribute to softening, but sometimes appear to be absent. An alternative hypothesis is that hydroxyl radicals (•OH) non-enzymically cleave wall polysaccharides. We evaluated this hypothesis by using a new fluorescent labelling procedure to ‘fingerprint’ •OH-attacked polysaccharides. Methods We tagged fruit polysaccharides with 2-(isopropylamino)-acridone (pAMAC) groups to detect (a) any mid-chain glycosulose residues formed in vivo during •OH action and (b) the conventional reducing termini. The pAMAC-labelled pectins were digested with Driselase, and the products resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Key Results Strawberry, pear, mango, banana, apple, avocado, Arbutus unedo, plum and nectarine pectins all yielded several pAMAC-labelled products. GalA–pAMAC (monomeric galacturonate, labelled with pAMAC at carbon-1) was produced in all species, usually increasing during fruit softening. The six true fruits also gave pAMAC·UA-GalA disaccharides (where pAMAC·UA is an unspecified uronate, labelled at a position other than carbon-1), with yields increasing during softening. Among false fruits, apple and strawberry gave little pAMAC·UA-GalA; pear produced it transiently. Conclusions GalA–pAMAC arises from pectic reducing termini, formed by any of three proposed chain-cleaving agents (•OH, endopolygalacturonase and pectate lyase), any of which could cause its ripening-related increase. In contrast, pAMAC·UA-GalA conjugates are diagnostic of mid-chain oxidation of pectins by •OH. The evidence shows that •OH radicals do indeed attack fruit cell wall polysaccharides non-enzymically during softening in vivo. This applies much more prominently to drupes and berries (true fruits) than to false fruits (swollen

  1. Characterisation of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Anthracnose of Banana

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-01-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations. PMID:24575184

  2. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects.

  3. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  4. Transcriptome analysis around the onset of strawberry fruit ripening uncovers an important role of oxidative phosphorylation in ripening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing-Hua; Zhao, Cheng; Zhang, Miao; Li, Yu-Zhong; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Guo, Jia-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Although much progress has been made towards understanding the ripening of non-climacteric fruit using the strawberry as a model plant, the defined molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, RNA-sequencing was performed using four cDNA libraries around the onset of ripening, and a total of 31,793 unigenes and 335 pathways were annotated including the top five pathways, which were involved in ribosome, spliceosome, protein processing, plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signaling, and the important DEGs related to ripening were annotated to be mainly involved in protein translation and processing, sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, phytohormones, antioxidation, pigment and softening, especially finding a decreased trend of oxidative phosphorylation during red-coloring. VIGS-mediated downregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene PDHE1α, a key gene for glycolysis-derived oxidative phosphorylation, could inhibit respiration and ATP biosynthesis, whilst promote the accumulation of sugar, ABA, ETH, and PA, ultimately accelerating the ripening. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that a set of metabolism transition occurred during green-to-white-to-red stages that are coupled with more-to-less DEGs, and the oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of ripening. On the basis of our results, we discuss an oxidative phosphorylation-based model underlying strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:28195221

  5. Sap phytochemical compositions of some bananas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothavorn, Pongsagon; Kitdamrongsont, Kasipong; Swangpol, Sasivimon; Wongniam, Siripope; Atawongsa, Kanokporn; Savasti, Jisnuson; Somana, Jamorn

    2010-08-11

    Banana sap has some special properties relating to various phenomena such as browning of fruits after harvesting, permanent staining of cloth and fibers, and antioxidant and antibleeding properties. Analysis of banana sap using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) indicated the presence of phenolic and aromatic amino compounds of interest due to their special properties. With the online positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI), the possible structures of specific compounds were determined from the fragmentation patterns of each particular ion appearing in the mass spectra. The major compounds revealed from the sap of banana accessions, namely, Musa balbisiana , Musa laterita , Musa ornata , and Musa acuminata , and some cultivars were apigenin glycosides, myricetin glycoside, myricetin-3-O-rutinoside, naringenin glycosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, dopamine, and N-acetylserotonin. The results indicated that there was a variety of phenolic and aromatic amino contents in many banana species. These compounds were reported to relate with biological activities. Moreover, the identities of these phytochemical compositions may be used as markers for banana diet, the assessment of physiochemical status, or the classification of banana clones.

  6. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  7. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  8. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    PubMed

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  9. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  10. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E.; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27625653

  11. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  12. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  13. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries

    PubMed Central

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. PMID:25135520

  14. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  15. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.

  16. Surface microflora of four smear-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cogan, Timothy M

    2005-11-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses.

  17. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening. PMID:26511917

  18. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Chervin, Christian; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible ‘Brazil’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant ‘Nongke No.1’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang I’ were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were

  20. Comprehensive ripeness-index for prediction of ripening level in mangoes by multivariate modelling of ripening behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyarkai Nambi, Vijayaram; Thangavel, Kuladaisamy; Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Shahir, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of ripeness level in climacteric fruits is essential for post-harvest handling. An index capable of predicting ripening level with minimum inputs would be highly beneficial to the handlers, processors and researchers in fruit industry. A study was conducted with Indian mango cultivars to develop a ripeness index and associated model. Changes in physicochemical, colour and textural properties were measured throughout the ripening period and the period was classified into five stages (unripe, early ripe, partially ripe, ripe and over ripe). Multivariate regression techniques like partial least square regression, principal component regression and multi linear regression were compared and evaluated for its prediction. Multi linear regression model with 12 parameters was found more suitable in ripening prediction. Scientific variable reduction method was adopted to simplify the developed model. Better prediction was achieved with either 2 or 3 variables (total soluble solids, colour and acidity). Cross validation was done to increase the robustness and it was found that proposed ripening index was more effective in prediction of ripening stages. Three-variable model would be suitable for commercial applications where reasonable accuracies are sufficient. However, 12-variable model can be used to obtain more precise results in research and development applications.

  1. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H.; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T. Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B.; Giovannoni, James J.; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening— an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato. PMID:26261318

  2. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  3. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  4. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States. The... INFORMATION: Background In a proposed rule \\1\\ titled ``Importation of Fresh Bananas from the Philippines...

  5. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  6. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  7. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  8. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  9. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  10. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  11. Changes in Gene Expression during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Biggs, M S; Harriman, R W; Handa, A K

    1986-06-01

    Total proteins from pericarp tissue of different chronological ages from normally ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) fruits and from fruits of the isogenic ripening-impaired mutants rin, nor, and Nr were extracted and separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the stained bands revealed increases in 5 polypeptides (94, 44, 34, 20, and 12 kilodaltons), decreases in 12 polypeptides (106, 98, 88, 76, 64, 52, 48, 45, 36, 28, 25, and 15 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in 5 polypeptides (85, 60, 26, 21, and 16 kilodaltons) as normal ripening proceeded. Several polypeptides present in ripening normal pericarp exhibited very low or undetectable levels in developing mutant pericarp. Total RNAs extracted from various stages of Rutgers pericarp and from 60 to 65 days old rin, nor, and Nr pericarp were fractionated into poly(A)(+) and poly(A)(-) RNAs. Peak levels of total RNA, poly(A)(+) RNA, and poly(A)(+) RNA as percent of total RNA occurred between the mature green to breaker stages of normal pericarp. In vitro translation of poly(A)(+) RNAs from normal pericarp in rabbit reticulocyte lysates revealed increases in mRNAs for 9 polypeptides (116, 89, 70, 42, 38, 33, 31, 29, and 26 kilodaltons), decreases in mRNAs for 2 polypeptides (41 and 35 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in mRNAs for 5 polypeptides (156, 53, 39, 30, and 14 kilodaltons) during normal ripening. Analysis of two-dimensional separation of in vitro translated polypeptides from poly(A)(+) RNAs isolated from different developmental stages revealed even more extensive changes in mRNA populations during ripening. In addition, a polygalacturonase precursor (54 kilodaltons) was immunoprecipitated from breaker, turning, red ripe, and 65 days old Nr in vitro translation products.

  12. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event.

  13. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes. PMID:27872791

  14. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  15. Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

    2000-09-01

    One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.

  16. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs.

  17. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs.

  18. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    PubMed

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  19. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  20. Genetic variants of Banana streak virus in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y; Khorugdharry, Ashwin; Harper, Glyn

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variations among isolates of Banana streak virus (BSV) were assessed using two sets of primers. The virus, found in banana accessions in Mauritius, was compared to a Nigerian isolate from cultivar Obino l'Ewai (BSOEV). On the basis of the observed size of amplicons, some Mauritius strains were different from l'Ewai BSOEV. Both Southern blot hybridization and the nucleotide sequences of the PCR products confirmed that they were of episomal BSV origin. An isolate of sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV) was found to be also very similar to the BSV isolated from banana samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that even the same size PCR products had differing sequences. The dendrogram placed the isolates from Mauritius in a cluster separate from BSV and SCBV from other geographical locations.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  2. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    PubMed

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  3. Visualization of internal structure of banana starch granule through AFM.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2015-09-05

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from bananas and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green bananas showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe bananas showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits.

  4. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  5. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  6. Ripening process of Cascaval cheese: compositional and textural aspects.

    PubMed

    Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana Viorela; Mocanu, Gabriel Dănuţ

    2015-08-01

    Two textural characteristics, elasticity modulus and firmness, were determined during the ripening process of Cascaval cheese, using both instrumental and sensorial techniques. Uniaxial compression was used to determine the textural characteristics and the results were compared with the ones obtained by sensorial analysis, revealing a good correlation. The chemical composition of cheese was also determined, including the nitrogen fractions (total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen). The data thus obtained were statistically processed in order to find the differences between the samples, as well as to find the correlation between the techniques of analysis. The study showed that the ripening process of the Cascaval cheese is similar to the ripening of other pasta filata cheese. The moisture content decreases during maturation as a result of water evaporation. The concentration of nitrogen fractions increases during the ripening stage, and so do the firmness and elasticity modulus. The biochemical processes that occur during maturation largely influence the textural parameters and this is proved by both instrumental and sensorial analyses.

  7. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  8. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  9. Changes in chloroplast pigments of olive varieties during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Roca, M; Mínguez-Mosquera, M I

    2001-02-01

    Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of five olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties destined for milling were investigated at six consecutive ripening stages. There was a manifest dependence between olive variety, moment of picking, and chloroplast pigment composition of the fruits. Although the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids differed with fruit variety, ripening always involved their gradual loss, which becames more pronounced with increased presence of anthocyanin compounds. The relative rates of disappearance of chlorophylls and carotenoids were markedly different between varieties, implying that the catabolism of these pigments takes place at a relative rate inherent to each variety. The varieties less rich in pigments showed the most extreme behavior. The highest relative rate of disappearance was observed in fruits of the Blanqueta variety, and the lowest was observed in those of Arbequina. The chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio remained practically constant during ripening, with a value very similar for Hojiblanca, Picual, Cornicabra, and Blanqueta, but much higher for Arbequina, implying that the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus is different in the latter variety. In the five varieties studied, lutein was the slowest carotenoid to be degraded, so that its percentage in the fruits increased with ripening, whereas beta-carotene was the fastest to disappear. In ripe fruits covered with anthocyanins, chloroplast pigments were retained in both skin and pulp, with the rate of disappearance being much higher in the latter.

  10. SRNAome parsing yields insights into tomato fruit ripening control.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Yi; Qu, Guiqin; Tian, Huiqin; Zhai, Baiqiang; Ju, Zheng; Gao, Chao; Wang, Yunxiang; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-12-01

    Small RNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes at the post-transcriptional level. To elucidate the functions of microRNA (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in tomato fruit ripening process, the deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were combined to parse the small RNAs landscape in three fruit-ripening stages (mature green, breaker and red-ripe) on a whole genome. Two species-specific miRNAs and two members of TAS3 family were identified, 590 putative phased small RNAs and 125 cis-natural antisense (nat-siRNAs) were also found in our results which enriched the tomato small RNAs repository and all of them showed differential expression patterns during fruit ripening. A large amount of the targets of the small RNAs were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and ethylene pathway. Furthermore, the promoters of the conserved and novel miRNAs were found to contain the conserved motifs of TATA-box and CT microsatellites which were also found in Arabidopsis and rice, and several species-specific motifs were found in parallel.

  11. Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoids Biosynthesis in Ripening Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R L; Jen, J J

    1975-09-01

    Red light induced and far red light inhibited carotenoid biosynthesis in ripening tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) when compared to controls kept in the dark. Red illumination following far red illumination reversed the inhibitory action of far red light on carotenoid biosynthesis, suggesting a phytochrome-mediated process. Quantitation of individual carotenoids favored the hypothesis of two separate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in tomatoes.

  12. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  13. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  14. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  15. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    PubMed

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages.

  16. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Vijaya R; Gao, Feng; Yao, Zhen; Jordan, Mark C; Park, Seokhoon; Ayele, Belay T

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR), ethylene (ET), cytokinin (CK) and salicylic acid (SA) related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  17. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  18. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  19. Digestion of waste bananas to generate energy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Radnidge, P; Lai, T E; Jensen, P D; Hardin, M T

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory studies to measure the methane yield and rate of digestion of reject bananas. These parameters were determined in experiments that took into account the likely configuration of a full-scale plant in the banana growing region of north Queensland. The digestion was conducted in a 200-l reactor using fed-batch operation, relying entirely on the natural microbial consortia on the reject bananas to avoid reliance on external inocula such as sludge, an undesirable material around food packaging facilities. An enrichment culture was first established in a highly buffered 200-l batch digestion unit. The fed-batch digester was then started by exchanging leachate with the mature batch reactor. Under loading conditions of 0.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) over 70 days where the average working volume was 160 l, the digester produced 398+/-20 l CH4 kg VS(-1). Increasing the loading rate to 1.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) resulted in a reduced methane yield of 210 l CH4 kg VS(-1) over 23 days of operation, with a concomitant accumulation of banana waste in the digester. The leachate at the end of digestion contained over 4000 mg l(-1)K, 200 mg l(-1) N and 75 mg l(-1), levels that exceed acceptable limits for general agricultural irrigation.

  20. Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-06-25

    Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality.

  1. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  2. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G B Sunil; Ganapathi, T R; Revathi, C J; Srinivas, L; Bapat, V A

    2005-10-01

    Embryogenic cells of bananan cv. Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the 's' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Four different expression cassettes (pHBS, pHER, pEFEHBS and pEFEHER) were utilized to optimize the expression of HBsAg in banana. The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. Maximum expression level of 38 ng/g F.W. of leaves was noted in plants transformed with pEFEHBS grown under in vitro conditions, whereas pHER transformed plants grown in the green house showed the maximum expression level of 19.92 ng/g F.W. of leaves. Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. The buoyant density in CsCl of HBsAg derived from transgenic banana leaves was determined and found to be 1.146 g/ml. HBsAg obtained from transgenic banana plants is similar to human serum derived one in buoyant density properties. The transgenic plants were grown up to maturity in the green house and the expression of HBsAg in the fruits was confirmed by RT-PCR. These transgenic plants were multiplied under in vitro using floral apex cultures. Attempts were also made to enhance the expression of HBsAg in the leaves of transgenic banana plants by wounding and/or treatment with plant growth regulators. This is the first report on the expression of HBsAg in transgenic banana fruits.

  3. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    PubMed

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  4. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  5. Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidi, Eugenia; Kalamaki, Mary S.; Engineer, Cawas; Pateraki, Irene; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Giovannonni, James; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2009-01-01

    L-Ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-Ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of abiotic and post-harvest stress, including the effects of heat, cold, wounding, oxygen supply, and ethylene. Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed. The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening. PMID:19129160

  6. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    PubMed

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  7. Enzyme activities in mitochondria isolated from ripening tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, D; Goodenough, P W; Weitzman, P D

    1986-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at the mature green, orange-green and red stages and from fruit artificially suspended in their ripening stage. The specific activities of citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37), NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.41) and NAD-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.38) were determined. The specific activities of all these enzymes fell during ipening, although the mitochondria were fully functional as demonstrated by the uptake of oxygen. The fall in activity of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase was accompanied by a similar fall in the activity of the cytosolic isoenzyme. Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from mature green fruit remained intact for more than one week and at least one enzyme, citrate synthase, did not exhibit the fall in specific activity found in normal ripening fruit.

  8. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition.

    PubMed

    Sorrequieta, Augusto; Abriata, Luciano A; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2013-10-16

    The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19) and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  9. A comparison of four methods of ripening the unfavourable cervix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D

    1978-12-01

    A comparison was made between four methods of ripening the unfavourable cervix (extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 gel, oral prostaglandin E2, intravaginal prostaglandin E2 and intravenous oxytocin) in a clinical trial involving 60 primigravidae. In all groups there was an improvement in cervical status. This was significantly greater in those patients who received extra-amniotic prostaglandin gel and they also showed significant decreases in the mean induction-delivery interval and in the incidence of Caesarean section.

  10. Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis in Avocado Fruit during Ripening 1

    PubMed Central

    Sitrit, Yaron; Riov, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Amos

    1986-01-01

    Preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits produced very little ethylene and had only a trace amount of l-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and a very low activity of ACC synthase. In contrast, a significant amount of l-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) was detected during the preclimacteric stage. In harvested fruits, both ACC synthase activity and the level of ACC increased markedly during the climacteric rise reaching a peak shortly before the climacteric peak. The level of MACC also increased at the climacteric stage. Cycloheximide and cordycepin inhibited the synthesis of ACC synthase in discs excised from preclimacteric fruits. A low but measurable ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) activity was detected during the preclimacteric stage. During ripening, EFE activity increased only at the beginning of the climacteric rise. ACC synthase and EFE activities and the ACC level declined rapidly after the climacteric peak. Application of ACC to attached or detached fruits resulted in increased ethylene production and ripening of the fruits. Exogenous ethylene stimulated EFE activity in intact fruits prior to the increase in ethylene production. The data suggest that conversion of S-adenosylmethionine to ACC is the major factor limiting ethylene production during the preclimacteric stage. ACC synthase is first synthesized during ripening and this leads to the production of ethylene which in turn induces an additional increase in ACC synthase activity. Only when ethylene reaches a certain level does it induce increased EFE activity. PMID:16664762

  11. Analysis of strawberry ripening by dynamic speckle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulone, C.; Budini, N.; Vincitorio, F. M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work seeks to determine the age of a fruit from observation of its dynamic speckle pattern. A mobile speckle pattern originates on the fruit's surface due to the interference of the wavefronts reflected from moving scatterers. For this work we analyzed two series of photographs of a strawberry speckle pattern, at different stages of ripening, acquired with a CMOS camera. The first day, we took ten photographs at an interval of one second. The same procedure was repeated the next day. From each series of images we extracted several statistical descriptors of pixel-to-pixel gray level variation during the observation time. By comparing these values from the first to the second day we noticed a diminution of the speckle activity. This decay demonstrated that after only one day the ripening process of the strawberry can be detected by dynamic speckle pattern analysis. For this study we employed a simple new algorithm to process the data obtained from the photographs. This algorithm allows defining a global mobility index that indicates the evolution of the fruit's ripening.

  12. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  13. Genes from Lycopersicon chmielewskii affecting tomato quality during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Kim, D; Tanksley, S D; Juvik, J A

    1995-08-01

    Three chromosomal segments from the wild tomato, L. chmielewskii, introgressed into the L. esculentum genome have been previously mapped to the middle and terminal regions of chromosome 7 (7M, 7T respectively), and to the terminal region of chromosome 10 (10T). The present study was designed to investigate the physiological mechanisms controlled by the 7M and 7T segments on tomato soluble solids (SS) and pH, and their genetic regulation during fruit development. The effects of 7M and 7T were studied in 64 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from a cross between LA 1501 (an L. esculentum line containing the 7M and 7T fragments from L. chmielewskii), and VF145B-7879 (a processing cultivar). BILs were classified into four homozygous genotypes with respect to the introgressed segments based on RFLP analysis, and evaluated for fruit chemical characteristics at different harvest stages. Gene(s) in the 7M fragment reduce fruit water uptake during ripening increasing pH, sugars, and SS concentration. Gene(s) in the 7T fragment were found to be associated with higher mature green fruit starch concentration and red ripe fruit weight. Comparisons between tomatoes ripened on or off the vine suggest that the physiological mechanisms influenced by the L. chmielewskii alleles are dependent on the translocation of photosynthates and water during fruit ripening.

  14. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

  15. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  16. Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

    2006-12-01

    The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection.

  17. Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Lai, Tongfei; Manning, Kenneth; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Ying; Qin, Cheng; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; He, Meiling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Gu, Mei; Yang, Xin; Mahammed, Atef; Li, Chunyang; Osman, Toba; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Jackson, Stephen; Liu, Yule; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-19

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato.

  18. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  19. Genetic transformation of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sági, L; Panis, B; Remy, S; Schoofs, H; De Smet, K; Swennen, R; Cammue, B P

    1995-05-01

    We have developed a simple protocol to allow the production of transgenic banana plants. Foreign genes were delivered into embryogenic suspension cells using accelerated particles coated with DNA. Bombardment parameters were optimized for a modified particle gun resulting in high levels of transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene in both banana and plantain cells. Bombarded banana cells were selected with hygromycin and regenerated into plants. Molecular and histochemical characterization of transformants revealed the stable integration of the transferred genes into the banana genome.

  20. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72–1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening. PMID:27104786

  3. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Zohar E; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-06-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence-drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig.

  4. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

    1999-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement.

  5. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  6. The diversity of Banana streak virus isolates in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hart, D; Moult, S; Hull, R; Geering, A; Thomas, J

    2005-12-01

    In a study of the variation among isolates of Banana streak virus (BSV) in Uganda, 140 sequences were obtained from 49 samples by PCR across the conserved reverse transcriptase/RNaseH region of the genome. Pairwise comparison of these sequences suggested that they represented 15 different species and phylogenetic analyses showed that all species fell into three major clades based on 28% sequence difference. In addition to the Ugandan sequences, clade I also contained BSV species that are known as both integrated sequences and episomal viruses; clade II also contained integrated BSV sequences but which have not previously been identified as episomal viruses. Clade III comprised of Sugarcane bacilliform virus isolates and Ugandan BSV sequences and for which there is no evidence of integration. The possible reasons for the extraordinary levels of virus sequence variation and the potential origins and epidemiology of these viruses causing banana streak disease are discussed.

  7. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  8. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  9. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with <45% germination and 20% seedling emergence in freshly harvested seed. Hence, 3 months of after-ripening could be considered a suitable treatment period for rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1.

  10. Molecular characterisation of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Imran; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Ilyas, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2008-02-01

    Banana bunchy top disease is caused by a single-stranded circular DNA virus, banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is a member of the genus Babuvirus (family Nanoviridae). We have cloned and sequenced five components (DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C) of a BBTV isolate originating from Pakistan. In addition, the DNA-R and several other components of five further isolates, originating from geographically distinct sites across the banana-growing area of Sindh province, Pakistan, were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences indicates that BBTV present in Pakistan belongs to the "South Pacific" group of isolates and that the genetic diversity of the virus in the country is very low. The virus shows the highest levels of sequence identity to BBTV isolates originating from Egypt, India and Australia. The significance of these results with respect to the possible origin of the virus in Pakistan and the prospects for obtaining genetically engineered resistance to the virus are discussed.

  11. Genetic Diversity Among Banana streak virus Isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Geering, A D; McMichael, L A; Dietzgen, R G; Thomas, J E

    2000-08-01

    ABSTRACT Banana streak virus (BSV) is an important pathogen of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) throughout the world. We have cloned and sequenced part of the genomes of four isolates of BSV from Australia, designated BSV-RD, BSV-Cav, BSV-Mys, and BSV-GF. These isolates originated from banana cvs. Red Dacca, Williams, Mysore, and Goldfinger, respectively. All clones contained a sequence covering part of open reading frame III and the intergenic region of the badnavirus genome. The sequences were compared with those of other badnaviruses, including BSV-Onne, a previously characterized isolate from Nigeria. The BSV-RD sequence was virtually identical to that of BSV-Onne, differing by only two nucleotides over 1,292 bp. However, BSV-Cav, -Mys, and -GF were divergent in nucleotide sequence. Phylogenetic analyses using conserved sequences in the ribonuclease H domain revealed that all BSV isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other badnavirus. BSV-Cav was most closely related to BSV-Onne, and there was 95.1% identity between the two amino acid sequences. Other relationships between the BSV isolates were less similar, with sequence identities ranging from 66.4 to 78.2%, which is a magnitude comparable to the distance between some of the recognized badnavirus species. Immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed, allowing specific detection and differentiation of the four isolates of BSV.

  12. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    PubMed

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  13. Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Harding, R M; Dale, J L

    1994-12-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and compared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence difference within each group was 1.9 to 3.0% and between isolates from the two groups was approximately 10%, but some parts of the sequences differed more than others. However, the protein encoded by the major open reading frame, which is probably a replicase, differed by approximately 5%. The region from the beginning of the stem-loop sequence to the potential TATA box was identical in all isolates except for a two nucleotide change in the Western Samoan isolate and a single change in that of the NSW isolate. These results, together with other evidence, suggest that BBTV has spread to bananas after the initial movement of bananas from the Asian Pacific regions to Africa and the Americas.

  14. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  15. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro-vitamin A from the expression of a single banana transgene.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Kleidon, Jennifer; Hoang, Phuong; Geijskes, Jason; Daniells, Jeff; Zaplin, Ella; Rosenberg, Yvonne; James, Anthony; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Deo, Pradeep; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Namanya, Priver; Becker, Douglas; Tindamanyire, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Harding, Robert; Dale, James

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit. Expression of a Fe'i banana-derived phytoene synthase 2a (MtPsy2a) gene resulted in the generation of lines with PVA levels exceeding the target level with one line reaching 55 μg/g dw β-CE. Expression of the maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPsy1) gene, used to develop 'Golden Rice 2', also resulted in increased fruit PVA levels although many lines displayed undesirable phenotypes. Constitutive expression of either transgene with the maize polyubiquitin promoter increased PVA accumulation from the earliest stage of fruit development. In contrast, PVA accumulation was restricted to the late stages of fruit development when either the banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase or the expansin 1 promoters were used to drive the same transgenes. Wild-type plants with the longest fruit development time had also the highest fruit PVA concentrations. The results from this study suggest that early activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and extended fruit maturation time are essential factors to achieve optimal PVA concentrations in banana fruit.

  16. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  19. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  20. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  1. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  2. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Mao, Linchun; Luo, Zisheng; Khan, Zia Ullah; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene. PMID:27228127

  3. Single-base resolution methylomes of tomato fruit development reveal epigenome modifications associated with ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are differentiated floral tissues evolved to aid seed dispersal, and have become an important part of human diets. Ethylene triggers tomato fruit ripening, but its effect is restricted to matured fruits with viable seeds by an unknown developmental cue. We show that fruits ripen prematurely w...

  4. The influence of ripening temperature on ‘Hass’ fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research demonstrated the importance of temperature management during avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit ripening; however this work was focused on maintaining the fruit at elevated temperatures continuously during the ripening process. We examined the influence of short duration high t...

  5. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  6. Expression of ripening-related genes in cold stored tomato fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of chilling on fruit ripening and the expression of ripening-related genes have been investigated in a wild species introgression breeding tomato line (Solanum lycopersicum ' S. pennelli) that preliminary investigations suggested harbors some fruit chilling tolerance. Fruit were harveste...

  7. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    SciTech Connect

    Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  8. Universality of persistence exponents in two-dimensional Ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jordi; Braslavsky, Ido; Xu, Di; Krichevsky, Oleg; Stavans, Joel

    2009-11-27

    We measured persistence exponents theta(phi) of Ostwald ripening in two dimensions, as a function of the area fraction phi occupied by coarsening domains. The values of theta(phi) in two systems, succinonitrile and brine, quenched to their liquid-solid coexistence region, compare well with one another, providing compelling evidence for the universality of the one-parameter family of exponents. For small phi, theta(phi) approximately = 0.39phi, as predicted by a model that assumes no correlations between evolving domains. These constitute the first measurements of persistence exponents in the case of phase transitions with a conserved order parameter.

  9. Growth and ripening of silica polymers in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crerar, David A.; Axtmann, Ellen V.; Axtmann, Robert C.

    1981-08-01

    The molecular weights and number densities of polymers formed in neutral solutions of silicicacid, at the low concentrations that are typical of hydrothermal waters, were determined by gel filtration chromatography. The polymers exhibit Ostwald ripening that is characteristic of growth limited by a first order reaction of monomer at the surfaces of growing particles. Three divalent inorganic salts at 0.1 M are more effective at promoting polymer growth than is sodium chloride at the same concentration. The results support a recent theoretical model of the silica polymerization reaction but also identify ways in which the model might be improved.

  10. Involvement of Peroxidase and Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase Isozymes from Pear, Tomato, and Blueberry Fruit in Ripening.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C

    1972-05-01

    Protein extracts were obtained from climacteric fruits (pear, tomato) and nonclimacteric fruits (blueberry) during various stages of ripening. The use of a gel electrophoresis technique revealed a consistent reinforcement in indoleacetic acid oxidase but not in peroxidase isozymes during ripening. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the resistance of fruits to ripening and ethylene action.

  11. Overview of a Surface-Ripened Cheese Community Functioning by Meta-Omics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Teissandier, Aurélie; Onésime, Djamila; Loux, Valentin; Monnet, Christophe; Irlinger, Françoise; Landaud, Sophie; Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Bento, Pascal; Fraud, Sébastien; Gibrat, Jean-François; Aubert, Julie; Fer, Frédéric; Guédon, Eric; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Swennen, Dominique; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses to an experimental surface-ripened cheese composed of nine microbial species during four weeks of ripening. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. Furthermore, differential expression analysis was used to select a set of biomarker genes, providing a valuable tool that can be used to monitor the cheese-making process. PMID:25867897

  12. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of three prickly pear species with different ripening behavior.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Talia; Carrillo-López, Armando; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2005-12-01

    Biochemical and nutritional changes were studied during the ripening process of three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behavior: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Esmeralda (Opuntia sp.) of early, early-intermediate, and intermediate-late ripening, respectively. In loss of fresh weight, Naranjona showed the highest values, while in Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda, a discrete weight loss was found. No significant differences were found among morphospecies in soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH during the postharvest days. Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda showed an increase in the content of carotenoids, while these diminished in Naranjona. The cell wall enzymes evaluated showed particular behaviors during the ripening of each morphospecies suggesting a fine biochemical control and not a clear relationship between fruit softening and enzyme activity. This study provides basic information on prickly pear ripening, in order to understand this process for its control and for improving shelf life.

  13. Influence of starter and nonstarter on the formation of biogenic amine in goat cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Novella-Rodríguez, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Roig-Sagués, A X; Trujillo-Mesa, A J; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2002-10-01

    Two commercial starters were investigated for their potential ability to decarboxylate amino acids during goat cheese ripening. Two batches of goat cheese were produced with identical pasteurized milk but different starter cultures. One of them contained Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and the other Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The amine contents, microbial counts, proteolysis-related parameters, pH, total solids and salt content were studied in raw materials and cheeses. In raw materials, polyamines were the prevailing amines, whereas the main amines in cheeses were putrescine, tryptamine and, in particular, tyramine (94.59 mg/kg). Aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and Lactococcus counts increased throughout ripening, while Enterobacteriaceae were no longer detectable in cheese after 30 days of ripening. Amine concentration rose during cheese ripening in both batches. Moreover, the decarboxylase activity of microorganisms isolated from samples during cheese ripening was assayed and discussed.

  14. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  15. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  16. Study of Banana Dehydration using Sequential Infrared Radiation Heating and Freeze-Drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. Cavendish banana slices with 5 mm thickness were predehydrated using IR heating at each one of three radiation intensities, 3000, 4000, and 5000...

  17. Direct targets of the tomato-ripening regulator RIN identified by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Higuchi, Naoki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes in fruit ripening produce key attributes of fruit quality including color, taste, aroma and texture. These changes are driven by the highly regulated and synchronized activation of a huge number of ripening-associated genes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a typical climacteric fruit, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN is one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, required for both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent pathways. Although we previously identified several direct RIN targets, many additional targets remain unidentified, likely including key ripening-associated genes. Here, we report the identification of novel RIN targets by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Transcriptome comparisons by microarray of wild-type and rin mutant tomatoes identified 342 positively regulated genes and 473 negatively regulated genes by RIN during ripening. Most of the positively regulated genes contained possible RIN-binding (CArG-box) sequences in their promoters. Subsequently, we selected six genes from the positively regulated genes and a ripening regulator gene, CNR, and assayed their promoters by quantitative ChIP-PCR to examine RIN binding. All of the seven genes, which are involved in cell wall modification, aroma and flavor development, pathogen defense and transcriptional regulation during ripening, are targets of RIN, suggesting that RIN may control multiple diverse ripening processes. In particular, RIN directly regulates the expression of the ripening-associated transcription factors, CNR, TDR4 and a GRAS family gene, providing an important clue to elucidate the complicated transcriptional cascade for fruit ripening.

  18. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  19. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  20. Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants. PMID:23922960

  1. Transgenic banana plants expressing small interfering RNAs targeted against viral replication initiation gene display high-level resistance to banana bunchy top virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Hadapad, Ashok B

    2012-08-01

    The banana aphid-transmitted Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of bananas and plantains worldwide. Lack of natural sources of resistance to BBTV has necessitated the exploitation of proven transgenic technologies for obtaining BBTV-resistant banana cultivars. In this study, we have explored the concept of using intron-hairpin-RNA (ihpRNA) transcripts corresponding to viral master replication initiation protein (Rep) to generate BBTV-resistant transgenic banana plants. Two ihpRNA constructs namely ihpRNA-Rep and ihpRNA-ProRep generated using Rep full coding sequence or Rep partial coding sequence together with its 5' upstream regulatory region, respectively, and castor bean catalase intron were successfully transformed into banana embryogenic cells. ihpRNA-Rep- and ihpRNA-ProRep-derived transgenic banana plants, selected based on preliminary screening for efficient reporter gene expression, were completely resistant to BBTV infection as indicated by the absence of disease symptoms after 6 months of viruliferous aphid inoculation. The resistance to BBTV infection was also evident by the inability to detect cDNAs coding for viral coat protein, movement protein and Rep protein by RT-PCR from inoculated transgenic leaf extracts. Southern analysis of the two groups of transgenics showed that ihpRNA transgene was stably integrated into the banana genome. The detection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from the ihpRNA transgene sequence in transformed BBTV-resistant plants positively established RNA interference as the mechanism underlying the observed resistance to BBTV. Efficient screening of optimal transformants in this vegetatively propagated non-segregating fruit crop ensured that all the transgenic plants assayed were resistant to BBTV infection.

  2. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles: digestive ripening under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2011-06-06

    Here we report the synthesis of monodispersed indium nanoparticles by evaporation/condensation of indium shot using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique, followed by digestive ripening in low boiling point (BP 38 °C) methylene chloride and in a high boiling point (BP 110 °C) toluene solvent. The as-prepared SMAD indium nanoparticles are polydispersed with particle size ranging from 25 to 50 nm, but upon digestive ripening (heating of colloidal material at the boiling point of solvent in presence of excess surface active ligands) in methylene chloride, a remarkable reduction of particle size was achieved. In higher boiling solvent (toluene), where the indium nanoparticles at reflux temperature are probably melted, it does not allow the best result, and less monodispersity is achieved. We employed different surface active ligands (amine, phosphine, and mixed ligands) to passivate these indium nanoparticles. The temporal evolution of the surface plasmon of indium nanoparticles was monitored by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy, and particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The merits of this synthesis procedure are the use of bulk indium as starting material, tuning the particle size in low boiling point solvent, particle size adjustment with the choice of ligand, and a possible scale up.

  3. Theory of Ostwald ripening in a two-component system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, J. K.; Lee, L. K.; Frazier, D. O.; Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    When a two-component system is cooled below the minimum temperature for its stability, it separates into two or more immiscible phases. The initial nucleation produces grains (if solid) or droplets (if liquid) of one of the phases dispersed in the other. The dynamics by which these nuclei proceed toward equilibrium is called Ostwald ripening. The dynamics of growth of the droplets depends upon the following factors: (1) The solubility of the droplet depends upon its radius and the interfacial energy between it and the surrounding (continuous) phase. There is a critical radius determined by the supersaturation in the continuous phase. Droplets with radii smaller than critical dissolve, while droplets with radii larger grow. (2) The droplets concentrate one component and reject the other. The rate at which this occurs is assumed to be determined by the interdiffusion of the two components in the continuous phase. (3) The Ostwald ripening is constrained by conservation of mass; e.g., the amount of materials in the droplet phase plus the remaining supersaturation in the continuous phase must equal the supersaturation available at the start. (4) There is a distribution of droplet sizes associated with a mean droplet radius, which grows continuously with time. This distribution function satisfies a continuity equation, which is solved asymptotically by a similarity transformation method.

  4. Ostwald ripening and interparticle-diffraction effects for illite crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Warren-Averbach method, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) method used to measure mean particle thickness and particle-thickness distribution, is used to restudy sericite from the Silverton caldera. Apparent particle-thickness distributions indicate that the clays may have undergone Ostwald ripening and that this process has modified the K-Ar ages of the samples. The mechanism of Ostwald ripening can account for many of the features found for the hydrothermal alteration of illite. Expandabilities measured by the XRD peak-position method for illite/smectites (I/S) from various locations are smaller than expandabilities measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by the Warren-Averbach (W-A) method. This disparity is interpreted as being related to the presence of nonswelling basal surfaces that form the ends of stacks of illite particles (short-stack effect), stacks that, according to the theory of interparticle diffraction, diffract as coherent X-ray scattering domains. -from Authors

  5. Key Odorants of Lazur, a Polish Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Myszka, Kamila; Gracka, Anna; Grygier, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-02-15

    Application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from Lazur mold-ripened cheese revealed 17 odor-active compounds. The highest flavor dilution factor (FD) has been obtained for methanethiol (2048) with a burnt odor note and for 2(3)-methylbutanoic acid (2048) with a cheesy, pungent odor. Further quantitation of the 15 most aroma-active compounds allowed for calculation of their odor activity values (OAV). The highest OAVs were obtained for methanethiol (500), 3(2)-methylbutanoic acid (321), 3-(methylthio)propanal (210), 2,3-butanedione (65), dimethyl trisulfide (22), butanoic acid (20), 1-octen-3-ol (18), (Z)-4-heptenal (14), dimethyl disulfide (14), dimethyl sulfide (13), phenylacetaldehyde (6), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (5), and acetic acid (4). An aroma recombination experiment showed slight differences in the perception of cheesy/sweaty and moldy/musty notes. To verify the influence of methyl ketones on the aroma profile of mold-ripened cheese, recombinant has been additionally supplemented with 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone in concentrations determined in Lazur cheese. The aroma profile remained unchanged, which would suggest that methyl ketones, in this particular cheese, do not play a significant role in the formation of aroma.

  6. [Expansion dilatation balloons for cervical ripening in obstetric practice].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Grange, J; Vital, M

    2016-02-01

    During recent decades, mechanical devices have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Their place in the therapeutic arsenal remains important with a renewed obstetrical interest for these devices. Due to a lack of data they are still not recommended as first-line. This review thus attempted to examine the use of expansion dilatation balloons (Foley catheter and double-balloons) to analyze their effectiveness in case of native uterus and previous cesarean section. Twenty-seven clinical trials had compared balloons catheter and prostaglandins in patients without a history of uterine scar. The risk of cesarean section did not differ. Mechanical methods seemed to be more effective in achieving delivery within 24hours, with fewer episodes of excessive uterine contractions, but they necessitated more oxytocin during labor. Ten clinical trials analyzed dilatation balloons in patients with previous cesarean section. More than 70% women had favorable cervical ripening (Bishop score>6), and vaginal delivery was reported between 35 and 70% of patients. The risk of uterine rupture was low between 0.64 and 0.72%, with neither increased risk of severe neonatal and maternal morbidity nor increased risk of infectious morbidity. Mechanical methods are effective and safe for third trimester cervical ripening, mainly in women with previous cesarean section. Potential advantages may include wide availability and reduction of some of the side effects.

  7. The inhibition of tomato fruit ripening by silver.

    PubMed

    Hobson, G E; Nichols, R; Davies, J N; Atkey, P T

    1984-08-01

    Mature green tomato fruit, infiltrated with STS (up to 10 μmol) while still attached to the plant, ripened unevenly to give extensive green areas on an otherwise red background. Pericarp wall tissue from the two contrasting areas was analysed for various organic constituents. Both the green and, to a certain extent, the red tissue from treated fruit showed differences from normal in AIS, acidity, and PE activity. PG activity, which usually increases rapidly as tomatoes ripen, was low in the green but not significantly different from normal in the red tissue from STS-treated fruit. TEM examination revealed that electron-dense particles were present in the cell walls of phloem elements in vascular bundles of the green tissue, but these deposits were not found in the red tissue from the same fruit. X-ray microanalysis of the particles suggested that they contained concentrations of silver and sulphur. The results are interpreted as suggesting that silver is affecting those sites in the cell that would subsequently be involved in promoting the synthesis of PG.

  8. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  9. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  10. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  11. Nematicidal effects of oxamyl applied to leaves of banana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gowen, S R

    1977-04-01

    Foliar applications of oxamyl prevented nematodes from invading roots of diploid bananas. One spray with 1,250 microg/ml was more effective than 1, 2, or 3 sprays with 625 microg/ml applied at 5-day intervals. After 3 sprays with 1,250 microg/ml, invasion may be prevented for up to 4 weeks and possibly longer. Washing roots after oxamyl treatments prevented nematicidal control. When applied to nematode-infected plants, three sprays of oxamyl decreased nematode populations in the roots.

  12. Tomato fruit continues growing while ripening, affecting cuticle properties and cracking.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Eva; Fernández, María Dolores; Hernández, Juan Carlos López; Parra, Jerónimo Pérez; España, Laura; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Fruit cuticle composition and their mechanical performance have a special role during ripening because internal pressure is no longer sustained by the degraded cell walls of the pericarp but is directly transmitted to epidermis and cuticle which could eventually crack. We have studied fruit growth, cuticle modifications and its biomechanics, and fruit cracking in tomato; tomato has been considered a model system for studying fleshy fruit growth and ripening. Tomato fruit cracking is a major disorder that causes severe economic losses and, in cherry tomato, crack appearance is limited to the ripening process. As environmental conditions play a crucial role in fruit growing, ripening and cracking, we grow two cherry tomato cultivars in four conditions of radiation and relative humidity (RH). High RH and low radiation decreased the amount of cuticle and cuticle components accumulated. No effect of RH in cuticle biomechanics was detected. However, cracked fruits had a significantly less deformable (lower maximum strain) cuticle than non-cracked fruits. A significant and continuous fruit growth from mature green to overripe has been detected with special displacement sensors. This growth rate varied among genotypes, with cracking-sensitive genotypes showing higher growth rates than cracking-resistant ones. Environmental conditions modified this growth rate during ripening, with higher growing rates under high RH and radiation. These conditions corresponded to those that favored fruit cracking. Fruit growth rate during ripening, probably sustained by an internal turgor pressure, is a key parameter in fruit cracking, because fruits that ripened detached from the vine did not crack.

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits during ripening.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Koushik; Malhotra, Sarla P; Jain, Veena; Singh, Randhir

    2009-10-01

    Two varieties of guava viz., L-49 and Hisar Safeda differing in their shelf lives were analyzed for various components of oxidative stress and of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system at different stages of fruit ripening. Indices of oxidative stress viz., lipoxygenase activity, malondialdehyde value and H2O2 content increased throughout during ripening in both the varieties. The extent of oxidative stress was more pronounced in Hisar Safeda (shelf life 3-4 days) than in L-49 (shelf life 7-8 days). Except for superoxide dismutase, activities of all other antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased up to color turning stage and decreased thereafter. Superoxide dismutase activity, however, increased upto ripe stage followed by a decline. Contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione (total, oxidized and reduced) were found to be the maximum at turning and mature stage, respectively. It is inferred that ripening of guava fruit is accompanied by a progressive increase in oxidative/peroxidative stress which induces antioxidant system but not until later stages of ripening. Over-accumulation of ROS due to dysfunctioning of ROS scavenging system at later stages of fruit ripening appears to be responsible for loss of tissue structure as observed in ripened and over-ripened fruits.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  15. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  16. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    PubMed

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation.

  17. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  18. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  19. The banana E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family.

  20. Effect of the degree of substitution of octenyl succinic anhydride-banana starch on emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, María del Carmen; Coronel-Aguilera, Claudia P; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2015-11-05

    Banana starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at different degree substitution (DS) and used to stabilize emulsions. Morphology, emulsion stability, emulsification index, rheological properties and particle size distribution of the emulsions were tested. Emulsions dyed with Solvent Red 26 showed affinity for the oil phase. Backscattering light showed three regions in the emulsion where the emulsified region was present. Starch concentration had higher effect in the emulsification index (EI) than the DS used in the study because similar values were found with OSA-banana and native starches. However, OSA-banana presented greater stability of the emulsified region. Rheological tests in emulsions with OSA-banana showed G'>G" values and low dependence of G' with the frequency, indicating a dominant elastic response to shear. When emulsions were prepared under high-pressure conditions, the emulsions with OSA-banana starch with different DS showed a bimodal distribution of particle size. The emulsion with OSA-banana starch and the low DS showed similar mean droplet diameter than its native counterpart. In contrast, the highest DS led to the highest mean droplet diameter. It is concluded that OSA-banana starch with DS can be used to stabilize specific emulsion types.

  1. Brucella melitensis survival during manufacture of ripened goat cheese at two temperatures.

    PubMed

    Méndez-González, Karla Y; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Monroy, Jorge F; López-Merino, Ahide; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the current work was to assess the influence of two temperatures, 4°C and 24°C, on pH and water activity and their association with Brucella melitensis survival during the traditional manufacture of ripened goat cheese. Raw milk from a brucellosis-free goat herd was used for the manufacture of ripened cheese. The cheese was inoculated with 5×10(9) of the B. melitensis 16M strain during the tempering stage. The cheeses were matured for 5, 20, and 50 days at both temperatures. To assess Brucella survival, the pH and a(w) were recorded at each stage of the process (curd cutting, draining whey, immersion in brine, ripening I, ripening II, and ripening III). B. melitensis was detected at ripening stage III (1×10(3) colony-forming unit [CFU]/mL) from cheeses matured at 4°C with a pH of 5.0 and a(w) of 0.90, and at a ripening stage II (1×10(4) CFU/mL) from cheeses ripened at 24°C with a pH of 4.0 and a(w) of 0.89. The remaining stages were free from the inoculated pathogen. In addition, viable B. melitensis was recovered in significant amounts (1-2×10(6) CFU/mL) from the whey fractions of both types of cheese ripened at 24°C and 4°C. These results revealed the effects of high temperature (24°C vs. 4°C) on the low pH (4) and a(w) (0.89) that appeared to be associated with the suppression of B. melitensis at the early stages of cheese ripening. In the ripened goat cheeses, B. melitensis survived under a precise combination of temperature during maturation, ripening time, and a(w) in the manufacturing process.

  2. Diversity of L-methionine catabolism pathways in cheese-ripening bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bonnarme, P; Psoni, L; Spinnler, H E

    2000-12-01

    Enzymatic activities that could be involved in methanethiol generation in five cheese-ripening bacteria were assayed, and the major sulfur compounds produced were identified. L-Methionine and alpha-keto-gamma-methyl-thio-butyric acid demethiolating activities were detected in whole cells and cell extracts (CFEs) of all the bacteria tested. No L-methionine deaminase activity could be detected in any of the ripening bacteria and L-methionine aminotransferase was detected in CFEs of Brevibacterium linens, Micrococcus luteus, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. The results suggest that several pathways for L-methionine catabolism probably coexist in these ripening bacteria.

  3. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    PubMed

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  4. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  5. The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-20

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.

  6. Geometrogenesis under quantum graphity: Problems with the ripening universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum graphity (QG) is a model of emergent geometry in which space is represented by a dynamical graph. The graph evolves under the action of a Hamiltonian from a high-energy pregeometric state to a low-energy state in which geometry emerges as a coarse-grained effective property of space. Here we show the results of numerical modeling of the evolution of the QG Hamiltonian, a process we term "ripening" by analogy with crystallographic growth. We find that the model as originally presented favors a graph composed of small disjoint subgraphs. Such a disconnected space is a poor representation of our Universe. A new term is introduced to the original QG Hamiltonian, which we call the hypervalence term. It is shown that the inclusion of a hypervalence term causes a connected latticelike graph to be favored over small isolated subgraphs.

  7. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J.; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis AJ; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits. PMID:22499176

  8. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  9. Unusual events involved in Banana bunchy top virus strain evolution.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Chuan; Hu, Jer-Ming; Hung, Ting-Hsuan; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2009-07-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) can be transmitted by aphids and consists of at least six integral components (DNA-R, -U3, -S, -M, -C, and -N). Several additional replication-competent components (additional Reps) are associated with some BBTV isolates. A collected BBTV strain (TW3) that causes mild symptoms was selected to study the processes in BBTV evolution. Southern blot hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR did not detect DNA-N in TW3. Real-time PCR quantification of BBTV components revealed that, except for the copy number of TW3 DNA-U3, each detected integral component of BBTV TW3 was at least two orders lower than that of the severe strains. No infection was observed in plants inoculated with aphids, which were first given acquisition access to the TW3-infected banana leaves. Recombination analysis revealed recombination between the integral component TW3 DNA-U3 and the additional Rep DNA-Y. All BBTV integral components contain a replication initiation region (stem-loop common region) that share high sequence identity. Sequence alignment revealed that TW3 DNA-R, -S, -M, and -C all have a stem-loop common region containing a characteristic 9-nucleotide deletion found only in all reported DNA-N. Our data suggest that the additional Rep DNAs can serve as sources of additional genetic diversity for integral BBTV components.

  10. Search for Transcriptional and Metabolic Markers of Grape Pre-Ripening and Ripening and Insights into Specific Aroma Development in Three Portuguese Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salomé; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapes (Vitis species) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to ripening of berries as well as how aroma is developed are not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In an attempt to identify the common mechanisms associated with the onset of ripening independently of the cultivar, grapes of Portuguese elite cultivars, Trincadeira, Aragonês, and Touriga Nacional, were studied. The mRNA expression profiles corresponding to veraison (EL35) and mature berries (EL36) were compared. Across the three varieties, 9,8% (2255) probesets corresponding to 1915 unigenes were robustly differentially expressed at EL 36 compared to EL 35. Eleven functional categories were represented in this differential gene set. Information on gene expression related to primary and secondary metabolism was verified by RT-qPCR analysis of selected candidate genes at four developmental stages (EL32, EL35, EL36 and EL 38). Gene expression data were integrated with metabolic profiling data from GC-EI-TOF/MS and headspace GC-EI-MS platforms. Conclusions/Significance Putative molecular and metabolic markers of grape pre-ripening and ripening related to primary and secondary metabolism were established and revealed a substantial developmental reprogramming of cellular metabolism. Altogether the results provide valuable new information on the main metabolic events leading to grape ripening. Furthermore, we provide first hints about how the development of a cultivar specific aroma is controlled at transcriptional level. PMID:23565246

  11. Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Eleje, George U; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is the artificial initiation of labour in a pregnant woman after the age of fetal viability but without any objective evidence of active phase labour and with intact fetal membranes. The need for induction of labour may arise due to a problem in the mother, her fetus or both, and the procedure may be carried out at or before term. Obstetricians have long known that for this to be successful, it is important that the uterine cervix (the neck of the womb) has favourable characteristics in terms of readiness to go into the labour state. Objectives To compare Bishop score with any other method for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening in women admitted for induction of labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Selection criteria All RCTs comparing Bishop score with any other methods of pre-induction cervical assessment in women admitted for induction of labour. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs and studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Studies published in abstract form were eligible for inclusion if they provided sufficient information. Comparisons could include the following. Bishop score versus transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS). Bishop score versus Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). Bishop score versus vaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN). However, we only identified data for a comparison of Bishop score versus TVUS. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results We included two trials that recruited a total of 234 women. The overall risk of bias was low for the two studies. Both studies compared Bishop score withTVUS. The two included studies did

  12. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  13. L-methionine degradation potentialities of cheese-ripening microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bonnarme, P; Lapadatescu, C; Yvon, M; Spinnler, H E

    2001-11-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds are major flavouring compounds in many traditional fermented foods including cheeses. These compounds are products of the catabolism of L-methionine by cheese-ripening microorganisms. The diversity of L-methionine degradation by such microorganisms, however, remains to be characterized. The objective of this work was to compare the capacities to produce volatile sulphur compounds by five yeasts, Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and five bacteria, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus lutens and Staphylococcus equorum of technological interest for cheese-ripening. The ability of whole cells of these microorganisms to generate volatile sulphur compounds from L-methionine was compared. The microorganisms produced a wide spectrum of sulphur compounds including methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide and also S-methylthioesters, which varied in amount and type according to strain. Most of the yeasts produced methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide but did not produce S-methylthioesters, apart from G. candidum that produced S-methyl thioacetate. Bacteria, especially Arth. sp. and Brevi. linens, produced the highest amounts and the greatest variety of volatile sulphur compounds includling methanethiol, sulfides and S-methylthioesters, e.g. S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiobutyrate, S-methyl thiopropionate and S-methyl thioisovalerate. Cell-free extracts of all the yeasts and bacteria were examined for the activity of enzymes possibly involved in L-methionine catabolism, i.e. L-methionine demethiolase, L-methionine aminotransferase and L-methionine deaminase. They all possessed L-methionine demethiolase activity, while some (K. lactis, Deb. hansenii, Arth. sp., Staph. equorum) were deficient in L-methionine aminotransferase, and none produced L-methionine deaminase

  14. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding.

  15. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  16. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  17. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.

  18. Transcriptome and metabolite profiling show that APETALA2a is a major regulator of tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Karlova, Rumyana; Rosin, Faye M; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Parapunova, Violeta; Do, Phuc T; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fraser, Paul D; Baxter, Charles; Angenent, Gerco C; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2011-03-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) requires the coordination of both developmental cues as well as the plant hormone ethylene. Although the role of ethylene in mediating climacteric ripening has been established, knowledge regarding the developmental regulators that modulate the involvement of ethylene in tomato fruit ripening is still lacking. Here, we show that the tomato APETALA2a (AP2a) transcription factor regulates fruit ripening via regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated repression of AP2a resulted in alterations in fruit shape, orange ripe fruits, and altered carotenoid accumulation. Microarray expression analyses of the ripe AP2 RNAi fruits showed altered expression of genes involved in various metabolic pathways, such as the phenylpropanoid and carotenoid pathways, as well as in hormone synthesis and perception. Genes involved in chromoplast differentiation and other ripening-associated processes were also differentially expressed, but softening and ethylene biosynthesis occurred in the transgenic plants. Ripening regulators RIPENING-INHIBITOR, NON-RIPENING, and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) function upstream of AP2a and positively regulate its expression. In the pericarp of AP2 RNAi fruits, mRNA levels of CNR were elevated, indicating that AP2a and CNR are part of a negative feedback loop in the regulation of ripening. Moreover, we demonstrated that CNR binds to the promoter of AP2a in vitro.

  19. Oxidative turnover of auxins in relation to the onset of ripening in bartlett pear.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C

    1975-03-01

    Pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett) kept in 100% O(2) showed an increase in the rate of softening, chlorophyll degradation, and ethylene evolution. The O(2) application could overcome, in part, the inhibition of ripening by 1 mm indoleacetic acid. Ripening of pears was also accelerated by the application of solutions containing indoleacetic acid-oxidation products, obtained by an overnight incubation of 0.1 and 1 mm indoleacetic acid with traces of H(2)O(2) and horseradish peroxidase. Although both treatments stimulated ethylene evolution, the promotion of ripening could not be attributed to an indirect ethylene effect. Indoleacetic acid oxidation products obtained in vivo by high O(2) tensions or in vitro by enzymatic degradation may function in the promotion of fruit ripening and the synthesis of ethylene.

  20. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  1. Transcriptome profiling analysis of cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination an...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  3. Chemical and biochemical changes in prickly pears with different ripening behaviour.

    PubMed

    Silos-Espino, Héctor; Fabian-Morales, Lourdes; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto; Valverde, María Elena; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2003-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical changes were studied in ripening prickly pears from three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behaviour: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Charola (O. streptacantha), of early, intermediate, and late ripening, respectively. At fullyripe stage (commercial maturity), Blanca Cristalina showed the biggest fruits, the hardest texture, and its pulp had the highest protein content. There were no significant differences among morphospecies in pH or total soluble solids in fully ripe fruits. The three species exhibited considerable levels of vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Protein expression was analysed in pulp and skin from every species at physiological and commercial maturity. Some proteins appeared at both stages, while many others expressed differentially. This study evaluated prickly pear components important for human nutrition and health, and provided basic information on pricky pear ripening, with a view to its control and to improving shelf life.

  4. Recovery and differentiation of long ripened cheese microflora through a new cheese-based cultural medium.

    PubMed

    Neviani, Erasmo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2009-05-01

    A partial picture of the typical microflora of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese was achieved by studying the cultivability of lactic acid bacteria associated with its manufacturing and ripening. A comprehensive sampling design allowed for the analysis of the cheese microflora during its production over 20 months of ripening. An innovative cheese agar medium (CAM) was prepared after testing 18 formulations all based on grated Parmigiano Reggiano ripened cheese. During cheese manufacturing and ripening, different samples were sampled and their microflora was recovered using CAM in comparison with other traditional media. Colonies which formed units from the different agar media tested were picked and isolated; the phylogenetic positions of 154 isolated strains were studied at level of species by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CAM seems to be able to recover the minority population coming from milk and whey starter, hardly estimable, during the first hours of production, on traditional media.

  5. Conserved changes in dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening across species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...

  6. Chemical and microbiological parameters and sensory attributes of a typical Sicilian salami ripened in different conditions.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Madonia, Giuseppe; Diaferia, Carlo; Mentasti, Tiziana; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Panseri, Sara; Pirone, Giuseppe; Gandini, Gustavo

    2004-04-01

    A study was carried out on a typical Sicilian salami prepared from meat of the local Nero Siciliano pig in order to characterize this typical product. One formulation of salami was divided in two batches and ripened in two different environments, a traditional sicilian room (TR) and a controlled industrial ripening room (RR). Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis were performed on raw mixture and after 7 and 90 days of ripening. Sensory analysis was carried out on salami at the end of ripening, and flavour compounds were extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Commercial salami prepared from meat from white pig were purchased locally and used as comparative samples. The experimental salami at the end of ripening was characterized by a high level of fat and low level of moisture. Fatty acid analysis showed that experimental salami contained a higher percentage of oleic acid, vaccenic acid and palmitic acid and a lower percentage of stearic acid and linoleic acid, when compared to commercial salami (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in fatty acid composition of the experimental salami between the two types of ripening. Instrumental analysis of flavour volatile compounds in the experimental salami demonstrated that traditionally ripened salami contained the most volatiles, especially aldehydes (8217 vs. 3104 ng g(-1), P<0.05). Sensory analysis showed no significant differences as a consequence of different ripening conditions for firmness, saltiness, acidity, cohesiveness and elasticity. In contrast, there were significant differences for hardness and rancidity, which were higher in TR salami compared with RR and commercial salami. Lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae counts were higher in controlled ripened salami although the hygienic quality of both products was satisfactory. The use of a controlled room for the ripening of this typical salami seems to be a potential

  7. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  8. Cervical ripening agent dinoprostone for delivery induction in late pregnancy mothers: experiences of 685 cases.

    PubMed

    Liang, C; Xu, D; He, J

    2015-01-01

    The failure of labor induction often requires following cesarean section and suffering of patients. Cervical ripening is therefore critical in clinical care of pregnant mothers. The present study demonstrated the use of dinoprostone in cervical ripening for delivery induction in 685 cases of pregnancy mothers. The authors conclude that dinoprostone is a very useful and safe drug for delivery induction. The combined use of oxytocin and careful monitoring of all body symptoms are important for the clinical safety.

  9. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  10. Production of flavour compounds from fat during cheese ripening by action of lipases and esterases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Irma Verónica; Meinardi, Carlos Alberto; Zalazar, Carlos Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The milk fat is an essential component for the development of correct flavour in cheese. The lipolysis and catabolism of fatty acids are two biochemical events very important on flavour development of some cheese varieties. The role and characteristics of various lipolytic agents during cheese ripening is reviewed and discussed. Before starting with the specific study about formation of flavour compounds from milk fat during cheese ripening, a brief review of the technological aspects of cheese production is needed.

  11. High-throughput detection of banana bunchy top virus in banana plants and aphids using real-time TaqMan(®) PCR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiaoping

    2013-10-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the causal agent of banana bunchy top disease. Current diagnostic methods for BBTV are laborious and prone to generate false-negative results. A simple, reliable, and high-throughput method for detecting BBTV in plants and aphids has been developed, which involves tissues disruption from banana plants and viruliferous aphids followed by real-time TaqMan(®) PCR. Extraction of BBTV single-stranded DNA using this method is simple and less prone to contamination than using the CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. The high throughput TaqMan(®) PCR system was highly sensitive, detecting as few as 2.76 copies of BBTV genomic DNA or 1.0 ng-1.0mg of infected banana leaves. The entire assay could be completed within 2h. Regression analysis showed that the quantitative results of TaqMan(®) PCR and copies of the virus have good correlation for plasmids (R(2)=0.966) and for infected leaves (R(2)=0.979). The method developed in this study can quantify BBTV in aphids and plants, even before the appearance of symptoms of banana bunchy top disease.

  12. DNA Methylation and Chromatin Regulation during Fleshy Fruit Development and Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Gallusci, Philippe; Hodgman, Charlie; Teyssier, Emeline; Seymour, Graham B.

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a developmental process that results in the leaf-like carpel organ of the flower becoming a mature ovary primed for dispersal of the seeds. Ripening in fleshy fruits involves a profound metabolic phase change that is under strict hormonal and genetic control. This work reviews recent developments in our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of fruit ripening. We start by describing the current state of the art about processes involved in histone post-translational modifications and the remodeling of chromatin structure and their impact on fruit development and ripening. However, the focus of the review is the consequences of changes in DNA methylation levels on the expression of ripening-related genes. This includes those changes that result in heritable phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA sequence alterations, and the mechanisms for their initiation and maintenance. The majority of the studies described in the literature involve work on tomato, but evidence is emerging that ripening in other fruit species may also be under epigenetic control. We discuss how epigenetic differences may provide new targets for breeding and crop improvement. PMID:27379113

  13. Strawberry proteome characterization and its regulation during fruit ripening and in different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Linda; Lopez, Loredana; Scalone, Anna Grazia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Desiderio, Angiola; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2009-05-02

    Strawberry is worldwide appreciated for its unique flavour and as a source of macronutrients and high levels of antioxidants which are closely related to fruit ripening. We report the investigation of the complex physiological processes of strawberry fruit ripening at proteomic level. Multiple approaches were used to investigate strawberry fruit proteome. In particular, a proteome reference map of strawberry fruit from Queen Elisa élite genotype was achieved by 2-D analyses of proteins extracted from berries at immature, turning and red stages to isolate a set of proteins commonly present in fruit during ripening. In addition, several hundreds of proteins were identified by a combination of multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and one dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. DIGE technology was also used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during ripening and to correlate fruit protein expression with quality traits of the reference variety Queen Elisa and its parental genotypes. A number of constitutive or differentially accumulated proteins were found. Generally, the pattern of protein expression as well as the putative function of identified proteins argues for a role in major fruit physiological developmental and ripening processes. The role of some of the identified proteins is discussed in relation to strawberry fruit ripening and to quality traits. Consequently, this study provides the first characterization of the strawberry fruit proteome and the time course of variation during maturation by using multiple approaches.

  14. Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    Low fat dry fermented sausages were manufactured using controlled ripening conditions and a slow fermented process. The effect of fat content and ripening time on the chemical, colour, texture parameters and sensory acceptability was studied. The fat reduction in slow fermented sausages produced an increase in the pH decline during the first stage of the process that was favoured by the higher water content of the low fat sausages. Fat reduction did not affect the external appearance and there was an absence of defects but lower fat content resulted in lower sausage lightness. The sausage texture in low fat sausages caused an increase in chewiness and at longer ripening times, an increase in hardness. The sensory acceptability of the fermented sausages analyzed by internal preference mapping depended on the different preference patterns of consumers. A group of consumers preferred sausages with high and medium fat content and high ripening time. The second group of consumers preferred sausages with low ripening time regardless of fat content except for the appearance, for which these consumers preferred sausages of high ripening time. Finally, the limit to produce high acceptability low fat fermented sausages was 16% fat content in the raw mixture that is half the usual content of dry fermented sausages.

  15. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  16. Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Zhang, Yun; Shrestha, Pradeep M; Biondi, Marco; Bondada, Bhaskar R

    2015-06-01

    We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening berries sampled in the field suggested that phloem water inflow may exceed growth and transpiration water demands. Collecting apoplastic sap from ripening berries showed that osmotic pressure increased at distinct rates in berry vacuoles and apoplast. Our results indicate that the decrease in xylem inflow at the onset of ripening may be a consequence of the sink-driven increase in phloem inflow. We propose a conceptual model in which surplus phloem water bypasses the fruit cells and partly evaporates from the berry surface and partly moves apoplastically to the xylem for outflow.

  17. Aspects of enzymology and biochemical properties of Brevibacterium linens relevant to cheese ripening: a review.

    PubMed

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P F

    1999-05-01

    Brevibacterium linens is a major surface microorganism that is present in the smear of surface-ripened cheeses. The enzymology and biochemical characteristics of B. linens influence the ripening and final characteristics of smear surface-ripened cheeses. Proteolytic, peptidolytic, esterolytic, and lipolytic activities, which are of particular importance in the ripening process, are discussed in detail. This review also describes the production of volatile compounds, especially sulfur-containing ones, by B. linens, which are thought to be important in respect to the flavor of smear surface-ripened cheeses. The unique orange-colored carotenoids and the factors effecting their production by B. linens are also presented. The catabolism of aromatic amino acids, bacteriocin production, plasmids, and miscellaneous biochemical and physiological properties (peptidoglycan type, antibiotic resistance, insecticide degradation, and biotechnological applications) of B. linens are discussed. The problem associated with the current taxonomical classification of B. linens strains caused by strain variation is evaluated. Finally, the application of B. linens cell extracts or its proteolytic enzymes as cheese ripening accelerants for semi-hard or hard cheese varieties is considered.

  18. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  19. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  20. A simple diffraction experiment using banana stem as a natural grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya Aji, Mahardika; Karunawan, Jotti; Rochimatun Chasanah, Widyastuti; Iman Nursuhud, Puji; Ajeng Wiguna, Pradita; Sulhadi

    2017-03-01

    A simple diffraction experiment was designed using banana stem as natural grating. Coherent beams of lasers with wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 532 nm that pass through banana stem produce periodic diffraction patterns on a screen. The diffraction experiments were able to measure the distances between the slit of the banana stem, i.e. d=≤ft(28.76+/- 0.295\\right)× {{10}-6} \\text{m} for a laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and d=≤ft(26.62+/- 0.002\\right)× {{10}-6} \\text{m} for a wavelength of 532 nm. Therefore, banana stem could be used as an easily obtained and low cost grating for diffraction experiments.

  1. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  2. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  3. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs) and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis), and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs), mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs), proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM). This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages) of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP treatment showed

  4. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) and its effect on mucosal resistance.

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Gupta, S; Shankar, R; Sanyal, A K

    1986-10-01

    Orally administered banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) was shown to have significant anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats subjected to aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, prednisolone and cysteamine and in guinea-pigs subjected to histamine. Banana powder not only increased mucosal thickness but also significantly increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal DNA. Relative to untreated control sections, histological studies showed that banana treatment increased staining by alcian blue in the apical cells with staining noted in the deeper layers of the mucosal glands. Banana-treated and control sections were also stained for DNA by the Feulgen reaction. The banana-treated sections showed a greater aggregation and intensity of pink spots when compared to controls. The present study suggests that banana powder treatment not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation.

  5. Some biochemical and physical changes during the preparation of the enzyme-ripening sufu, a fermented product of soybean curd.

    PubMed

    Li, Yen-Yi; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-04-28

    In this study, sufu, a fermented product of soybean curd, was prepared by ripening the salted tofu in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae -fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes for 16 days. It was found that protease, alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and lipase activities observed in the koji granules reduced most pronouncedly during the initial 4 or 8 days of ripening. Meanwhile, an increase in the activity of the various enzymes was noted in the ripening infusion and tofu cubes. During the ripening period, the content of total nitrogen, pH, and hardness of sufu decreased, while the titratable acidity, protein dissolution ratio, content of free fatty acid, and free amino acid increased with glutamic acid, showing the largest magnitude of increase at the end of the 16 day ripening period. Additionally, the color of tofu cubes changed from pale yellow to yellowish brown at the end of the ripening period.

  6. Characterization of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes as a potential renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Agricultural residue such as banana waste is one of the biomass categories that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana leaves and pseudo-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana leaves and pseudo-stem are 7.5 mf wt.% and 11.0 mf wt.%, while the carbon content of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 42.4 mf wt.% and 37.9 mf wt.%, respectively. The measured heating value of banana leaf and pseudo-stem are 17.7MJ/kg and 15.5MJ/kg, respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The potential of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  8. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-16

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  9. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  10. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  11. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  12. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  13. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  14. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (p<0.05) effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  15. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature < or = 5.0 degrees C and more than 3 days was used to indicate the climatic risk of chilling injury during the whole growth season, and an integrated climatic index with the background of climate change was constructed. The maps of geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for each grade chilling injury, and of integrated climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  17. Extraction and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa acuminata Grande naine) roots.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Nathalie; De Waele, Dirk; Swennen, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1, monophenol monooxygenase, and EC 1.10.3.2, o-diphenoloxidase) has been extensively studied in banana fruit for its role in enzymatic browning. Rapid discolouration of leaf, stem and root tissue after injury and strong pigmentation of tissue extracts indicate that PPO and phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in vegetative tissue of banana as well. They hamper biochemical and molecular studies in banana, as cumbersome adaptations of extraction protocols are required. On the other hand, PPO and phenolic compounds could be an important part of the plant's defence system against pests and diseases, including root parasitic nematodes. To facilitate future studies in this area, extraction and assay conditions for PPO from roots of banana (Musa acuminata AAA, Grande naine) were optimized. Highest enzyme activities were obtained in a 0.2 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 with 5% insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone and 0.25% Triton X-100. The lowest K(m) values were obtained for dopamine and D-catechin. Monophenolase activity was shown with p-cresol. Banana root PPO was strongly inhibited by dithiothreitol and sodium metabisulfite. In root sections, oxidation of dopamine strongly co-localized with aerenchyma in the cortex. The experiments revealed indications for the involvement of root PPO and dopamine in resistance of banana against the parasitic nematode Radopholus similis.

  18. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  19. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement.

  20. Intravenous oxytocin alone for cervical ripening and induction of labour

    PubMed Central

    Alfirevic, Zarko; Kelly, Anthony J; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxytocin is the commonest induction agent used worldwide. It has been used alone, in combination with amniotomy or following cervical ripening with other pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods. Objectives To determine the effects of oxytocin alone for third trimester cervical ripening and induction of labour in comparison with other methods of induction of labour or placebo/no treatment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (January 2009) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing intravenous oxytocin with placebo or no treatment, or with prostaglandins (vaginal or intracervical) for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and carried out data extraction. Main results Sixty-one trials (12,819 women) are included. When oxytocin inductions were compared with expectant management, fewer women failed to deliver vaginally within 24 hours (8.4% versus 53.8%, risk ratio (RR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.25). There was a significant increase in the number of women requiring epidural analgesia (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). Fewer women were dissatisfied with oxytocin induction in the one trial reporting this outcome (5.9% versus 13.7%, RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.56). Compared with vaginal prostaglandins, oxytocin increased unsuccessful vaginal delivery within 24 hours in the two trials reporting this outcome (70% versus 21%, RR 3.33, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.89). There was a small increase in epidurals when oxytocin alone was used (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17). Most of the studies included women with ruptured membranes, and there was some evidence that vaginal prostaglandin increased infection in mothers (chorioamnionitis RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.92) and babies (use of antibiotics RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.87). These data should be

  1. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  2. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  3. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945

  4. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  5. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854

  6. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  7. Singlet Molecular Oxygen Generation by Light-Activated DHN-Melanin of the Fungal Pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Black Sigatoka Disease of Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Marilene S.; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; White, James F.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis. PMID:24646830

  8. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  9. Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.

  10. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Manchego and Chihuahua Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    Solano-López, C; Hernández-Sánchez, H

    2000-12-05

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive the Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheese-making processes and its persistence during the ripening stages of both cheeses was examined. Commercial pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (strain ATCC 19114) to a level between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The milk was used to make Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheeses in a 25-l vat. Mexican Manchego cheese was ripened for 5 days and Chihuahua cheese for 6 weeks at 12 degrees C and 85% RH. Listeria present in the cheese was enumerated by diluting samples in sterile 0.1% peptone water and plating on Oxford agar. Duplicate samples were taken at each step of the manufacturing process. During the first week of ripening samples were taken daily from both cheeses. For Chihuahua cheese, samples were taken weekly after the first week of the ripening stage. During the manufacture of Mexican Manchego cheese, Listeria counts remained relatively constant at 10(6) CFU/ml, while with Chihuahua cheese there was a one log decrease in numbers (10(6) to 10(5) CFU/ml). After pressing both curds overnight, numbers of bacteria decreased in Mexican Manchego cheese to 8.2 x 10(5) but increased in Chihuahua cheese from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml. During the ripening stage, counts of Listeria remained constant in both cheeses. However, since the Chihuahua cheese ripening stage is about 6 weeks, the number of bacteria decreased from 2 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(4) CFU/g. The results show that Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive the manufacture and ripening processes of both Mexican cheeses.

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Strawberry FaASR Gene in Relation to Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Ming-lei; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Lu, Wang-jin

    2011-01-01

    Background ABA-, stress- and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins have been reported to act as a downstream component involved in ABA signal transduction. Although much attention has been paid to the roles of ASR in plant development and stress responses, the mechanisms by which ABA regulate fruit ripening at the molecular level are not fully understood. In the present work, a strawberry ASR gene was isolated and characterized (FaASR), and a polyclonal antibody against FaASR protein was prepared. Furthermore, the effects of ABA, applied to two different developmental stages of strawberry, on fruit ripening and the expression of FaASR at transcriptional and translational levels were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings FaASR, localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, contained 193 amino acids and shared common features with other plant ASRs. It also functioned as a transcriptional activator in yeast with trans-activation activity in the N-terminus. During strawberry fruit development, endogenous ABA content, levels of FaASR mRNA and protein increased significantly at the initiation of ripening at a white (W) fruit developmental stage. More importantly, application of exogenous ABA to large green (LG) fruit and W fruit markedly increased endogenous ABA content, accelerated fruit ripening, and greatly enhanced the expression of FaASR transcripts and the accumulation of FaASR protein simultaneously. Conclusions These results indicate that FaASR may be involved in strawberry fruit ripening. The observed increase in endogenous ABA content, and enhanced FaASR expression at transcriptional and translational levels in response to ABA treatment might partially contribute to the acceleration of strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:21915355

  12. Chymosin-mediated proteolysis, calcium solubilization, and texture development during the ripening of cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, J A; Lucey, J A; McSweeney, P L H

    2005-09-01

    Full fat, milled-curd Cheddar cheeses (2 kg) were manufactured with 0.0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 micromol of pepstatin (a potent competitive inhibitor of chymosin) added per liter of curds/whey mixture at the start of cooking to obtain residual chymosin levels that were 100, 89, 55, and 16% of the activity in the control cheese, respectively. The cheeses were ripened at 8 degrees C for 180 d. There were no significant differences in the pH values of the cheeses; however, the moisture content of the cheeses decreased with increasing level of pepstatin addition. The levels of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen in the 3 cheeses with added pepstatin were significantly lower than that of the control cheese at 1 d and throughout ripening. Densitometric analysis of urea-PAGE electro-phoretograms of the pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheese made with 10.0 micromol/L of pepstatin showed complete inhibition of hydrolysis of alpha(S1)-casein (CN) at Phe23-Phe24 at all stages of ripening. The level of insoluble calcium in each of 4 cheeses decreased significantly during the first 21 d of ripening, irrespective of the level of pepstatin addition. Concurrently, there was a significant reduction in hardness in each of the 4 cheeses during the first 21 d of ripening. The softening of texture was more highly correlated with the level of insoluble calcium than with the level of intact alpha(S1)-CN in each of the 4 cheeses early in ripening. It is concluded that hydrolysis of alpha(S1)-CN at Phe23-Phe24 is not a prerequisite for softening of Cheddar cheese during the early stages of ripening. We propose that this softening of texture is principally due to the partial solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate associated with the para-CN matrix of the curd.

  13. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  14. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  15. [Morphologic and biochemical aspects of prostaglandin-induced cervix ripening].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Adelmann-Grill, B C; Schauer, A; Kuhn, W

    1987-01-01

    For examination by electron microscopy tissue samples were taken from the posterior lip of the cervix of 8 patients having a termination of pregnancy at 9-12th week gestation and 16 patients of comparable gestational age who had an intracervical application of either 2 ml 5% tylose or 50 micrograms sulprostone-tylose gel 8 hours before biopsy. The efficacy of cervical priming was demonstrated objectively by tonometric studies. In addition, collagenase and protease activities were determined in the cervical tissue extracts of the different treatment groups. For identification of typical collagen fragments SDS-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis were carried out on the acetic acid soluble extracts. The local application of sulprostone gel induced a marked multifocal loosening of the collagenous framework; there was no evidence for leucocyte infiltration or necrosis caused by the prostaglandin (PG) pretreatment. In the areas of disorganized collagen fibres cervical fibroblasts seemed to be activated characterized by fine granular loosening of the cytoplasma, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmatic reticulum, vacuolized enlarged mitochondria and an increased number of cytoplasmatic vesicles close to the cell surface. Collagenase and protease activities were found in all extracts of the different treatment groups, however, PG-application led to no significant increase in enzymatic activities. There was no evidence for the presence of typical collagen cleavage products in the SDS-electrophoresis. Contradictory to the hitherto published literature enzymatic collagen degradation does not play an essential role in PG-induced cervical ripening.

  16. Digestive Ripening of Au Nanoparticles Using Multidentate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Puspanjali; Shimpi, Jayesh; Lee, Han Ju; Lee, T Randall; Prasad, Bhagavatula L V

    2017-02-16

    The efficiency of multidentate ligands as digestive ripening (DR) agents for the preparation of monodisperse Au nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. This systematic investigation was performed using ligands possessing one, two, or three thiol moieties as ligands/DR agents. Our results clearly establish that among the different ligands, monodentate ligands and the use of temperature in the range of 60-120 °C offer the best conditions for DR. In addition, when DR was carried out at lower temperatures (e.g., 60 °C), the NP size increased as the number of thiol groups per ligand increased. However, in the case of ligands possessing two and three thiol moieties, when they were heated with polydispersed particles at higher temperatures (120 or 180 °C), the etching process dominated, which affected the quality of the NPs in terms of their monodispersity. We conclude that the temperature-dependent strength of the interaction between the ligand headgroup and the NP surface plays a vital role in controlling the final particle sizes.

  17. Ripening kinetics of bubbles: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2016-09-01

    The ripening kinetics of bubbles is studied by performing molecular dynamics simulations. From the time evolution of a system, the growth rates of individual bubbles are determined. At low temperatures, the system exhibits a t1/2 law and the growth rate is well described by classical Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory for the reaction-limited case. This is direct evidence that the bubble coarsening at low temperatures is reaction-limited. At high temperatures, although the system exhibits a t1/3 law, which suggests that it is diffusion-limited, the accuracy of the growth rate is insufficient to determine whether the form is consistent with the prediction of LSW theory for the diffusion-limited case. The gas volume fraction dependence of the coarsening behavior is also studied. Although the behavior of the system at low temperatures has little sensitivity to the gas volume fraction up to 10%, at high temperatures it deviates from the prediction of LSW theory for the diffusion-limited case as the gas volume fraction increases. These results show that the mean-field-like treatment is valid for a reaction-limited system even with a finite volume fraction, while it becomes inappropriate for a diffusion-limited system since classical LSW theory for the diffusion-limited case is valid at the dilute limit.

  18. Plastid gene expression during fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Piechulla, B; Imlay, K R; Gruissem, W

    1985-11-01

    A tomato chloroplast genome map has been constructed with the restriction enzymes Hpa I, Pvu II, and Sal I. Twelve plastid genes have been located on the tomato plastid genome (159 kb).The expression of plastid genes during tomato fruit ripening has been studied. The levels of transcripts of various genes coding for proteins of the photosystem I (psaA), photosystem II (psbA, psbB, psbC, psbD) and the stroma (rbcL) decrease when plastids differentiate from chloroplasts to chromoplasts. The amount of plastid ribosomal RNA also decreases. Transcripts of the genes for the P700 reaction center protein (psaA), for the photosystem II-associated proteins (psbC, psbD) and for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) cannot be detected in chromoplasts. In contrast, a relatively high level of mRNA is present for the 32 kD protein ('herbicide-binding protein', psbA) in red fruit.

  19. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  20. A Temporal -omic Study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T Adaptation Strategies in Conditions Mimicking Cheese Ripening in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Marion; Aubert, Julie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Chuat, Victoria; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Even, Sergine; Falentin, Hélène; Jan, Gwénaël; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Parayre, Sandrine; Piot, Michel; Tanskanen, Jarna; Thierry, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C). Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C), inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome) were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P<0.05 and |fold change|>1). At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival. PMID:22253706

  1. Prostaglandins Are Essential for Cervical Ripening in LPS-Mediated Preterm Birth But Not Term or Antiprogestin-Driven Preterm Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Brenda C.; Reese, Jeff; Socrate, Simona; Ehinger, Noah; Paria, Bibhash C.; Milne, Ginger L.; Akins, Meredith L.; Auchus, Richard J.; McIntire, Don; House, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Globally, an estimated 13 million preterm babies are born each year. These babies are at increased risk of infant mortality and life-long health complications. Interventions to prevent preterm birth (PTB) require an understanding of processes driving parturition. Prostaglandins (PGs) have diverse functions in parturition, including regulation of uterine contractility and tissue remodeling. Our studies on cervical remodeling in mice suggest that although local synthesis of PGs are not increased in term ripening, transcripts encoding PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2) are induced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated premature ripening. This study provides evidence for two distinct pathways of cervical ripening: one dependent on PGs derived from paracrine or endocrine sources and the other independent of PG actions. Cervical PG levels are increased in LPS-treated mice, a model of infection-mediated PTB, consistent with increases in PG synthesizing enzymes and reduction in PG-metabolizing enzymes. Administration of SC-236, a PTGS2 inhibitor, along with LPS attenuated cervical softening, consistent with the essential role of PGs in LPS-induced ripening. In contrast, during term and preterm ripening mediated by the antiprogestin, mifepristone, cervical PG levels, and expression of PG synthetic and catabolic enzymes did not change in a manner that supports a role for PGs. These findings in mice, supported by correlative studies in women, suggest PGs do not regulate all aspects of the parturition process. Additionally, it suggests a need to refocus current strategies toward developing therapies for the prevention of PTB that target early, pathway-specific processes rather than focusing on common late end point mediators of PTB. PMID:24189143

  2. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  3. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  4. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  5. Banana-Associated Microbial Communities in Uganda Are Highly Diverse but Dominated by Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 109 gene copy numbers g−1). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations. PMID:22562988

  6. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  7. The influence of ripening period length and season on the microbiological parameters of a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Valéria M.; Dias, Ricardo S.; Soares, Barbara M.; Clementino, Letícia A.; Araújo, Cristiano P.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The ripening process of Serro Minas cheese, one of the most popular cheeses produced with raw milk in Brazil, was studied over the course of 60 days of ripening during dry and rainy seasons. Brazilian legislation prohibits the production of cheese from raw milk unless it was submitted to a maturation period greater than 60 days. However Minas Serro cheese is sold within a few days of ripening. A total of 100 samples of Serro cheese were obtained from five farms; 50 samples were collected during the dry season (winter in Brazil) and 50 samples were collected during the rainy season (summer in Brazil). From each farm, ten cheeses were collected during each season after two days of ripening. Our results showed high levels of total and fecal coliforms at the beginning of the ripening period (approximately 4 Log MPN/g with 3 days of ripening) that decreased with 60 days of ripening reaching almost 1.5 Log MPN/g. Contamination by coagulase-positive staphylococci was reduced by the end of the ripening period. Salmonella spp. was not detected. The staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C were detected in 1% and 4% of the cheeses, respectively, after 30 days of ripening. These results suggest that the ripening process was not effective in eliminating staphylococcal enterotoxins from the cheese. However, none of the investigated strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from Serro cheese produced enterotoxins A, B, C or D. The high pathogen and coliform levels at the beginning of the ripening process for the cheese produced during both seasons indicate the need for improvement of the sanitation of the manufacturing conditions. PMID:24516419

  8. The influence of ripening period length and season on the microbiological parameters of a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Valéria M; Dias, Ricardo S; Soares, Barbara M; Clementino, Letícia A; Araújo, Cristiano P; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The ripening process of Serro Minas cheese, one of the most popular cheeses produced with raw milk in Brazil, was studied over the course of 60 days of ripening during dry and rainy seasons. Brazilian legislation prohibits the production of cheese from raw milk unless it was submitted to a maturation period greater than 60 days. However Minas Serro cheese is sold within a few days of ripening. A total of 100 samples of Serro cheese were obtained from five farms; 50 samples were collected during the dry season (winter in Brazil) and 50 samples were collected during the rainy season (summer in Brazil). From each farm, ten cheeses were collected during each season after two days of ripening. Our results showed high levels of total and fecal coliforms at the beginning of the ripening period (approximately 4 Log MPN/g with 3 days of ripening) that decreased with 60 days of ripening reaching almost 1.5 Log MPN/g. Contamination by coagulase-positive staphylococci was reduced by the end of the ripening period. Salmonella spp. was not detected. The staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C were detected in 1% and 4% of the cheeses, respectively, after 30 days of ripening. These results suggest that the ripening process was not effective in eliminating staphylococcal enterotoxins from the cheese. However, none of the investigated strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from Serro cheese produced enterotoxins A, B, C or D. The high pathogen and coliform levels at the beginning of the ripening process for the cheese produced during both seasons indicate the need for improvement of the sanitation of the manufacturing conditions.

  9. Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

    2003-01-29

    The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight.

  10. Expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Collazo-Siqués, P; Valverde, M E; Paredes-López, O; Guevara-Lara, F

    2003-01-01

    To throw light on the expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits and on the possible role of the gaseous hormone ethylene in nonclimacteric fruit ripening, cDNA fragments that showed high homologies with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase cDNAs from other plants were cloned and partially characterized. Thus, the corresponding genes were accordingly named opaccs-1 and opacco-1, after Opuntia ACC synthase-1 and Opuntia ACC oxidase-1, respectively. Southern analysis suggests the presence of at least one copy of both genes, as well as other related homologous sequences in the Opuntia genome. Northern analysis of the opaccs-1 gene shows an enhanced expression in ripening fruit tissues, whereas opacco-1 expression is highly induced in ripe tissues with respect to the green fruits and mature cladodes. These results are in agreement with an active metabolic role of ethylene during nonclimacteric prickly pear fruit ripening. This is the first report on the analysis at the molecular level of ripening-related genes of the Opuntia genus.

  11. Requirement of CHROMOMETHYLASE3 for somatic inheritance of the spontaneous tomato epimutation Colourless non-ripening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Qin, Cheng; Yu, Sheng; Tan, Jinjuan; Chen, Yun-ru; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Hui; Shi, Yan; Li, Chunyang; Li, Bin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Wang, Ying; Lai, Tongfei; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Osman, Toba; Liu, Yule; Manning, Kenneth; Jackson, Stephen; Rolin, Dominique; Zhong, Silin; Seymour, Graham B; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-03-17

    Naturally-occurring epimutants are rare and have mainly been described in plants. However how these mutants maintain their epigenetic marks and how they are inherited remain unknown. Here we report that CHROMOMETHYLASE3 (SlCMT3) and other methyltransferases are required for maintenance of a spontaneous epimutation and its cognate Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) phenotype in tomato. We screened a series of DNA methylation-related genes that could rescue the hypermethylated Cnr mutant. Silencing of the developmentally-regulated SlCMT3 gene results in increased expression of LeSPL-CNR, the gene encodes the SBP-box transcription factor residing at the Cnr locus and triggers Cnr fruits to ripen normally. Expression of other key ripening-genes was also up-regulated. Targeted and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing showed that the induced ripening of Cnr fruits is associated with reduction of methylation at CHG sites in a 286-bp region of the LeSPL-CNR promoter, and a decrease of DNA methylation in differentially-methylated regions associated with the LeMADS-RIN binding sites. Our results indicate that there is likely a concerted effect of different methyltransferases at the Cnr locus and the plant-specific SlCMT3 is essential for sustaining Cnr epi-allele. Maintenance of DNA methylation dynamics is critical for the somatic stability of Cnr epimutation and for the inheritance of tomato non-ripening phenotype.

  12. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes. PMID:24723399

  13. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  14. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Fruit Ripening of the Nonripening Tomato Mutants nor and rin.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Y; Zohar, R; Malis-Arad, S

    1982-02-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants of the nonripening mutant nor, the ripening-inhibited mutant rin, and the normal cultivar ;Rutgers' were grown in nutrient solution supplemented with 3 grams per liter NaCl from the time of anthesis. In plants treated with NaCl, all the ripening parameters of the fruits of the nor mutant increased, but those of the rin mutant did not. The ripening of the fruits of the NaCl-treated nor plants was characterized by the development of a red color and taste, increased pectolytic activity, and increased evolution of CO(2) and ethylene. These changes do not normally take place in nor under control conditions. The values of these ripening parameters in nor were lower than those of the normal Rutgers fruits. In addition, both in nor and rin and in the normal variety, exposure of the plants to NaCl shortened the developmental period of the fruit, decreased the fruit size, and increased the concentrations of total soluble solids, Na(+), Cl(-), reducing sugars, and titratable acids in the fruit. The role of NaCl in overcoming the inability of nor to ripen is discussed.

  15. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  16. Development of a genetic linkage map of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in bananas (Musa spp.) using SSR and DArT markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  17. Noble metal nanoparticles: Optical forces, electrochemical Ostwald ripening, and photovoltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, Peter

    This thesis describes three distinct aspects of the chemical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. The first chapter introduces the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles. The second chapter presents an electrodynamic model for the calculation of the attractive optical forces that arise when two dielectric particles are irradiated in a light field. These forces show resonances at dipolar plasmon wavelengths, similar to resonances in the near-field electromagnetic intensities. At MW/cm2 intensities, optical forces can be stronger than van der Waals forces. The third chapter investigates the size dependent electrochemical properties of silver nanoparticles. These thermally evaporated silver nanoparticles spontaneously evolve in size when immersed in pure water on conducting substrates. The process is understood through an electrochemical Ostwald ripening mechanism driven by the size dependence of the work function and standard electrode potential. The fourth and fifth chapters consider photo-induced surface reactivity of noble metal particles. First, in the fourth chapter, the light driven deposition of copper onto gold nanoparticle electrodes is presented. The photocurrent is a nonlinear function of laser intensity and increases sharply with cathodic voltage in the underpotential deposition region. The photoreduction is attributed to laser heating (caused by decay of the plasmon oscillation) of the Au nanoparticles, rather than "hot electron" processes. Secondly, in the fifth chapter, the photo-induced oxidation of citrate is studied on silver nanoparticle electrodes. Irradiation of the citrate coated particles is shown to cause the particles to charge negatively from the irreversible transfer of electrons from citrate to the particles. It is hypothesized that the particle plasmon oscillation decays into electron hole pair(s) that causes the photo-oxidation of the surface bound citrate. Both the gold and silver particle systems are simulated using

  18. Influence of cold storage prior to and after ripening on quality factors and sensory attributes of ‘Hass’ avocados

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partially-ripened avocados are often held in cold storage in an attempt to enable the consistent delivery of ripe fruit to food service or retail outlets, although the effect on the quality of such fruit is incompletely understood. ‘Hass’ avocados were ripened to near ripeness (13.3 - 17.8 N) at 20 ...

  19. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  20. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  1. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P < 0.05) different. Both irrigation regimes resulted in significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, leaf length, leaf area, leaf area index, green leaf colour intensity, plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  4. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  5. Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

    1987-01-01

    Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers.

  6. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  7. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  8. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  9. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  10. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  11. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of crude extracts from clones of banana and plane species.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Padilla, Nayalet; Medina-Ramírez, Gerardo; Dávila, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Banana and plane are the most important fruits in world trade, behind citric plants. In this work we studied the antioxidant capacity of banana and plane varieties of fruits obtained from interspecies crossed varieties of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, named Harton plane, Cavendish banana, and Manzano banana. With this purpose we evaluated banana and plane crude extracts using the ferrous ion oxidation with xylenol orange method, the thiobarbituric acid method, determination of antioxidant activity, and effect on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. The experiments showed that all extracts have the capacity to decrease the concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde, produced in the lipid peroxidation process, in a manner comparable to that of other widely studied antioxidants like melatonin and vitamin E. Moreover, all extracts had the capacity to inhibit the generation of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. When antioxidant activity was calculated, a value was found that was equivalent to a concentration of uric acid between 0.20 and 0.30 mM at the highest concentration of extract used, with uric acid being a potent antioxidant at 1 mM.

  13. Determination of the molecular and structural characteristics of okenia, mango, and banana starches.

    PubMed

    Millan-Testa, C E; Mendez-Montealvo, M G; Ottenhof, M-A; Farhat, I A; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2005-02-09

    Starches were isolated from nonconventional sources (banana, mango, and okenia) and their characteristics were examined using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Banana starch granules were of an ellipsoidal shape with size between approximately 8 and 20 microm; okenia had the smallest granule size, between approximately 2 and 5 microm. The three starches showed the Maltese cross, indicative of an intact granule structure. Okenia and mango starches had the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern, common to native cereal starches, whereas banana starch showed a mixture between A- and B-type pattern. Banana starch had the highest temperature (77.6 degrees C) and enthalpy (23.4 J/g) of gelatinization in excess water conditions; okenia had the lowest temperature (71.2 degrees C) and enthalpy (15 J/g), which may be related to the X-ray diffraction pattern and its small granule size. Both the okenia and mango starches had a higher molar mass and gyration radius than banana starch, which may be related to the differences determined in their crystalline structures.

  14. Ripening of salami: assessment of colour and aspect evolution using image analysis and multivariate image analysis.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Lorenzo; Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2015-03-01

    During ripening of salami, colour changes occur due to oxidation phenomena involving myoglobin. Moreover, shrinkage due to dehydration results in aspect modifications, mainly ascribable to fat aggregation. The aim of this work was the application of image analysis (IA) and multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to the study of colour and aspect changes occurring in salami during ripening. IA results showed that red, green, blue, and intensity parameters decreased due to the development of a global darker colour, while Heterogeneity increased due to fat aggregation. By applying MIA, different salami slice areas corresponding to fat and three different degrees of oxidised meat were identified and quantified. It was thus possible to study the trend of these different areas as a function of ripening, making objective an evaluation usually performed by subjective visual inspection.

  15. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries during ripening.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Staffan C; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Johansson, Eva; Olsson, Marie E

    2008-08-13

    Sea buckthorn berries ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are of particular interest for their high content of healthy phytochemicals, including vitamin E-related compounds (tocopherols and tocotrienols). This study investigated the content of tocopherols and tocotrienols during ripening in berries from four cultivars of sea buckthorn over a three-year period. The results showed large variations in tocopherols and tocotrienols depending on harvest date, cultivar, and year. Levels of alpha-tocopherol were higher early in the ripening period, while at later dates, delta-tocopherol levels increased. Great differences in amounts and composition of tocopherols and tocotrienols were observed between cultivars. Tocopherol levels were positively correlated with daily temperature, but this trend varied between years. Variations in tocopherols and tocotrienol levels in sea buckthorn berries due to cultivar, year, and ripening stage should therefore be considered in the production of nutritional products.

  16. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components.

  17. An integrated approach for flavour quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Sivertsen, Hanne; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2013-08-15

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening and maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavour quality of fruits. The effect of ripening on chemical composition, physical parameters and sensory perception of three muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) cultivars was evaluated. Significant correlations emerging from this extensive data set are discussed in the context of identifying potential targets for melon sensory quality improvement. A portable ultra-fast gas-chromatograph coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW) was also used to monitor aroma volatile concentrations during fruit ripening and evaluated for its ability to predict the sensory perception of melon flavour. UFGC-SAW analysis allowed the discrimination of melon maturity stage based on six measured peaks, whose abundance was positively correlated to maturity-specific sensory attributes. Our findings suggest that this technology shows promise for future applications in rapid flavour quality evaluation.

  18. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'.

  19. Evolution of chemico-physical characteristics during manufacture and ripening of Castelmagno PDO cheese in wintertime.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Marta; Dolci, Paola; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical, volatile and textural profiles during manufacture and ripening were determined in samples of Castelmagno PDO cheese obtained from three different batches in the main artisan cheese plant of Castelmagno PDO production area. At the end of manufacture, samples were characterised by a pH of 6.57% and 52.4% moisture content. The HPLC analysis of organic acids and sugars showed the exhaustion of lactose content, while Urea-PAGE indicated extensive primary proteolysis of both β-casein and αs1-casein. During ripening, cheeses were characterised by high degradation of β-casein and αs1-casein, due to bacterial action. RP-HPLC profiles showed a high production of peptides eluted between 20 and 30min. In total, 92 volatile compounds were identified in cheese headspace. Texture profiles showed an increase in hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness values, as well as a decrease in cohesiveness during ripening.

  20. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  1. Biochemistry and Cell Wall Changes Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Coronel, Wendy G; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vélez de la Rocha, Rosabel; Labavitch, John M; Báez-Sañudo, Manuel A; Heredia, José B; Zazueta-Morales, José J; Vega-García, Misael O; Sañudo-Barajas, J Adriana

    2016-01-13

    Quality and compositional changes were determined in noni fruit harvested at five ripening stages, from dark-green to thaslucent-grayish. Fruit ripening was accompanied by acidity and soluble solids accumulation but pH diminution, whereas the softening profile presented three differential steps named early (no significant softening), intermediate (significant softening), and final (dramatic softening). At early step the extensive depolymerization of hydrosoluble pectins and the significantly increment of pectinase activities did not correlate with the slight reduction in firmness. The intermediate step showed an increment of pectinases and hemicellulases activities. The final step was accompanied by the most significant reduction in the yield of alcohol-insoluble solids as well as in the composition of uronic acids and neutral sugars; pectinases increased their activity and depolymerization of hemicellulosic fractions occurred. Noni ripening is a process conducted by the coordinated action of pectinases and hemicellulases that promote the differential dissasembly of cell wall polymers.

  2. Quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of Turkish monovarietal olive oils regarding stages of olive ripening.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Oya; Sevim, Didar; Kadiroğlu, Pınar

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to discriminate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) based on quality characteristics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity according to ripening stages of olives. Two different olive varieties (Memecik and Gemlik) were obtained at different stages of ripening based on skin color (green, purple and black). Quality properties of olive oils; free fatty acidity, peroxide value, K232 and K270, purity properties; fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and antioxidant compounds like total phenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity (oxidative stability, ABTS radical scavenging activity) analyses were performed. Higher amount of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were observed in olive oils. Oleic acid amount of olive oils decreased, linoleic acid increased with ripening. The most abundant TAG of olive oils were ECN 48, OOO, SLO+POO, ECN 46 and LOO/PLO. Olive oils were clearly classified by principal component analysis based on fatty acid and TAG composition.

  3. Hemicellulose fine structure is affected differently during ripening of tomato lines with contrasted texture.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Marc; Quemener, Bernard; Causse, Mathilde; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-11-01

    The impact of genetic and fruit ripening on hemicelluloses fine structure was studied in twelve near isogenic lines of tomato fruits harboring firmness QTL. The sugar composition and the MALDI-TOF MS oligosaccharides profile after glucanase hydrolysis of the cell walls were determined from all green and red fruits pericarp tissue. MS profiles showed two major series of oligomers attributed to xyloglucan (XG) and glucomannan (GM) with minor peaks for xylan and ions attributed to galacto-oligomers. The oligosaccharides MS intensity varied significantly with the fruit genetic and ripening status. Correlations between MS intensity indicated structural regulations of both XG and GM structures with genetics and ripening. These results point to a region on the tomato chromosome 9 controlling cell wall galactose metabolism.

  4. Changing ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity in ripening tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Bravdo, B A; Palgi, A; Lurie, S

    1977-08-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) from green, pink, and red stages were assayed for changes in the activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, changes in the levels of glycolate and respiratory gas exchange. The ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity decreased as the fruit ripened. By comparison, the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity increased during the transition from the green to the pink stage, and declined afterward. The changes in the endogenous glycolate levels and the respiratory gas exchange, as observed at different stages of ripening, resembled the changes in the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity. The utilization of glycolate in further metabolic activity may result in the formation of peroxidases required for the onset of ripening.

  5. Selenium delays tomato fruit ripening by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Chen, Yanli; Shi, Guoqing; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-03-15

    The antioxidant activity of selenium (Se) detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying Se induced fruit development and ripening. Our study showed that foliar pretreatment with 1mgL(-1) sodium selenate effectively delayed fruit ripening and maintained fruit quality. Gene expression studies revealed that the repression of ethylene biosynthetic genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase decreased ethylene production and respiration rate. Moreover, Se treatment probably boosted the antioxidant defense system to reduce ROS generation and membrane damage. The enhanced antioxidative effect was attributed to higher glutathione content and increased activity of enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The upregulation of respiratory burst oxidase homologue genes in tomato fruit may also contribute to the enhanced antioxidative effect. Selenium treatment represents a promising strategy for delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of tomato fruit.

  6. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  7. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  8. Effect of curing salts and probiotic cultures on the evolution of flavor compounds in dry-fermented sausages during ripening.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2016-06-15

    The effect of the concentration of curing salts, the nature of the probiotic culture (free or immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains) and the ripening time on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 71 days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. All factors affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. Noticeably, the content of esters, organic acids and total volatiles was significantly increased after 28 and 71 days of ripening in almost all products. In most cases, reduction of curing salts content resulted in significant increase of esters and organic acids during ripening, whereas the opposite effect was observed in carbonyl compounds at days 28 and 71. Principal Component Analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the ripening process affected the volatile composition.

  9. Mannosyl- and Xylosyl-Containing Glycans Promote Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Priem, B; Gross, K C

    1992-01-01

    The oligosaccharide glycans mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)(xylosylbeta1-2) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosaminyl(fucosylalpha1-3) N-acetylglucosamine were infiltrated into mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Rutgers). Coinfiltration of 1 nanogram per gram fresh weight of the glycans with 40 micrograms per gram fresh weight galactose, a level of galactose insufficient to promote ripening, stimulated ripening as measured by red coloration and ethylene production.

  10. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  11. Evidence of recombination in the Banana bunchy top virus genome.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan; Shah, Shahzad Hussain; Hameed, Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan

    2011-08-01

    Viruses serve as good model for evolutionary studies, owing to their short generation times and small genomes. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a significant subject being multicomponent circular single stranded DNA virus. BBTV belongs to family Nanoviridae and contains DNA-R, -U3, -S, -M, -C, and -N as integral genomic components. Evolutionary studies have shown genetic re-assortment of components among its isolates and revealed a concerted type evolution in non-coding regions of its genome. The DNA U3 having been shown as the most diverse component in our previous studies, was subjected to sequencing from some Pakistani isolates for the first time. Sequence analysis revealed intergenomic recombination in DNA-U3 among the isolates of two sub-groups and a very rare intragenomic recombination in Pakistani BBTV population. This indicates that like other evolutionary processes including intergenomic recombination, intragenomic recombination among the genomic components of the same isolate may also have a significant contribution in the evolution of BBTV genome. Intragenomic recombination therefore appears to be a unique way to generate genetic diversity in the multicomponent ssDNA viruses.

  12. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2010-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures.

  13. Morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant profile of noncommercial banana cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam IO; Mchau, Godwin A

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars––Luvhele (MusaABB), Mabonde (MusaAAA), and Muomva-red (Musa balbisiana) ––were characterized for morphological, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties. All three cultivars varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their morphology, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids with no significant difference in their ash content. Individual cultivars showed variations in flour starch granule when observed using a scanning electron microscope. Characterization of cultivars for total polyphenols (TPs) and antioxidant activity upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric, and lactic acid shows that the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay of samples varied significantly as Muomva-red cultivar (1.02 ± 0.01 mg GA/g) expressed the highest DPPH activity at lactic acid concentration of 20 g/L. Total polyphenol content was also highest for Muomva-red [1091.76 ± 122.81 mg GAE/100 g (d.w.)]. The high amount of TPs present in these cultivars make them suitable source of bio-nutrients with great medicinal and health functions. PMID:25987997

  14. The MtSNF4b subunit of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex connects after-ripening and constitutive defense responses in seeds of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bolingue, William; Rosnoblet, Claire; Leprince, Olivier; Vu, Benoit Ly; Aubry, Catherine; Buitink, Julia

    2010-03-01

    Dormant seeds are capable of remaining alive in the hydrated state for extended periods of time without losing vigor, until environmental cues or after-ripening result in the release of dormancy. Here, we investigated the possible role of the regulatory subunit of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex, MtSNF4b, in dormancy of Medicago truncatula seeds. Expression of MtSNF4b and its involvement in a high-molecular-weight complex are found in dormant seeds, whereas imbibition of fully after-ripened, non-dormant seeds leads to dissociation of the complex. MtSNF4b is capable of complementing the yeast Delta snf4 mutant and of interacting with the MtSnRK1 alpha-subunit in a double hybrid system. Transcriptome analyses on freshly harvested and after-ripened RNAi Mtsnf4b and wild-type embryos implicate MtSNF4b in the defense response in hydrated dormant embryonic tissues, affecting the expression of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism, WRKY transcription factors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Silencing MtSNF4b also increased the speed of after-ripening during dry storage, an effect that appears to be related to a change in base water potential. No significant difference in ABA content or sensitivity was detected between mutant and wild-type seeds. Pharmacological studies using hexoses and sugar analogs revealed that mannose restored germination behavior and expression of the genes PAL, CHR and IFR in RNAi Mtsnf4b seeds towards that of the wild-type, suggesting that MtSNF4b might act upstream of sugar-sensing pathways. Overall, the results suggest that MtSNF4b participates in regulation of a constitutively activated defense response in hydrated, dormant seeds.

  15. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  16. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  17. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    PubMed

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  18. Banana peel reductant for leaching medium grade manganese ore in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, H.; Joni, I. Made; Busaeri, Nundang; Usrah, Ifkar; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Sabchevski, Svilen

    2017-03-01

    In this investigation, manganese has been produced from medium grade manganese ore from Karangnunggal mine (West Java, Indonesia). The effects of weighed amount of banana peels on the structural and leaching properties have been studied. The material's properties have been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It has been found that an increase of the weighed amount of banana peels up to 4 g leads to an increase of the leaching efficiency of manganese from manganese ore. Above 4 g, however, the leaching efficiency does not change significantly. The analysis based on the interpretation of both XRD patterns and FTIR spectrum allows one to explain the increase in the leaching efficiencies of manganese by the reduction of MnO2 minerals and by the removal of hemicelluloses groups of banana peel in the samples.

  19. BANANAS: providing child care services to a multi-ethnic community.

    PubMed

    Vu, Catherine M; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    BANANAS, Inc. is a nonprofit organization that has provided child care resource and referral services for over 35 years. BANANAS emerged as a grassroots effort initiated by a group of female volunteers who sought to build a network of women with children who needed childcare. As the organization developed, its leaders recognized and responded to additional needs, including resource and information sharing, workshops and classes, and political advocacy. Beginning as a collective, BANANAS has grown into a multifaceted service delivery and advocacy nonprofit operating with an annual budget of $12 million. This history of the agency reflects the development of a unique community-based effort, its challenges and rewards, and the multiple successes that this pioneering nonprofit has experienced.

  20. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang; Chen, Shiji

    2016-03-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ˜0.128 and 0.47 m, and ˜0.223 and 0.01 m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47 × 10-2 and 7.13 × 10-3, and 2.91 × 10-3 and 1.96 × 10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively.