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Sample records for banda ancha basado

  1. SIERRA ANCHA WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys show that the Sierra Ancha Wilderness in Arizona has demonstrated resources of uranium, asbestos, and iron; probable and substantiated resource potential for uranium, asbestos, and iron; and a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Uranium resources occur in vein and strata-bound deposits in siltstone that underlies much of the wilderness. Deposits of long-staple chrysotile asbestos are likely in parts of the wilderness adjacent to known areas of asbestos production. Magnetite deposits in the wilderness form a small iron resource. No fossil fuel resources were identified in this study.

  2. Sierra Ancha Wilderness, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Light, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys conducted in 1978 show that the Sierra Ancha Wilderness has demonstrated resources of uranium, asbestos, and iron; probable and substantiated resource potential for uranium, asbestos, and iron; and a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Uranium resources occur in vein and stratabound deposits in siltstone that underlies much of the wilderness. Deposits of long-staple chrysotile asbestos are likely in parts of the wilderness adjacent to known areas of asbestos production. Magnetite deposits in the wilderness form a small iron resource. A fluorite resource may exist in the northern part of the wilderness east of a notable fluorite that is located in a comparable geologic setting 1.4 mi west of the wilderness boundary. No fossil fuel resources were identified in this study.

  3. Initial development of the Banda Volcanic Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Hartono, H.M.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The initial development of the Banda Volcanic Arc can be determined by obtaining absolute ages of granites or volcanics, stratigraphy of the Eocene Metan Volcanics of Timor as the oldest formation containing Banda Volcanic Arc extrusives, and tectonic analysis. Banda Arc volcanism is the result of subduction of oceanic crust under the volcanic arc. The time of initial subduction is related to initial seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica, which is identical to geomagnetic polarity time 34 (82 mybp). Therefore, 82 mybp can be used as one of the criteria to determine the birth of the Banda Volcanic Arc. With present available time data for determining the birth of the Banda Volcanic Arc, the minimum age coincides with the age of the Metan Volcanics (Eocene, 39-56 mybp) and the maximum age coincides with initial seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica (82 mybp). This time span is too long. With the assumption that it needs some time to develop from transcurrent faulting to subduction and volcanism, it is proposed that the initial development of Banda Arc volcanism was during early Tertiary.

  4. Geodynamic Evolution of the Banda Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaymakci, N.; Decker, J.; Orange, D.; Teas, P.; Van Heiningen, P.

    2013-12-01

    We've carried out a large on- and offshore study in Eastern Indonesia to characterize the major structures and to provide constraints on the Neogene geodynamic evolution of the Banda Sea region. The onshore portion utilized remote sensing data and published geology. We tied the onshore to the offshore using recently acquired high resolution bathymetric data (16m and 25m bin size) and 2D seismic profiles that extend from Sulawesi in the west to Irian Jaya in the east across the northern part of the Banda Arc. We interpret the northern boundary of the 'Birds Head' (BH) of Papua, the Sorong Fault, to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone with a minimum of 48 km displacement over the last few million years. The western boundary fault of Cendrawasih Basin defines the eastern boundary of BH and corresponds to the Wandamen Peninsula which comprises high pressure metamorphic rocks, including eclogite and granulite facies rocks, with exhumation ages from 4 to 1 Ma. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicate that the eastern boundary of BH is linked with a large scale offshore normal fault which we suggest may be related to the exhumation of the Wandamen Peninsula. The eastern boundary of Cendrawasih Basin is defined by a large transpressive belt along which BH is decoupled from the rest of Papua / Irian Jaya. This interpretation is supported by recent GPS studies. We propose that the BH and the Pacific plate are coupled, and therefore the Birds Head is therefore completely detached from Irian Jaya. Furthermore, Aru Basin, located at the NE corner of Banda Arc, is a Fault-Fault-Transform (FFT) type triple junction. According to available literature information the Banda Sea includes three distinct basins with different geologic histories; the North Banda Sea Basin (NBSB) was opened during 12-7 Ma, Wetar-Damar Basin (WDB) during 7-3.5 Ma and Weber Basin (WB) 3-0 Ma. Our bathymetric and seismic data indicated that the NBSB and Weber Basin lack normal oceanic crust and are

  5. Map showing mineral resource potential of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Light, Thomas D.; Shride, Andrew F.; Bergquist, Joel R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; Theobald, Paul K.; Duval, Joseph S.; Wilson, Dolores M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, Sept. 3, 1964) and certain related Acts require the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral-resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the Administration and the Congress. These maps and reports present the results of a geologic and mineral survey of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona.

  6. Map showing the distribution of minerals in the heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediments in the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, R.B.; Barton, H.N.; Negri, J.C.; Theobald, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Reconnaissance geochemical and mineralogical sampling was done in the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area during April and May 1978. This map shows the distribution of chalcopyrite, florite, galena, scheelite, and lead-rich iron oxides in the nonmagnetic fraction of the heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediment samples collected during the reconnaissance study. 

  7. Monitoring the effects of air-quality on forests: An overview of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest ICP-Level II Site

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Koestner; Karen A. Koestner; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    The Sierra Ancha International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests study site or (SAEF-ICP II) is part of an international network of cooperative forest monitoring sites spread throughout Europe and the United States. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe established the ICP II network in 1985 to monitor long...

  8. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  9. Arc-continent collision in Banda Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Bowin, C.; Purdy, G.M.; Johnston, C.; Shor, G.; Lawver, L.; Hartono, H.M.S.; Jezek, P.

    1980-06-01

    A 2-month marine geophysical study of the Banda arc region was conducted in late 1976 using the R/V Atlantis II of WHOI' and the R/V Thomas Washington of SIO; 19 seismic refraction lines were successfully completed. Oceanic crust underlies the Banda Sea and Weber Deep. Continental crust 35 to 40 km thick underlies the Australian Shelf. Thick continental crust is also present beneath the Timor and Aru Troughs. Low-amplitude magnetic anomalies are present over the Australian Shelf and extend to near the western edge of the Banda outer arc and, together with the presence of metamorphic rocks, suggest that continental crust may extend to the eastern lip of the Weber Deep. Continuous seismic reflection profiling shows the Australian Shelf sedimentary sequence dipping beneath the accretionary prisms of the outer Banda arc at the Timor and Seram Troughs: the tectonic front of the subduction zone lies along the axis of these troughs. The bathymetric profile on the outer flank of the Timor and Seram Troughs is unusual in that the profile asymptotically approaches a shallow depth near sea level and no outer rise is present as at oceanic trenches. It is concluded that the Outer Banda arc from Buru around to Timor, and possibly to Sumba, contained Australian continental crustal blocks and fragments prior to its collision with the Australian margin in the last 3 to 6 m.y. Continuous convergence following the addition of a thick Australian margin sedimentary sequence to the south Banda subduction zone has led to deformation being distributed over the width of the arc and not simply being taken up on a single thrust surface. This scenario helps reconcile the geologic relations on Timor, Seram, and Buru with the structural continuity of the Timor Trough with the Java Trench. 30 figures, 1 table.

  10. Seismic moment release during slab rupture beneath the Banda Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandiford, Mike

    2008-08-01

    The highest intermediate depth moment release rates in Indonesia occur in the slab beneath the largely submerged segment of the Banda arc in the Banda Sea to the east of Roma, termed the Damar Zone. The most active, western-part of this zone is characterized by downdip extension, with moment release rates (~1018 Nm yr-1 per 50 km strike length) implying the slab is stretching at ~10-14 s-1 consistent with near complete slab decoupling across the 100-200 km depth range. Differential vertical stretching along the length of the Damar Zone is consistent with a slab rupture front at ~100-200 km depth beneath Roma propagating eastwards at ~100 km Myr-1. Complexities in the slab deformation field are revealed by a narrow zone of anomalous in-plane P-axis trends beneath Damar, where subhorizontal constriction suggests extreme stress concentrations ~100 km ahead of the slab rupture front. Such stress concentrations may explain the anomalously deep ocean gateways in this region, in which case ongoing slab rupture may have played a key role in modulating the Indonesian throughflow in the Banda Sea over the last few million years.

  11. Tsunami evacuation buildings and evacuation planning in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuzal, Hendri; Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric

    Indonesia, a country of more than 17,000 islands, is exposed to many hazards. A magnitude 9.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. It triggered a series of tsunami waves that spread across the Indian Ocean causing damage in 11 countries. Banda Aceh, the capital city of Aceh Province, was among the most damaged. More than 31,000 people were killed. At the time, there were no early warning systems nor evacuation buildings that could provide safe refuge for residents. Since then, four tsunami evacuation buildings (TEBs) have been constructed in the Meuraxa subdistrict of Banda Aceh. Based on analysis of evacuation routes and travel times, the capacity of existing TEBs is examined. Existing TEBs would not be able to shelter all of the at-risk population. In this study, additional buildings and locations for TEBs are proposed and residents are assigned to the closest TEBs. While TEBs may be part of a larger system of tsunami mitigation efforts, other strategies and approaches need to be considered. In addition to TEBs, robust detection, warning and alert systems, land use planning, training, exercises, and other preparedness strategies are essential to tsunami risk reduction.

  12. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... the residues of Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD), a naturally occurring polypeptide from...

  13. Delineating biophysical environments of the Sunda Banda Seascape, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshu; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Chollett, Iliana; Huang, Charles; Fox, Helen; Wijonarno, Anton; Madden, Marguerite

    2015-01-22

    The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS), located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical classes. Specifically, the SBS was partitioned into eight biophysical classes characterized by similar sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and salinity patterns. Areas within each class were expected to have similar habitat types and ecosystem functions. Our work supplemented prevailing global marine management schemes by focusing in on a regional scale with finer spatial resolution. It also provided a baseline for academic research, ecological assessments and will facilitate marine spatial planning and conservation activities in the area. In addition, the framework and methods of delineating biophysical environments we presented can be expanded throughout the whole Coral Triangle to support research and conservation activities in this important region.

  14. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  15. Delineating Biophysical Environments of the Sunda Banda Seascape, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingshu; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Chollett, Iliana; Huang, Charles; Fox, Helen; Wijonarno, Anton; Madden, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS), located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical classes. Specifically, the SBS was partitioned into eight biophysical classes characterized by similar sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and salinity patterns. Areas within each class were expected to have similar habitat types and ecosystem functions. Our work supplemented prevailing global marine management schemes by focusing in on a regional scale with finer spatial resolution. It also provided a baseline for academic research, ecological assessments and will facilitate marine spatial planning and conservation activities in the area. In addition, the framework and methods of delineating biophysical environments we presented can be expanded throughout the whole Coral Triangle to support research and conservation activities in this important region. PMID:25648170

  16. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection.

  17. The Thermocline Layer and Chlorophyll-a Concentration Variability during Southeast Monsoon in the Banda Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusparini, Nikita; Prasetyo, Budi; Ambariyanto; Widowati, Ita

    2017-02-01

    Thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration can be used to investigate the upwelling region. This investigation is focused in the Banda Sea because the upwelling event in this area is quite large and has a longer upwelling duration than other waters in Indonesia. In addition, Banda Sea is also influenced by climatic factors such as monsoon. The aim of this research is to determine the validation of secondary data (from satellite imagery data and model) and in situ observation data (from research cruise) and to determine the variability of thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration during Southeast Monsoon in the Banda Sea. The data used in this study were chlorophyll-a concentration, seawater vertical temperature at depths 0-400 meters, and sea surface temperature from remote sensing and in situ data. Spatial and temporal analysis of all parameters was conducted by quantitative descriptive method. The results showed that the variability of thermocline layer and the chlorophyll-a distribution were strongly related to seasonal pattern. In most cases, the estimates of thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration using remote sensing algorithm were higher than in situ measured values. The greatest variability occurred in the eastern Banda Sea during the Southeast Monsoon with shallower thermocline layer, more abundance of chlorophyll-a concentration, and lower sea surface temperature.

  18. Brown Skin, Blue Passport: Reflections on a Trip to Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2006-01-01

    It's a hot day in July. The author finds herself in a university classroom in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, listening as an Achenese elementary school teacher narrates a children's story. As the teacher breaks into song in the middle of the story, the 20 other teachers in the classroom join in. The author is awed by their talents and thinks about how…

  19. Seismological studies of tectonics in the Toba region and in the Banda sea, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi

    By using arrival time data from the Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (MGA), International Seismological Center (ISC) and United State Geological Survey (USGS), and the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions of Harvard, I studied the tectonic features in north Sumatra and Banda arc, Indonesia. In north Sumatra, the study was focused on the subducted slab and attenuation beneath Toba---the world's largest Quaternary caldera. In the Banda arc, I studied the unusual shape of the slab where a part of Australian continent has been subducted under the oceanic plate. Toba was formed 75ka, resulting in a caldera of the area of 25km x 100km. The age and area of the caldera suggest that the magma remains partially molten. Seismograms at the stations near the caldera showed that P- and S-waves have been attenuated. This attenuation was studied using both qualitative and quantitative method to locate the magma system. By applying both methods, the results indicate that the magma chamber is shallower than 20km. In Banda area, hypocenters were determined using a combination of local and teleseismic data to reveal the slab geometry. Because a flat-lying slab at 600km depth is unusual, the accuracy of the hypocenters within this slab was studied in more detail. Statistically several hypocenters in this region have been accurately located using probability density functions. The shape of the slab shown by the hypocenter distribution reveals high contortion beneath the Banda sea. The stress distribution revealed from the P,T and B axes of fault plane solutions suggests that the stress field is controlled by both gravity and contortion within the slab. The subduction process in Banda region has changed since the Australian continent plate collided with the Banda arc. Strike slip earthquakes seem to concentrate along the extension of the Terera-Aiduna fault to the southwest in Wetar backarc thrust. I conclude that the extension of Terera-Aiduna fault in the subducted

  20. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  1. Architecture and development of the alluvial sediments of the Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation in the Cañada Ancha Valley, northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gómez, José; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Palma, Ricardo M.

    2009-07-01

    The Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation at Cañada Ancha area, northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina, comprises a multi-stage suit of predominantly alluvial sediments that is heterolithic in nature. In that suit, several lithofacies, architectural elements, and bounding surfaces of different order have been identified and their lateral and vertical distribution characterized. This analysis allowed the differentiation of 3 main units (lower, middle and upper), 20 subunits (C-1 to C-20), and the characterization of their alluvial styles. The lower unit (which comprises subunits C-1 to C-4) is mainly formed by fine- to medium-grained sandstones, which become medium- to coarse-grained towards the top. These sandstones characterize settings ranging from floodplains with isolated, unconfined flows, to more complex, vertically stacked, multi-storey sheet sandstones of braided fluvial systems. The middle unit (C-5 to C-10) is dominated by pale brown-grey fine-to coarse-grained sands and medium size subangular to angular conglomerates, which reflect amalgamated complexes of sandstone sheets and downstream accretion macroforms. Remarkably, this alluvial sedimentation was episodically punctuated by volcaniclastic flows. The upper unit (C-11 to C-20) consists of finer sediments, mainly pink to white fine-to medium grained sandstones and red to green siltstones. Towards the top, bioturbation becomes important, and also the presence of volcanosedimentary flows is noticeable. Fluvial settings include braided sheet sandstones with waning flood deposits evolving to isolated high-sinuosity fluvial systems, with flash flood deposits. At the top of this unit, facies may suggest marine influence. Vertical changes in the fluvial style result from both climatic and tectonic controls. A semiarid to arid climate and the active tectonism linked to the eastward migration of the Andean volcanic arc determined major bounding surfaces, fluvial style evolution and the presence of the volcano

  2. Continent-arc collision in the Banda Arc imaged by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Harris, Cooper W.; Roosmawati, Nova; Teofilo da Costa, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The tectonic configuration of the Banda region in southeast Asia captures the spatial transition from subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere to subduction and collision of the Australian continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc. An ongoing broadband seismic deployment funded by NSF is aimed at better understanding the mantle and lithospheric structure in the region and the relationship of the arc-continent collision to orogenesis. Here, we present results from ambient noise tomography in the region utilizing this temporary deployment of 30 broadband instruments and 39 permanent stations in Indonesia, Timor Leste, and Australia. We measure dispersion curves for over 21,000 inter-station paths resulting in good recovery of the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Savu Sea, Timor Leste, and the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) region of Indonesia. The resulting three dimensional model indicates up to ∼25% variation in shear velocity throughout the plate boundary region; first-order velocity anomalies are associated with the subducting oceanic lithosphere, subducted Australian continental lithosphere, obducted oceanic sediments forming the core of the island of Timor, and high velocity anomalies in the Savu Sea and Sumba. The structure in Sumba and the Savu Sea is consistent with an uplifting forearc sliver. Beneath the island of Timor, we confirm earlier inferences of pervasive crustal duplexing from surface mapping, and establish a link to underlying structural features in the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle that drive upper crustal shortening. Finally, our images of the volcanic arc under Flores, Wetar, and Alor show high velocity structures of the Banda Terrane, but also a clear low velocity anomaly at the transition between subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Given that the footprint of the Banda Terrane has previously been poorly defined, this model provides important constraints on tectonic reconstructions that

  3. Strain analyis in Banda Sea using grid strain based on GPS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herawati, Yola Asis; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina Anggreni; Effendi, Jony

    2017-07-01

    Eastern Indonesia has very high deformation due to tectonic activity in triple junction area. Convergencing between plate in Eastern Indonesia trigger some microblocks. Tectonic block as one of deformation phenomenom due to the interaction of between plates can be understood by using strain analysis. Strain analysis shows the change of position, shape and dimension from an object. This research use 80 GPS from previous study by Koulali et al, (2015) and 7 continuous GPS in Bird's Head to calculate strain rates in order to find relation between tectonic activity and strain rates in Banda Sea, and to identify block boundary. The GPS data are calculated using GAMIT/GLOBK software to obtain time series in each station. Strain rates are calculated using softwae package named grid strain which calculate strain based on interpolation using discretized geodetic measurement resulting strain rates in grid system. The data distribution and algorithm in grid strain influence the result of strain rates from grid strain. The result from strain calculation is in ranges -16,421×10-8 to -0,194×10-8 for shortening parameter and 1,653×10-8 to 18,92×10-8 for extension parameter. From strain analysis known that strain rates can identify tectonic activity but not accurately for block boundary. Banda Block, Timor Block, and Bird's Head Block has different strain pattern especially in their boundary. Timor and eastern part of Banda Block dominated by shortening according to the back arc located in there, meanwhile western part of Banda Block and mostly of Bird's Head dominated by very low shortening according to collision between Eurasia and Australia Plates. For further analysis need some additional data such as density of GPS sites, sesimicity, and gravity data.

  4. The Vrancea seismic zone and its analogue in the Banda Arc, eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsom, John

    2005-12-01

    It is now widely, although not universally, accepted that the Carpathian orogen marks the site of an arc-continent collision that followed the subduction of a now vanished small ocean basin. Seismic tomography has defined a high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle similar to those associated with subduction zones worldwide. There is, however, no recognisable Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ), and intermediate-depth seismicity is confined to a relatively small, roughly cylindrical and vertically elongated region beneath the extreme southeastern corner of the mountain chain. There is no consensus in the published studies as to the origin of this 'Vrancea Zone'. The Banda Sea region of eastern Indonesia has sometimes been cited as an analogue for the Pannonian/Transylvanian basin and the enclosing Carpathian orocline, but at first sight the patterns of seismicity appear very different. Intermediate depth seismic activity defines a subducted slab that dips north, south and west beneath the Banda Sea, a configuration explained as a consequence of the rapid expansion of the sea during roll-back subduction. If the similar scenario proposed for the Carpathians is correct, then it is the absence of a Carpathian WBZ that is actually anomalous. Closer examination of Banda Arc seismicity shows that it can be divided into two parts, these being a scoop-shaped WBZ and an adjacent 'Damar Zone' of much more intense intermediate-depth activity. At its eastern end the Damar Zone merges with the WBZ, but in the west there is evidence for separation from it. A plausible explanation of this pattern is that a lower layer of the downgoing slab is peeling away from the remainder. The Banda/Australia collision is now almost complete and the activity in the WBZ proper can be expected to decrease. Damar Zone activity, on the other hand, may persist for a much longer period, migrating towards the foreland as the detaching layer separates from the remainder of the subducted lithosphere. In a few

  5. Rise and Fall of the Eastern Great Indonesian Arc Recorded by the Assembly, Dispersion and Accretion of the Banda Terrane, Timor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R.

    2006-12-01

    New age, petrochemical and structural data indicate that the Banda Terrane is a remnant of a Jurassic to Eocene arc trench system that formed the eastern part of the Great Indonesian arc. The arc system rifted apart during Eocene to Miocene supra-subduction zone sea floor spreading, which dispersed ridges of Banda Terrane embedded in young oceanic crust as far south as Sumba and Timor. In Timor the Banda Terrane is well exposed as high-level thrust sheets that were detached from the edge of the Banda Sea upper plate and uplifted by thrust understacking associated with Late Miocene to Present arc-continent collision with the passive margin of NW Australia. Banda Terrane thrust sheets contain a distinctive assemblage of medium grade metamorphic rocks overlain by Cretaceous to Miocene forearc basin deposits. New U/Pb age data indicate igneous zircons are less than 162 Ma with a cluster of ages at 83 Ma and 35 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of various mineral phases all cluster between 32 39 Ma. These data yield a cooling curve that shows exhumation from around 550 °C to the surface between 36 28 Ma. After this time there is no evidence of metamorphism of the Banda Terrane, including its accretion to the edge of the Australian continental margin during the Pliocene. These data link the Banda Terrane to similar rocks and events documented throughout the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf and the Banda Sea floor. Closing of the Banda Sea basins puts the allochthonous part of the Banda Terrane on a collision course with autochthonous Banda Terrane fragments imbedded in the Banda Sea floor, and eventually with Sulawesi, where most of these fragments started their journey over 50 m.y. ago.

  6. Geochemistry of hot springs and fumarolic gases from the Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, R. P. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Sriwana, T.; Van Bergen, M. J.; Erfan, R. D.; Suharyono, K.; Wirakusumah, A. D.; Vroon, P. Z.

    Geothermometry carried out on hot springs occurring on the volcanic non-active Islands of Ambon and Haruku indicates minimum subsurface temperatures of 180°C; for Alor Island we obtained a temperature of 170°C. The hydrothermal systems of these islands are likely crack and fault dominated. Hot springs on the islands with active volcanism indicate subsurface temperatures of 180 to 250°C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic gases from the active volcanoes Banda Api in the Banda Archipelago, Serawerna on Teon, Wurlali on Damar and Ili Lewotolo on Lomblen are reported here for the first time. The measured fumarolic gas temperatures ranged from 98°C to 170°C for Banda Api, Laworkawra, Legatala, Serawerna, Wurlali and Sirung volcanoes and reached 490°C for Ili Lewotolo volcano. The main gas components are H 2O, CO 2 and SO 2; CO 2 predominates over (SO 22 + H 2S). The calculated gas equilibrium temperature for Wurlali is 700°C and for Ili Lewotolo more than 1000°C. Stable carbon isotope data for Wurlali ( δ13C = -3.3 % 0) and for Ili Lewotolo ( δ13C = -2.9 % 0) volcanoes are similar to those for other Indonesian volcanoes. The bulk sulfur is relatively rich in the heavy isotope. The 3He/ 4He (R/R A) ratios vary between 1.0 and 3.6, which is low for subduction related volcanoes. A contribution from continental crust or sediment-derived radiogenic 4He is suggested.

  7. Imaging the Subduction of Continental Lithosphere in the Banda Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; De Wit, M.; van Bergen, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3D tomographic model of Australasia obtained by full seismic waveform inversion. Our model features a sharp lateral velocity contrast extending to >200 km depth, coincident with the abrupt transition from low to high Helium ratios in arc volcanics near 123°E (see figure). The joint analysis of the tomographic model and isotope data (for He, Pb, Nd, Sr) suggests that the North Australian craton subducted beneath the Banda Sea to around 100 km depth. The continuous increase of computing power combined with advances in numerical seismology allow us to develop full waveform inversion techniques that translate complete seismograms into 3D Earth models. The natural incorporation of any type of body and surface waves in full waveform inversion improves tomographic resolution in terms of both resolution length and amplitude recovery. We applied full waveform inversion to Australasia, including the Sunda and Banda arcs. The correlation of the tomographic model with isotope signatures of arc volcanics supports the shallow-angle subduction of North Australian lithosphere. The integrated data suggest that the late Jurassic ocean lithosphere north of the North Australian craton was capable of entraining large volumes of continental lithosphere. A plausible explanation involves delamination within the continental crust, separating upper from lower crustal units. This interpretation is consistent with the existence of a massive accretionary complex on Timor island, with evidence from Pb isotope analysis for lower-crust involvement in arc volcanism; and with the approximate gravitational stability of the subducted lithosphere as inferred from the tomographic images. The Banda arc example demonstrates that continental lithosphere in arc-continent collisions may not generally be preserved, thus increasing the complexity of tectonic reconstructions and models of recycling continental crust.

  8. Extreme extension across Seram and Ambon, eastern Indonesia: evidence for Banda slab rollback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pownall, J. M.; Hall, R.; Watkinson, I. M.

    2013-09-01

    The island of Seram, which lies in the northern part of the 180°-curved Banda Arc, has previously been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt formed during arc-continent collision, which incorporates ophiolites intruded by granites thought to have been produced by anatexis within a metamorphic sole. However, new geological mapping and a re-examination of the field relations cause us to question this model. We instead propose that there is evidence for recent and rapid N-S extension that has caused the high-temperature exhumation of lherzolites beneath low-angle lithospheric detachment faults that induced high-temperature metamorphism and melting in overlying crustal rocks. These "Kobipoto Complex" migmatites include highly residual Al-Mg-rich garnet + cordierite + sillimanite + spinel + corundum granulites (exposed in the Kobipoto Mountains) which contain coexisting spinel + quartz, indicating that peak metamorphic temperatures likely approached 900 °C. Associated with these residual granulites are voluminous Mio-Pliocene granitic diatexites, or "cordierite granites", which crop out on Ambon, western Seram, and in the Kobipoto Mountains and incorporate abundant schlieren of spinel- and sillimanite-bearing residuum. Quaternary "ambonites" (cordierite + garnet dacites) emplaced on Ambon were also evidently sourced from the Kobipoto Complex migmatites as demonstrated by granulite-inherited xenoliths. Exhumation of the hot peridotites and granulite-facies Kobipoto Complex migmatites to shallower structural levels caused greenschist- to lower-amphibolite facies metapelites and amphibolites of the Tehoru Formation to be overprinted by sillimanite-grade metamorphism, migmatisation, and limited localised anatexis to form the Taunusa Complex. The extreme extension required to have driven Kobipoto Complex exhumation evidently occurred throughout Seram and along much of the northern Banda Arc. The lherzolites must have been juxtaposed against the crust at typical

  9. Assessing school disaster preparedness by applying a comprehensive school safety framework: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.

  10. DDT in Mytilus edulis: Spatio-temporal variations in the Punta Banda estuary, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Bect, M.S.; Flores-Baez, B.P. )

    1991-02-01

    The mussel Mytilus sp. has been widely used as a sentinel organism or biological indicator of organic pollutants in the marine environment. In studies recently carried out in Baja California, Mexico, it was found that the spatial and temporal variations of DDT in samples of the mussel Mytilus californianus collected from the area exposed to the ocean do not follow a defined pattern and that the highest values of DDT are found at the border with the US. The Maneadero Valley in Baja California, Mexico, is an agricultural area where important volumes of pesticides are applied, part of which are transported to the Punta Banda Estuary where they remain for an undetermined period of time during which they are consumed and bioaccumulated by organisms. The main objective of the present work is to determine the levels and temporal variation of DDT in the mussel Mytilus edulis in the Punta Banda Estuary, Baja California. With the results, the authors will define the dynamics of this pollutant in the estuary.

  11. Autocracy and AIDS: the post-Banda challenge. Country focus: Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mhone, C S

    1996-10-01

    Hastings Banda ruled Malawi for three decades until 1993. During that period, it was considered taboo to publicly discuss sexual matters. Efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV/AIDS therefore got fully underway only after the end of Banda's autocratic regime. There are now an estimated 225,000 cases of AIDS in Malawi. The Ministry of Health estimates that 33% of urban adults and 17% of rural adults are HIV positive, approximately 10% of the total population. In some urban areas, 33% of women attending antenatal clinics and 70-98% of prostitutes are HIV positive. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and the practice of dry sex are thought to be major cofactors in bringing about such high rates of HIV infection. Several surveys do, however, indicate that the rate of growth of the HIV epidemic may be slowing. Even if the projected decrease in the incidence of new infections actually occurs, the cumulative HIV prevalence will continue to increase. Malawi, one of the world's poorest nations, with a per capita income of $140 and a literacy rate of 47%, cannot afford the overwhelming burden of providing comprehensive care to the segment of its population which suffers with AIDS. The author stresses the need for AIDS education in primary schools, especially since many students drop out prior to secondary school.

  12. Palaeoceanography of the Banda Sea, and Late Pleistocene initiation of the Northwest Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Michelle I.; Barrows, Timothy T.; De Deckker, Patrick; Paterne, Martine

    2005-11-01

    This paper details the Late Quaternary palaeoceanography of the Banda Sea based on analysis of core SHI 9016, located east of Timor. This core is located below the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow, at a depth of 1805 m bsl. Planktonic foraminifera assemblages, the δ18O and δ13C of the foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, and the total carbonate content of each sample were used to reconstruct the vertical structure of the water column through the past ˜ 80,000 yr. Today, the core site is characterised by high sea-surface temperature and high precipitation, which results in the formation of a low-salinity boundary layer. Sea-surface temperature estimates down core indicate minimal cooling during the last glacial maximum. Mean sea-surface temperatures ranged between 29.8 °C and 26.6 °C for the past ˜ 80,000 yr; sea-surface seasonality never increased above 3 °C. In addition, the abundance of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, and Globigerinoides quadrilobatus indicates that the mixed layer (the low-salinity boundary layer of the Throughflow) thinned during Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 2. This enhanced a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layer. The Northwest Monsoon was less intense for about 60,000 yr and then 'switched on' at ˜ 15,000 cal yr BP. This thickened the mixed layer, reducing the DCM, and increased SST seasonality in the Banda Sea.

  13. Built urban heritage conservation in Islamic societies: Study case in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meutia, Z. D.

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to find the concept of the built heritage related to Islamic societies with a case study in the city of Banda Aceh through study literature review, with the context of the planning in the era of uncertainty. In this paper will be elaborated and described what it was about heritage and urban heritage and conservation Islamic values in heritage, as well as explain the concept of the built heritage conservation in Islamic societies. Discussion and analysis will be done through its study literature. Literature reviews about built urban heritage conservation and perspective of the Islamic societies in Banda aceh was done using systematic methodology literature review. This methodology summarizes research results earlier that presents the fact that a more comprehensive and balanced. The synthesis of the results conducted using narrative techniques or technique of qualitative. The discovery paper in this paper is to understand the relationship the built heritage conservation of Islamic societies perspective that consider shari’a aspect and local tradition in built urban heritage that can affect to heritage planning.

  14. Annual variation of the southern boundary current in the Banda Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamsudin, Fadli; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Kaneko, Arata

    2010-08-01

    ADCP measurements in the southern Banda Sea, obtained with the bulk carrier "MS First Jupiter" from 1997 until 2000, have been analysed. The observations reveal the presence of an eastward flowing southern boundary current, bringing water from the Indonesian throughflow towards the connections with the Indian Ocean in Ombai Strait and the Timor Sea. The mean transport in the upper 300 m is estimated to be about 5 Sv, over 50% of the outflow towards the Indian Ocean in this layer through the eastern passages near Timor. The velocity in the boundary current shows a clear annual variation, more or less in phase with the annually varying inflow through Makassar Strait and the outflow near Timor. The phase of the annual variation cannot be explained by the monsoonal variation of the local winds. Therefore this annual variation of the throughflow is probably generated by large-scale forcing. A considerable reduction of the strength of the boundary current was observed in 1998, following the 1997-1998 El Niño with a delay of about half a year. On shorter time scales, Kelvin waves, entering the Banda Sea from the Indian Ocean, cause flow reversals of the boundary current.

  15. A Neogene back-arc origin for the Banda Sea basins: geochemical and geochronological constraints from the Banda ridges (East Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honthaas, Christian; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Maury, René C.; Bellon, Hervé; Hémond, Christophe; Malod, Jacques-André; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Villeneuve, Michel; Cotten, Joseph; Burhanuddin, Safri; Guillou, Hervé; Arnaud, Nicolas

    1998-12-01

    Dredgings conducted during the French-Indonesian cruises Banda Sea II and III collected volcanic rocks from several ridges of the Banda Sea area (Tukang Besi ridge, site 218; Lucipara ridge, sites 214 and 305; Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China, sites 219 and 220). With the exception of one 46-Ma-old N-MORB type basalt, thought to belong to an ophiolitic complex, K-Ar and Ar-Ar datings indicate that all the dredged volcanics are Neogene. They range in age from ca. 10 Ma (Tukang Besi back-arc basalts) to 8-7 Ma (Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China calc-alkaline andesites) and to 7-3 Ma (Lucipara OIB-type transitional basalts and cordierite-bearing andesites). Radiogenic isotopic signatures of andesites are consistent with an AFC (Assimilation coupled with Fractional Crystallization) process involving assimilation of continental crust. 8-3-Ma-old calc-alkaline volcanic activity is also recorded on the Wetar segment, an inactive part of the East Sunda arc, and corresponding isotopic compositions are also consistent with an AFC process involving continental crust. These features suggest that Lucipara-Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China ridges and the Wetar segment were representing a single volcanic arc 8-7 Ma ago. The corresponding calc-alkaline activity was related to the subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere beneath continental blocks of Australian origin. Back-arc opening processes occurred from 6 to 3 Ma as a multi-rift opening for the Wetar basin and as a single-rift opening for the Damar basin while subduction-related magmatism was still active in the Wetar segment. Volcanic activity stopped at 7 Ma in the Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China ridge. On Lucipara ridge, 6-3 Ma volcanic activity emplaced concomitantly transitional basalts and cordierite-bearing andesites. The mineralogical and chemical features of the latter are consistent with an AFC process involving assimilation of continental crust by mantle-derived basaltic magmas. The end of magmatic activity on both volcanic

  16. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... catabolism of a seed storage protein (β-conglutin) of sweet lupines (Lupinus albus), in or on all food commodities when applied as a fungicide and used in accordance with label directions and good...

  17. Preliminary results of characteristic seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wiyono, Samsul H.; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Determining of seismic anisotropy allowed us for understanding the deformation processes that occured in the past and present. In this study, we performed shear wave splitting to characterize seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone. For about 1,610 XKS waveforms from INATEWS-BMKG networks have been analyzed. From its measurements showed that fast polarization direction is consistent with trench-perpendicular orientation but several stations presented different orientation. We also compared between fast polarization direction with absolute plate motion in the no net rotation and hotspot frame. Its result showed that both absolute plate motion frame had strong correlation with fast polarization direction. Strong correlation between the fast polarization direction and the absolute plate motion can be interpreted as the possibility of dominant anisotropy is in the asthenosphere.

  18. Extreme extension across Seram and Ambon, eastern Indonesia: Evidence for Banda slab rollback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pownall, J. M.; Hall, R.; Watkinson, I. M.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Seram, which lies in the northern part of the 180°-curved Banda Arc, has previously been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt formed during arc-continent collision, which incorporates ophiolites intruded by granites thought to have been produced by anatexis within a metamorphic "sole". However, new geological mapping and a re-examination of the field relations cause us to question this model. We instead propose that there is evidence for recent N-S extension that has caused the high-temperature exhumation of hot mantle peridotites, granites, and granulites (the "Kobipoto Complex") beneath low-angle lithospheric detachment faults. Greenschist- to lower-amphibolite facies metapelites and amphibolites of the Tehoru Formation, which comprise the hanging wall above the detachment faults, were overprinted by sillimanite-grade metamorphism, migmatisation and limited localised diatexis to form the Taunusa Complex. Highly aluminous metapelitic garnet + cordierite + sillimanite + spinel + corundum + quartz granulites exposed in the Kobipoto Mountains (central Seram) are intimately associated with the peridotites. Spinel + quartz inclusions in garnet, which indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures for the granulites likely approached 900 °C, confirm that peridotite was juxtaposed against the crust at typical lithospheric mantle temperatures and could not have been part of a cooled ophiolite. Some granulites experienced slight metatexis, but the majority underwent more advanced in situ anatexis to produce widespread granitic diatexites characterised by abundant cordierite and garnet xenocrysts and numerous restitic sillimanite + spinel "clots". These Mio-Pliocene "cordierite granites", which are present throughout Ambon, western Seram, and the Kobipoto Mountains in direct association with peridotites, demonstrate that the extreme extension required to have driven Kobipoto Complex exhumation must have occurred along much of the northern Banda Arc. In central

  19. Variation in deformational mechanisms in the Banda Arc: Uplift and tectonic implications of Kisar, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Harris, R. A.; Chiang, H.; Prasetyadi, C.; Shen, C.

    2009-12-01

    Kisar island is an enigmatic feature which reveals anomalous mountain building processes in the forearc basin of the Banda arc-continent collision. The roughly circular uplift rises 3 km from the basin floor to the surface and is surrounded by uplifted coral terraces. The island is near a retrowedge thrust imaged by seismic reflection. Yet, the location, shape, and structures of the island suggest an origin more complex than simple thrusting, such as diapiric activity (i.e. an emergent gneiss dome). Kisar exposes low-grade metasediments with scattered mafic bodies and is similar to the Aileu Fm. on neighboring Timor. Detrital zircon analysis reveals an affinity to Australia’s northern continental margin. The geochemistry of mafic bodies indicates a rift environment, likely related to the breakup of Gondwana. Geothermobarometry and geochronologic data from the Aileu Complex shows the rocks were subducted to a depth of 35 km and have a long-term rock uplift rate calculated at 3-5 mm/yr. However, U-Th series age analyses of uplifted coral terraces on Kisar yield a short-term surface uplift rate of 0.15-0.8 mm/yr. In addition, several loose coral heads found at 10-20m elevation on the south, east, and west coasts yield ages of ~100 years and are likely tsunami deposits from undocumented seismic activity on the Timor trough. These are the first age data from a 400 km stretch of islands between Timor and Tanimbar where the young orogen displays varied deformational mechanisms along strike. Simplified map of southern Banda Arc with Kisar noted.

  20. Late Miocene obduction and microplate migration around the southern Banda Sea and the closure of the Indonesian Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linthout, Kees; Helmers, Henk; Sopaheluwakan, Jan

    1997-11-01

    Miocene shallowing and closure of the Indonesian Seaway between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific is related to plate-tectonic developments at the southern margins of the Banda Sea. Ultramafites, mainly lherzolite, closely associated with quartzo-pelitic metamorphic rocks, on the northern coast of Timor and on smaller islands in the southern Outer Banda Arc and also on southwest Seram in the northern Banda Arc, are fragments of Middle Miocene oceanic lithosphere obducted in the Late Miocene on sole rock of Australian continental origin. Initially cool sole rock was dynamo-thermally metamorphosed by heating from above by very hot, overriding oceanic lithosphere. Temperature equilibration between the sole and the Kaibobo lherzolitic complex (southwest Seram) took place at about 740°C and 4-5 kbar. Anatectic granitic magma formed in the sole and intruded in the ultramafite. 40Ar 39Ar determinations on muscovite and biotite from the sole and anatectic granite indicate that the system cooled through 400°C 6.0 Ma ago and through 320°C 0.5 Ma later. P-T-t modelling of the obduction/post-obduction exhumation curve, which is based on thermobarometry of the Kaibobo ultramafic complex and its sole, suggests that obduction started about 9.5 Ma, emplacement was completed about 8 Ma ago and that fast vertical movements continued until about 7 Ma. The obduction of the Kaibobo lherzolitic complex actually took place in an area northeast of the current position of Tanimbar, where Seram (as a micro-continental Australian fragment) lay 8 Ma ago, as it migrated northward with the Australian Plate. The reconstructed obduction site of the southwest Seram ultramafites and those between northern Timor and Tanimbar determine an 850 km-long, ENE-trending zone along the southern margin of the Banda Sea. As the obduction of the lherzolitic complex on northern Timor also took place 8 Ma ago and cooling to 300°C occurred 5.5 Ma ago, a similar time setting to Kaibobo is inferred. It is

  1. Seasonal and interannual patterns of sea surface temperature in Banda Sea as revealed by self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, Iskhaq

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Banda Sea are studied for the period of January 1985 through December 2007. A neural network pattern recognition approach based on self-organizing map (SOM) has been applied to monthly SST from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Oceans Pathfinder. The principal conclusions of this paper are outlined as follows. There are three different patterns associated with the variations in the monsoonal winds: the southeast and northwest monsoon patterns, and the monsoon-break patterns. The southeast monsoon pattern is characterized by low SST due to the prevailing southeasterly winds that drive Ekman upwelling. The northwest monsoon pattern, on the other hand, is one of high SST distributed uniformly in space. The monsoon-break pattern is a transitional pattern between the northwest and southeast monsoon patterns, which is characterized by moderate SST patterns. On interannual time-scale, the SST variations are significantly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena. Low SST is observed during El Niño and/or positive IOD events, while high SST appears during La Niña event. Low SST in the Banda Sea during positive IOD event is induced by upwelling Kelvin waves generated in the equatorial Indian Ocean which propagate along the southern coast of Sumatra and Java before entering the Banda Sea through the Lombok and Ombai Straits as well as through the Timor Passage. On the other hand, during El Niño (La Niña) events, upwelling (downwelling) Rossby waves associated with off-equatorial divergence (convergence) in response to the equatorial westerly (easterly) winds in the Pacific, partly scattered into the Indonesian archipelago which in turn induce cool (warm) SST in the Banda Sea.

  2. Disaster budgeting of Banda Aceh’s local government: Trends and analysis of post-tsunami Aceh 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktari, R. S.; Fahlevi, H.; Irawati, W.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze Disaster Risk Management (DRM) related funds that budgeted by the government of Banda Aceh. The specific objectives of this study were: i) to assess and analyze the budget allocation related the DRM investment in the government of Banda Aceh, ii) to provide an update on achievements and key trends in DRM investments in government of Banda Aceh, iii) to evaluate the implementation of DRM budget and challenges on mainstreaming with DRM perspectives into policy of local budgeting, and iii) to propose appropriate recommendations for improvement. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data to achieve the objective. The method in this study included the following steps: searching/ collecting, checking, compiling, classifying, measuring, accounting and analyzing the existing budget document. The results of the data analysis showed that a large proportion of DRM investments was allocated after 2011. This study recommended some actions to be taken by the government and related stakeholder to increase the quantity and quality of DRM investments.

  3. Crustal Structure Along Sunda-Banda Arc Transition Zone from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Syuhada; Hananto, Nugroho Dwi; Abdullah, Chalid I.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Yudistira, Tedi

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed receiver function of teleseismic events recorded at twelve Indonesian-GEOFON (IA-GE) broadband stations using nonlinear Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) inversion and H-k stacking methods to estimate crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratios and S-wave velocity structure along Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. We observed crustal thickness of 34-37 km in Timor Island, which is consistent with the previous works. The thick crust (> 30 km) is also found beneath Sumba and Flores Islands, which might be related to the arc-continent collision causing the thickened crust. In Timor and Sumba Islands, we observed high Vp/Vs ratio (> 1.84) with low velocity zone that might be associated with the presence of mafic and ultramafic materials and fluid filled fracture zone. The high Vp/Vs ratio observed at Sumbawa and Flores volcanic Islands might be an indication of partial melt related to the upwelling of hot asthenosphere material through the subducted slab.

  4. Numerical simulations of tsunami waves impacts on Ulee Lheue Harbour in Banda Aceh-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachrurrazi; Syamsidik; Al’ala, M.; Mahardi, W.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami onto the Ulee Lheue harbour facility, Banda Aceh – Indonesia. The breakwater that had damaged after tsunami were rebuilt into its original design once more due to UNDP funding source. As the existing construction knowing how much the chance it stands againts the tsunami in various terms would be decent for further improvement. This research aim is to measure the capabilities of the breakwater againts the various tsunami scenario. performing the numerical simulation to analyze the hydrodynamics we used both COMCOT and Delft3D-flow for tsunami propagation in line with the hydrodynamics. Several observation points were deployed representing each part of the breakwater. The process revealed that the breakwater only able to hold 8.0 Mw induced wave from overtopping. uniquely when 8.2 Mw tsunami wave strikes the breakwater till overtopped but not giving enough energy to move the boulder aside. Potential movement of the boulder occurred when the 8.4 Mw tsunami wave come through the breakwater produced 77.12 m (5.88 %) damaged structure. The 8.6 Mw single fault highest magnitude gave 209.32 m long (15.97%) destruction upon this Ulee Lheue Harbour breakwater.

  5. Diapycnal mixing in the Banda Sea: Results of the first microstructure measurements in the Indonesian Throughflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Matthew H.; Gregg, Michael C.; Ilyas, Muhammed

    Models involving basin-averaged T/S properties [Ffield and Gordon, 1992; Hautala et al., 1996] and barotropic/baroclinic tidal energy conversion [Sjöberg and Stigebrandt, 1992] suggest that the Indonesian archipelago is a site of active mixing. This paper describes the first microstructure measurements made in the region. Aboard the R/V Baruna Jaya IV, we repeated 18 km legs centered on (6.5°S, 128°E), in the central Banda Sea, for two weeks during Oct/Nov 1998. With the Modular Microstructure Profiler, we gathered 519 profiles of potential temperature, salinity, potential density, pressure and kinetic energy dissipation rate. The cruise-mean diapycnal diffusivity from 20-300 m is Kρ¯=(9.2±0.55)×10-6m2s-1, similar to “open ocean” [Garrett and Munk, 1975] values (Kρ = 5.1 × 10-6 m²s-1), and an order of magnitude below basin- and time-averaged values obtained from the Ffield and Gordon [1992] and Hautala et al. [1996] models (Kρ ≥ 1 × 10-4 m²s-1). Sea-surface temperature displays some evidence of a fortnightly modulation, interpreted by Ffield and Gordon [1996] as evidence for tidal mixing, but is uncorrelated with the dissipation rate just below the mixed layer.

  6. Predictive factors for preterm delivery under rural conditions in post-tsunami Banda Aceh.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Fabienne D; Zettler, Eva K; Moh, Andala; Schötzau, Andreas; Gross, Uwe; Günthert, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    To assess the risk for preterm deliveries <37 week of gestation and associated prevalence of vaginal infection in a rural setting after the tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Wet mount microscopy, vaginal pH and vaginal swabs for microbiological culture were collected in pregnant women during the 2nd trimester from February to June of 2005 in four temporary outpatient clinics and the patients were followed up until delivery. One hundred and fifty-nine pregnant patients were screened. Sixty-two could be followed up until delivery. Thirty-nine (62.9%) delivered at term and 23 (37.1%) delivered prematurely. Significant risk factors for preterm delivery were a history of preterm delivery and group B streptococcus infection. Increased vaginal pH alone had no significant influence on preterm delivery, although there was a trend. The rate of preterm delivery was high in this cohort. We suggest risk stratification for preterm delivery in rural conditions by performing a vaginal pH and wet mount microscopy. If either is suspect we suggest collecting a vaginal swab for microbiological culture for targeted treatment. Patients with a history of preterm delivery are at increased risk and should be monitored closely.

  7. Geophysical characterization of subaerial hydrothermal manifestations in Punta Banda, Baja California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Arango, C.; Canet, C.

    2009-04-01

    Important growth of population in Baja California Peninsula has triggered the need for energy and fresh water. The most sustainable possibility for increasing the availability of fresh water is the use of renewable energy sources in desalination plants. The abundance of geothermal manifestations in the peninsula provides a reliable energy source for desalination purposes. Geothermal development of the Baja California Peninsula dates from the 70's, when the Cerro Prieto geothermal field started producing electricity. Two important cities, Tijuana and Ensenada, are located in the north-western area of Baja California. The city of Ensenada has a desalination plant that is due to be replaced and the geothermal resources of the area could be an option for the new desalination plant. Punta Banda, a region near Ensenada, was specially investigated to determine its geothermal potential. Subaerial springs and the submarine vents were sampled and studied in this work, also geological and geochemical studies were performed, moreover geoelectrical surveys were accomplished to characterize the hydrothermal system at depth. Even though saline intrusion is a severe problem in Ensenada (TDS higher than 3000), thermal springs away from the coast and coastal springs have salinities lower than sea water. According to the geoelectrical models obtained from profiles, the inferred conductive features can be related to thermal anomalies. The existence of hot springs located along a trend suggests that the dynamic of the thermal fluid is restricted by secondary faults.

  8. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  9. Crustal anisotropy along the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone from shear wave splitting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Syuhada; Hananto, Nugroho D.; Abdullah, Chalid I.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Yudistira, Tedi; Ramdhan, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    We analyse shear wave splitting derived from the local earthquakes recorded at 13 seismic stations to investigate crustal anisotropy over varied geological regimes of the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. We determine high-quality splitting measurements for 262 event-station pairs. The orientations of fast polarisation for the stations located in the oceanic regime are generally parallel or sub-parallel to the directions of the principal compressional strain-rate axes with a lack of dependency of delay time δt on increasing depth. The results suggest that anisotropy in this domain is primarily due to the influence of stress induced anisotropy on the upper crust. On the other hand, the average fast polarisations show more scattered for the stations located around Sumba Island and in the collision regime, implying a mix of anisotropy causes. Thus, anisotropy in this region is not only controlled by preferentially aligned cracks due to tectonic stress, but also by preferential mineral alignment and macro-scale faults associated with the regional tectonic deformation. We also perform further analysis to search possible temporal variations of splitting parameters associated with the stress changes excited by large earthquakes. The association between variation in splitting parameters and earthquake activity observed in this study might provide useful information about accumulation of stress before large events, and thus might be considered as an earthquake-forecasting tool in the future.

  10. Sulu-Celebes-Banda basins: a trapped piece of Cretaceous to Eocene oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.J.; Hilde, T.W.; Cole, J.T.; Sager, W.; Lee, C.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Sulu-Celebes-Banda basin is composed of three poorly understood marginal basins located between northwest Australia and southeast Asia. Recent studies have proposed that these three basins are remnants of once-continuous ocean basin. The on-land geology of this region is complicated. However, numerous stratigraphic and paleomagnetic studies on pre-Oligocene rocks are consistent with the interpretation that older landmasses presently dissecting the basin were translated into their present position during the middle to late Tertiary. Paleomagnetic data from the Philippines suggest that the Philippine arc is a composite of Early Cretaceous to Holocene arcs that were translated clockwise and from the southeast. Paleomagnetic and stratigraphic data from Kalimantan and Sulawesi suggest that these landmasses share a common origin and that Sulawesi was rifted eastward off of Borneo during the late Tertiary. Stratigraphic studies from the Sula microcontinent, Buru, Ceram, and Timor show close correlation to the stratigraphy of northwest Australia or New Guinea. In addition, paleomagnetic studies from Timor suggest that a portion of the island was part of Australia since the early Mesozoic.

  11. Magnetic lineations constraints for the back-arc opening of the Late Neogene South Banda Basin (eastern Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinschberger, F.; Malod, J.-A.; Dyment, J.; Honthaas, C.; Réhault, J.-P.; Burhanuddin, S.

    2001-04-01

    The South Banda Basin is located within eastern Indonesia near the triple junction between the Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian plates. It is underlain by oceanic crust, but its origin and age were not well established. It has been interpreted as a Mesozoic trapped piece of Indian ocean or as a Cretaceous-Eocene basin related to the Celebes and Sulu basins, but a Neogene back-arc origin was also considered. Recent geochemical and geochronological studies strongly support the latter hypothesis. In this paper we present a new analysis of the magnetic data from the eastern part of the South Banda Basin, the Damar Basin. We used magnetic field measurements collected during nine oceanographic cruises from various institutions. Looking for magnetic correlation in the time span given from recent geochronological data, the comparison between measured profiles and theoretical profiles deduced from the reversals of Earth's magnetic field during Neogene time allows us to infer an opening of South Banda Basin during Late Miocene-Early Pliocene time, from 6.5 to 3.5 Ma. Magnetic lineations 2An, 2Ar, 3n, 3r, 3An and possibly 3Ar are recognized, with an extinct spreading centre trending ENE-WSW. At least five segments are identified, each segment being separated by inactive transform faults perpendicular to the extinct spreading centre. A half spreading rate of about 3 cm/yr is calculated, based on spacing of magnetic lineations. The opening history of the basin is discussed. The cause of cessation of spreading is likely the arc-continent collision dated at about 3 Ma. However the onset of opening is less determined. We suggest that Damar Basin began to open at about 6.5 Ma during magnetic period 3An as an intra-arc basin, separating the Banda volcanic arc to the south from the incipient Lucipara volcanic arc to the north. The latter was probably created at the beginning of rifting of Damar Basin, as shown by both magnetic and geochronological data. The young age of the

  12. Late cenozoic vertical movements of non-volcanic islands in the Banda Arc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smet, M. E. M.; Fortuin, A. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.; Van Hinte, J. E.

    During onshore campaigns of the Snellius-II Expedition late Cenozoic sections were recorded and systematically sampled on the non-volcanic outer Banda Arc Islands of Timor, Buton, Buru, Seram and Kai. Microfaunal studies provided age and palaeobathymetric data to construct geohistory diagrams. Geohistory analysis of field and laboratory data allows to calculate rates of vertical movements of the island basements. The vertical movements were intermittent and differed widely from place to place in the arc; short periods of uplift alternated with longer periods of tectonic rest or subsidence and lateral variations in timing and magnitude seem to be more the rule than the exception. Movements affected larger segments of the arc at about the same time, especially since the late Pliocene, when widespread vertical movements started, which led to the present configuration of the arc. Rates of uplift or subsidence differed within each segment. On an intermediate scale, deformation has the character of tilting or doming of whole islands or parts of islands. On a local scale, various types of deformation occur. Calculated duration of uplift pulses is in the order of a million years where less than 50 cm·ka -1 of vertical movements are involved. Sections, however, with a high time stratigraphic resolutions show pulses of uplift with a duration of only some hundreds of thousands of years and rates of more than 500 cm·ka -1. The duration of such pulses therefore is comparable to that of eustatic third order sea level changes. But because their amplitude is an order of magnitude larger, this implies that in tectonically active areas eustatic signals, preserved in the sedimentary record, will be overprinted by tectonics, i.e. will be difficult to disentangle from the tectonic signal.

  13. Subduction of continental lithosphere in the Banda Sea region: Combining evidence from full waveform tomography and isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; De Wit, Maarten; van Bergen, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    We provide new insight into the subduction of old continental lithosphere to depths of more than 100 km beneath the Banda arc, based on a spatial correlation of full waveform tomographic images of its lithosphere with He, Pb, Nd and Sr isotope signatures in its arc volcanics. The thickness of the subducted lithosphere of around 200 km coincides with the thickness of Precambrian lithosphere as inferred from surface wave tomography. While the deep subduction of continental material in continent-continent collisions is widely recognised, the analogue process in the arc-continent collision of the Banda region is currently unique. The integrated data suggest that the late Jurassic ocean lithosphere north of the North Australian craton was capable of entraining large volumes of continental lithosphere. The Banda arc example demonstrates that continental lithosphere in arc-continent collisions is not generally preserved, thus increasing the complexity of tectonic reconstructions. In the particular case of Timor, the tomographic images indicate that this island is not located directly above the northern margin of the North Australian craton, and that decoupled oceanic lithosphere must be located at a considerable distance north of Timor, possibly as far north as the northern margin of the volcanically extinct arc sector. The tomographic images combined with isotope data suggest that subduction of the continental lithosphere did not lead to the delamination of its complete crust. A plausible explanation involves delamination within the continental crust, separating upper from lower crustal units. This interpretation is consistent with the existence of a massive accretionary complex on Timor island, with evidence from Pb isotope analysis for lower-crust involvement in arc volcanism; and with the approximate gravitational stability of the subducted lithosphere as inferred from the tomographic images. The subduction of continental lithosphere including crustal material beneath

  14. Ethnobotanical assessment of plant resources of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Indigenous knowledge of plants is scientifically and culturally very significant. This paper elucidates the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan. Methods Data collection was carried out from October 2011 to September 2012. Total twelve survey trips were made, three in each season. About 100 respondents were interviewed; most of them were aged people between 60–70 years. Interviews were conducted using structured questionnaire composed of variety of questions regarding ethnomedicinal uses of plants of the study area. Direct matrix ranking (DMR), informant citations and market survey of multipurpose plants were also carried out. Results The local community was using 58 plant species belonging to 52 genera and 34 families for different purposes. A total of 25 plant species were herbs followed by 18 shrubs. Leaf (45%) was the most commonly used plant part followed by the whole plants (23%). In total, 40 plant species were medicinally used to treat variety of diseases, of which highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems (19 spp.), expectorant (3 spp.) and antipyretic (3 spp.). Beside medicinal values, 25 species were used for fuel and 18 for fodder purposes. Informant consensus showed that gastrointestinal and respiratory infections were ranked highest (FIC = 0.75) among all ailments. According to DMR output, Dalbergia sisso ranked first due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened with higher market value. Conclusion The investigated area is rural in nature and the inhabitants are highly dependent on the native plants for their health care needs and other requirements like fuel wood and fodder due to financial constraints and unavailability of resources. Medicinal plants for high ranked diseases may be phtyochemicaly and pharmacologically investigated to prove their efficacy. The local medicinal flora is facing overexploitation

  15. Highly variable structure along the Banda arc imaged by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; O'Driscoll, L.; Harris, C. W.; Roosmawati, N.

    2015-12-01

    The tectonic configuration of the Banda region in southeast Asia captures the spatial transition from subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere to subduction and collision of the Australian continental lithosphere beneath the Timor Sea, which can be considered as the temporal transition of the initiation of continental collision. An ongoing broadband seismic deployment funded by NSF is aimed at better understanding the mantle and lithospheric structure in the region and the relationship of the arc-continent collision to orogenesis. Here, we present results from ambient noise tomography in the region utilizing this temporary deployment of 30 broadband instruments and 38 permanent stations in Indonesia and Australia. Despite having only a year of data from the new experiment and about 2.5 years of data in total, we are already able to measure stable dispersion curves for several paths resulting in good recovery for the Savu Sea, Timor Leste, and the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) region of Indonesia. The resulting initial three dimensional shear velocity model indicates significant lateral heterogeneity along the plate boundary. The model contains clear anomalies associated with the subducting oceanic lithosphere, subducted Australian continental lithosphere, and perhaps delaminated oceanic sediments forming the core of the island of Timor. In this initial 3D model, the subducted lithosphere appears to shallow under the islands of Timor and Sumba relative its position beneath to the Savu Sea where oceanic or transitional lithosphere is being subducted. Additionally, a low velocity anomaly associated with the island of Timor from near the surface to ~8 km depth is observed. Under the island of Sumba, a high velocity anomaly is observed between 10 and 20 km depths. These differences may reflect variation in the stage of subduction along strike, compositional variations, or the influences of subducting seamounts such as the Scott Plateau. Finally, we observe localized low

  16. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  17. A study on crustal shear wave splitting in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada; Hananto, Nugroho D.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Yudistira, Tedi; Anggono, Titi

    2016-03-11

    We analyzed shear wave splitting parameters from local shallow (< 30 km) earthquakes recorded at six seismic stations in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision. We determined fast polarization and delay time for 195 event-stations pairs calculated from good signal-to-noise ratio waveforms. We observed that there is evidence for shear wave splitting at all stations with dominant fast polarization directions oriented about NE-SW, which are parallel to the collision direction of the Australian plate. However, minor fast polarization directions are oriented around NW-SE being perpendicular to the strike of Timor through. Furthermore, the changes in fast azimuths with the earthquake-station back azimuth suggest that the crustal anisotropy in the study area is not uniform. Splitting delay times are within the range of 0.05 s to 0.8 s, with a mean value of 0.29±0.18 s. Major seismic stations exhibit a weak tendency increasing of delay times with increasing hypocentral distance suggesting the main anisotropy contribution of the shallow crust. In addition, these variations in fast azimuths and delay times indicate that the crustal anisotropy in this region might not only be caused by extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA), but also by heterogeneity shallow structure such as the presence of foliations in the rock fabric and the fracture zones associated with active faults.

  18. New insights into regional tectonics of the Sunda-Banda Arcs region from integrated magnetic and gravity modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubaidah, Teti; Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara; Hamoudi, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    The Lombok Island (Indonesia), situated along the Sunda-Banda Arcs transition region, lies between zones characterized by very large intensity magnetic anomalies. These anomalies have been noted as being part of the eight most important ones seen on the 1st edition of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Unfortunately, only marine magnetic data of surroundings are available, and no regional high-resolution magnetic surveys of this island had been done. Since 2004, we have carried out several geomagnetic ground surveys in this region. Here, we present modelling results for a new geological and tectonic interpretation of the magnetic anomalies. The new results confirm the general pattern of contiguous negative-positive anomalies, revealing two active Quaternary normal faults and a magmatic arc related to a subduction region. This outcome agrees with earlier results in surrounding areas obtained by satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine platforms, and provides a more detailed picture of strong anomalies on this island. Considering both magnetic anomalies and gravity models, it is possible to suggest an extension of the Flores Thrust zone (reaching the northwest off the Lombok Island). The Flores Thrust zone may be considered as a mature subduction in the back arc region, showing a tendency of progressive subduction during last decades.

  19. Assessment of post-tsunami disaster recovery of Banda Aceh city of Indonesia as window of opportunities for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilianda, E.; Munadi, K.; Azmeri; Safrida; Direzkia, Y.; Syamsidik; Oktari, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Post-tsunami recovery process at Banda Aceh city of Indonesia were assessed in this study. Several actions and programs implemented during the recovery process were exercised and examined through several FGDs, to identify any windows of opportunities to change were captured in the aspects of infrastructure and housing, economic revitalization of the affected community, mental health and psychosocial condition and development, establishment and implementation of disaster risk reduction programs and community preparedness. Subsequently, whether or not those changes fit into the principle criteria of sustainability were examined. The results give insights on the dynamics of recovery process after more than a decade since the tsunami was affected the area. Some success and not-so-success stories of actions and program implementations during the recovery process were captured. On the aspect of livelihoods and public finance, the local government seems to have seen a window of opportunity and subsequently seize the opportunity to revitalize the administrative system of financing the micro-finance for communities. In contrast, on the aspect of socio-ecological systems integrity toward preserving the natural environment, the case of housing development at the coastal areas against the blueprint city masterplan exemplifies the failure in seizing the window of opportunity to “build back better”.

  20. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Suture Dynamics of the Banda Arc Collision Zone: Geochemical and Age Analysis of Ultramafic and Mafic Bodies in Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, J. M.; Harris, R. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Flores, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    New age and geochemical data confirm that most ultramafic bodies on the north coast of Timor are derived from the distal reaches of the Australian continental margin lower plate that was exhumed by extension during Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifting. The ultramafic bodies were accreted to Timor during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. One of the lherzolitic ultramafic bodies near Caicua was previously unknown, but yields clear isotopic indicators that it is kin to the Hili Manu mafic and ultramafic complex further to the west. Zircon grains from metagabbro of the Hili Manu complex have cores with mostly Early Permian ages and rims of Latest Miocene ages. Isotopic analysis indicates abyssal plain, or passive margin affinity of the Caicua ultramafic body. One important exception to this pattern are mafic and ultramafic bodies associated with the Ocussi volcanics, which yield Miocene and Pliocene ages and supra-subduction zone chemical signatures. The Ocussi body is clearly part of the upper plate of the collision and formed after collision initiated further to the east. It is also structurally higher than the Hili Manu complex and has no affinities with the Australian plate. This study documents that both the upper and lower plates of the active arc-continent collision contribute mafic and ultramafic rocks to the evolving suture zone between the Indo-Australian and Asian plates in the Banda Arc region.

  2. Evolution of Ataúro Island: Temporal constraints on subduction processes beneath the Wetar zone, Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Kim S.; Sandiford, Mike; Hawke, Margaret L.; Phillips, David; Quigley, Mark; Reis, Joao Edmundo dos

    2011-06-01

    Ataúro is a key to understanding the late stage volcanic and subduction history of the Banda Arc to the north of Timor. A volcanic history of bi-modal subaqueous volcanism has been established and new whole rock and trace element geochemical data show two compositional groups, basaltic andesite and dacite-rhyolite. 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of hornblende from rhyo-dacitic lavas confirms that volcanism continued until 3.3 Ma. Following the cessation of volcanism, coral reef marine terraces have been uplifted to elevations of 700 m above sea level. Continuity of the terraces at constant elevations around the island reflects regional-scale uplift most likely linked to sublithospheric processes such as slab detachment. Local scale landscape features of the eastern parts of Ataúro are strongly controlled by normal faults. The continuation of arc-related volcanism on Ataúro until at least 3.3 Ma suggests that subduction of Australian lithosphere continued until near this time. This data is consistent with findings from the earthquake record where the extent of the Wetar seismic gap to a depth of 350 km suggests slab breakoff, as a result of collision, commenced at ˜4 Ma, leading to subsequent regional uplift recorded in elevated terraces on Ataúro and neighbouring islands.

  3. Anomaly of surface circulation and Ekman transport in Banda Sea during ‘Normal’ and ENSO episode (2008-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horhoruw, Selfrida M.; Atmadipoera, Agus S.; Nanlohy, Pieldrie; Wayan Nurjaya, I.

    2017-01-01

    Banda Sea (BS) is a deep and large ocean basin in interior Indonesia Seas which may play a significant role on regulating ocean dynamics and regional climate variability such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It also provides a ‘temporary reservoir’ for Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), and as a region of seasonal alternating upwelling/downwelling. The objective of present study is to investigate changes of surface ocean circulation and associated upwelling anomaly during ‘normal’ (2008/2009), El Nino (2009/2010) and La Nina (2010/2011) years in BS, using data sets from validated INDESO model outputs. The results show that surface circulation in BS is regulated by both local forcing of monsoon winds and inflow of ITF via Flores Sea (FS), Lifamatola Strait, and Halmahera/Seram Seas. Inflow from FS is drastically increased during northern winter and ‘normal’ year. The upwelling event occurs along the eastern edge of BS with southwestward Ekman transport and its kinetic energy of above 10 Joule. The Ekman layer depth in BS is about 60 m. During La Nina event surface circulation is much stronger with kinetic energy of about 700 J, causing Ekman layer shallower due to increased Ekman transport and upwelling intensity.

  4. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada; Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi; Anggono, Titi

    2015-04-24

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  5. Evaluation of morphometry-based dating of monogenetic volcanoes—a case study from Bandas del Sur, Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan; Németh, Károly; Dóniz-Páez, F. Javier

    2013-07-01

    Morphometry-based dating provides a first-order estimate of the temporal evolution of monogenetic volcanic edifices located within an intraplate monogenetic volcanic field or on the flanks of a polygenetic volcano. Two widely used morphometric parameters, namely cone height/width ratio ( H max/ W co) and slope angle, were applied to extract chronological information and evaluate their accuracy for morphometry-based ordering. Based on these quantitative parameters extracted from contour-based Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), two event orders for the Bandas del Sur in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were constructed and compared with the existing K-Ar, paleomagnetic and stratigraphic data. The results obtained suggest that the commonly used H max/ W co ratio is not reliable, leading to inappropriate temporal order estimates, while the slope angle gives slightly better results. The overall performance of such descriptive parameters was, however, generally poor (i.e. there is no strong correlation between morphometry and age). The geomorphic/morphometric mismatches could be the result of (1) the diversity of syn-eruptive processes (i.e. diverse initial morphologies causing geomorphic/morphometric variability), (2) contrasting, edifice-specific degradation that depends partly upon the inner facies architecture of the volcanic edifices, (3) various external environmental controls (e.g. tephra mantling from pyroclastic density currents unrelated to the edifice evaluated) and (4) differences in the scale/resolution of input data. The observed degradation trend and changes in morphometric parameters over time do not support a simple degradation model for monogenetic scoria cones volcanoes.

  6. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Hananto, Nugroho D.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Handayani, Lina; Yudistira, Tedi

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  7. Mantle Dynamics of Australia-Banda Arc Collision as Inferred from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis of Teleseismic and Local Slab Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, C. W.; Miller, M. S.; O'Driscoll, L.; Porritt, R. W.; Roosmawati, N.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2015-12-01

    Arc-continent collision is an important factor in continent building, orogensis, and ocean closure, yet the details associated with it are not fully understood. East-Timor and the Nusa Tenggara Timur region of Indonesia provide a unique setting to study a young arc-continent collision (~8 Ma) and incipient orogenesis. The NSF funded Banda Arc project affords a rare opportunity to investigate unconstrained processes such as active continental subduction and slab rupture beneath a regional deployment of broadband seismometers. We use data from 35 broadband sensors to analyze seismic anisotropy through measuring shear wave splitting. These stations span the roughly east-west transition from normal oceanic subduction at the Sunda Arc to collision at the Banda Arc, and cross areas associated with back-arc thrusting, arc volcanism, extinct volcanism and a rapidly exhuming forearc. Thirty of the sensors used in the analysis are temporary stations installed by our research team in 2014 and will remain in the field until 2016 or later. The remaining stations are part of the open-access GFZ GEOFON global seismic network. We present preliminary shear wave splitting results for teleseismic (*KS core phases) and local (direct S phase) arrivals in order to inspect the sub-slab mantle and the supra-slab mantle wedge for anisotropic patterns related to olivine flow fabric. These results can be used to assess regional strain linked to ongoing collision and may elucidate any slab tearing that has resulted from the (partial) subduction of buoyant continental material of Australian affinity. Presently, we observe a trend of primarily trench-parallel sub-slab fast polarization directions and perhaps more complicated anisotropy in the mantle wedge. Relative to the trench, there appears to be more spatial variation in fast axis orientation for direct arrivals than teleseismic phases. We discuss how the interpretation of our initial results provides insight into the mantle dynamics of the

  8. Surface uplift history of the incipient Banda arc-continent collision: Geology and synorogenic foraminifera of Rote and Savu Islands, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roosmawati, Nova; Harris, Ron

    2009-12-01

    Field mapping and analysis of foraminifera from synorogenic pelagic units of Rote and Savu Islands, Indonesia reveals high rates of surface uplift of the incipient Banda arc-continent collision during the past 1.8 myr. New geological maps of these islands document accretion to the Banda forearc of Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary cover units from the down-going Australian continental margin. Foraminifera-rich synorogenic deposits of the Batu Putih Formation unconformably overlie these accreted units. We use paleodepth versus time estimates from benthic and planktic foraminifera's to measure long-term surface uplift rates for the accretionary wedge. Although strong currents in the region cause some problems with reworking, several distinctive species have been found. Synorogenic deposits in Savu and Rote yield foraminifer's of biozone Neogene (N) 18 to N22 (5.6-1.0 myr) that were deposited at estimated depths of around 3000 m. These deposits are unconfomrably overlain by uplifted coral terraces. The highest coral terraces in Savu are > 300 m above sea level and perhaps as old as 0.8 myr. In Rote the highest coral terrace is 200 above sea level and ~ 0.2 myr old. These data indicate that collision of the Australian continental margin with the Banda Arc, which initiated much earlier in Timor, has propagated westward towards Rote where it is in the initial stages of accretionary wedge emergence. Collision of the Scott Plateau propagated SE from Sumba (2-3 Ma) to Savu (1.0-0.5 Ma) and then to Rote (0.2 Ma). Average rates of surface uplift of the Batu Putih Formation pelagic deposits during the past 2 myr in Rote and Savu are ~ 1.5 and 2.3 mm/a, respectively. The rise of these islands is clogging the Indo-Pacific seaway.

  9. Collisional melange development: Geologic associations of active melange-forming processes with exhumed melange facies in the western Banda orogen, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Sawyer, R. K.; Audley-Charles, M. G.

    1998-06-01

    Analysis of block assemblages, matrix clay mineral composition and microfauna, and offshore seismic reflection profiles reveal that the Bobonaro melange in the Timor region is sourced from mud-rich Australian continental margin sequences that are remobilized during accretion and form various facies depending on the structural conditions of emplacement. Melange facies include broken formation, matrix-rich mud injections, and classic mixed block-in-clay facies. Each of these are distinguished by varying degrees of remobilization, mixing, and dispersion at different structural positions across the orogenic wedge. The most important structural control is whether melange was generated beneath or in front of upper plate Banda forearc basement (Banda Terrane). At the present collisional deformation front in the Timor trough, seismic reflection profiles show that melange forms mostly by stratal detachment and fluid-assisted remobilization above a basal decollement propagating laterally along overpressured Jurassic to Cretaceous clay-rich sequences of the distal Australian continental margin. The broken, clay-rich material injects upward through faults to form intrusive bodies at the base of slope cover sediment to form mud ridges at the surface. Similar patterns of stratal disruption are exposed onshore in the Pliocene Kolbano fold and thrust wedge of southern Timor, which is structurally contiguous with the Timor trough deformation front. Melange in the Kolbano Mountains is mostly broken formation and matrix-rich injections of mud from Jurassic and Cretaceous units. Deformation mechanisms include intense layer-parallel extension associated with emplacement by mud diapirs that rise from near the decollement upward to the surface along fault conduits. In the hinterland of the orogenic wedge (East Timor and northern West Timor), melange is dominantly of mixed block-in-clay facies with large blocks derived from roof thrust sheets of intermixed Banda Terrane and Maubisse

  10. Health diplomacy through collaboration and a story of hope in tsunami-ravaged Banda Aceh, Indonesia: A U.S. Public Health Service nurse officer perspective.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    As a registered nurse, I have witnessed the powerful influence of bedside care for > 10 years. Yet my experience aboard the USNS Mercy--the first interagency deployment designed to provide humanitarian assistance to tsunami-stricken Indonesia--revealed a direct link between individual bedside care and health diplomacy. Despite desperate medical and humanitarian needs in the province of Banda Aceh, the Mercy was met with suspicion and resistance by the Indonesian government. In the first few days, it seemed uncertain that the Mercy would be asked to assist in any humanitarian capacity. The Mercy crew and staff agreed only to assist at the request of the Indonesian government. Ultimately it was the emergent medical needs of a 10-year-old survior, evacuated to the ship by Australian and German organizations, which established the seeds of health diplomacy between the United States and Indonesia. This article explores the ways in which health diplomacy can be fostered by individual medical and nursing care, through the story of one young survivor of the East Asian tsunami. My experience of compassionate and culturally centered care aboard the USNS Mercy touched the hearts and minds of care providers and, ultimately, won the trust of local government officials and the people of Banda Aceh.

  11. Discontinuous character of the Wadati-Benioff zone in the Banda Arc region: a consequence of a cyclic character of the process of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejkova, R.; Spicak, A.; Vanek, J.

    2010-12-01

    Our former investigation into heterogeneous distribution of earthquakes at convergent plate margins led us to an idea of discontinuities in the process of subduction (e.g. Hanuš and Vaněk, 1978; Špičák et al., 2007). This idea suggests the existence of subduction cycles lasting several million years. A fade-out of a subduction process should be caused e.g. by a collision of the slab with the 670 boundary, convergence of hardly subductable seamount provinces, collision with a thick continental crust etc. Such a fade-out of subduction may be followed by an onset of a new subduction cycle, with important consequences to, e.g., position of the volcanic arc. In this contribution, we analyse spatial distribution of intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes in the southern part of the Banda Arc region (5°-10°S and 127°-132°E). The EHB global hypocentral determinations (Engdahl et al., 1998) covering the period 1964-2007 have been used. To visualize depth distribution of earthquake foci, we covered the region of interest by narrow (25 km width) swaths, oriented perpendicular to the plate margin, and displayed earthquake foci in vertical sections. The vertical sections show concentration of earthquake foci of the Wadati-Benioff zone (hereafter denoted as WBZ) in four distinct domains that do not fit a continuous plate-like body. These domains can be clearly distinguished from each other by a distinct gap in seismicity between them and/or a noticeable change in dip angle of neighbouring domains. This observation casts doubt on a generally accepted idea that the seismically active domains of the Banda WBZ represent one continuous slab. The deepest domain D1 of earthquakes (400-700 km depth) is probably associated with deep earthquakes north of Java and corresponds to a subduction cycle that faded about 8 Ma ago. Our estimate of the age of the cycle is based on the assumption of a steady convergence rate of about 7 cm/yr. The domain D2 of earthquakes at depths between

  12. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  13. Mélange versus forearc contributions to sedimentation and uplift, during rapid denudation of a young Banda forearc-continent collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Brendan; Kalansky, Julie; Bassett, Kari; Harris, Ron; Quigley, Mark; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Strachan, Lorna J.; Rosenthal, Yair

    2017-05-01

    New sedimentary geochemistry and petrographic analyses provide the most extensive sedimentary documentation yet of the rapid denudation of the young Timor orogen. The data from three basins including two widely-separated, well-dated sections of the Synorogenic Megasequence of Timor-Leste, and a re-dated DSDP 262, constrain the source and timing of detrital sediment flux during forearc-continent collision along the Timor sector of the Banda Arc. The exhumed synorogenic piggy-back basins formed above a mélange unit that developed at the expense of a weak stratigraphic horizon in the Mesozoic stratigraphy, and was exhumed to the sea floor in latest Messinian time. Following an interval of deep marine chalky marl sedimentation, an increasingly muddy sediment flux indicates that the island of Timor became emergent and shed sediment by 4.5 Ma. Comparison of exhumed sections with similar patterns in the DSDP262 chemistry suggests that the sediment source was probably located some 50-60 km distant from the basin, which is consistent with the Aileu region of Timor-Leste that shows an appropriate exhumation history. All sedimentation between 4.5 and 3.2 Ma was probably derived from a low-relief, rapidly eroding, and mudstone-dominated landscape with geochemical affinities to the Triassic-mudstone-derived synorogenic mélange. The mélange unit overlies and surrounds the Banda Terrane, and was presumably structurally emplaced by propagation of a decollement through the Triassic rocks during the collision. After 3.2 Ma, sedimentation was dominated by hard rock lithologies of the Banda Terrane, consisting of forearc cover and basement, the latter including elements of metamafic rocks and metapelites. This phase of sedimentation was accompanied by rapid uplift, which may have been partly driven by a transient imbalance between rock uplift and denudation as resistant lithologies emerged from below mélange-like mudstone. Previous work has suggested that the timing of collision

  14. Monsoonal alternation of a mixed and a layered structure in the phytoplankton of the euphotic zone of the banda sea (Indonesia): a mathematical analysis of algal pigment fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieskes, W. W. C.; Kraay, G. W.; Nontji, A.; Setiapermana, D.; Sutomo

    The chlorophyll a concentration of the upper 25 m of the euphotic zone of the Banda Sea was 5 times higher in August 1984, in the upwelling season during the southeast monsoon, than in February 1985, during the northwest monsoon when a deep chlorophyll maximum layer was presented at 40-80 m. Similarity between stations was calculated by means of a cluster analysis of the concentrations of 4 different chlorophylls and 6 carotenoids. High similarity over large areas, one to the west and one to the east of the Banda Arc, is evidence of the importance of large-scale phenomena influencing the phytoplankton during the monsoons. All samples taken in the deep chlorophyll maximum layer during the northwest monsoon were clustered as a separate group. Multiple regression analysis of chlorophyll a and the four most important accessory pigments suggests that in August 1984 (upwelling season) the fucoxanthin-containing group (mainly diatoms) contributed 50% to the chlorophyll a in the euphotic zone; green algae and Prymnesiophyceae contributed each 20%, Cyanobacteria only 9%. In February 1985, during the downwelling season, pico- and nanoplankton containing 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (Prymnesiophyceae) and zeaxanthin (Cyanobacteria) each contributed 40% of total chlorophyll a, both near the surface and in the deep chlorophyll maximum layer; 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin (a marker of certain Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae) was only present at depth. On the assumption that Chl. b is a pigment confined to green algae, this group contributed 14% of the Chl. a in the deep maximum. Other green-algal pigments were, however, scarce at depth (lutein, violaxanthin), which suggests presence of Prochlorophyta. Shifts in pigment ratios (zeaxanthin : Chl. a; Chl. b : Chl. a), probably related to light adaptation, hinder the use of algal pigment fingerprints for estimating quantitative composition of natural phytoplankton; indeed, differences between samples in pigment signature can have both

  15. A study of models and controls for basin formation during continental collision: (1) Australian lithosphere along Banda orogen (Indonesia) and (2) Alboran Sea basin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush

    Mechanisms for the formation of a foreland basin at the beginning of continental collision (Pliocene-Recent Australian continental foreland along the Banda orogen) and a post-orogenic, continental, Miocene extensional basin (Alboran Sea) are studied. Such a study investigates the controls on the basin formation during the start of the Wilson cycle and later during the break up of a thickened continent in a collisional environment. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau ({˜}121sp°{-}137sp°E longitude) are estimated using an elastic-half beam model to match the sea floor bathymetry and the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Range of constant EET values from 27-75 km across the shelf of Australian lithosphere shows a variation of 64% with the highest value in the vicinity of central Timor where the collision is most advanced. Downdip on the Australian continental lithosphere from shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the reduction in EET is from ˜90 km-˜30 km (66%). Variations in EET can be explained by inelastic yielding (brittle and plastic failure, crust-mantle decoupling in the lower crust and brittle-ductile decoupling in the upper-middle crust) in the Australian lithosphere. Change in EET occurred at the start of continental subduction due to change in curvature, both in map and cross-sectional view. Oroclinal bending of the continental Australian lithosphere increased the inelastic failure in the eastern end. Different mechanisms of basin formation at a site of post-orogenic collapse are studied by constraining the timing of rifting in the western, eastern, and northern parts of the Alboran Sea basin on seismic reflectors via synthetic seismograms using ODP Leg 161 and Andalucia A-1 data. Regions of adjacent coeval compression and extension are found in the Alboran Sea basin. Normal faulting continues in parts of the eastern Alboran Sea basin later than in the western Alboran Sea basin. The development

  16. Banda Forearc Metamorphic Rocks Accreted to the Australian Continental Margin in Timor: Detailed Analysis of the Lolotoi Complex of East Timor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standley, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Petrologic, structural and age investigations of the Lolotoi Complex of East Timor indicate that it is part of a group of thin metamorphic klippe found throughout the region that were detached from the Banda forearc and accreted to the NW Australian continental margin during Late Miocene to Present arc-continent collision. Metamorphic rock types are dominated by (in order of abundance), greenschist, graphitic phyllite quartz-mica schist, amphibolite and pelitic schist. Geochemical analyses show metamorphic protolith compositions similar to overlying unmetamoprhosed tholeiitic basalt and andesite with oceanic arc affinities, and turbidities conglomerates and limestone. Fragments of lherzolite and hazburgite are also found. The series of deformation as indicated by field and microstructural measurements is similar to those reported from other klippen throughout the Timor region. 1) S1 foliation formed parallel to original bedding. 2) S2 formed axial- planar to small scale isoclinal folds of S1 during the main phase of metamorphism. 3) Subsequent, mostly broad wavelength SE verging folds with axes oriented NE-SW deformed S2 into a steeper and more variably dipping orientation. 4.) Late brittle deformation in the form of normal and thrust/reverse faults cut across earlier structures. Thrust faults are mostly top to the NW, while normal faults have top to the SW, S and SE sense of shear. Contact relationships with adjacent units indicate that the metamorphic terrain is in thrust contact with underlying Gondwana sequence rocks. Mostly unmetamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary cover units are found locally in fault contact on the edges of the klippen. Geothermobarometric calculations show peak metamorphic temperatures in pelitic rocks range from 564°C to 596° C for garnet-biotite pairs and peak pressures of 4.3 to 5.8 kbar for garnet-aluminosilicate-quartz-plag assemblages. Analysis of amphibole in amphibolites yield temperatures of 570°C to 670°C and pressures of 4

  17. Tectonic evolution of forearc nappes of the active Banda arc-continent collision: Origin, age, metamorphic history and structure of the Lolotoi Complex, East Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standley, Carl E.; Harris, Ron

    2009-12-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary investigation of the Lolotoi Complex of East Timor (Timor Leste) indicates that it is part of the Banda forearc that was metamorphosed and rapidly exhumed during the Eocene and accreted to the NW Australian continental margin during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. Greenschist, graphitic phyllite, quartz-mica schist, amphibolite and pelitic schist dominate metamorphic rock types. Mineral, whole rock, and trace element geochemical analyses of metabasites indicate protolith compositions consistent with tholeiitic basalt and basaltic andesite with mixed MORB and oceanic arc affinities. Metapelite schist is mostly composed of metasedimentary units derived from mafic to intermediate rocks with oceanic to continental volcanic arc provenance. Thermobarometric calculations show peak metamorphic conditions of 530 °C to 680 °C for garnet-biotite pairs and amphibole, and peak pressures of 5 to 10 kbar for garnet-aluminosilicate-quartz-plagioclase assemblages. Peak metamorphism occurred at 45.36 ± 0.63 Ma, as indicated by Lu-Hf analyses of garnet. Detrital zircon grains have a U/Pb age distribution with spikes at 663, 120 and 87 Ma, which is typical of detrital zircon ages throughout the Great Indonesian Arc of Asia, but is distinct from Australian affinity units. These data indicate deposition and later metamorphism occurred after 87 Ma. Structural analyses of the metamorphic rocks and their sedimentary and volcanic cover units reveals 5-6 deformational phases of alternating shortening and extension. There is little to no evidence of strike-slip deformation. Phases 1-4 are inferred as pre-Oligocene from age determinations. Phases 5 and 6 are most likely related to latest Miocene to Pliocene nappe emplacement and Pliocene to present collisional deformation. Kinematic indicators show mostly top to the SE directed shortening and top to the south and SE extension. Structural mapping indicates that the Lolotoi Complex and some of

  18. Progressive Emergence and Warping of Islands in the Active Banda Arc-Continent Collision As Recorded By Uplifted Coral Terraces: Tectonic and Geohazards Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Cox, N.; Major, J. R.; Merritts, D. J.; Prasetyadi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Uplifted coral terraces throughout the Banda-Sunda Arc transition reveal how strain is distributed over the past thousand to million years in the active arc-continent collision, and are key to identifying hazardous active faults. U-series age analysis of the lowest coral terraces yields surface uplift rates that vary in a non-systematic way along strike from 0.2 to 1.5 mm/a over short wavelengths of a few kms. For example, coral terraces are tilted varying degrees northward in Sumba, SSE in Savu, NNW in Rote and generally south along the north coast of Timor. In all of these cases the tilt is away from zones of active thrusting and folding. In Sumba the forearc is ramping up and over the northern edge of the Scott Plateau along what is likely a north dipping thrust. In Savu the coral terraces rise where the back of the accretionary wedge is ramping up over the forearc basin on the south dipping Savu Thrust. In Rote coral terraces form on the front of the accretionary wedge where it is ramping up over the subducting Australian continental margin. The north coast of East Timor is likely uplifting due to internal thrusting and closure of the Wetar Strait. Localized uplift of circular islands is associated with diapirism. The diapiric island of Kisar is cored by syn-collisional metamorphic rocks. The association of uplift and warping with short wavelength deformational processes argues against the commonly held interpretation that coral terraces in the Banda arc-continent collision manifest the effects of slab tear or some other lithospheric scale process. The pattern of uplift correlates best with proximity to active faults, folds and diapirs. In terms of geohazards, flights of uplifted coral terraces are the smoking gun for sources of large earthquakes and tsunami. Many of the terraces show signs of co-seismic uplift. Tsunami deposits with young corals are found on some of these terraces as high as 20 m above sea level.

  19. Desarrollo de un receptor polarimétrico en banda S para aplicación en estudios radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, C. M.; Bava, J. A.; Sanz, A. J.

    Desde el punto de vista tecnológico, el objetivo principal de este proyecto es desarrollar un cabezal de receptor en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz. El mismo será instalado en el foco primario de un reflector parabólico de 30 metros de diámetro que funcionará como radiómetro en el IAR. El receptor es del tipo polarimétrico, con lo cual permite la posibilidad de obtener las componentes de polarización lineal y circular. Para tal fin el cabezal constará de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia menor, (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor, además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el contínuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  20. Contribution of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to reconstruct flooding characteristics of a 4220 BP tsunami from a thick unconsolidated structureless deposit (Banda Aceh, Sumatra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmer, Patrick; Gomez, Christopher; Iskandasyah, T. Yan W. M.; Lavigne, Franck; Sartohadi, Junun

    2015-07-01

    One of the main concerns of deciphering tsunami sedimentary records along seashore is to link the emplaced layers with marine high energy events. Based on a combination of morphologic features, sedimentary figures, grain size characteristics, fossils content, microfossils assemblages, geochemical elements, heavy minerals presence; it is, in principle, possible to relate the sedimentary record to a tsunami event. However, experience shows that sometimes, in reason of a lack of any visible sedimentary features, it is hard to decide between a storm and a tsunami origin. To solve this issue, the authors have used the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to evidence the sediment fabric. The validity of the method for reconstructing flow direction has been proved when applied on sediments in the aftermath of a tsunami event, for which the behaviour was well documented (2004 IOT). We present herein an application of this method for a 56 cm thick paleo-deposit dated 4220 BP laying under the soil covered by the 2004 IOT, SE of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra. We analysed this homogenous deposit, lacking of any visible structure, using methods of classic sedimentology to confirm the occurrence of a high energy event. We then applied AMS technique that allowed the reconstruction of flow characteristics during sediment emplacement. We show that all the sequence was emplaced by uprush phases and that the local topography played a role on the re-orientation of a part of the uprush flow, creating strong reverse current. This particular behaviour was reported by eyewitnesses during the 2004 IOT event.

  1. The tectonic emplacement of Sumba in the Sunda-Banda Arc: paleomagnetic and geochemical evidence from the early Miocene Jawila volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, Hans; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    1995-11-01

    The island of Sumba is a continental fragment in the fore-arc region near the transition between the Sunda Arc and Banda Arc in southeastern Indonesia. Paleomagnetic and geochemical evidence from the early Miocene volcanics of the Jawila Formation in western Sumba constrain the final drift stage and tectonic emplacement of the island. The lavas range from predominantly andesites to dacites, and display textural evidence for a weak metamorphism. Rock magnetic and mineral chemical data point to pseudo-single- to multi-domain (titano)magnetite (Fe 2.5-3Ti 0.5-0O 3), with grain sizes up to 10 μm, as the main carrier of remanence. The Jawila Formation reveals a ChRM direction with declination = 4.6°, inclination = - 19.2°, α95 = 9.9° and a paleolatitude of 9.9°S, which corroborates earlier results (Chamalaun and Sunata, 1982). Taking paleomagnetic evidence from other formations on the island into account, we conclude that the Sumba fragment has occupied approximately its present position since the Miocene. The calc-alkaline affinity and trace-element signatures of the lavas point to an origin in an arc environment. This occurrence of subduction-related volcanic activity in the early Miocene on Sumba implies that a volcanic arc existed south of the present-day East Sunda Arc, or that the island was located within the latter arc between Sumbawa and eastern Flores, and still had a minor southward drift to cover.

  2. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  3. 400 Years of Living Dangerously: Compiling and Communicating to Those in Harms Way the History of Major Earthquake and Tsunami Events in the Sunda-Banda Arc Transition, Eastern Indonesia Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Major, J. R.; Dunn, R.; Prasetyadi, C.; Ibadurrahman, H.; Cox, N.; Roosmawati, N.; Nugroho, H.; Klein, T.

    2014-12-01

    Historical records as far back as 1600 document 79 damaging earthquakes and 50 tsunamis in the E. Sunda-Banda Arc transition. One of the largest events in 1629 generated a tsunami that reached a height of >16 m. Another event in 1674 caused a submarine landslide that produced a tsunami >100 m based on the vegetation trim line. An earthquake storm struck the region between 1814 and 1857. During this time there were two mega-earthquakes (1820 and 1852) felt throughout most of Indonesia, which generated tsunamis as high as 26 m. Tsunamis also occurred from earthquakes in 1814, 1818, 1836 and 1857, and the eruption of Tambora (1815). This eruption is the one of the most notable extreme historical geohazards not only in the Indonesian region, but globally. The earthquake storm ended with an event along the north coast of East Timor in 1857, which caused a 3 m tsunami that inundated the capital city of Dili and flooded many villages. Tsunamigenic earthquakes have also struck the area around Kupang, West Timor, which is one of the main commercial centers of the region with a population of half a million. The population of the region is now at least 10 million. Another 2 million people live along the coast of the Makassar Strait, which has experienced 18 tsunamis since the 1820 earthquake. Most people now live in cities, most cities have unreinforced masonry construction and some are in historical tsunami inundation zones. Cities along the NW coast of Australia are also at risk of a tsunami from mega-thrust earthquakes along parts of the Timor Trough, which accumulates strain at the rate of 22 mm/a. No major earthquakes are documented along the Timor to Tanimbar part of the plate boundary since historical records have been kept. However, a major mega-thrust earthquake (8.5-9.0) occurred along the Tanimbar trough in 1852, which caused an 8 m tsunami. We have modeled both the 1629 and 1852 mega-thrust events and used these data to map inundation zones for coastal communities

  4. Diseño de un programa basado en la promoción del desarrollo positivo en la infancia para la prevención temprana de la violencia en Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernández Holguín, Dora M; Páez Zapata, Esteban; Múnera Restrepo, Laura M; Duque Ramírez, Luis F

    2017-03-01

    Aunque algunos informes identifiquen a Colombia como ejemplo de un país que ha logrado revertir los niveles crecientes de violencia, estos siguen siendo altos. Por este motivo se han convocado acciones de promoción de la convivencia y prevención de la violencia, a las cuales responde el programa que presentamos en este artículo. Este programa está basado en la perspectiva contextual-evolutiva del modelo ecológico y en la educación para la salud, tendiente al cuidado de sí en los padres o cuidadores, y al ejercicio de una crianza, centrada en los derechos de los niños, el desarrollo infantil y la promoción de la salud mental, con el fin de promover el desarrollo saludable y prevenir comportamientos agresivos en los niños; éste es presentado como una alternativa de orientación psicosocial para el fortalecimiento de estrategias y programas dirigidos a la primera infancia.

  5. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  6. International co-operative program on assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects on forests: The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Boris Poff; Daniel G. Neary

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 Fiscal Year, the Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFR) Synthesis Network Committee awarded funds to 18 sites to establish a strategic ICP Level II (described below) synthesis network in the United States. Eleven Experimental Forest were selected to be included in the network, as well as seven Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites. This will...

  7. An overview of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest's role in the free-air CO2 enrichment large wood decomposition experiment

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Koestner; Karen Koestner; Daniel G. Neary; Carl C. Trettin

    2012-01-01

    The Duke University FACE facility is located near Chapel Hill, in Orange County, North Carolina on the eastern edge of the North Carolina piedmont. The initial prototype plot was established in June, 1994 and eleven additional treatment plots were activated in August 1996 and operated until October, 2010. To date, 263 publications have reported on results from the...

  8. Barriers to Disaster Coordination: Health Sector Coordination in Banda Aceh following the South Asia Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M

    2006-02-01

    Ecological disasters impact large populations every year, and hundreds of nongovernmental organizations, thousands of aid workers, and billions of dollars are sent in response. Yet, there have been recurring problems with coordination, leading to wasted efforts and funds. The humanitarian response to the December 2004 Earthquake and Tsunami in Asia was one of the largest ever, and coordination problems were apparent. The coordination processes and attempts at coordination are discussed in this paper. Specific barriers to cooperation are discussed, such as weak leadership, the absence of accountability, the lack of credentialing, the diverse goals of the responding agencies, and the weaknesses in the coordination process itself.

  9. Uppermost Jurassic-lower cretaceous radiolarian chert from the Tanimbar Islands (Banda Arc), Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasin, Basir; Haile, Neville

    This paper describes and figures Mesozoic Radiolaria from cherts in Pulau Ungar, Tanimbar Islands, eastern Indonesia. Two assemblages of Radiolaria are recognised. The lower assemblage is indicative of upper Tithonian (uppermost Jurassic) to Berriasian (lowermost Cretaceous) and the upper assemblage is of upper Valanginian to Barremian age. These are the first precise ages obtained from the Ungar Formation, a unit including sandstones with apparently good petroleum reservoir characteristics.

  10. Out of Disaster Comes Opportunity: Initial Lessons from Teacher Mentoring in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesnick, Joy; Schultz, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake--the most powerful in more than 40 years--struck deep under the Indian Ocean. It was centered about 100 miles southwest off the coast of Aceh, Indonesia, and triggered massive tsunamis across the coasts of Asia and Africa. In Aceh province, located at the northwest tip of the island of Sumatra in…

  11. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  12. The effect of first waveform cut range to determine Mwp of large earthquake in Banda Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Y. H.; Wulandari, A.; Yatimantoro, T.

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude of the earthquake is one of the important parameters of earthquakes. The Moment magnitude (Mw) is a magnitude that best describes the strength of the earthquake. But determining Mw is very slow compared to the other magnitudes. We use Tsuboi et al,1995 formulation to determine the magnitude moment with a P wave (Mwp). We analyze 11 earthquakes in 2011-2015 with minimum Mw around 6 which have shallow to medium depth and using reference stations within 10-30 degrees from the epicenter of the earthquake. Our data references are Global Centroid Moment Tensor (Global CMT) data and the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS) data. We choose vertical component broadband data of the seismic waves 10 seconds before the time of P wave arrival to 130 seconds after the P wave arrival with interval 10 seconds. Our study area has a range coordinates between 125 E - 135 E and 9 S - 2.5 S. We found that the greater the magnitude of the earthquake the longer cut range required. The best time of cut range in the Mwp determination is 20 - 40 seconds of waveform cut range depend on the large of the earthquake magnitude. Our root mean square calculation are 0.158 that compared with IRIS data and 0.156 that compared with Global CMT.

  13. April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust.

    PubMed

    Delescluse, Matthias; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Cattin, Rodolphe; Fleitout, Luce; Trubienko, Olga; Vigny, Christophe

    2012-10-11

    Large earthquakes nucleate at tectonic plate boundaries, and their occurrence within a plate's interior remains rare and poorly documented, especially offshore. The two large earthquakes that struck the northeastern Indian Ocean on 11 April 2012 are an exception: they are the largest strike-slip events reported in historical times and triggered large aftershocks worldwide. Yet they occurred within an intra-oceanic setting along the fossil fabric of the extinct Wharton basin, rather than on a discrete plate boundary. Here we show that the 11 April 2012 twin earthquakes are part of a continuing boost of the intraplate deformation between India and Australia that followed the Aceh 2004 and Nias 2005 megathrust earthquakes, subsequent to a stress transfer process recognized at other subduction zones. Using Coulomb stress change calculations, we show that the coseismic slips of the Aceh and Nias earthquakes can promote oceanic left-lateral strike-slip earthquakes on pre-existing meridian-aligned fault planes. We further show that persistent viscous relaxation in the asthenospheric mantle several years after the Aceh megathrust explains the time lag between the 2004 megathrust and the 2012 intraplate events. On a short timescale, the 2012 events provide new evidence for the interplay between megathrusts at the subduction interface and intraplate deformation offshore. On a longer geological timescale, the Australian plate, driven by slab-pull forces at the Sunda trench, is detaching from the Indian plate, which is subjected to resisting forces at the Himalayan front.

  14. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers... drinking water and in residential settings but does not include occupational exposure. Pursuant to FFDCA..., drinking water, and through other exposures that occur as a result of pesticide use in residential settings...

  15. Observed and Simulated High Amplitude Tsunami Offshore of Northern Banda Aceh During the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishida, M.

    2007-12-01

    Several isolated high waves were observed about 0.5 to 20 km away from the west coast of northern Sumatra based from the interviews undertaken with fishermen who were on their fishing vessels when the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake occurred. The fishermen were on their wooden boats powered by motor engine manned by one to 20 crew members. Most of them felt the earthquake shocks and some of the crews immediately recognized the shaking phenomena as an earthquake based on their previous experiences. About half of interviewees had difficulties in controlling their boats during the shaking, which lasted about 10 to 15 min. About 5 to 15 minute after the shaking their boats were struck by the 10-20m high waves. Moreover, their boats, located more than several km off the coast of northern Sumatra, were struck repeatedly by more or less isolated high waves. Based from these interviews it is ascertained that tsunami can also pose danger even offshore when the tsunami amplitudes are high and water depths are shallower than about 50m. These observations also provided new evidence that the 2004 tsunami is already high enough to damage or overturn ships offshore. We simulated tsunami waves using a source model of the 2004 earthquake by Fujii and Satake (2007). Since the seafloor topography is not clear for both continental shelf and slope in northern Sumatra, the depth of 150m at 30 km off the coast varying gently towards the coast is presumed. This depth is assumed based on the type of fish caught in the area that are likely to live near the rocky seafloor at depths around 50m. For the numerical analysis, the non-linear long wave equation and the non-linear dispersive long wave equation were used for depths deeper and shallower than 150m, respectively. As a result, at depths around 20m, dispersive short- period solitary waves with height of 6-8m were generated that are similar to the waves that struck the fishing vessels. However, the tsunami waves that the fishermen encountered were as high as 10-20m. This means that the incoming tsunami in the shallower depths was higher than the wave heights derived from Fujii and Satake's model.

  16. Crustal strain partitioning and the associated earthquake hazard in the eastern Sunda-Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali, A.; Susilo, S.; McClusky, S.; Meilano, I.; Cummins, P.; Tregoning, P.; Lister, G.; Efendi, J.; Syafi'i, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of surface deformation to show that the convergence between the Australian Plate and Sunda Block in eastern Indonesia is partitioned between the megathrust and a continuous zone of back-arc thrusting extending 2000 km from east Java to north of Timor. Although deformation in this back-arc region has been reported previously, its extent and the mechanism of convergence partitioning have hitherto been conjectural. GPS observations establish that partitioning occurs via a combination of anticlockwise rotation of an arc segment called the Sumba Block, and left-lateral movement along a major NE-SW strike-slip fault west of Timor. We also identify a westward extension of the back-arc thrust for 300 km onshore into East Java, accommodating slip of ˜6 mm/yr. These results highlight a major new seismic threat for East Java and draw attention to the pronounced seismic and tsunami threat to Bali, Lombok, Nusa Tenggara, and other coasts along the Flores Sea.

  17. Crustal thickness estimates for Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, using disperse surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Pineda, Leobardo; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Quintanar, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Dispersed surface waves of regional events recorded at Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha (RESBAN) networks located over the Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, were used to estimate shear wave elastic models and crustal thickness. We analyzed fundamental modes of surface waves with period between 10 and 40 s. Multiple filter analysis and the inversion method described by Herrmann and Ammon (2003) was used. Crustal thickness estimates for the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California agree with those obtained by previous studies in the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California. We analyzed dispersion of surface waves with northwest-southeast travel paths along the east and west sides of the Baja California Peninsula as well as a northwest-southeast travel path along the western sides of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. It was found that the crustal structure east of the Baja California Peninsula is similar to the structure of Sonora and Sinaloa. The correlation between those two structures suggests dextral offset of the order of 275 ± 25 km if we consider Baja California Peninsula as a rigid body moving toward the northwest relative to the North America plate. This displacement between the structures is in agreement with the displacement determined by the dating of Miocene deposits located in San Felipe on the Baja California Peninsula (Pacific plate), and Isle Tiburon located west of Sonora (North America plate).

  18. Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

    Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (Hα /[NII]λ 6583 y [SII]λ 6731/λ 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

  19. [The levels of bone mineralization are influenced by body composition in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Correa Rodríguez, Maria; Rueda Medina, Blanca; González Jiménez, Emilio; Navarro Pérez, Carmen Flores; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Existe controversia acerca del efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la mineralización ósea en la adolescencia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar el nivel de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) en una población de adolescentes y estudiar su relación con la composición corporal. Material y método: La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 157 adolescentes (93 mujeres y 64 varones) de la provincia de Granada (España). La edad media fue de 14,22 ± 1,41 años. Se valoró la DMO mediante osteosonografía del calcáneo. Los parámetros densitométricos fueron: coeficiente de atenuación de banda ancha (BUA), T-score yZ-score. La composición corporal se determinó con bioimpedanciómetro. Resultados: Los sujetos con obesidad y sobrepeso presentaron valores mayores en el BUA frente a los sujetos con normopeso (95,4± 17,77 y 90,0±1,08 vs. 81,1±17,79) encontrándose diferencias significativas (p.

  20. The Application of Portfolios to Assess Progress in Writing of EFL Students at Secondary Schools in Banda Aceh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eridafithri

    2015-01-01

    Portfolios are one of the alternatives that can be used for writing assessment. Portfolios are not common in the curriculum. The lack of dissemination to language teachers have made portfolios disregarded. In order to encourage teachers to use portfolios for assessment of writing, they need to have adequate information about portfolios, how they…

  1. The Mexico City--Los Angeles Cultural Mosh Pits: Maldita Vecindad, a Chilanga-Chicana Rock Banda de Pueblo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Hector

    2006-01-01

    This essay chronicles the career of pioneering Mexican rock band Maldita Vecindad y los Hijos del 5 [degree] Patio. I argue that in a post-Chicano movement period, Maldita has become a borderless cultural institution influencing a generation of Mexicans on both sides of the border. Maldita has sought linkages with Mexicans from north and south…

  2. The Mexico City--Los Angeles Cultural Mosh Pits: Maldita Vecindad, a Chilanga-Chicana Rock Banda de Pueblo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Hector

    2006-01-01

    This essay chronicles the career of pioneering Mexican rock band Maldita Vecindad y los Hijos del 5 [degree] Patio. I argue that in a post-Chicano movement period, Maldita has become a borderless cultural institution influencing a generation of Mexicans on both sides of the border. Maldita has sought linkages with Mexicans from north and south…

  3. Caracterizacion y optimizacion electroquimica de dispositivos electrocromicos duales basados en polimeros conductores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Martinez, Javier

    The aim of this thesis is to emphasize the existing relations between electrochemical processes, or electrochemical magnitudes, and colour changes. The work is focused on two aspects: individual spectroelectrochemical characterization of the constituent materials followed by an electrochemical and optical study of the performance of the dual system constructed with those materials. The objective is the optimization of both electrochemical and optical processes in dual conducting polymer systems, obtaining experimental methodologies able to characterize, predict, and finally design optimal dual electrochromic devices. The first part of the study is focused on the development of the proper methodology to obtain an optical characterization of any electrochromic material as a function of its electrochemical properties. Materials used were poly((3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT) and poly-(3,6-bis(2-(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole) (PBEDOT-NMCz). PEDOT films are coloured under reduction, while PBEDOT-NMCz are coloured under oxidation, showing complementary colouration, and so they can be used to construct a dual electrochromic device. Based on the obtained experimental results, a theoretical study was undertaken to establish the optical responses of a system comprising several electrochromic layers. The theoretically obtained relations were experimentally proved. Relations obtained allow the prediction of the maximum contrast configuration for a dual system, as a function of the individual electrochemical properties of each constituent material. The system studied was PEDOT/PBEDOT-NMCz. The third chapter deals with the proposal and development of a new experimental methodology able to register the individual oxidation states of each electrode during operation of a dual device, obtaining then direct information about device performance. This methodology allows the study of the influence of different physical and chemical variables, like ratio of redox charge between both constituent films, applied potential to the device and initial oxidation state of the constituent polymer films, on the device performance. The final objective of this work is the construction of electrochromic devices that can be use in real applications out of research or academic contexts. It is necessary then, for safety purposes, to use solid electrolytes in the cell. For final applications it is also required to construct devices of appropriate dimensions. In the fourth chapter, the construction and study of large dimensions and solid state devices for the system PEDOT/PBEDOT-NMCz was carried out. The information obtained in previous sections was used to determine maximum contrast combinations. Problems related to electrodeposition of conducting polymers on large surfaces (around 30 cm2) are discussed, together with the optimization of switching speeds when a solid electrolyte is used. Finally the ability to tune colour states and retain them in the absence of an external potential applied was studied and discussed. The last section deals with the study of two new cathodically colouring polymers, poly(3-(Biphenyl-4-ylmethoxymethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno(3,4-b)-(1,2)dioxepine) (BPMOM-ProDOT) and poly-dibenzylProDOT (PDiBz-ProDOT), which have been reported to show larger contrasts than PEDOT. For this reason, dual cells were constructed and checked by combination of these two polymers with PBEDOT-NMCz. The methodology previously developed and used to characterize PEDOT and PBEDOT-NMCz was applied to these polymers. The developed theoretical equations were used to determine the maximum contrast for both systems. Finally, the use of standard optical magnitudes as photopic values is emphasized. Photopic values are standardized by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), and correspond to real sensations perceived by the human eye, whose sensitivity is different for each wavelength. In this sense the use of photopic values, instead of values corresponding to a single wavelength, is encouraged. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Puesta en marcha de un microdensitómetro automático basado en CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. H.; Bustos Fierro, I. H.

    We present the commisioning of a CCD-based microdensitometer intended to perform astrometric measurements of photographic plates. The work done consisted in the installation of a CCD camera, the modification of the motion system, the construction of a new illumination device, the adaptation of the electronics, and the development of software. The instrument is intended to be used for the astrometric measurement mainly of plates of the Astrographic Catalog and Carte du Ciel collections from Córdoba Observatory. In this phase of the project we counted with the collaboration of the Instituto Provincial de Enseñanza Media No 59, 25 de Mayo, Cruz Alta (Province of Córdoba). The origin and importance of such collaboration is commented.

  5. Estudios de clima espacial basados en observaciones solares históricas: recientes progresos y perspectivas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.

    During the last decades, an effort has been made to improve the sunspot number time-series, one of the more useful data set for space climate stud- ies, using historical solar observations. Moreover, not only the sunspot number can be studied using these early solar records. During the last years, historical sources (i.e., sunspot drawings and solar radius measurements) have been also used to study the space climate. Here, I review some recent progress on these issues. In a hand, there are some periods with very few sunspot records and sunspot numbers are not so reliable in these intervals. I discuss the quality of sunspot records during these interesting periods: (a) 1610-1645, (b) 1721-1761, and (c) 1779-1795. On the other hand, I dis- cuss the reliability of early sunspot drawings, sunspot position data, and solar diameter determinations to study long-term variations in our Sun. Fi- nally, some information on historical documents from Argentina and Chile related with space climate are summarised. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Provenance of Permian-Triassic Gondwana Sequence Units Accreted to the Banda Arc: Constraints from U/Pb and Hf Analysis of Zircons and Igneous Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Harris, R. A.; Hoiland, C.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of zircons from Australian affinity Permo-Triassic units of the Timor region yield age distributions with large peaks at 230-400 Ma and 1750-1900 Ma (n=435). Similar zircon age peaks are also found in rocks from NE Australia and the eastern Cimmerian block. It is likely that these terranes, which are now widely separated, were once part of the northern edge of Gondwana near what is now the NW margin of Australia. The Cimmerian Block was removed from Gondwana during Early Permian rifting and initiation of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Hf analysis of zircon from the Aileu Complex in Timor and Kisar shows bimodal (juvenial and evolved) magmatism in the Gondwana Sequence of NW Australia at ~300 Ma. The magmatic event produced basalt with rift valley and ocean floor geochemical affinities, and rhyolite. Similar rock types and isotopic signatures are also found in Permo-Triassic igneous units throughout the Cimmerian continental block. The part of the Cimmerian Block with zircon distributions most like the Gondwana Sequence of NW Australia is the terranes of northern Tibet and Malaysia. The large 1750-1900 Ma zircon peak is much more wide spread, and appears in terranes from Baoshan (SW China) to Borneo. The Permo-Triassic rocks of the Timor region fill syn-rift intracratonic basins that successfully rifted in the Jurassic to form the NW margin of Australia. This passive continental margin first entered the Sunda Trench in the Timor region at around 8 Ma causing the Permo-Triassic rocks to accrete to the edge of the Asian Plate and emerge as a series of mountainous islands in the young collision zone. Eventually, the Australian continental margin will collide with the southern edge of the Asian plate and these Gondwana terranes will rejoin. However, it may be difficult to reconstruct the various ventures of they made over the past 300 Ma.

  7. Aportes del Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP) en la ensenanza de la Fisiologia Animal en un programa de Zootecnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinartz-Estrada, Monica

    Based on difficulties observed on the subject of technical-scientific conceptualization and the integration of theory and practice in learning animal physiology for students in the Animal Science program at the National University of Colombia in Medellin, this research paper proposes a problem-based learning strategy founded on the method of Problem Based Learning (PBL), applied specifically to the issues of thermoregulation and physiological stress in domestic animals. In this case study, a sample size of eight students was presented with a pedagogical problem during the first session that would then be solved during the course. In order to evaluate the process, three surveys were conducted called Level Test Formulations (NF) performed at different times of the trial: one before beginning the topic (NF 1), one after three theoretical classes had been given and before beginning the fieldwork (NF 2), and another one after the end of the process (NF 3). Finally, individual interviews were conducted with each student to know the students' perceptions regarding the method. The information obtained was subjected to a qualitative analysis and categorization, using the QDA Miner program which reviewed and coded texts from the surveys and individual interviews, supplemented in turn, by field observation, analyzing the conceptual change, the theory-practice relationship and the correlation between the variables and categories established. Among the main results obtained, it should be noted that following the implementation of PBL in this Animal Physiology course, support for conceptual change was demonstrated and the formulated problem served as a connector between theory and practice. Moreover, there was a fusion of prior knowledge with newly acquired knowledge, meaningful learning, improvement in the level of conceptualization and an increase in the scientificness of definitions; it also led to problem-solving and overcoming epistemological obstacles such as multidisciplinarity and nonlinearity. As a result of this research, it is recommended that this method be evaluated in other topics related to Animal Physiology, in other sciences, in larger sample sizes, as well as to address the issue of evaluation applied directly to this method. Key words: Problem Based Learning (PBL), conceptual change, integration of theory and practice, significatif learning, animal physiology, thermoregulation, physiological stress.

  8. Caracterización del entorno del los blazares PG1553+113 y 3C66A con datos GEMINI-GMOS en las bandas g' e i'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.

    The blazars PG1553+113 and 3C66A have been recently detected at TeV energies -rays; however; an accurate modelling of their electromagnetic emission as well as -ray absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL) are prevented by their lack of firm redshift determinations. This is due to the fact that; being objects of the BLLac subclass; their optical spectral have by definition very faint emission lines. In this paper the environment of both objects is photometrically analyzed; looking for overdensities that may trace galaxy clusters. Comparing magnitudes and colors of detected object to those of model galaxies allows us to provide a new constraint to the redshifts of both blazars. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. Análisis de las líneas de hidrógeno en emisión en las bandas K y L de estrellas Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L.

    We present K and L-band spectra obtained with the GEMINI/NIRI spectro- graph of a sample of seven Be stars. We particularly study the IR emission lines of the Brackett, Pfund and Humphreys series. Based on emission line intensity ratios we classify each object according to the groups proposed by Mennickent et al. (2009) and discuss the optical depth of the line forming regions. In some particular cases we analize the evolution of the circum- stellar material in the context of recurrent mass loss episodes. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Descentralizacion de la educacion: Financiamiento basado en la demanda. Tendencias del Desarrollo. (Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing. Directions in Development.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

    Central government's supply-side expansions of schooling have not equally benefited all members of society, especially girls, indigenous peoples, tribal groups, disadvantaged minorities, and the poor. Public spending on education is often inefficient, higher education is subsidized at primary education's expense, and costs are becoming…

  11. Descentralizacion de la educacion: Financiamiento basado en la demanda. Tendencias del Desarrollo. (Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing. Directions in Development.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

    Central government's supply-side expansions of schooling have not equally benefited all members of society, especially girls, indigenous peoples, tribal groups, disadvantaged minorities, and the poor. Public spending on education is often inefficient, higher education is subsidized at primary education's expense, and costs are becoming…

  12. Resumen cronoestratigráfico de las rocas ígneas de Costa Rica basado en dataciones radiométricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, G. E.; Kussmaul, S.; Chiesa, S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Appel, H.; Wörner, G.; Rundle, C.

    1992-10-01

    Based on a recompilation of about 160 K-Ar and U-Th analyses of igneous rocks and their stratigraphic relationships, a synthesis of the magmatic evolution of Costa Rica is presented. The igneous rocks of Jurassic to Oligocene age belong principally to the tholeiitic series. Widespread calc-alkaline volcanism started in the late Miocene and culminated during the Pleistocene in the northern and central part of Costa Rica with the eruption of large volumes of andesitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites and the development of the stratovolcanoes of the Cordillera de Guanacaste and Cordillera Central; some of these volcanoes are still active. Alkaline rocks are subordinate and concentrated on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Plutonic intrusions, mainly of late Miocene age, are frequent in the southern part of Costa Rica. The histogram of the available data indicates some periods of more intensive volcanic activity.

  13. Grecia: Nivel IV. Basado en el curso de estudios sociales de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Greece. Level 6. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Social Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Marisol

    This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in an elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the sixth grade social studies classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure…

  14. Current status of experimental paired-watershed research in the USDA Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer; Douglas F. Ryan

    2000-01-01

    The first paired-watershed experiment on forested lands in the United States was conducted by the USDA Forest Service from 1909-1928 near Wagon Wheel Gap in Colorado. By the 1930's, experimental watershed studies had been initiated in southern California (San Dimas), Arizona (Sierra Ancha), and North Carolina (Coweeta). By the 1960's, there were 150...

  15. The Education of the Active Televiewer of School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Patricio Calderon; Torres, Miguel Reyes

    In response to a series of problem symptoms related to the influence of television on students, a team of professors at the Universidad de Playa Ancha de Ciencias de la Educacion in Chile undertook a project designed to train television viewers to become critical viewers of the medium. Specific objectives of the project included: (1) to design a…

  16. Seres Vivos. Nivel I. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Living Beings. Level 1. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, Graciela

    This curriculum unit, developed by the Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, was designed for use in the elementary level foreign language immersion program. It is geared toward the first grade science classroom. The unit includes instructional and performance objectives, necessary vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections,…

  17. Task-Based Language Learning: Old Approach, New Style. A New Lesson to Learn (Aprendizaje basado en tareas: un antiguo enfoque, un nuevo estilo. Una nueva lección para aprender)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Bonces, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bonces, Jeisson

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Task-Based Language Learning (TBL) and its use in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. It begins by defining the concept of TBL, followed by a presentation of its framework and implications, and finally, a lesson plan based on TBL. The article presents an additional stage to be considered when planning…

  18. Análisis y determinación de movimientos propios de cúmulos abiertos entre 200 y 500 pc basados en el catálogo astrométrico UCAC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    We present mean absolute proper motions of five open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue up to magnitud R=16.0, for distances between 200 and 500 pc from the Sun. The mean proper motions of the clusters and membership probablity of individual stars were obtained from both position and proper motion data by applying the Vasilevskis-Sanders method modified by the stellar areal density. The clusters analysed are Alessi 1, Collinder 135, Collinder 140, NGC 6633 and Roslund 5. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Enacting a People-Centred Curriculum in ELT with Teenage Learners (La vivencia de un currículo basado en los actores de la clase de inglés con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis; Velázquez, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the extent to which the learner-centred curriculum in English language teaching includes teachers and learners. We briefly describe the top-down nature of curriculum development in Argentina, then describe and discuss personal and collaborative explorations based on our identities as teachers of English in secondary…

  20. La Materia. Nivel II. Basado en el curso de estudios de Ciencia de Montgomery County Public Schools. (Matter. Level II. Based on the Montgomery County Public Schools Science Studies Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstman, M. Linda

    This curriculum unit is for use in an elementary school foreign language immersion program in Montgomery County, Maryland. The unit is geared toward the second grade science classroom. It includes instructional and performance objectives, vocabulary lists, optional language structure sections, illustrations, activities, evaluation suggestions, and…

  1. Évolution géodynamique de l'Indonésie orientale, de l'Éocène au Pliocène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Honthaas, Christian; Gunawan c, Wahyu; le Groupe Géobanda

    1998-09-01

    Eastern Indonesia belongs to a convergent zone between the Asiatic, Australian and Pacific plates. A lot of synthetic papers have been devoted to this very technically active area. Our new geodynamic reconstruction takes into account a six year period of scientific cooperation between France and Indonesia. This cooperation provided various geological data. The hypothesis presented here is based on the geological evolution of lour small commentai blocks (two of which appear for the first time: the Banda und l.ucipara blocks) trapped by the convergence of the threemain plates. The main steps are successively: the Upper Eocene to Oligocene. during which the Banda block collided with the south east asiatic margin in Sulawesi: the Lower Miocene, during which the l.iicipara block (including (he Tukang IJesi platform) collided with the Banda block itself, mainly in the Buton area: the Upper Miocene, which is a period of large extensional regime. Most of the basins inside the Banda area opened at that time (North Banda Basin, South Banda Basin, Savu Basin, etc.). The next interesting period is the Upper Pliocene, which occurred after the main collisions between the Australian continental block and the Banda and Irian Java blocks. The Bangai Sula block collided with the eastern part of Sulawesi at the end of the Lower Pliocene.

  2. Determination of Semiconductor Junction Vulnerability to Second Breakdown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    141 B.21 Listing for Subroutine GION .... ............... ... 143 B.22 Listing for Subroutine GSHR .... ............... ... 145 B.23 Listing...Source listing for GION is presented in Fig. B.21. Subroutine GSHR GHSR evaluates Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination through mid-energy...at nodes M and M-1. Source listing for GSHR is presented in Fig. B.22. Subroutine BANDA3 BANDA3 uses the Gaussian elimination technique in

  3. Army Energy Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-08

    in oil shale 1-6 40 1.m EAS AND CANADA 4 3. US. CAND. MIDE EAST. USSR.ANCHA 4. TOTAL WORLD ULTIMATE CRUM ML RESOURCE P 3 122 190 I9w0 2030 2070 YEAR...MIC 3 6.2 N 100 0 ENERGY-EFF COMPUTER EQUIP MIC 2 6.2 A214 150 150 10 TRACK RUBBER TAC 3 6.2 AH91 225 300 0 CERAMIC COMPONENT TECH AMH 4 6.2 AH84 275

  4. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding while Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning (Nuevos entornos educativos destinados a desarrollar la comprensión intercultural y a reforzar el uso del inglés mediante el aprendizaje basado en experiencias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruguier, Leonard R.; Greathouse Amador, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course…

  5. Estudio de reflectancia enfocado a la cartografia litologica de rocas igneas, efectos de distintos tipos de metamorfismo y analisis estructural en materiales precambricos, basado en datos espectrales de laboratorio e imagenes thematic mapper (Macizo Hesperico Central, Prov. de Caceres y Badajoz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza Garcia, Maria Asuncion

    The rampant success of quantum theory is the result of applications of the 'new' quantum mechanics of Schrodinger and Heisenberg (1926-7), the Feynman-Schwinger-Tomonaga Quantum Electro-dynamics (1946-51), the electro-weak theory of Salaam, Weinberg, and Glashow (1967-9), and Quantum Chromodynamics (1973-); in fact, this success of 'the' quantum theory has depended on a continuous stream of brilliant and quite disparate mathematical formulations. In this carefully concealed ferment there lie plenty of unresolved difficulties, simply because in churning out fabulously accurate calculational tools there has been no sensible explanation of all that is going on. It is even argued that such an understanding is nothing to do with physics. A long-standing and famous illustration of this is the paradoxical thought-experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935). Fundamental to all quantum theories, and also their paradoxes, is the location of sub-microscopic objects; or, rather, that the specification of such a location is fraught with mathematical inconsistency. This project encompasses a detailed, critical survey of the tangled history of Position within quantum theories. The first step is to show that, contrary to appearances, canonical quantum mechanics has only a vague notion of locality. After analysing a number of previous attempts at a 'relativistic quantum mechanics', two lines of thought are considered in detail. The first is the work of Wan and students, which is shown to be no real improvement on the iisu.al 'nonrelativistic' theory. The second is based on an idea of Dirac's - using backwards-in-time light-cones as the hypersurface in space-time. There remain considerable difficulties in the way of producing a consistent scheme here. To keep things nicely stirred up, the author then proposes his own approach - an adaptation of Feynman's QED propagators. This new approach is distinguished from Feynman's since the propagator or Green's function is not obtained by Feynman's rule. The type of equation solved is also different: instead of an initial-value problem, a solution that obeys a time-symmetric causality criterion is found for an inhomogeneous partial differential equation with homogeneous boundary conditions. To make the consideration of locality more precise, some results of Fourier transform theory are presented in a form that is directly applicable. Somewhat away from the main thrust of the thesis, there is also an attempt to explain, the manner in which quantum effects disappear as the number of particles increases in such things as experimental realisations of the EPR and de Broglie thought experiments.

  6. "On Air": Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study ("Al aire": participación en un programa de radio en línea para fomentar la confianza al hablar. Un estudio basado en estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemos Tello, Nubia Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online…

  7. Building ESP Content-Based Materials to Promote Strategic Reading (Diseño de materiales basados en contenidos para fomentar estrategias de lectura en un curso de inglés con propósitos específicos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista Barón, Myriam Judith

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project that proposes to improve the reading comprehension and vocabulary of undergraduate students of English for Specific Purposes--explosives majors, at a police training institute in Colombia. I used the qualitative research method to explore and reflect upon the teaching-learning processes during…

  8. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  9. Burbujas interestelares alrededor de estrellas masivas: observaciones en frecuencias de Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.

    Los vientos estelares de estrellas masivas interactúan con el medio interestelar circundante originando burbujas interestelares que pueden detectarse en diversas bandas del espectro electromagnético, incluyendo la banda de radio. En esta presentación se hace una puesta al día de los resultados obtenidos a partir de observaciones en el continuo de radio y en líneas espectrales en dirección de estas estructuras. Estas observaciones nos permiten estudiar el material ionizado, atómico y molecular asociado a las burbujas interestelares.

  10. Listening as Translation: Reflections on Professional Development Work in a Cross-Cultural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine; Smulyan, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide response by the University of Pennsylvania to the large-scale disaster caused by the earthquake and tsunami in South Asia, a team of teacher educators and graduate students worked with teachers, teacher educators, and administrators in Banda Aceh, Indonesia during July of 2005 and 2006. Working in Indonesia highlighted for…

  11. Acetylcholine, Histamine, and Cognition: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandina, Patrizio; Efoudebe, Marcel; Cenni, Gabriele; Mannaioni, Pierfrancesco; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    The forebrain cholinergic neurons are localized in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the major source of cholinergic innervation to the neocortex and to the amygdala, and in the medium septum-banda diagonalis complex, which provides cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus (Mesulam et al. 1983; Woolf et al. 1984; Nicoll 1985). Basic and…

  12. Acetylcholine, Histamine, and Cognition: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandina, Patrizio; Efoudebe, Marcel; Cenni, Gabriele; Mannaioni, Pierfrancesco; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    The forebrain cholinergic neurons are localized in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the major source of cholinergic innervation to the neocortex and to the amygdala, and in the medium septum-banda diagonalis complex, which provides cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus (Mesulam et al. 1983; Woolf et al. 1984; Nicoll 1985). Basic and…

  13. Listening as Translation: Reflections on Professional Development Work in a Cross-Cultural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine; Smulyan, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide response by the University of Pennsylvania to the large-scale disaster caused by the earthquake and tsunami in South Asia, a team of teacher educators and graduate students worked with teachers, teacher educators, and administrators in Banda Aceh, Indonesia during July of 2005 and 2006. Working in Indonesia highlighted for…

  14. "Listen, Do, Repeat, Understand and Remember": Teaching English to Very Young Children in Aceh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Qismullah; Asyik, Abdul Gani; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah; Rusdi, Lathifatuddini

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the methods used in teaching English vocabulary to very young children (i.e. toddlers) at a bilingual school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Not much research has been published on teaching English to toddlers in the EFL context; therefore, this research is important as the results can become additional input to L2…

  15. Profile of Secondary School Students with High Mathematics Ability in Solving Shape and Space Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…

  16. Modification of the Stratification and Velocity Profile Within the Straits and Seas of the Indonesian Archipelago

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Halmahera Sea, Maluku Sea, the Seram Sea and the northern Banda Sea. These seas are exposed to the energetic Pacific western boundary currents that project...into the region way of the Mindanao and Halmahera Eddies. The winds blowing through the gaps between the islands of the northeast seas locale is

  17. Deformation and exhumation in Timor: Distinct stages of a young orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keep, Myra; Haig, David W.

    2010-03-01

    Timor Island, in the Outer Banda Arc, bordering the Timor Sea, preserves the orogenic product of an arc-continent collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc that commenced after 10.9-9.8 Ma GTS2004 but emerged above sea level only 3.1 Ma ago. The orogenic pile includes large tracts of material from the Australian margin, including the Permian to Middle Jurassic Gondwana Megasequence and the Late Jurassic to early Late Miocene Australian-Margin Megasequence, which occur in thrust slices. In addition, material from the Banda Arc side of the plate margin, referred to as the Banda Terrane, occurs throughout the island and includes both seafloor metamorphosed igneous material and cover sediments, also in thrust sheets. However the distribution of thrust slices is unclear in many areas, perhaps because only the uppermost nappes of the thrust pile are currently emergent and also because the thrust piles have been disrupted by later high-angle faulting. Evidence from East Timor suggests that the major break between deformed pre-collisional strata and the relatively undeformed overlying deposits was during the Late Miocene (9.8-5.5 Ma). We present evidence for the timing of three distinct phases of orogenic development, as determined from East Timor, including initial collision and emplacement of the early nappes creating loading and diapirism (within the 9.8-5.5 Ma interval), a tectonic quiet interval (5.5 Ma-4.5 Ma) that extended for about a million years during the middle of the collision and may represent the time of locking of the subduction system, and a post 4.5 Ma phase of uplift, unroofing and further diapirism in response to isostatic rebound. Our conclusions offer an alternative model for the evolution of this part of the Banda Arc.

  18. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  19. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  20. Magmatism in western Indonesia, the trapping of the Sumba Block and the gateways to the east of Sundaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeria-Atmadja, R.; Suparka, S.; Abdullah, Chalid; Noeradi, Dardji; Sutanto

    1998-04-01

    The western Sulawesi magmatic belt and the Sunda-Banda arc define the eastern and south-eastern margins of Sundaland, which is part of the relatively stable Eurasian plate. The eastern margin is bounded by the Makassar Strait which separates western Sulawesi from Kalimantan. The initial opening of the Makassar Strait took place in the late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary leading to the opening of the Pacific-Indian Ocean gateway during Neogene time. Recent studies indicate similarities in the late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic sequence and calc-alkali magmatism between Sumba, south Sulawesi and south-east Kalimantan, suggesting a Sundaland origin for all of these areas. The southward migration of Sumba to the present frontal arc position of the Sunda-Banda arc has occurred since Late Cretaceous-Paleocene time.

  1. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  2. Life After the Tsunami, a Motivation to Learn about Earth Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.; Sieh, K.; Rubin, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Banda Aceh: Life After the Tsunami is a documentary feature film that explores the impact of tsunamis in the Banda Aceh communities of today and of centuries ago. The film uses the results of paleotsunami research conducted in the area to explain the dynamics of natural hazards within a humanistic framework. The film also presents testimonies of local survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami to showcase the direct relationship that exists between scientific knowledge and survival rates. The proposed session focuses on how to use stories about the human experiences to motivate general audiences to learn about Earth science and natural hazards. It will also summarize some of the development and production challenges faced by the interdisciplinary team, especially in terms of presenting deep science in a format that is easy to understand by a general audience. The film is three years in the making and is anchored by several interconnected topics: 1. Testimonies dealing with tales of survival and human experiences during, right after, and since the tsunami.2. Cross-reference of social history with tectonics and tsunami activity in the Acehnese and West Sumatran regions of Indonesia.3. Scientific facts about paleotsunami research in the region, including general and easy-to-understand information about the Sumatran Plate Boundary, Sumatran subduction zone, and the Great Sumatran fault. The film is scheduled to be released on the 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Banda Aceh: Life After the Tsunami (working title) is produced by the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) in partnership with the International Center for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies (ICAIOS) at Syiah Kuala University, in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

  3. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    Indonesia in the spring 2016 are being arranged. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mixing within the Banda; EM APEX fl oats; upper ocean processes; mixed layer...tech instrumentation. The Indonesian seas or maritime continent is at the nexus of key components of the ocean and climate systems, such as ENSO...has the potential to lead to larger, more elaborate field programs investigating upper ocean dynamics. EM APEX float measurements provide .details of

  4. Proceedings of the Joint International Symposium on Molten Salts. Held in Honolulu Hawaii on 18-23 October 1987. Volume 87-7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Physik, Universitat Mainz. Germany +Dipartimento di Fisica and ICTP. Trieste. Italy ABSTRACT We give a short review of the progress done recently in the...eumoarNN103N27itue 300 120 2.9 +’ + /4 + 0’ , , ’ . / 2 58, 5o38 ?!58 1000 -2.0 0 Figure ~ ~ + 3: Poeta -cdt ’gamo nadNqitplt banda ie pOvaus nth ole eumoa NN 3

  5. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 258

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-28

    Telecommunications Firm 45 WEST EUROPE ITALY New Technique for Precision DME of Microwave Landing System (Franco Chiarini , et al.; ALTA FREQUENZA, Sep...Article by Franco Chiarini , Mauro Gori, Francesco Vatalaro, of Laboratorio Central Industrie Face Standard-Pomezia, and Giorgio Corazza, Gabriele...Spring 1980. [8] F. Chiarini , M. Gori: Possibilitä di miglioramento della precisione di un DME in banda L öfferta da u’n sistema di antenne a

  6. Real Time Detecting and Processing Signals by an Integrated Sensor Chip Based on Meta-materials and Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-29

    the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD), and the Finite Element Method ( FEM ). We used PWEM and FDTD to solve for the photonic band...a commercial full-wave FEM simulation software to simulate and integrate the elements of our signal processing system. After all the different...the numerical simulations and experimental results for our self-collimating photonic crystal waveguide. We used the FEM software to simulate a butt

  7. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  8. Seismicity, shear failure and modes of deformation in deep subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul R.; Giardini, Domenico

    1992-01-01

    The joint hypocentral determination method is used to relocate deep seismicity reported in the International Seismological Center catalog for earthquakes deeper than 400 km in the Honshu, Bonin, Mariannas, Java, Banda, and South America subduction zones. Each deep seismic zone is found to display planar features of seismicity parallel to the Harvard centroid-moment tensor nodal planes, which are identified as planes of shear failure. The sense of displacement on these planes is one of resistance to deeper penetration.

  9. The Plio Quaternary Ambon arc, Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honthaas, Christian; Maury, René C.; Priadi, Bambang; Bellon, Hervé; Cotten, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Plio-Quaternary lavas and granites have been collected from Ambon, Seram, Kelang, Haruku, Saparua, Ambelau and Banda Api islands, Eastern Indonesia. They include low-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites and high-K calc-alkaline andesites, dacites, rhyolites and granites. All these rocks present the usual chemical characteristics of island-arc magmas. The high-K suite of Ambon is mostly represented by cordierite-bearing dacites (known as ambonites) and granites. Low-K and high-K magmas were emplaced in neighbouring islands or even in the same island (Ambon), often concomitantly, during two magmatic pulses at 5-3.2 Ma and 2.3-1 Ma, respectively. We propose that the low-K suite results from the evolution of basaltic magmas derived from mantle melting above the Western Irian Jaya plate which subducts along the Seram trough. Intermediate and acidic rocks of the high-K suite (e.g. ambonites) are thought to derive from low-K mafic magmas through massive assimilation of the Seram-Ambon continental crust, as originally proposed by Van Bemmelen in 1949. The timing of magmatic events and the geochemical features of the studied lavas are clearly different from those of the southern part of the Banda arc, in which the low-K suite is lacking. In agreement with earlier seismic evidence for two different slabs subducting beneath the Seram-Ambon continental block and beneath the southern Banda arc (from Wetar to Manuk), respectively, we propose to recognise a new Plio-Quaternary island arc, i.e. the Ambon arc, extending west-east from Ambelau to the Banda Archipelago active low-K volcanoes through Kelang, southwestern Seram, Ambon, Haruku and Saparua.

  10. Controls on the Evolution of River Channel Morphology on Volcanic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    River channel morphology is thought to record the interaction of climatic and tectonic drivers of erosion, together with material properties of bedrock and the temporal changes in each of these parameters. However, unraveling the geophysical story told by river networks is complicated by the complexity of the interactions involved and the impracticality of making observations of river network evolution in situ over geological time scales. In this work, we exploit spatial gradients in an effort to understand fundamental controls on river channel morphology in volcanic terrains. We focus primarily on the Banda Arc, a complex tectonic domain with tectonic, volcanic, and climatic gradients that produce islands with river network geometries in a variety of stages and styles of evolution. We compute the Χ statistic - an integration of upstream drainage area over the length of a river - for rivers draining the Banda Arc islands, focusing on the currently and formerly active volcanic islands of the Arc. We compare Χ plots from across the Banda Arc with those from the Hawaiian Islands, which offer a time series of evolving river networks on volcanic islands of similar composition and a more stable tectonic domain to gain improved understanding of the role of tectonics and time in river network evolution. We find major disequilibria across main drainage divides in extinct volcanic terrains with little tectonic activity, as networks are forced away from their initial radial patterns by variations in lithology and/or climate. Tectonically active islands in the Banda Arc have generally smaller disequilibria across divides and produce more regular drainage patterns, indicating that, at the scale of individual volcanic islands, the tectonic signal may dominate in channel morphology.

  11. The Rebellion of Enlisted Personnel and Democratization in Malawi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    District, were peculiarly killed in what was formally branded as a “ road traffic accident .” Banda had organized an in-house discussion on venturing... prevent recurrence of such rebellion. 8 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 9 II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Several analysts have sought to...November and AFR 36/44/92, 9 November) - Malawi: Death In Custody of Prisoner of Conscience / Fear for Physical Safety / Fear of Harassment: Orton

  12. Seismicity, shear failure and modes of deformation in deep subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul R.; Giardini, Domenico

    1992-01-01

    The joint hypocentral determination method is used to relocate deep seismicity reported in the International Seismological Center catalog for earthquakes deeper than 400 km in the Honshu, Bonin, Mariannas, Java, Banda, and South America subduction zones. Each deep seismic zone is found to display planar features of seismicity parallel to the Harvard centroid-moment tensor nodal planes, which are identified as planes of shear failure. The sense of displacement on these planes is one of resistance to deeper penetration.

  13. Modification of the Stratification and Velocity Profile within the Straits and Seas of the Indonesian Archipelago

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    the Halmahera Sea, Maluku Sea, the Seram Sea and the northern Banda Sea. Besides the monsoonal forcing there is an abundance of intraseasonal...features of varied scales, derived from: the energetic Pacific western boundary currents that project into the region way of the Mindanao and Halmahera ...PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 vessel, Baruna Jaya IV, into the Seram, Halmahera and Maluku

  14. Secretary of the Navy Research Chair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    collaboration focuses on two island regions, the Hawaiian Islands and Halmahera of the Phillipine Islands. The westward ocean current impinging on...ocean eddies comparable in size to the island of Hawaii (Fig. 1). Halmahera Island is found to prevent ow of South Paci c water into the Celebes Sea...diverting some of it southward through the Seram and Banda Seas (Fig. 2). Halmahera impacts the lower thermocline and intermediate water pathways

  15. Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani

    2017-06-01

    Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.

  16. Transcurrent reactivation of Australia's western passive margin: An example of intraplate deformation from the central Indo-Australian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesh, J. V.; Whitney, B. B.

    2016-05-01

    Australia's northwestern passive margin intersects the eastern termination of the Java trench segment of the Sunda arc subduction zone and the western termination of Timor trough along the Banda arc tectonic collision zone. Differential relative motion between the Sunda arc subduction zone and the Banda arc collision zone has reactivated the former rifted margin of northwestern Australia evidenced by Pliocene to Quaternary age deformation along a 1400 km long offshore fault system. The fault system has higher rates of seismicity than the adjacent nonextended crustal terranes, has produced the largest historical earthquake in Australia (1941 ML 7.3 Meeberrie event), and is dominated by focal mechanism solutions consistent with dextral motion along northeast trending fault planes. The faults crosscut late Miocene unconformities that are eroded across middle Miocene inversion structures suggesting multiple phases of Neogene and younger fault reactivation. Onset of deformation is consistent with the timing of the collision of the Scott Plateau part of the passive continental margin with the former Banda trench between 3.0 Ma and present. The range of estimated maximum horizontal slip rates across the zone is ~1.4 to 2.6 mm yr-1, at the threshold of geodetically detectable motion, yet significant with respect to an intraplate tectonic setting. The folding and faulting along this part of the continental margin provides an example of intraplate deformation resulting from kinematic transitions along a distant plate boundary and demonstrates the presence of a youthful evolving intraplate fault system within the Indo-Australian plate.

  17. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  18. The behaviour of reinforced concrete structure due to earthquake load using Time History analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifuddin, M.; Panjaitan, M. A. R.; Ayuna, D.

    2017-02-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous, destructive and unpredictable natural hazards, which can leave everything up to a few hundred kilometres in complete destruction in seconds. Indonesia has a unique position as an earthquake prone country. It is the place of the interaction for three tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. Banda Aceh is one of the cities that located in earthquake-prone areas. Due to the vulnerable conditions of Banda Aceh some efforts have been exerted to reduce these unfavourable conditions. Many aspects have been addressed, starting from community awareness up to engineering solutions. One of them is all buildings that build in the city should be designed as an earthquake resistant building. The objectives of this research are to observe the response of a reinforced concrete structure due to several types of earthquake load, and to see the performance of the structure after earthquake loads applied. After Tsunami in 2004 many building has been build, one of them is a hotel building located at simpang lima. The hotel is made of reinforced concrete with a height of 34.95 meters with a total area of 8872.5 m2 building. So far this building was the tallest building in Banda Aceh.

  19. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  20. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  1. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katili, John A.

    equatorial Indo-Pacific region, for example, has recently been compared to the terrane map of the North American Cordillera. The position of eastern Indonesia within the plate-tectonic framework is the key to resolving contradictory views on the tectonics of the Banda Sea. For example, did the Indonesian orogeny take place at the Gondwana margin or the Asian margin, are Timor and Seram a tectonic melange and thus part of the Tertiary Indonesian island arcs, or are these two islands a part of the passive Australian margin? Oceanic magnetic stripes from the Sulu, Celebes and Banda Seas all trend NE-SW. These new data suggest that the Sulu, Celebes and probably the Banda Sea represent areas of trapped Indian Ocean crust. Deep sea drilling in the Banda Sea can resolve much controversy. The Banda Sea occupies a critical position in the complex convergent zone between Australia, Southeast Asia and the Philippine Sea Plate. The determination of the stratigraphy and basement ages of the Banda Sea will constrain evolutionary models which have been proposed. Another unsolved question of key importance in our understanding of the evolution of Sulawesi and the Moluccas is the function and timing of events of the Birdhead 'bacon slicer', or the tectonic shaving in Irian Jaya. Once this mechanism is understood, the development and timing of the various structural features of Sulawesi, Halmahera and the Banda Arc will be classified. Opinions still differ regarding the 'birthplace' of the micro-continents in the Banda Sea. Some regard them as a result of Jurassic rifting of Gondwana in northwestern Australia while others consider them displaced westward from northern Irian Jaya along the Sorong transform fault. Several authors suggested that the eastern parts of Sulawesi, Buru and Seram represent micro-continents which originated from Irian Jaya, while others considered East Sulawesi and north Sulawesi remnants of ophiolite belts or fragments of island arcs that originate from the Pacific

  2. Modern sand petrofacies in the Tonto and Salt River basins, central Arizona: Applying multivariate statistics to petrographic compositional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miksa, E.J. . Dept. of Geosciences); Heidke, J. )

    1993-04-01

    The Salt River and its tributary Tonto Creek occupy a large basin between the Mazatzal and Sierra Ancha Ranges. Over 200 sediment samples were collected from the Salt River, Tonto Creek, and their tributaries in order to identify discrete modern sand composition zones. The motivation for this study was to aid identification of archeological ceramic production locations. Most prehistoric ceramic production takes place within 1 km of raw material source areas. Identification of unique sand temper sources thereby aids in locating production areas and trade routes. Sediment samples were sieved and washed so that only the sand fraction remained. Samples were mounted in epoxy, thin-sectioned, and stained for K and Ca. Thin-sections were counted to 400 points using the Gazzi-Dickinson technique. Twenty-six grain types were identified, with special care being taken to distinguish among different rock fragments. Samples were divided into 15 likely petrofacies based on geologic maps and composition. Correspondence analysis was used with each grain type considered separately to further refine the petrofacies boundaries, resulting in 20 spatially and compositionally discrete groups. Discriminant analysis was used to test the possibility of separating samples from different petrofacies. For this test, grain types were grouped into categories (i.e. all metamorphic grains, all feldspars). Discrimination among the 20 petrofacies was found to be better than 75%.

  3. National uranium resource evaluation: Mesa quaddrangle, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Luning, R.H.; Thiede, D.S.; O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; White, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mesa Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), Arizona, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 meters to identify geologic environments and delineate surface and subsurface areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The criteria used to define uranium favorability were developed during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaisance studies. The results of the investigations identified three favorable areas: older Precambrian quartz monzonite near Horseshoe Dam; the gray unit of the Dripping Spring quartzite of Precambrian age in the Sierra Ancha, Salt River Canyon, and Mescal Mountain regions; and Tertiary lake beds near Cave Creek, Horseshoe Dam, and northeastern Tonto Basin. Unfavorable environments include nearly all older Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic rocks, most younger Precambrian igneous and sedimentary rocks, parts of the Paleozoic section, igneous intrusives of Laramide age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, and late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The eastern third of the quadrangle remains unevaluated because access was prohibited or could not be obtained in time. Environments were unevaluated in older Precambrian volcanic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; the Naco and Supai Formations; Cretaceous sedimentary rocks; and many Tertiary sedimentary rocks in intermontane basins and within the southwestern portion of the quadrangle because of time constraints, land access restrictions, and sparsity of subsurface data.

  4. Optical Fiber Based Thermometry System for a Hyperthermia Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Seattle, WA. Oct 11-15, 2000. [16] O. Carranza. “Termómetro basado en fibras ópticas para aplicaciones biomédicas ”. Tesis de maestría. SEPI- ESIME-IPN, México DF, Dec. 2000.

  5. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  6. Heavy Ion Propulsion in the Megadalton Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    atomizacidn electrostdtica, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (2006) 15. D. Garoz, "Sintesis, estudio y mezclas de nuevos combustibles basados en...propellants for electrical propulsion from Taylor cones in vacuo), Proyecto fin de carrera (Senior Thesis), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Marzo 2004

  7. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.

  8. Plate convergence measured by GPS across the Sundaland/Philippine Sea Plate deformed boundary: the Philippines and eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Mazzotti, S.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Aurelio, M.; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Quebral, R.

    1999-11-01

    The western boundary of the Philippine Sea (PH) Plate in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia corresponds to a wide deformation zone that includes the stretched continental margin of Sundaland, the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB), extending from Luzon to the Molucca Sea, and a mosaic of continental blocks around the PH/Australia/Sunda triple junction. The GPS GEODYSSEA data are used to decipher the present kinematics of this complex area. In the Philippines, the overall scheme is quite simple: two opposing rotations on either side of the left-lateral Philippine Fault, clockwise to the southwest and counterclockwise to the northeast, transfer 55 per cent of the PH/Sundaland convergence from the Manila Trench to the northwest to the Philippine Trench to the southeast. Further south, 80 per cent of the PH/Sunda convergence is absorbed in the double subduction system of the Molucca Sea and less than 20 per cent along both continental margins of northern Borneo. Finally, within the triple junction area between the Sundaland, PH and Australia plates, from Sulawesi to Irian Jaya, preferential subduction of the Celebes Sea induces clockwise rotation of the Sulu block, which is escaping toward the diminishing Celebes Sea oceanic space from the eastward-advancing PH Plate. To the south, we identify an undeformed Banda block that rotates counterclockwise with respect to Australia and clockwise with respect to Sundaland. The kinematics of this block can be defined and enable us to compute the rates of southward subduction of the Banda block within the Flores Trench and of eastward convergence of the Makassar Straits with the Banda block. The analysis made in this paper confirms that this deformation is compatible with the eastward motion of Sundaland with respect to Eurasia determined by the GEODYSSEA programme but is not compatible with the assumption that Sundaland belongs to Eurasia, as was often assumed prior to this study.

  9. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  10. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  11. Tectonics Timor-style: Episodic, early-stage orogenesis at a young collision plate margin and implications for orogenic and petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keep, Myra; Haig, David; Benincasa, Aaron

    2017-04-01

    Timor Island, in the Outer Banda Arc, preserves the orogenic product of an arc-continent collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc that commenced after 9.8 Ma GTS2004 but emerged above sea level only 3.1 Ma ago. The orogenic pile includes large tracts of material from the Australian margin, including the Permian to Middle Jurassic Gondwana Megasequence and the Late Jurassic to early Late Miocene Australian-Margin Megasequence, as well as stratigraphic sequences indicating a Gondwanan terrane with an oceanic affinity. In addition, material from the Banda Arc side of the plate margin, referred to as the Banda Terrane, occurs throughout the island and includes both seaf!oor metamorphosed igneous material and cover sediments. We document four distinct stages to this young orogeny, based largely on detailed and robust stratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses. An early shortening, between 9.8 Ma and 5.5 Ma reflects the early collision. However, somewhat unexpectedly we found that this early collision was followed by a period of tectonic quiescence, 5.5 Ma to 4.5 Ma, during which time pelagic sedimentation occurred across much of Timor, reflecting locking of the subduction zone. Since 4.5 Ma deformation has been manifest as late, high-angle strike slip faults that dominate the topography and dismember the early-formed thrust sheets, and a more recent phase of broad doming causing uplift relate to the rapid rise of the island. Early deformation, manifest as south- to southeasterly directed thrust nappes, is now preserved in only a handful of locations. Oil and gas seeps and hot springs that occur across East Timor reflect control by underlying structural zones parallel to the strike of the island. These linear zones parallel plate-boundary scale strike-slip faults that exhume the Australian-derived (oldest) rocks on Timor. Recent strike-slip deformation, manifest as linear tectonic melange zones parallel to major, late, high-angle faults controls the

  12. Glyphidocythere, a new deep marine, paradoxostomatid (Ostracoda) from the Quaternary and recent of the Indo-Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayress, M.A.; Correge, T.; Whatley, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Chapman’s (1910) Pseudocythere funafutiensis from 1924m off Funafuti, western Pacific is redescribed and illustrated together with additional Pleistocene and Recent material from the Coral and Tasman seas. A new paradoxostomatid genus, Glyphidocythere, is described to accommodate it and two other species yet to be formally described from the Banda Sea, eastern Indonesia. The genus is apparently restricted to the marine slope environment of low (less than 20°) southern latitudes. In the Coral and Tasman seas G. funafutiensis occurs within a narrow bathyal depth range (955m to 1754m) coincident with the Antarctic Intermediate Water.

  13. Euclidean Decoders for BCH Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    decoding problem for BCH codes is to solve this set of 2t ( nonlinear simultaneous) equations for the v unknown error locations XX and the v unknown...the sme -eise as thecins. ofinin ofxb~xad Nx banda the ith iteration ofth elkm-asy lgr h. progam 7. Cto)=i- Qij(asy Weof now asserto an laei hl hw hta...this set of 2t ( nonlinear simultaneous) equations for the v unknown error locations Xv, the v unknown error magnitudes Yj, and the t unknown erasure

  14. La Función de Luminosidad de las poblaciones de cúmulos globulares alrededor de NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.; Forte, J. C.; Geisler, D.

    Mediante el empleo de una técnica especial para filtrar el pattern de fringing, se ha obtenido una función de luminosidad de los cúmulos globulares de NGC 1399 superando por ~ 1 mag el turn-over en la banda T1 del sistema de Washington. El análisis de los resultados de la fotometría multibanda (C, M, T1) permite determinar que las mitades mas brillantes de las funciones de luminosidad de las dos principales poblaciones de cúmulos globulares asociadas con esta galaxia son similares.

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  16. Nouvelle hypothèse sur l'origine des formations géologiques de l'ôle de Timor (Sud-Est asiatique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Martini, Rossana; Zaninetti, Louisette

    2004-12-01

    Similar lithological and tectonic features indicate that Timor and Sulawesi islands were part of the same continental block. Timor was in the southern part of Sulawesi, then separated during Late Miocene time during the opening of the South Banda Sea basin. At this time Timor evolved as a part of an Upper Miocene volcanic arc that collided the Australian plate at the end of the Lower Pliocene (3.5 Ma). To cite this article: M. Villeneuve et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  17. Earthquakes, November-December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during the last two months of the year, a magntidue 7.5 earthquake on December 12 in the Flores region, Indonesia, and a magnitude 7.0 earthquake on December 20 in the Banda Sea. Earthquakes caused fatalities in China and Indonesia. The greatest number of deaths (2,500) for the year occurred in Indonesia. In Switzerland, six people were killed by an accidental explosion recoreded by seismographs. In teh United States, a magnitude 5.3 earthquake caused slight damage at Big Bear in southern California. 

  18. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  19. Fotometria de grupos compactos de galáxias no infravermelho próximo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasileiro, F.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos medidas nas bandas J, H e K de cerca de 90 galáxias em 34 grupos compactos. Através da combinação dos novos dados, com dados obtidos na literatura para a banda B, investigamos como as luminosidades, cores, tamanhos e massas das galáxias em grupos compactos foram afetadas por processos dinâmicos, e como essas diferem de galáxias em ambientes menos densos. Uma comparação dos novos valores obtidos com aqueles listados no catálogo 2MASS, mostram que para 50 galáxias estudadas em comum, as diferenças nas magnitudes J, H e K estão dentro dos erros fotométricos. Através da construção dos diagramas de cor (J-H x H-K e B-H x J-K), percebemos que as galáxias em grupos compactos ocupam posições no diagrama diferentes das posições de galáxias em campo ou em aglomerados, sendo mais parecidas com as posições ocupadas por galáxias HII, ou com excesso de poeira, acreditamos que tal deslocamento é derivado do aumento da taxa de formação estelar.

  20. Past dynamics of the Australian monsoon: precession, phase and links to the global monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, L.; van der Kaars, S.; Bassinot, F. C.; Moron, V.

    2010-06-01

    Past variations in the dynamics of the Australian monsoon have been estimated from multi-proxy analysis of a core retrieved in the Eastern Banda Sea. Records of coccolith and pollen assemblages, spanning the last 150,000 years, allow reconstruction of past primary production in the Banda Sea, summer moisture availability, and the length of the dry season in Northern Australia and Southeastern Indonesia. The amount of moisture available during the summer monsoon follows typical glacial/interglacial dynamics with a broad asymmetrical 100-kyr cycle. Primary production and length of the dry season appear to be closely related, given that they follow the precessional cycle with the same phase (August insolation). This indicates their independence from ice-volume variations. The present inter-annual variability of both parameters is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which modulates the Australian Winter Monsoon (AWM). The precessional pattern observed in the past dynamics of the AWM is found in ENSO and monsoon records of other regions. A marked shift in the monsoon intensity occurring during the mid Holocene during a period of constant ice volume, suggest that low latitude climatic variation precedes global ice volume. This precessional pattern suggests that a common forcing mechanism underlies low latitude climate dynamics, acting specifically and synchronically on the different monsoon systems.

  1. Past dynamics of the Australian monsoon: precession, phase and links to the global monsoon concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, L.; van der Kaars, S.; Bassinot, F. C.; Moron, V.

    2010-10-01

    Past variations in the dynamics of the Australian monsoon have been estimated from multi-proxy analysis of a core retrieved in the Eastern Banda Sea. Records of coccolith and pollen assemblages, spanning the last 150 000 years, allow reconstruction of past primary production in the Banda Sea, summer moisture availability, and the length of the dry season in northern Australia and southeastern Indonesia. The amount of moisture available during the summer monsoon follows typical glacial/interglacial dynamics with a broad asymmetrical 100-kyr cycle. Primary production and length of the dry season appear to be closely related, given that they follow the precessional cycle with the same phase. This indicates their independence from ice-volume variations. The present inter-annual variability of both parameters is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which modulates the Australian Winter Monsoon (AWM). The precessional pattern observed in the past dynamics of the AWM is found in ENSO and monsoon records of other regions. A marked shift in the monsoon intensity occurring during the mid Holocene during a period of constant ice volume, suggests that low latitude climatic variation precedes increases in global ice volume. This precessional pattern suggests that a common forcing mechanism underlies low latitude climate dynamics, acting specifically and synchronously on the different monsoon systems.

  2. Draconian dress act repealed.

    PubMed

    Mhone, C

    1994-01-01

    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  3. Participation in the 1996 Arlindo Cruise to the Indonesian Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Arlindo-Productivity is to understand the factors responsible for regional differences in the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to the SE and NW Monsoons in Indonesia. The hypothesis is that an interplay between circulation and shoaling of the nutricline, as a response to the monsoons, regulates productivity in the Indonesian Seas. My o@jective for the cruise in 1996 was to continue our collaboration with Indonesian scientists by conducting a set of hydrographic, primary production and spectral irradiance observations in the Indonesian Seas. This grant paid for shipping, travel and incidental costs associated with participation in the cruise in December, 1996. Ship costs were borne by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences as part of the collaborative effort. A plan for Arlindo in 1996 was agreed upon in March, 1996, by Indonesian scientists together with Arnold Gordon. The plan called for a 20-day physical oceanography and mooring cruise in November, 1996, followed by a 5-day bio-optical cruise. The bio-optical cruise departed from, and returned to, Ambon, and sampled in the Banda Sea. We completed a series of chlorophyll analyses, both a sampling of surface variability and depth profiles in the Banda Sea. We also completed three MER profiles for depth profiles of spectral irradiance. These data have a useful by-product in that they can be used for vicarious calibration of the OCTS sensor aboard the ADEOS satellite. As such, the data has been transmitted to NASDA in Japan for their use.

  4. SPITZER observations of luminous obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellocchi, E.; Pozzi, F.; Fritz, J.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Mignoli, M.

    2008-10-01

    Si presentano i risultati di uno studio della distribuzione di energia spettrale (SED) di un campione di sorgenti a z = 0.7-2 selezionate in banda 2-10 keV dalla survey HELLAS2XMM, caratterizzate da luminosita` L_(2-10) keV ~ 10^44 erg/sec e densita` di colonna N_H > 10^22 cm^-2 che le distingue come quasar di tipo II (oscurati). Si sono analizzati i dati ottenuti da Spitzer (4 bande IRAC e MIPS a 24 micron). Le SED sono state modellate utilizzando sia templates empirici di quasar di tipo I (Elvis et al. 1994; Richards et al. 2006) con diversi livelli di estinzione, sia un modello teorico (Fritz et al. 2006) in grado di vincolare i parametri fisici piu` importanti del toro stesso (ad esempio, lo spessore ottico del toro, l'angolo con cui viene osservata la sorgente e il covering factor). Per ciascuna sorgente del campione si e` stimata la luminosita` bolometrica nucleare (10^45-10^47 erg/s) e la correzione bolometrica k_(bol,2-10 keV), definita come il rapporto tra la luminosita` bolometrica e la luminosita` misurata in banda 2-10 keV. Infine, si evidenzia come l'utilizzo dei dati MIPS a 70 e 160 micron sia importante nel vincolare ulteriormente il modello di toro e, di conseguenza, nel fornire una migliore stima della luminosita` infrarossa e bolometrica.

  5. GPS measurements of crustal deformation in eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Colleen Whitney

    Here we present crustal velocities from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made. between 1991 and 1997 at 56 sites throughout eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). From these measurements, we interpret the relative motions of the plates and fault slip rates in the region. Results indicate the tectonics of eastern Indonesia are defined by the interactions of plates and microplates whose boundaries appear to be largely discrete. In a few regions the plate boundaries encompass broad zones of deformation. We identify five distinct tectonic blocks in eastern Indonesia. These include the Northern Australia Block, the Southeast Asia Block, the Bird's Head Block, The South Banda Basin Block, and the East Sulawesi Block. We quantify the motions along the boundaries that bound these blocks, and estimate poles of rotation to define how these blocks move. Two large shear zones exist in eastern Indonesia. The Banda Sea comprises a large deforming region dominated by north-northeast trending left-lateral shear. It appears that shearing is accommodated by the relative motion of several crustal slivers. The southeastern Eurasian plate boundary is therefore broadly distributed. A shear zone also separates Bird's Head from Australia. We estimate about 80 mm/yr of left-lateral shear is needed to accommodate the rapid westward motion of Bird's Head, making this the fastest continental shear zone in the world.

  6. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity of Northern Baja California 2. Evolutionary history and isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1981-10-10

    A geochemical model of the Punta Banda submarine hydrothermal system (PBSHS) and Ensenada quadrangle subaerial hot springs is developed using /sup 18/O//sup 16/O, D/H, /sup 34/S//sup 32/S, /sup 3/H, water and gas chemistry. The PBSHS water is a primary high temperature, acid, reducing fluid of old seawater origin which has been titrated by cold, alkaline groundwater of meteoric origin. The final exiting solutions represent a 1:1 mixture of the two primary mixing components. In contrast, the subaerial hot spring waters are of unmixed meteoric origin. The subaerial hot spring gas is predominantly atmospheric N/sub 2/, while the PBSHS contains large amounts of CH/sub 4/ and N/sub 2/ derived from trapped marine sediments of Cretaceous age, deltaS/sup 34/ values of sampled hydrothermal waters are similar to Cretaceous marine sulfate values and suggest that the waters contacted Cretaceous marine sedimentary strata. The presence of the Alisitos and Rosario marine sedimentary formations of Cretaceous age within the Ensenada-Punta Banda quadrangel renders support to the above hypothesis. The data also demonstrate the pyrite mineralization and deposition in submarine hydrothermal environments result from the complexing of ferrous iron with elemental sulfur and sulfide and that submarine hydrothermal activity acts as a major source of silica, Ca/sup 2 +/, and trace metals and as a major sink for seawater Mg/sup 2 +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature Coupling to Madden-Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Pujiana, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intraseasonal SST characteristics within the Indonesian Seas and their responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillations [MJO] are examined through analyses of observed and reanalysis datasets. Intraseasonal variation accounts for about 30% of SST variability, with the strongest signature is observed in Banda and Timor seas. The MJO signature in SST is evident in the form of energy peak at 35-45 days, amplification during the Northwest Monsoon (boreal winter), and eastward propagation. SST responds to sea-air heat flux associated with MJO with net heat flux into the ocean (atmosphere) characterizing the suppressed (active) phase of MJO. The influence of MJO on Banda Sea SST is greatest during La Niña periods, which are favorable for deeper thermocline conditions, which diminish the role of ocean processes driving vertical heat transfer between subsurface and surface layers. Diminished influence of ocean processes results in dominance of surface heat fluxes associated with MJO in governing intraseasonal SST variability. During El Niño, the role of ocean processes is favorable to mediate heat transfer between lower and upper layer of the ocean surface as thermocline is shallower. The ocean component heat fluxes then compete with MJO forced heat fluxes in governing SST variability as indicated by less pronounced eastward propagation.

  8. New Insights into the Active Tectonics of Eastern Indonesia from GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, S.; Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Meilano, I.; Cummins, P. R.; Tregoning, P.; Syafii, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian archipelago encompasses a wide range of tectonic environments, including island arc volcanism, subduction zones, and arc-continent collision. Many of the details of this tectonic activity are still poorly understood, especially where the Australian continent collides with Indonesia, separating the Sunda Arc in west from that at the Banda Arc in the east. While it seems clear that the Australian plate is subducted under both the Sunda and Banda Arcs, it is not clear what happens along the 1000 km -long stretch in between. The question of just where the plate motion is accommodated is of major importance to assessments of earthquake and tsunami hazard in the region. To help resolve these questions the Geospatial Information Agency of Indonesia has collaborated with the Australian National University and the Bandung Institute of Technology in a GPS campaign spanning much of eastern Indonesia, from Lombok in the west to Alor in the east. We have combined these data with those from previous campaigns, resulting in over 27 campaign and 18 continuous GPS sites being used in the analysis. The improvement in site density allowed us to develop of a more complete description of tectonic activity in this region than has been obtained in previous studies. Our preliminary results suggests that there is a relatively simple transition from subduction at the Java Trench off east Java, to a partitioned convergence along both the Timor Trough and the Flores Thrust in the Nusa Tenggara region.

  9. Patterns of deformation, exhumation and uplift across the Island of Timor: insights into the processes that control the early stages of orogenesis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Tate, G. W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Harris, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    On the island of Timor, arc-continent collision between the Banda volcanic arc and the Australian continent since the late Miocene has uplifted a mountain range containing both deeply exhumed metamorphic rocks and deepwater synorogenic basins. These varied lithologies are separated by a few tens of kilometers, and provide us with an opportunity to examine the spatial patterns of differential uplift and exhumation and its links to the geometry and magnitude of deformation in an orogen that is still in its infancy. New mapping in Timor has provided a detailed view of how the Australian continental slope and shelf rocks are being structurally repeated below overriding Banda Arc material. In East Timor, a window though the Banda terrane shows Permian and Triassic rocks that are repeated by four NNE-striking thrust faults with ~3 km spacing and 50-75 km along-strike extent. The strike of these faults is rotated 50-60 degrees compared to structures to the east and west of this main window. In addition, mapped fold axes are shown to cut across and warp fault traces. These map patterns indicate that the duplex has been both refolded and tilted since its initial formation. In West Timor, Permian through Triassic stratigraphy is faulted and folded into an antiformal stack with 5 exposed thrusts repeating an ~ 3 km thick section. Both south of and adjacent to these structural highs are 10-20 km wide piggyback basins of deepwater, synorogenic marine limestones and clays that coarsen upward into turbidites. Deposition of these units initiated at 5.5 Ma at lower bathyal depths. Synorogenic deposition directly over the Bobonaro mélange, which acts as the décollement between the overthrust Banda Arc rocks and the structurally repeated Australian margin rocks, requires the removal of both Banda arc material and the Cretaceous and younger Kolbano sequence before deposition. These basins record rapid surface uplift to upper bathyal depths from 3.5-3 Ma with continual uplift to

  10. Nurture Versus Nature: Accounting for the Differences Between the Taiwan and Timor active arc-continent collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the

  11. Reversal Asymmetry in the Paleomagnetic Data at 1.1 GA -- New Results From SW Arizona Sills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesonen, L. J.; Donadini, F.; Korhonen, K.; Deutsch, A.; Harlan, S.; Nevanlinna, H.

    2005-12-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) represent times when huge volumes of mafic magma were emplaced in a relatively short period of time. One of the most dramatic LIP is the 1.11 - 1.08 Ga Keweenawan rift-related magmatism in the Lake Superior area of North America. This event can be correlated with the diabase province of the SW USA and with coeval Umkondo magmatic activity in southern Africa. These magmatic activities coincide with the Grenvillian (NAM) and Natal-Namagua (Africa) collisional events related to the assembly of Rodinia supercontinent. However, the docking history of Laurentia with other Rodinia continents is poorly defined due to significant inclination asymmetry between the normal and reversed polarities. The reversal asymmetry, so far identified with certainty only in Lake Superior region, are explained by four models: (i) fast continental drift during the reversal crossing ( R to N), (ii) unremoved secondary components, (iii) non-averaging secular variation in (particularly R) paleomagnetic data and (iv) significant contribution of the non-dipole field at 1.11-1.08 Ga. In order to shed further light to the problem we initiated a project which includes global analysis of 1.1 Ga paleomagnetic, paleointensity and paleosecular variation data. For this reason we carried out new samplings of the 1.1 Ga sills and dykes of the Gila County and Sierra Ancha Mountains of SW Arizona. The new samples are petrographically studied and the least altered-ones will be dated by isotopic techniques. Preliminary paleomagnetic results of the Arizona samples will be presented and compared with those from the Lake Superior province of North America, from the Umkondo Province of Africa and from the probably coeval sediments of Siberia. The possible non-dipole field will be identified with novel spherical harmonic analysis applied to the 1.1 Ga paleomagnetic data.

  12. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barbá, R.

    La estrella simbiótica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscópicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los años 1990 y 1996, utilizándose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 Åa 7200 Å. La historia fotométrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitación, muy rico en líneas de emisión, es también similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolución espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atención a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitación. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionización, incluyéndose las anchas e intensas líneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en λλ 6825 y 7082 Å. En el período cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variación de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las líneas, especialmente en Hα y Hβ. El contínuo de la región roja observada indica un tipo espectral no más tardío que M3 para la componente gigante fría del sistema.

  13. Sintetizadores de síntesis digital directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se describen las características e implementación de sintetizadores de alta resolución en frecuencia, <= 2 mHz, tiempos de conmutación rápidos, submicrosegundo, con posibilidad de control de fase basados en la técnica de síntesis digital directa. La implementación se realiza a partir del circuito integrado AD7008, que incluye un oscilador controlado numéricamente y un conversor analógico digital, y en el trabajo se dan pautas para la especificación de los filtros de reconstrucción. El instrumento implementado posee un módulo basado en un microcontrolador INTEL 8752 el cual provee la posibilidad de monitoreo, indicación visual y control en forma local a partir de un teclado; y remoto a partir de un ``host" con interfases RS232 y RS 485.

  14. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  15. [Non-speech oral motor treatment efficacy for children with developmental speech sound disorders].

    PubMed

    Ygual-Fernandez, A; Cervera-Merida, J F

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. En el tratamiento logopedico de las dificultades de habla se practican dos enfoques metodologicos antagonicos: los no verbales, basados en ejercicios de motricidad oral (EMO), y los verbales, que se basan en tareas de procesamiento de habla con silabas, fonemas y palabras. En España, los programas de EMO se llaman 'programas de praxias', estan muy difundidos y son apreciados por los logopedas. Objetivo. Revisar los estudios sobre la eficacia de los tratamientos basados en EMO aplicados a niños con trastornos de habla y los argumentos teoricos que podrian justificar o no su utilidad. Desarrollo. Durante las ultimas decadas se han acumulado pruebas sobre la falta de eficacia de este enfoque en el tratamiento de los trastornos evolutivos del habla y en las dificultades de pronunciacion de poblaciones sin alteracion neurologica de la funcion motriz. La American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ha desaconsejado su uso atendiendo a los principios de practica basada en la evidencia. Los conocimientos acumulados sobre el control motor demuestran que el patron de movilidad y su correspondiente organizacion cerebral son diferentes en el habla y en otras funciones no verbales ligadas a la alimentacion y la respiracion. Conclusiones. Ni los estudios sobre su eficacia ni los argumentos a partir de estudios del control motor aconsejan el uso de los programas basados en EMO para el tratamiento de las dificultades de pronunciacion en niños con trastornos evolutivos del lenguaje.

  16. Quantifying subsidence of the Sunda shelf (SE Asia) from coral reef morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Husson, Laurent; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Becker, Thorsten; Holt, Adam; Alpert, Lisa; Arias Ruiz, Camillo; Elliot, Mary; Pedoja, Kevin; Imran, Andi Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    The vertical motions of the lithosphere have deeply shaped the geography of SE Asia over the last 5 Myrs. The wide continental Sunda and Sahul platforms have been periodically inundated in the West and Southeast, respectively, whereas myriad of islands have emerged in the more central region of "Wallacea". The long wavelength pattern of vertical motion is mirrored by the coastal geomorphology, which displays a striking bimodal repartition throughout the area. Sequences of uplifted terraces, notches and cliffs are prominent in Wallacea - and attest for its general uplift. Conversely, emerged paleo-reefs are absent above modern reefs and wide alluvial plains dominate coastal areas surrounding Sunda and Sahul shelves and suggests that subsidence prevails. In order to quantify the subsidence of the Sunda shelf, we used a probabilistic approach based on a numerical model that reproduces the development of coral reefs sequences trough time, in response to relative sea level variations. The model accounts for growth reef rate, sea level variations, sub-marine erosion and subsequent sedimentation. This method enables to evaluate the field of parameters (slope, vertical rate, reef growth rate) that satisfyingly reproduce the observed morphology. Comparison of the predicted and observed morphologies of the island of Belitung (Sunda shelf) yields short-term subsidence rates ranging from -0.20 to -0.45 mm/yr. Because the shelf is really shallow (typically - 30 m, and up to -120 m), such subsidence rates set the timing of the drowning of Sundaland. It implies that the platform would have been permanently emerged recently, even during period of high sea level stand. The slower, long-term Neogene subsidence of SE Asia, responds to the subduction dynamics of the Sumatra-Java slab. We tested the possibility that the collision of the Australian continent with the Banda Arc modified this long-term behavior. Because the transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision

  17. Mesozoic-Cenozoic rift-drift sequence of Asian fragments from Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audley-Charles, M. G.; Ballantyne, P. D.; Hall, R.

    1988-12-01

    The University of Cambridge Atlas map-plotting computer program has been used to plot a reconstruction of the dispersal of continental blocks from eastern Gondwanaland from the Late Jurassic (160 Ma) until the Late Miocene (10 Ma). The geological basis for the reconstruction rests on the concept of South Tibet, Burma, western Thailand, Malaya and Sumatra having been part of the eastern Gondwana continent during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic. The reconstruction is also based on the view that these Asian continental blocks were rifted from eastern Gondwanaland in the Late Jurassic. This rifting episode gave rise to the continental margin of central New Guinea and northern Australia. It was associated with the sea-floor spreading anomalies preserved in the floor of the northeastern Indian Ocean. The model considers the indication of crustal uplift in the Middle Jurassic followed by profound subsidence in the Cretaceous and Palaeogene, exposed in the islands of the Outer Banda Arc from Seram to Timor, and the similar Jurassic-Cretaceous facies in eastern Sulawesi implies that these areas formed part of this rifted northern margin of Australia in the Jurassic. Subsequent tectonic collision and associated major strike-slip movements have deformed and disrupted these rock sequences during the Cainozoic. The date of the rifting that removed South Tibet, Burma, western Thailand and Malaya from Gondwanaland is controversial. The indications in favour of the rifting episode having occurred in the Jurassic rather than in the Permo-Triassic are stratigraphie-structural observations on the northwestern Australian shelf, in the Banda Arc and in central New Guinea. The identification of the continental blocks removed by this rifting is based partly on stratigraphie correlation with the Banda Arc and New Guinea and partly on indications that the age of collision of Tibet, Burma, western Thailand and Malaya with Asia was a Late Cretaceous event and not Triassic-Jurassic as

  18. Quaternary Deformation of Sumba, Indonesia: Evidence from Carbonate Terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Dolan, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Banda Arc of Indonesia remains one of the least understood tectonic domains on the modern Earth. The island of Sumba, located approximately 50 km south of Flores and 120 km north of the Java Trench, northwest of where it transitions into the Timor Trough, lies in a region of tectonic transition and potentially offers insights into regional dynamics. The Banda Arc is volcanically active, but Sumba itself is not volcanic. The northern coast of Sumba is covered in Quaternary coral terraces, with the rest of the island's surface geology composed of Mio-pliocene carbonates and uplifted Late Cretaceous-Oligocene forearc basin and volcanic rocks. The purpose of this study is to remotely map the topographic expression of the coral terraces and use the information gained to better understand deformation on Sumba since their deposition. The ages of the coral terraces, of which many platforms are exposed over significant areas of the island, have been constrained at Cape Luandi in north central Sumba, but uplift rates calculated from those ages may not be representative of the island as a whole. The lateral continuity of these dated terraces can help constrain the extent to which uplift of Sumba is spatially variable. Analysis of the terraces using SRTM digital elevation data with ArcGIS software makes it possible to trace the same terrace platforms over large distances, and shows that the north central part of the island has experienced the most uplift since the deposition of the terraces, forming an anticline with the east limb dipping more steeply than the west. The terraces are not well preserved on the southern half of the island. Exposure of older rocks and lack of terrace preservation, as well as a south-skewed drainage divide suggests the southern half of the island experiences greater exhumation, but this could be driven by climate or other factors and does not necessarily indicate more rapid uplift. Study of Quaternary deformation of Sumba can offer greater

  19. Constraining the Geometry and Tectonic Evolution of the Maneadero Basin Through Combined Geophysical and Structural Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callihan, S.; Wetmore, P.; Connor, C.; Fletcher, J.; Springer, A.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Maneadero basin, located 5 km south of Ensenada, Mexico, is bound to the south by the dextral Agua Blanca Fault (ABF). The ABF is the southwestern-most in a network of faults transferring plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the bend in the San Andreas in southern California. The basin is about 60km2 with an axis that trends WNW, subparallel to the ABF. The WNW-trending, western ABF juxtaposes the basin and the Bahia Todos Santos to the northwest, with the 1000m high Punta Banda Ridge. The goals of this study were to constrain the geometry of the Maneadero basin and the distribution of faults bounding and within the basin, as well as to provide constraints on the kinematic evolution of the basin. A combined geophysical (gravity and magnetic) and structural study were employed to address these issues. Gravity data define an anomaly of about 60 mGal across the basin and onto the adjacent up-thrown block, and can clearly identify two gravity highs separated by an intervening gravity low. The highs, irrespective of elevation, are offset by approximately 7km of dextral strike slip. This is consistent with the results of field mapping conducted during the summer 2008 that identifies a Cretaceous intrusion, located just beyond the southeast corner of the Maneadero Basin which is cut by the ABF, which is also displaced by approximately 7km of slip on the ABF. Gravity data also allow for the estimation of a dip-slip component of displacement across the ABF. As expected, the gravity low appears in the middle of the basin, which is shown to have sediment thicknesses of approximately 1km near the ABF and gradually shallowing northward. There is also a slight gradient that decreases in magnitude from southeast to northwest along the axis of the basin. A density contrast of 0.37 g/cm3 between the basin fill and outcropping Punta Banda Ridge, as described by Florez et al (2004), was used to generate this model. A normal slip component is also documented

  20. Water mass transformation along the Indonesian throughflow in an OGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Madec, Gurvan; Blanke, Bruno; Molcard, Robert

    2008-11-01

    The oceanic pathways connecting the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean are described using a quantitative Lagrangian method applied to Eulerian fields from an ocean general circulation model simulation of the Indonesian seas. The main routes diagnosed are in good agreement with those inferred from observations. The secondary routes and the Pacific recirculation are also quantified. The model reproduces the observed salt penetration of subtropical waters from the South Pacific, the homohaline stratification in the southern Indonesian basins, and the cold fresh tongue which exits into the Indian Ocean. These particular water mass characteristics, close to those observed, are obtained when a tidal mixing parameterization is introduced into the model. Trajectories are obtained which link the water masses at the entrance and at the exit of the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), and the mixing along each trajectory is quantified. Both the ITF and the Pacific recirculation are transformed, suggesting that the Indonesian transformation affects both the Indian and Pacific stratification. A recipe to form Indonesian water masses is proposed. We present three major features of the circulation that revisit the classical picture of the ITF and its associated water mass transformation, while still being in agreement with observations. Firstly, the homohaline layer is not a result of pure isopycnal mixing of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and South Pacific Subtropical Water (SPSW) within the Banda Sea, as previously thought. Instead, the observed homohaline layer is reproduced by the model, but it is caused by both isopycnal mixing with the SPSW and a dominant vertical mixing before the Banda Sea with the NPSW. This new mechanism could be real since the model reproduces the SPSW penetration as observed. Secondly, the model explains why the Banda Sea thermocline water is so fresh compared to the SPSW. Until now, the only explanation was a recirculation of the freshwater from the

  1. Novel Devices Using Multifunctional ZnO and Its Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Army CERDEC Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703 ABTRACT Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising wide band gap semiconductor. It has a direct energy band gap, Eg...of 3.3eV at room temperature. ZnO can be alloyed with CdO and MgO to form the ternaries CdxZn1-xO and MgxZn1-xO, extending the direct energy band...as it has a direct energy band gap (Eg) of approximately 3.3eV at room temperature, and also a free exciton binding energy of ≈60 meV. ZnO is more

  2. [Antidotes availability in Emergency Departments of the Italian National Health System and development of a national data-bank on antidotes].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Carlo; Petrolini, Valeria; Lonati, Davide; Butera, Raffaella; Bove, Angelo; Mela, Lidia; Manzo, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The availability of antidotes in Italian hospitals has been evaluated through the answers to a specific questionnaire sent to all Italian Emergency Departments, Intensive Care Units, 118 emergency response system, and Poison Centres. Five Poison Centres and, approximately, the 30% of the Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units of all Italian emergency hospitals answered to the questionnaire. The results point out an insufficient availability of antidotes in the Italian emergency hospitals, with an almost total absence of those necessary for the treatment of less frequent and less known poisonings (e.g. digoxin, industrial agents), also when the antidote is a lifesaving drug. To improve the antidotes availability for the toxicological emergencies and to facilitate its supplying, a "national antidotes data-base" (BaNdA) has been realized, freely available to the hospital services which register themselves and make their antidotes stockpile available.

  3. Seismicity studies at Moluccas area based on the result of hypocenter relocation using HypoDD

    SciTech Connect

    Utama, Muhammad Reza July; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-24

    The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.

  4. Modelling the Shallow Water Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates with Physical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wingenter, Suzanne

    2005-01-12

    The goal of this project is to provide the capability for simulating fluid flow on complicated geometries, such as in the Bahia de Todos Santos. The Bahia de Todos Santos is a bay situated in the northwest corner of Mexico, off the coast of Ensenada and south of San Diego, California, USA. Figure 1.1 shows the Bahia de Todos Santos. It is part of an image taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Aqua and Terra satellites in late June and early July 2003 [8]. Roughly 200 square kilometers in size, the bay also contains two islands off the peninsula of Punta Banda. Characteristics of flow in this bay are driven by the moon tide (M2) and wind forcing [9].

  5. Using Film and Social Media for Successful Earth Science Outreach in Nepal and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.

    2016-12-01

    We are using social media effectively to bring a documentary film about earthquakes in Nepal to Nepalese audiences that live in tectonically hazardous areas, and a tsunami preparedness movie to the people of Banda Aceh. The one-week online preview of the Nepali-subtitled version of the movie received over 79,000 post Facebook Likes. The movie makes extensive use of animation techniques in addition to live action to explain basic facts about seismic activity in the Himalaya region and also basic preparedness concepts. This presentation reviews the social media campaign designed and implemented to bring preparedness movies to large local audiences, as well as the development, production, and world distribution of natural hazards documentary films with scientific depth but designed for a mainstream audience.

  6. Seismicity studies at Moluccas area based on the result of hypocenter relocation using HypoDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama, Muhammad Reza July; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.

  7. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-11

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  8. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sudradjat, A.

    1990-01-01

    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  9. Comparison of the free radical-scavenging activity of propolis from several regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

    2000-07-01

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from different regions of Argentina were prepared. The extracts were analysed for the determination of total flavonoid content (from 13.3 to 42.6 mg/g of propolis) by using the aluminum nitrate method, UV spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. All of them contained high total flavonoid content. It was also observed that all samples of ethanolic extracts of propolis showed free radical-scavenging activity in terms of scavenging of the radical DPPH but the highest activities were found for samples from Tucumán and Santiago del Estero. In all cases with 20 microg/ml of soluble principles, the percentage of DPPH degradation was different (Banda Oeste: 67.5%; Verónica: 45%; Forres: 35%; Saenz Peña: 20% and Juan José Castelli: 55%). These results may justify their use as a source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Estudio de la galaxia peculiar NGC 1487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    La galaxia peculiar NGC 1487, cuya morfología sugiere un evento de ``merging" o interacción próxima, es estudiada en base a material observacional espectroscópico y fotométrico obtenido en el CASLEO. Mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas standards se determinan las principales características espectrales, los mecanismos de excitación actuantes, las condiciones físicas y las velocidades radiales de las estructuras conspicuas de la galaxia. Por otra parte, usando imágenes directas en las bandas B, V, R e I, se obtienen distribuciones detalladas de los colores B-V, V-R y R-I y detalles de su morfología.

  11. Seismic Structure of Southeast Asia from Full Waveform Seismic Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, P. R.; Saygin, E.; Fichtner, A.; Masturyono, M.

    2015-12-01

    We image the lower crust and upper-mantle structure of Southeast Asia with a 3D full waveform adjoint inversion scheme by directly inverting Green's functions retrieved from interstation seismic noise correlations. Synthetic Green's functions are computed at a period range between 10 and 40 s to simulate the wave propagation in the region. Misfits between observed and synthetic waveforms are reduced by iteratively updating model parameters using sensitivity kernels with a conjugate-gradient optimization method. The final model is verified via comparing the simulated waveforms with the recorded earthquakes in the region. The balanced coverage of rays in the region enabled us to image complex structure. The Australian plate is characterized with higher velocities for most of the crust, where most of Indonesia, and its surroundings show complex structure with low velocities. The transition from the oceanic part of the Australian Plate to the continental crust adjacent to the Banda Arc is clearly imaged.

  12. Polarimetría multicolor en dirección a un glóbulo de Bok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.

    Presentamos resultados de observaciones polarimétricas UBVRI en 65 estrellas muy débiles localizadas en el campo de un Glóbulo de Bok carente de anterior análisis observacional. Los resultados muestran un alto y uniforme grado de polarización --sobre todo en las bandas V, R e I-- en casi todas las estrellas de la muestra, así como una alineación del campo magnético proyectado en torno a la nube similar al del campo magnético general. Adicionalmente, estudiamos la posible conexión con la emisión en el infrarrojo a través de las observaciones del satélite IRAS.

  13. Magnetic behavior of natural magnetite (Fe3O4) extracted from beach sand obtained by mechanical alloying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, Z.; Rahwanto, A.; Mustanir, Akhyar, Handoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Investigation on the iron sand characteristic of Syiah Kuala beach in Banda Aceh coastal region has been performed. Samples were prepared by mechanical alloying method using a planetary type high energy ball milling. As shown by XRF results, the results indicate that the iron sand is dominated by magnetite up to 85.80 %. The XRD test showed that the Fe3O4 (magnetite) appears as the majority phase. Furthermore, the magnetic properties observation found that the magnetization saturation (Ms) and remanent (Br) are decreasing with the increasing of the coercivity (Hc). These results inform us that the mechanical alloying method is a very attractive technique to reduce the beach sand particle into nanometer scale.

  14. Fotometría de grupos compactos de galaxias: Shakhbazian 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J. M.; Calderón, J. H.; Gimeno, N. G.; Díaz, R. J.

    Continuando con la fotometría CCD de Grupos de Galaxias Compactos de Shakhbazyan (SCGG) en este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados preliminares sobre los grupos Shakbazyan 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362. EL objeto del proyecto es contribuir al estudio de las propiedades físicas de tales grupos y contribuir a las bases de datos para mejora de las estadísticas. Los datos fueron adquiridos con el Telescopio JKT del Observatorio Norte Europeo. El análisis de las imágenes en las bandas I y B como del índice de color B-I permitió reidentificar las galaxias catalogadas, resultando las mismas muy enrojecidas y verificando que predominan las galaxias tempranas, resultados consistentes con los obtenidos para otros grupos y por otros autores.

  15. Effectively addressing the mid- and long-term needs of young people affected by the tsunami in Aceh: an on-site assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Michael J

    2006-06-01

    Within two months of the Asian tsunami, a team of four individuals conducted an assessment on the post-disaster needs of young people in Aceh Province. In addition to assessing current needs, the team examined the extent to which young people (aged 14-24) were involved in the planning and implementation of ongoing rebuilding and relief efforts. Finally, the team assessed the degree to which young people could be involved in such efforts as the recovery process moves forward. The team: reviewed all existing documents developed and/or compiled by the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (UNOCHA) from the inception of the disaster relief response to the present; met with approximately 20 organizations including UN agencies as well as international and local programs presently working in Banda Aceh and Maulaboh; and conducted direct discussions with young people in a variety of settings.

  16. Bacteriological water quality along the Tijuana-Ensenada, Baja California, México shoreline.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Borbón, Ma Victoria; Rico-Mora, Roxana; Weisberg, Stephen B; Noble, Rachel T; Dorsey, John H; Leecaster, Molly K; McGee, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    This survey was part of a Binational Program (Mexico-United States) in microbiological water quality, with a goal to assess the shoreline bacteriological water quality from Tijuana to Ensenada, Mexico. Samples were collected at 29 sites (19 beaches and 10 outfalls), from the United States border to Punta Banda, Baja California, during summer (1998) and winter (1999). Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci were used as bacterial indicators. Standard methods were used for total and fecal coliforms, while the Enterolert quick method (IDEXX) was used for the enterococci. Compared with outfalls, the beaches exceeded water quality standards by a small percent, 25.3% in summer and 17% in winter. For outfalls, the percentage of shoreline that exceeded bacterial indicator thresholds had a minor value in summer (32.7%) than in winter (50%). Sites near wastewater discharges had the lowest quality and did not meet the microbiological water quality criteria for recreational use.

  17. The role of the New Guinea cross-equatorial flow in the interannual variability of the western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; LinHo; Chou, Chia

    2014-04-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon trough from 1958 to 2001 shows a binary-like feature in August and September, with more than half being either an imposing presence or a total absence. One of the major moisture sources maintaining the WNP monsoon trough is the low-level moisture advection laterally driven by the low-level cross-equatorial flow that originates from the Banda Sea and Solomon Sea. By decomposing contributions to the cross-equatorial flow based on the method proposed by Back and Bretherton in 2009, the boundary-layer pressure gradient in the Maritime Continent plays a major role. This pressure gradient is further found to be associated with the densely packed sea surface temperature (SST) gradient near the equator around New Guinea, which is well correlated with the SST anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific, a concurrent El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) condition.

  18. Tidal mixing signatures in the Indonesian seas from high-resolution sea surface temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Susanto, R. Dwi

    2016-08-01

    The presence of significant tidal mixing in the Indonesian seas is well established from both observations and numerical modeling. One indicator is a clear spring-neap cycle in satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements, as first shown by Ffield and Gordon. Their early results are here updated with SST data of considerably higher spatial and temporal resolution. The largest fortnightly signals are found to be localized to relatively small straits, channels, and sills, while the deep basin of the Banda Sea displays little significant signal. A broader region of somewhat enhanced signal surrounds the Seram Sea. The high resolution of the modern SST data is especially critical for mapping the complex fortnightly signals that arise in, and especially south of, the major straits of the Lesser Sunda Island chain.

  19. Role of the disaster education laboratory in enhancing preparedness of elementary school student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktari, Rina Suryani

    2017-07-01

    To examine ways for a sustainable approach to disaster education, a study conducted at 15 public elementary schools in Banda Aceh. The result found that many schools stopped the disaster education activities, because of the image of costly activities and sense of dependency on external actors. This research aimed at: i) exploring the needs of disaster education laboratory for elementary school; ii) determining the sample of disaster education laboratory model and iii) designing the initial draft/ prototype of laboratory model, iv) validating the conceptual theory through focus group discussion, justification and expert judgement, and v) evaluating and revising the prototype. In general, the Disaster Education Prototype Laboratory consist of: i) multimedia corner, ii) mini library, iii) mini expo and iv) disaster visual aids. Resul the first phase of this study showed that the laboratory model prototype helps in enhancing student preparedness against disaster.

  20. Enneophyllus ecarina, a new species of scaphopod shell dwelling hermit crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from deep-sea off the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2017-05-24

    A second species of the pagurid genus Enneophyllus McLaughlin, 1997, E. ecarina n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of two specimens collected from the upper bathyal depths off Amami-ohshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. The new species is immediately distinguished from the sole known congener, E. spinirostris McLaughlin, 1997, from the Banda Sea, Indonesia, by the non-operculiform right chela and fewer ventral spiniform setae of the ambulatory dactyli. The type species of Enneophillus, E. spinirostris, was represented only by the male holotype, and examination of the female paratype of this new species enables documentation of female characteristics in the generic diagnosis. Like E. spinirostris, the new species inhabits scaphopod shells.

  1. Subsidence of the aru trough and the Aru Island, Irian Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untung, Mohamad

    1985-03-01

    The Aru Trough, structurally on trend with the Timor Trough, is located in the northwestern edge of the Australian platform southwest of Irian Jaya and east of the imbricated sediment wedge of the strong gravity gradient of the Banda arc. The isostatic anomalies based on the Airy-Heiskanen system show that this part of the region is in subsidence. A crustal extension may be active in a zone east of the Aru Trough, resulting in a graben formation. The root of the Aru Island is being pulled downward to the east so that this island is likely to sink. Geological investigations in the Aru Island strengthen this phenomenon and show a subsidence rate of 1 cm/yr. This crustal extension indicates that there is a separation underway of a block of the Australian continental crust from the Australian platform.

  2. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  3. On the transformation of Pacific Water into Indonesian Throughflow Water by internal tidal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Madec, Gurvan; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Gerkema, Theo; Bessières, Laurent; Molcard, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is characterized by strong internal tides, which are trapped in the different semi-enclosed seas of the archipelago. Using tidal model results a parameterization of the associated 3d tidal mixing is developed. The resulting average vertical diffusivity is 1.5 cm2/s, which independently agrees with the estimates inferred from observations. Introduced in a regional OGCM, the parameterization improves the water mass characteristics in the different Indonesian seas, suggesting that the horizontal and vertical distributions of the mixing are adequately prescribed. In particular, the salinity maximum of the inflow water is reduced along the main route, mainly in the Dewakang sill area. But also it is erased in the Halmahera and Seram seas, the entrance of the eastern route, so that salty waters doesn't penetrate the Banda Sea. As a result the simulated Indonesian Throughflow Water are in good agreement with observations.

  4. Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures

  5. The rise and fall of an arc-continent collisional orogen: insights from synorogenic sediments in Timor Leste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, B. G.; Quigley, M.; Nguyen, N.; Shulmeister, J.

    2011-12-01

    The island of Timor consists in part of synorogenic, late Miocene to Pleistocene mid-bathyal marine sequences that record structural, sedimentological, and palynological aspects of the collision between the northern Australian continental shelf and the Banda arc. Structural analysis of these sediments in the Viqueque, Laleia and Marobo Basins of Timor Leste reveals that the post-collisional phase is dominated by extensional and strike slip deformation related to the interplay between topographic and buoyancy forces and a dynamically evolving tectonic stress field. Sedimentological and palynological data combined with U-Pb dating of detrital corals provide temporal constraints on the topographic evolution and aerial emergence of the source region. Rapid Pliocene to Holocene uplift is driven primarily by the regional buoyant rebound of crustal lithosphere in response to slab delamination, rather than by crustal thickening alone.

  6. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of pyrethroids and fipronil at Todos Santos Bay, Mexico: Its impact on sediments and organisms.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Félix Augusto; Macías-Zamora, José Vinicio; Ramírez-Álvarez, Nancy; Alvarez-Aguilar, Arturo; Quezada-Hernández, Cristina; Fonseca, Ana Paula

    2017-06-03

    Pyrethroids are insecticides widely used to control pests and disease vectors in residential areas and agricultural lands. Pyrethroids are emerging pollutants, and their use is a growing concern because of their toxicity potential to aquatic organisms. Todos Santos Bay and the Punta Banda estuary, 2 coastal bodies located to the south of the Southern California Bight, were studied to establish a baseline of the current conditions of pollution by pyrethroids and fipronil. Eight pyrethroids, along with fipronil and its 2 metabolites, were determined in effluents from wastewater-treatment plants (n = 3), surface sediments (n = 32), and 3 locations with mussels (Mytilus californianus, n = 9). Bifenthrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin were the most common pyrethroids found in the study areas and were widespread in sediments, mussels, and wastewater-treated effluents. Fipronil and its metabolites were detected in mussels and wastewater-treated effluents only. Total pyrethroid concentrations in sediments ranged from 0.04 to 1.95 ng/g dry weight in the Punta Banda estuary (n = 13) and from 0.07 to 6.62 ng/g dry weight in Todos Santos Bay (n = 19). Moreover, total pyrethroids in mussels ranged from 1.19 to 6.15 ng/g wet weight. Based on the toxic unit data calculated for pyrethroids and fipronil for Eohaustorius estuarius and Hyalella azteca, little to no impact is expected to the benthic population structure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Classification of earthquake site effects by shallow reflection seismics using a shear-wave land-streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, S.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    Touched in the SW by the Great Sumatra Fault, the densely populated delta of the Krueng Aceh River consists mainly of young alluvial sediments of clay, sand and gravel with partially high organic content. The depth of this sediment body and its internal structure are widely unknown. Whereas traditional timber constructed buildings are mostly unaffected by strong earthquakes, the change to concrete building techniques added a significant new and locally unknown seismic risk in this region. The classification of earthquake site effects in the city of Banda Aceh and the surrounding region of Aceh Besar was the aim of a high-resolution shear-wave reflection seismic survey in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. In cooperation with the Government of Indonesia and local counterparts, this was part of the Project "Management of Georisk" of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources. Using shear-wave reflection seismics in combination with a land streamer has proven to be an enormously useful method in the sedimentary regions of the Aceh province with an easy and fast recording operation. In addition, the specialized seismic system accounts for compacted soil surfaces which allows a wide range of applications within cities, industrial sites, paved roads and also on small dirt roads. Using a vibrator seismic source, this technique was applied successfully also in areas of high building density in the city of Banda Aceh or in the surrounding mostly agricultural environment. Combined with standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests, it was possible to evaluate the soil stiffness in populated urban areas down to 100 m depth in terms of the IBC2003. This is important for the exploration of new areas for save building foundation and groundwater aquifer detection in the tsunami-flooded region.

  8. World Encircling Tectonic Vortex Street - Geostreams Revisited: The Southern Ring Current EM Plasma-Tectonic Coupling in the Western Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leybourne, Bruce; Smoot, Christian; Longhinos, Biju

    2014-05-01

    Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) coupling to south polar magnetic ring currents transfers induction energy to the Southern Geostream ringing Antarctica and underlying its encircling mid-ocean ridge structure. Magnetic reconnection between the southward interplanetary magnetic field and the magnetic field of the earth is the primary energy transfer mechanism between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. Induced telluric currents focused within joule spikes along Geostreams heat the southern Pacific. Alignment of the Australian Antarctic Discordance to other tectonic vortexes along the Western Pacific Rim, provide electrical connections to Earths core that modulate global telluric currents. The Banda Sea Triple Junction, a mantle vortex north of Australia, and the Lake Baikal Continental Rift vortex in the northern hemisphere modulate atmospheric Jetstream patterns gravitationally linked to internal density oscillations induced by these telluric currents. These telluric currents are driven by solar magnetic power, rotation and orbital dynamics. A solar rotation 40 day power spectrum in polarity controls north-south migration of earthquakes along the Western Pacific Rim and manifest as the Madden Julian Oscillation a well-documented climate cycle. Solar plasma turbulence cycles related to Hale flares trigger El Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO's), while solar magnetic field strength frequencies dominate global warming and cooling trends indexed to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. These Pacific climate anomalies are solar-electro-tectonically modulated via coupling to tropical geostream vortex streets. Particularly the section along the Central Pacific Megatrend connecting the Banda Sea Triple Junction (up welling mantle vortex) north of Australia with the Easter Island & Juan Fernandez twin rotating micro-plates (twin down welling mantle vortexes) along the East Pacific Rise modulating ENSO. Solar eruptions also enhance the equatorial ring current located

  9. Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  10. GNSS Tsunami Warning System Augmentation for the Indo-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The years since the devastating Banda Aceh Earthquake of December, 2004 have repeatedly inflicted the terrible loss of life and economic disruption from large earthquakes and resulting tsunamis upon Indo-Pacific coastal populations. The hardest hit populations are those closest to the earthquake source, a scenario for which most Indo-Pacific nations lack an adequate early warning system. Following the Banda Aceh Earthquake, GNSS based techniques were developed to provide accurate, timely, estimates of ground displacements, the modeling and monitoring of tsunami propagation. Major investments are also being made to deploy and upgrade existing GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo, GZSS, and IRNSS) by the end of this decade. There have also been significant investments in multi-GNSS ground networks and analysis centers that often provide measurements in real time. These multi-national investments now present the possibility for significant improvements to the Indo-Pacific region's tsunami warning. The development of GNSS based tsunami warning integrated with existing seismic based tsunami warning systems will provide a robust, accurate, timely, and cost effective network to provide effective warning for the Indo-Pacific coastal communities. The UN General Assembly has called for the sharing of geodetic data for the mitigation of natural hazards while the IUGG and IGS recommend the implementation of a GNSS based augmentation to the Tsunami Early Warning System. The same GNSS ground networks and constellations that support the Tsunami Early Warning network also provide Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and other benefits to these communities thereby insuring a sustainable and reliable capability.

  11. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Puteh, Ibrahim; Marthoenis, M; Minas, Harry

    2011-05-14

    Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving insufficient attention.

  12. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  13. Fotometria WHBY |o lll|/HB de Regiones H 11 Y la HISTORIA de la Formacion ESTELAR Reciente EN la PEQUENA NUBE de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.; Dottori, H. A.

    1987-05-01

    El ancho equivalente WHβ de la linea de Hβ en emisión y la razón [0 III]/Hβ del par λλ4959, 50 7 A del [0111], fueron medidos en 23 regiones HII de la Peque˜a Nube de Magallanes, por medio de la fotometría fotoeléctrica a través de un sistema de tres filtros interferenciales: dos Hβ , con bandas pasantes de 100 y 30 A, y un [0111] centrado en 5000 A y con banda pasante de 50 A. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con los telescopios de 1.60-m y 0.60-m del Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasópolis, Brasil. Fueron escogidos diafragmas suficientemente grandes para captar la radiación integrada de cada región HII. Las medidas fueron calibradas por comparación a un conjunto de nebulosas planetarias con flujos absolutos bien definidos. A través de la comparación entre los datos observacionales y modelos evolutivos de WHβ y [0 III] /Hβ (Copetti et al.1986', Astr. and Ap., 156, 111), las edades de las regiones HIl fueron estimadas. Basada en la distribución espacial de las edades de regiones HIl, la historia de la formación estelar reciente en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes es analizada. La similitud de las medidas de WH&beta y [OIII]/WHβ entre las regiones H II observadas sugiere que hubo una explosión de formación estelar a 4±1 x106 años en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes. (Parcialmente financiado por CNPq).

  14. Finescale parameterization of turbulent mixing and internal tides in the Indonesian Throughflow from INDOMIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouruet-Aubertot, P.; Cuypers, Y.; Ferron, B.; Dausse, D.; Menage, O.; Atmadipoera, A.; Jaya, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow is the only passage at low latitude between the Pacific and the Indian oceans. As such it constitutes a key region of the thermohaline circulation where water mass properties are strongly modified as a result of a strong turbulent mixing. As the Indonesian seas are one region of the strongest internal tide generation these waves are expected to play a major role in driving this mixing. The INDOMIX cruise aimed to characterize small-scale turbulence and its relationship with the larger scale internal tide signal. To this aim measurements were focused on one of the most energetic sections for internal tides through Halmahera sea and Ombai strait. For comparison an additional station was performed in Banda Sea in the deep ocean far from boundaries. Classical fine-scale measurements have been performed together with microstructure measurements with repeated profiles over 24 hours. A strong internal tide signal was evidenced with currents up to 50 cm/s and solitary waves leading to isopycnal displacements of the order of 50m in Halmahera sea and Ombai strait whereas the internal tidal signal is weaker and focused in the surface layer in Banda Sea. Consistently high values of energy fluxes up to 80kW/m were obtained with various propagation directions. The latter reveals the complex pattern of internal tide generation occurring both along the shelf edge and within passages. Spots of high energy dissipation were characterized within and below the pycnocline where the strongest internal tide signal is observed as well as above the bottom topography. Eventually a set of fine-scale parameterizations was tested against our turbulence measurements and a refined parameterization proposed that depends on turbulence intensity.;

  15. Physical Properties of the SKYLAB North Polar Coronal Hole with an Extended Base and its MHD Self-Consistent Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, S.; Ocania, G.

    1991-04-01

    RESUMEN Con base en las observaciones del Skylab del Sol en rayos X que permitieron r la forma de la frontera del hoyo coronal del polo norte y en las observaciones de l 'z que permitieron derivar un perfil de densidad para el flujo de viento solar (IC ese hoyo, Murno yjackson (1977) concluyeron que se requiere una adici6n t l clc energfa al flujo hasta al menos 5 R8. En este trabajo, recalculamos los perfiles de y de temperatura para el mismo hoyo pero considerando una frontera Cs mas ancha en la base, de acuerdo con las observaciones del coron6metro-K del IIAO, los espectroheliogramas en EUV del OSO-7 y las fotografias de la corona solar cerca de los 4 E)()O A. Se tomaron tambien las incertidumbres en el perfil de densidad electr6nica inl & a las observaciones de luz blanca y se consideraron diversos valores posibles dCl fl 'jo (lC masa 1 UA. Encontramos que las diferencias introducidas no son suficientes par clcsc' la necesidad de una energetizaci6n extensa del viento solar, pero una dC las s posibles muestra una concordancia muy buena con el modelado MHD (l( l flujo con el unico t6rmino adicional de la fuerza de Lorentz en la ecuaci6n de # (). ABSTRACT Based on the near to the Sun boundary of the Skylab north polar coroi ' l estimated from the AS & E X-ray photographs and on the density profile fi-C)I white light data, Munro and Jackson (1977) concluded that substantial energy the solar wind flux is required up to at least 5 Rs. In this paper we recalculate `eloci y and temperature profiles for the same hole but considering a different bo ' ry for flux tube which is larger at its base, according to the HAO K- obser"' (i()I0 , the OSO-7 EUV spectroheliograms and pictures of the solar 4500 A. è take into account the uncertainties inherent in the white light observations () electron density profile and consider different possible values of the solar I .' fltix at 1 AU. We that the differences introduced are not sufficient to discard ii y of an extended

  16. Modeling the effect of forest restoration scenarios on runoff through a reanalysis of historical experimental watershed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Masek Lopez, S.; Sanchez Meador, A.

    2013-12-01

    Since the settlement of the American Southwest, the ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests of the Arizona highlands have increased in density due to fire suppression, recovery from logging, and livestock grazing. The landscape-scale Collaborative Forest Restoration Program project known as the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) has been proposed to reduce forest density and restore a more natural fire cycle over large areas of the region. Expected benefits include a reduced risk of high-intensity wildfire, improved wildlife habitat, increased forest resiliency to drought and infestation, improved wildlife habitat, and increased water yield. There is considerable interest in restoration effects on water yield because the forests contribute a large portion of the runoff to the Salt River, which supplies water to the Phoenix metropolitan area. While empirical data on the effects of restoration on streamflow are limited, paired watershed studies conducted in the 1950's-80's at a number of historic research sites in the region provide robust datasets that tested how a range of silvicultural techniques influence runoff. The study sites included the Beaver Creek Experimental Watershed, Workman Creek in the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, and two sites in the White Mountains of eastern Arizona. We synthesized the data from these studies to develop an improved regression model that predicts annual runoff increase following a forest thinning based on basal area, time since treatment, climate, and physical characteristics of the watershed. We used the model to predict the increase in runoff due to forest thinning for a small watershed that is part of the proposed treatment area from 2014 to 2050. We considered three management scenarios: no thinning, the proposed 4FRI thinning prescription, and a more intense thinning that reduces basal area to pre-settlement conditions. Our model is based on trajectories of forest recovery dynamics for each scenario produced by

  17. Hydrochemical controls on aragonite versus calcite precipitation in cave dripwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Carlos; Lozano, Rafael P.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the paleoclimatic relevance of primary calcite to aragonite transitions in stalagmites, the relative role of fluid Mg/Ca ratio, supersaturation and CO32- concentration in controlling such transitions is still incompletely understood. Accordingly, we have monitored the hydrochemistry of 50 drips and 8 pools that are currently precipitating calcite and/or aragonite in El Soplao and Torca Ancha Caves (N. Spain), investigating the mineralogy and geochemistry of the CaCO3 precipitates on the corresponding natural speleothem surfaces. The data reveal that, apart from possible substrate effects, dripwater Mg/Ca is the only obvious control on CaCO3 polymorphism in the studied stalagmites and pools, where calcite- and aragonite-precipitating dripwaters are separated by an initial (i.e. at stalactite tips) Mg/Ca threshold at ≈1.1 mol/mol. Within the analyzed ranges of pH (8.2-8.6), CO32- concentration (1-6 mg/L), supersaturation (SIaragonite: 0.08-1.08; SIcalcite: 0.23-1.24), drip rate (0.2-81 drops/min) and dissolved Zn (6-90 μg/L), we observe no unequivocal influence of these parameters on CaCO3 mineralogy. Despite the almost complete overlapping supersaturations of calcite- and aragonite-precipitating waters, the latter are on average less supersaturated because the waters having Mg/Ca above ∼1.1 have mostly achieved such high ratios by previously precipitating calcite. Both calcite and aragonite precipitated at or near oxygen isotopic equilibrium, and Mg incorporation into calcite was consistent with literature-based predictions, indicating that in the studied cases CaCO3 precipitation was not significantly influenced by strong kinetic effects. In the studied cases, the calcites that precipitate at ∼11 °C from dripwaters with initial Mg/Ca approaching ∼1.1 incorporate ∼5 mol% MgCO3, close to the published value above which calcite solubility exceeds aragonite solubility, suggesting that aragonite precipitation in high-relative-humidity caves is

  18. Clasificación orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Aguilar, L. A.

    Presentamos un método para clasificar órbitas generales en potenciales de 2 y 3 dimensiones, basado en el concepto de dinámica espectral introducido por Binney y Spergel (ApJ 252, 308, 1982). Este método distingue correctamente órbitas regulares e irregulares, familias de órbitas (cajas, tubos, etc.), y resonancias, aún cuando son de alto orden o de rango mayor que 1. Se propone asimismo una nueva nomenclatura para la clasificación de órbitas.

  19. Abundancias químicas de ψ Octantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. C.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de ψ Oct usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Esta estrella fue estudiada por Pintado y Adelman (1996) usando espectros REOSC y Adelman y otros (1993), este último basado en espectros echelle obtenidos con el Telescopio Anglo Australiano. Comparamos nuestros resultados con los de los trabajos anteriormente mencionados, pudiéndose realizar una evaluación de la calidad de los espectros EBASIM.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  1. Pliocene obducted, rotated and migrated ultramafic rocks and obduction-induced anatectic granite, SW Seram and Ambon, Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linthout, Kees; Helmers, Hendrik

    Geochemistry, petrography and thermobarometry of the ultramafic and associated rocks of SW Seram and Ambon indicate that they were obducted as weakly depleted oceanic lithosphere which was formed about 10 Ma prior to obduction. Occurrences of cordierite-bearing granite are closely associated with the ultramafic rocks. Petrography and geochemical analysis based on major, RE and other trace elements, indicate that the granite is of the S-type, containing a significant restite component; a VAG signal is interpreted as inherited from the partly melted and included Palaeozoic metasediments. The granite magma was formed as a consequence of the obduction of very hot mantle peridotite inflicting high-grade metamorphism and partial anatexis on the Palaeozoic continental substratum. The oldest age in the literature for cordierite-bearing dacite, connected to this partial anatexis, sets the minimum age of the obduction event at 4.4 Ma. The obduction took place at the eastern end of the Banda Arc, near the NE margin of the Weber Deep, where SW Seram must have been at that time. The ophiolite as part of the Buru-Seram Microplate, rotated and migrated about 400 km westward to its present position. Since the Early Pliocene, the rate of upheaval in Kaibobo (SW Seram) has averaged about 260 cm Ka -1, but may well have been over 1000 cm Ka -1 in the early period immediately after the formation of the granite melt. As the average uplift rate over the same period for Central Seram was previously estimated at 110 cm Ka -1, strongly differential upheaval prevailed in Seram in the Early Pliocene. It is postulated that young oceanic lithosphere has been created by transtensional pull-apart in the easternmost part of the Banda Sea Plate due to oblique convergence of the northward moving Australian Plate, of which fragments gradually became incorporated in the regime of the westbound SW Pacific Plates. Obduction was effected during the strong Pliocene rotation of the Buru-Seram Microplate

  2. Communicating Tsunami Preparedness Through the Lessons Learned by Survivors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    Often times science communication is reactive and it minimizes the perceptions of the general public. The Tsunami of New Dreams is a film with the testimonies of survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Production of the film spanned over five years and dozens of interviews, and is based on a unique geographic, demographic and experiential sampling of the local population. This documentary feature film underscores the importance of Earth science and science communication in building sustainable communities. The film is a lesson in survival and sustainability, and it provides a simple but powerful testimony of what to do and what not to do before and during a tsunami. The film also highlights the direct relationship that exists between disaster survival rates and the knowledge of basic Earth science and preparedness facts. We hope that the human stories presented in the film will serve as a strong motivator for general audiences to learn about natural hazards, preparedness, and Earth science. These engaging narratives can touch the minds and hearts of general audiences much faster than technical lectures in a classroom. Some of the testimonies are happy and others are sad, but they all present the wide range of beliefs that influenced the outcomes of the natural disaster. The interviews with survivors are complemented with unique archival footage of the tsunami and unique footage of daily life in Aceh. Hand-drawn illustrations are used to recreate what survivors did immediately after the earthquake, and during the extreme moments when they faced the tsunami waves. Animated visuals, maps and diagrams enhance the understanding of earthquake and tsunami dynamics. The film is a production of the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) in collaboration with the International Center for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies (ICAIOS) in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The film is scheduled for release in late 2015. This is a unique

  3. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  4. Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  5. In-Situ Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Atmadipoera, Agus; van Beek, Pieter; Madec, Gurvan; Aucan, Jerome; Lyard, Florent; Grelet, Jacques; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Indonesian Mixing program (INDOMIX) was designed to quantify the very strong mixing that transforms Pacific waters into homohaline Indonesian Waters in the Indonesian archipelago. The turbulent dissipation rates and associated mixing were estimated and analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach that combines physical and geochemical observations: 1) direct measurements of the dissipation using a microstructure profiler, 2) use of density-based fine-scale methods, and 3) study of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides (radium isotopes and actinium-227). Data were collected at five contrasting stations within the Indonesian archipelago. Strong instabilities, inversions of the density profiles and a very strong water mass transformation were observed. A wide range of values is obtained for dissipation within [10-10, 10-4] W.kg-1 with spots of higher dissipation in the ocean interior correlated with a strong internal tide signal. Both Fine-scale and micro-scale methods allow us to identify very strong dissipation energy levels above the straits, ranging within [10-7, 10-4] W.kg-1, in contrast to lower values at stations far from generation sites. However, the dissipation in the interior water column for the station located in the center of Halmahera [10-9, 10-8] W.kg-1 is stronger than for the Banda station [10-11, 10-10] W.kg-1, which is further away from generation sites. The three approaches agree relatively well and provide Kz values ranging between 5 10-4 and 5 10-1 m2.s-1, except in the Banda Sea where values are similar to the ones found in the open ocean (10-6 m2.s-1). Kz values mainly increase toward the bottom, where stratification decreases. Surface mixing, at the base of the mixed layer is found to be still very strong with values within [10-4, 10-3 m2.s-1]. These results confirm the results of modelling studies, in which hypothesis of intensified subsurface mixing were made, a mixing that strongly modifies the whole tropical mean state and

  6. The analysis of large-scale turbulence characteristics in the Indonesian seas derived from a regional model based on the Princeton Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, K.; Kamenkovich, V.

    2012-08-01

    obtained for KM and KH in deep water in the vicinity of the Lifamatola Sill. These estimates agree well with basin-scale averaged values of 13.3 × 10-4 m2 s-1 found diagnostically for KH in the deep Banda and Seram Seas (Gordon et al., 2003) and a value of 9.0 × 10-4 m2 s-1 found diagnostically for KH for the deep Banda Sea system (van Aken et al., 1988). The somewhat higher simulated values can be explained by the presence of steep topography around the sill.

  7. The role of service learning in teaching and research for disaster-risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckale, J.; Saiyed, Z.; Alvisyahrin, T.; Hilley, G. E.; Muhari, A.; Zoback, M. L. C.; Truebe, S.

    2016-12-01

    An important motivation for natural-hazards research is to reduce threats posed by natural disasters to at-risk communities. Yet, we rarely teach students how research may be used to construct implementable solutions that reduce disaster risk. The goal of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of service learning to impart students with both the scientific background and the skills necessary to navigate real-world constraints of disaster risk reduction. We present results from a service-learning class taught at Stanford in the Winter quarter of 2016 in collaboration with the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. The main deliverable of the class was a final project in which students developed a specific idea of how to contribute to tsunami-risk reduction in Indonesia. A common critique of the service-learning approach posits that it may implicitly embed social and political perspectives within risk-reduction strategies that may be inappropriate within a particular culture. We attempted to avoid this problem using three strategies: First, we paired students from Stanford with students at Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, to facilitate a close dialogue. Second, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries provided a list of current risk-reduction strategies without requiring students to contribute to one specific project to minimally precondition project suggestions. Third, our community partners provided ongoing feedback on the scope and feasibility of the proposed projects and students were assessed based on their ability to integrate the feedback. Preliminary results from our class suggest significant promise for a service-learning approach to teaching disaster-risk reduction. There was substantial student interest in service learning, particularly among undergraduates. Pre-and post-assessment surveys showed that over 75% of students adjusted previous notions about disaster-risk reduction during the

  8. Advantages of Realistic Model Based on computational method: NDSHA versus Standard PSHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwandi, I.

    2017-02-01

    Procedure of standard Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has a problem with over simplifying recurrence since being represented by a linear relationship. However, the relationship will be satisfied only if the size of the study area is large enough with respect to linear dimensions of sources.. PSHA lies in attenuation relations are usually not translation invariant in the phase space. Regarding the problem of completeness data, instead of using recurrence relationship DSHA select the most credible earthquakes. However, the DSHA remain lies in attenuation relations, assume the same propagation model for all the events, but such a hypothesis is not very realistic. On the contrary, NDSHA procedure has advantages in calculation strong ground motion from the realistic model of synthetic seismograms from source specific properties and cooperates with the available structural model. Additionally, The NDSHA produced more information such as PGD, PGV, PGA for horizontal and vertical components each. Using realistic computation for Banda Aceh, NDSHA provides an accurate value for each of those components, achieving probability of exceedance in the range between 10% to 2% probability of exceedance PGA from PSHA computation. Regarding some limitation from PSHA, Indonesia needs to establish research on NDSHA for the area has critical infrastructures to face the seismic hazard.

  9. Irregular topography at the Earth's inner core boundary.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing

    2012-05-15

    Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth's ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of topography: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4-8 km with a lateral length scale of 2-4 km. The characteristics of the ICB topography indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable.

  10. The Project HOPE and USNS Mercy tsunami "experiment".

    PubMed

    Peake, James B

    2006-10-01

    A multifaceted, military-nongovernmental organization, public-private partnership was put together in 30 days to provide intermediate-stage medical support in response to the December 2004 tsunami. More than 200 civilian volunteer physicians, nurses, and medical professionals were recruited, oriented, and logistically supported by Project HOPE, an international nongovernmental organization, to serve aboard the hospital ship USNS Mercy off the coast of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, and subsequently in response to the related Nias Island earthquake. This "novel idea" resulted in tertiary care that was otherwise unavailable, expansion of the primary, dental, and optometric care available at the time, and Project HOPE programs on the ground that continue now, well after completion of the Navy mission. Furthermore, many of the members of this volunteer team would not have had the chance to participate as volunteers and would not have had exposure to the U.S. military, for which they have become staunch supporters. The "novel idea" of such a public-private partnership has met with a success that warrants doctrinal review for incorporation, programming, and planning to facilitate such engagement in the future.

  11. Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono

    2016-11-01

    Sumatra region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the west of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatra. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh.

  12. Oceanwide gravity anomalies from Geos-3, Seasat and Geosat altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Basic, Tomislav

    1992-01-01

    Three kinds of satellite altimeter data have been combined, along with 5 x 5 arcmin bathymetric data, to calculate a 0.125 deg ocean wide gridded set of 2.3 x 10 exp 6 free-air gravity anomalies. The procedure used was least squares collocation that yields the predicted anomaly and standard deviation. The value of including the bathymetric data was shown in a test around the Dowd Seamount where the root mean square (rms) difference between ship gravity measurements decreased from +/- 40 mgal to +/- 20 mgal when the bathymetry was included. Comparisons between the predicted anomalies and ship gravity data is described in three cases. In the Banda Sea the rms differences were +/- 20 mgal for two lines. In the South Atlantic rms differences over lines of 2000 km in length were +/- 7 mgal. For cruise data in the Antarctica region the discrepancies were +/- 12 mgal. Comparisons of anomalies derived from the Geosat geodetic mission data by Marks and McAdoo (1992) with ship dta gave differences of +/- 6 mgal showing the value of the much denser Geosat geodetic mission altimeter data.

  13. Irregular topography at the Earth’s inner core boundary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing

    2012-01-01

    Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth’s inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth’s ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of topography: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4–8 km with a lateral length scale of 2–4 km. The characteristics of the ICB topography indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable. PMID:22547788

  14. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Freely Drifting Swallow Float Array: August 1990 NATIVE 1 Experiment (First Deployment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    7.91 S 123.04 E 203 ? 4.7 6.8 7 BANDA SEA I1 11 53 25.9* 14.439 S 73.692 w 33 N 0.4 8 PERU 01 12 19 54 0 41.021 N 22.326 E 16 G 6 7 7 YUGOSLAVIA. ML...16.345 5 75.149 W 33 N 5.6 1.3 11 PERU 66 13 59 16.9. 59.143 5 159.277 E 1 0 4.9 4.6 1.6 8 MACOUARIE ISLANDS REGION 66 16 23 17.3 16.153 S 173.447 W 63 0...126.516 E 85 * 4.7 0.4 8 MINDANAO. PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 09 69 52 32.2? 15.02 S 72.25 W 33 N 0.6 6 SOUTHERN PERU 09 11 01 58.9% 45.597 N 1.098 E 10 G 0 6

  16. Telescopio Solar en Hα (HASTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Francile, C.; Bagala, G.; Bauer, O.; Haerendel, G.; Rieger, E.; Rovira, M.

    El Telescopio Solar en Hα (Hα Solar Telescope for Argentina (-HASTA-) fue recientemente instalado en la Estación Astronómica de Altura Carlos Ulrrico Cesco (OAFA) en El Leoncito. Este instrumento estudiará la evolución de las fulguraciones solares desde tierra con alta resolución temporal y espacial. HASTA es un telescopio refractor de 110 mm con una distancia focal de 165 cm, un filtro Lyot sintonizable (±1Å) con un ancho de banda de 0.3 Å y una cámara CCD de alta resolución (1280×1024 pixels). Todo el conjunto es controlado en forma remota por una PC, la cual además adquiere datos del Sistema de Posicionamiento Global (GPS) y de la estación meteorológica. Diseñado para detectar fulguraciones, el instrumento trabaja en dos modos (patrullaje y fulguración) con una resolución espacial de 1.5 arcseg por pixel y una resolución temporal de 2 seg. HASTA comenzó a operar en Mayo de 1998 y, junto con otros tres instrumentos solares, que se están instalando o se instalaron, harán de El Leoncito un polo de observación solar importante en el Hemisferio Sur.

  17. The impact of the Indonesian Throughflow and tidal mixing on the summertime sea surface temperature in the western Indonesian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Shinichiro; Wijffels, Susan

    2012-09-01

    A numerical model is used to investigate how the Indonesian Throughflow and tidal mixing are affecting the seasonal cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indonesian Seas. The SST in these seas is considered to play a major role on the development of the Australian Summer Monsoon. Based on a quantitative assessment of the heat budget, the Indonesian Throughflow is found to affect the SST in the western Indonesian Seas primarily during Austral summer. The Throughflow advects the warm water from the Pacific and maintains the warm SST when the Northwestern Monsoonal wind induces coastal upwelling along the northern side of the Nusa Tenggara and cools the SST. Such balance is supported by observations. The hydrographic sections show the isotherms tilting upward toward the northern coast of the Nusa Tenggara when satellite observations show slight decrease of the SST in the region. Tidal mixing is found to cool the SST during summer the most. This is because the Northwest Monsoonal wind induces coastal upwelling near where strong tidal mixing above seamount occurs and brings the tidally well-mixed upper thermocline water to the surface. The surface Ekman flow also spreads this cool water around the Banda Sea where tidal mixing does not occur. The impact of tidal mixing on the SST is also found to come largely from that occurring above seamounts. The impact of tidal mixing on the continental shelves is limited to shelf-breaks because cold subsurface water is necessary for enhanced vertical mixing to cool the SST.

  18. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Java and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Eric S.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska K.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Sunda convergent margin extends for 5,600 km from the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea, both located northwest of the map area, towards the island of Sumba in the southeast, and then continues eastward as the Banda arc system. This tectonically active margin is a result of the India and Australia plates converging with and subducting beneath the Sunda plate at a rate of approximately 50 to 70 mm/yr. The main physiographic feature associated with this convergent margin is the Sunda-Java Trench, which stretches for 3,000 km parallel to the Java and Sumatra land masses and terminates at 120° E. The convergence of the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates produces two active volcanic arcs: Sunda, which extends from 105 to 122° E and Banda, which extends from 122 to 128° E. The Sunda arc results solely from relatively simple oceanic plate subduction, while the Banda arc represents the transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision, where a complex, broad deforming zone is found. Based on modern activity, the Banda arc can be divided into three distinct zones: an inactive section, the Wetar Zone, bound by two active segments, the Flores Zone in the west and the Damar Zone in the east. The lack of volcanism in the Wetar Zone is attributed to the collision of Australia with the Sunda plate. The absence of gap in volcanic activity is underlain by a gap in intermediate depth seismicity, which is in contrast to nearly continuous, deep seismicity below all three sections of the arc. The Flores Zone is characterized by down-dip compression in the subducted slab at intermediate depths and late Quaternary uplift of the forearc. These unusual features, along with GPS data interpretations indicate that the Flores Zone marks the transition between subduction of oceanic crust in the west and the collision of continental crust in the east. The Java section of the Sunda arc is considered relatively aseismic historically when compared to the highly seismically active

  19. A geometria do campo magnético na região da nuvem Lupus 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigação polarimétrica na região de formação estelar junto à nuvem escura Lupus 1. Esse estudo baseia-se em polarimétria CCD obtida na banda R, e cobre Lupus 1, bem como a área vizinha a essa nuvem contendo a cavidade em 100 mm IRAS. Os dados observacionais foram coletados com o telescópio IAG de 60 cm do Observatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT - Brasópolis - MG). Nossa primeira análise mostra que uma variação da orientação do campo magnético através da região pode produzir padrões complexos de polarização cuja geometria do campo não pode ser facilmente determinada. Os padrões de polarização são inconsistentes com um campo magnético estritamente uniforme e unidimensional em larga escala. Comparação com a emissão em 100 mm mostra que localmente os vetores de polarização exibem um forte alinhamento com a orientação dos padrões observados em infravermelho.

  20. Teleseismic Double-Difference Earthquake Hypocenter Relocation in the Indonesian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Shiddiqi, H. A.; Widiyantoro, S.; Ramdhan, M.; Wandono, W.; Sutiyono, S.; Handayani, T.

    2014-12-01

    Accuracy of hypocenter location is a crucial obstacle for seismicity study. Therefore, it is important to obtain accurate earthquake location using an adequate relocation method. We have relocated nearly 30,000 earthquakes (with magnitude greater than 2.0) compiled by BMKG from April 2009 to June 2014 around the Indonesian region using teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm. We used arrival time data from local, regional and teleseismic stations. For the inversion procedure, we have applied 1-D and 3-D seismic velocity models to determine earthquake hypocenter location. Our relocation results show that the travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced. The hypocenter locations distribution shows significantly improved locations after the relocation. The relocated hypocenters also exhibit improvement in hypocenter depths particularly for shallow earthquakes. Overall, our relocation results were well correlated with tectonic features in this region, e.g. major subduction zones beneath Sumatra, Java, Bali, Banda, Sulawesi and Molluca and inland fault zones such as the Sumatra faut zone. These results will provide better information for updating seismic hazard maps and further advanced studies in the Indonesian region.

  1. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California.

    PubMed

    Solana-Arellano, Elena; Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina). The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d(-1) leaf(-1). The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d(-1) leaf(-). The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d(-1) leaf(-1) respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner.

  2. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  3. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  4. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  5. On the majestic seasonal upwelling system of the Arafura Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to explore the development of phytoplankton blooms in the Arafura Sea during the southeast monsoon (June-November). Before this season, blooms are restricted to nearshore waters covering a total area of ˜25,000 km2. Satellite data indicate that the bloom area grows substantially to >90,000 km2 during the southeast monsoon covering most of the northwestern Arafura Sea. Findings confirm that the southeast monsoon creates undercurrents via the classical lee effect driving nutrient-rich Banda Sea slope water into this region. This nutrient-rich slope water is driven over vast distances (˜300 km) into the northwestern Arafura Sea where it upwells and/or is entrained into the surface mixed layer. The associated overturning circulation is slow but continuous and it takes 1-2 months before nutrient-rich water appears in surface waters of the region. The predicted pathways of nutrient-rich inflows across the shelf break both north and south of the Ara Islands agree with observational evidence.

  6. New tsunami damage functions developed in the framework of SCHEMA project: application to European-Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, N.; Gardi, A.; Gauraz, A.; Leone, F.; Guillande, R.

    2011-10-01

    In the framework of the European SCenarios for tsunami Hazard-induced Emergencies MAnagement (SCHEMA) project (www.schemaproject.org), we empirically developed new tsunami damage functions to be used for quantifying the potential tsunami damage to buildings along European-Mediterranean coasts. Since no sufficient post-tsunami observations exist in the Mediterranean areas, we based our work on data collected by several authors in Banda Aceh (Indonesia) after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Obviously, special attention has been paid in focusing on Indonesian buildings which present similarities (in structure, construction material, number of storeys) with the building typologies typical of the European-Mediterranean areas. An important part of the work consisted in analyzing, merging, and interpolating the post-disaster observations published by three independent teams in order to obtain the spatial distribution of flow depths necessary to link the flow-depth hazard parameter to the damage level observed on buildings. Then we developed fragility curves (showing the cumulative probability to have, for each flow depth, a damage level equal-to or greater-than a given threshold) and damage curves (giving the expected damage level) for different classes of buildings. It appears that damage curves based on the weighted mean damage level and the maximum flow depth are the most appropriate for producing, under GIS, expected damage maps for different tsunami scenarios.

  7. [Optic neuritis in childhood. A pediatric series, literature review and treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martin, D; Martinez-Anton, J

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. En la edad pediatrica, la forma mas frecuente de neuritis optica se presenta generalmente despues de un cuadro infeccioso, con edema de papila, que suele ser bilateral y tiene buen pronostico. La conversion a esclerosis multiple es infrecuente. Objetivo. Presentar las caracteristicas clinicas y de laboratorio de una serie pediatrica de neuritis optica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una serie de 17 casos de neuritis optica en niños y jovenes de 4 a 14 años, referidos entre los años 2000 y 2015. Resultados. La edad mediana de la serie fue de 11 años. Predominaron los pacientes de sexo femenino y el antecedente infeccioso fue poco frecuente; en cinco pacientes, la afectacion fue bilateral, y cuatro casos se presentaron como neuritis optica retrobulbar. La resonancia magnetica mostro hiperintensidad en T2 en los nervios opticos afectados en cinco pacientes. El estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo y bandas oligoclonales fue normal en todos los casos. Los pacientes, tratados con metilprednisolona intravenosa, tuvieron buena recuperacion. Solo en tres casos se comprobo una evolucion posterior a esclerosis multiple. Conclusiones. En esta serie, los casos que evolucionaron a esclerosis multiple no mostraron diferencias clinicas, aunque si presentaron mayor cantidad de lesiones hiperintensas en la resonancia magnetica. Este hecho, descrito en trabajos previos, apoya nuestro esquema diagnostico y terapeutico en un intento por acercarnos al manejo optimo de esta patologia.

  8. Tectonic development of the Indonesian archipelago and its bearing on the occurrence of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Simanjuntak, T.O. )

    1994-07-01

    The present geological and tectonic configuration of the Indonesian archipelago may represent a typical triple junction plate convergence, which has developed since Neogene times due to the northward-moving Indo-Australian plate, the westward-moving Pacific plate, and the south-southeastward-moving Eurasian Craton. The occurrence of a number of microcontinents in eastern Indonesia makes the geology and tectonics of the region more complex. The archipelago is one of the most complicated regions from the plate tectonics point of view. The geological evolution of the Indonesian archipelago is recorded by the occurrence of both tectonic convergence and tectonic divergence. Various types of plate convergences include a Cordilleran type subduction, which has been reoccurring since Paleozoic until present times in western Indonesia; a Neogene Tethyan type collision in the Banda region; and a double-arc collision in northern Maluku, central Indonesia. Tectonic divergence, which was preceded by rifting due to thermal doming and magma rise in the northern margins of the Australian Craton and followed by the detachment and west-northwestward displacement of continental fragments in Mesozoic, gave rise to the development of the microcontinents in eastern Indonesia.

  9. Endangered light-footed clapper rail affects parasite community structure in coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kathleen L; Hechinger, Ryan F; Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2007-09-01

    An extinction necessarily affects community members that have obligate relationships with the extinct species. Indirect or cascading effects can lead to even broader changes at the community or ecosystem level. However, it is not clear whether generalist parasites should be affected by the extinction of one of their hosts. We tested the prediction that loss of a host species could affect the structure of a generalist parasite community by investigating the role of endangered Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) in structuring trematode communities in four tidal wetlands in southern California, U.S.A. (Carpinteria Salt Marsh, Mugu Lagoon) and Mexico (Estero de Punta Banda, Bahia Falsa-San Quintin). We used larval trematode parasites in first intermediate host snails (Cerithidea californica) as windows into the adult trematodes that parasitize Clapper Rails. Within and among wetlands, we found positive associations between Clapper Rails and four trematode species, particularly in the vegetated marsh habitat where Clapper Rails typically occur. This suggests that further loss of Clapper Rails is likely to affect the abundance of several competitively dominant trematode species in wetlands with California horn snails, with possible indirect effects on the trematode community and changes in the impacts of these parasites on fishes and invertebrates.

  10. Endangered light-footed clapper rail affects parasite community structure in coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, Kathleen L.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    An extinction necessarily affects community members that have obligate relationships with the extinct species. Indirect or cascading effects can lead to even broader changes at the community or ecosystem level. However, it is not clear whether generalist parasites should be affected by the extinction of one of their hosts. We tested the prediction that loss of a host species could affect the structure of a generalist parasite community by investigating the role of endangered Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) in structuring trematode communities in four tidal wetlands in southern California, USA (Carpinteria Salt Marsh, Mugu Lagoon) and Mexico (Estero de Punta Banda, Bahia Falsa–San Quintín). We used larval trematode parasites in first intermediate host snails (Cerithidea californica) as windows into the adult trematodes that parasitize Clapper Rails. Within and among wetlands, we found positive associations between Clapper Rails and four trematode species, particularly in the vegetated marsh habitat where Clapper Rails typically occur. This suggests that further loss of Clapper Rails is likely to affect the abundance of several competitively dominant trematode species in wetlands with California horn snails, with possible indirect effects on the trematode community and changes in the impacts of these parasites on fishes and invertebrates.

  11. Characteristics and risk factors for typhoid fever after the tsunami, earthquake and under normal conditions in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Qiantori, Andri; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

    2010-04-17

    Although typhoid transmitted by food and water is a common problem in daily life, its characteristics and risk factors may differ in disaster-affected areas, which reinforces the need for rapid public health intervention. Surveys were carried out post-tsunami in Banda Aceh, post-earthquake in Yogyakarta, and under normal conditions in Bandung, Indonesia. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors with the dependent variable of typhoid fever, with or without complications. Characteristic typhoid fever with complications was found in 5 patients (11.9%) affected by the tsunami in Aceh, 8 (20.5%) after the earthquake in Yogyakarta, and 13 (18.6%) in Bandung. After the tsunami in Aceh, clean water (OR = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.01-0.47) and drug availability (OR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.02-2.43) are significant independent risk factors, while for the earthquake in Yogyakarta, contact with other typhoid patients (OR = 20.30; 95%CI: 1.93-213.02) and education (OR = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.01-0.98) were significant risk factors. Under normal conditions in Bandung, hand washing (OR = 0.07; 95%CI: 0.01-0.50) and education (OR = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.01-0.64) emerged as significant risk factors. The change in risk factors for typhoid complication after the tsunami in Aceh and the earthquake in Yogyakarta emphasizes the need for rapid public health intervention in natural disasters in Indonesia.

  12. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  13. Complex Proterozoic crustal assembly of southwestern North America in an arcuate subduction system:Tthe Black Canyon of the Gunnison, southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, Micah J.; Kalstrom, Karl E.; Connelly, James; Williams, Michael; Livaccari, Richard; Tyson, Amanda; Rogers, Steven A.

    The dominant orogenic fabric in Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern U.S. includes a series of NE-striking shear zones that are commonly interpreted as suture zones across which blocks of juvenile crust were assembled to the southern margin of Laurentia. New structural and geochronological data from southwestern Colorado suggest that fabrics related to assembly of tectonostratigraphic terranes in this area strike northwest. The NW-striking foliations represent deformation at ca. 10-20 km paleodepths (ca. 1.77-1.71 Ga), and are parallel to magnetic anomalies and to gradients in mantle velocity structure. The agreement between these data sets suggests that the NW-striking structures are important at lithospheric scale, extend to >100 km depth, and may record assembly of southwestern Colorado across NW-striking tectonic boundaries. Geochronologic data indicate that northwest (central Colorado)—and northeast (Cheyenne belt)—striking boundaries developed simultaneously during accretion of southwestern Laurentia between ca. 1.78-1.73 Ga. We propose that the Yavapai province at ca. 1.75 Ga may have involved a complex arcuate subduction system, with multiple arcs, analogous to that of the modern Banda Sea, in the Indonesia region.

  14. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  15. Low rate of obesity among psychiatric inpatients in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, M; Aichberger, Marion; Puteh, Ibrahim; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2014-01-01

    A vast majority of psychiatric medication causes weight gain, however the rate of obesity in psychiatric patients has yet to be thoroughly studied in Indonesia. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of obesity among psychiatric inpatients in Indonesia. This cross sectional study was conducted in Banda Aceh Psychiatric Hospital, Indonesia from December 2012 to January 2013. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood pressure of a total 242 inpatients was measured, and data on their demographic information and medication were collected from the patient's chart. The prevalence rate of obesity among psychiatric inpatients was 5% (95% CI = 2.6-8.5%), and overweight was 8% (95% CI = 5.1-12.4). The mean BMI was 21.44 kg/m² (SD: 3.43). Stage I hypertension and stage II hypertension was found among 7% (95% CI = 4.1-11), and 2% (95% CI = 0.9-5.3%) inpatients, respectively. The findings suggest that the rate of overweight, obesity and hypertension in the present study population was relatively low compared to rates of the general population. The inpatients have limited access to food and only eat meals that are provided to them by the hospital.

  16. La opacidad atmosférica del CASLEO a ondas milimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareilles, F.; Olalde, J.; Picardo, C.; Guarrera, L.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.; Perilli, D.; Salazar, P.

    Mediante el uso de un radiómetro que trabaja en la frecuencia de 210 GHz, se han realizado mediciones de la transparencia de la atmósfera a esa frecuencia. Los sitios en los que se han realizado las medidas, corresponden al Cerro Negro de la Tina (Cerro Burek), ubicado a unos 2650 m de altura, y a un sitio ubicado a unos 3400 m de altura, localizado en la Pampa del Jarillal. Las mediciones forman parte de una campaña que cubrirá un lapso de tres años, durante la cual se caracterizan distintas zonas ubicadas en la cordillera. Los resultados que se comunican fueron obtenidos durante el período diciembre de 2002 a septiembre de 2003. Se realiza una comparación preliminar entre la opacidad atmosférica de los lugares mencionados y aquélla de otros sitios en los que se encuentran instaladas facilidades observacionales que operan en la banda milimétrica y submilimétrica del espectro.

  17. Contribution to the geochronology of the basement of the Central African Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavreau, J.; Poidevin, J. L.; Ledent, D.; Liegeois, J. P.; Weis, D.

    The age and isotope geology of the most striking geological elements of the basement in the south-central CAR have been investigated. The granite-greenstone belts of Bandas and Dekoa, as well as the amphibolitic complexes and associated gneisses of the Ouham and the Mbomou rivers, belong to the Archaean period. Granitic bodies intruding the post-Archaean Quartzito-schistose or "intermediate" series are of Lower Proterozoic Eburnean age. All former units have suffered on a limited scale from the Panafrican reactivation, as they belong to autochtonous areas constituting either a foreland or lateral ramps relatively to thrust belts developing during the latter period. The granulitic areas of central CAR are of Panafrican age. They have, together with the associated gneisses, been tectonized during the same period of orogeny. The granulites result from the remobilization of a crustal segment of Lower Proterozoic or older age. As a result of this tectonic complexity, it is no longer licit to put all the granulitic and gneissic series of the CAR in a single stratigraphic unit.

  18. The evolution of Sumba Island (Indonesia) revisited in the light of new data on the geochronology and geochemistry of the magmatic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, C. I.; Rampnoux, J.-P.; Bellon, H.; Maury, R. C.; Soeria-Atmadja, R.

    2000-04-01

    The island of Sumba, presently located in the southern row of islands of the Eastern Nusa Tenggara province of Eastern Indonesia, has a unique position, being part of the Sunda-Banda magmatic arc and subduction system. It represents a continental crustal fragment located at the boundary between the Sunda oceanic subduction system and the Australian arc-continent collision system, separating the Savu Basin from the Lombok Basin. New data on magmatic rocks collected from Sumba are presented in this paper, including bulk rock major and trace element chemistry, petrography and whole rock and mineral 40K- 40Ar ages. Three distinct calc-alkaline magmatic episodes have been recorded during Cretaceous-Paleogene, all of them characterized by similar rock assemblages (i.e. pyroclastic rocks, basaltic-andesitic lava flows and granodioritic intrusions). They are: (i) the Santonian-Campanian episode (86-77 Ma) represented by volcanic and plutonic rock exposures in the Masu Complex in Eastern Sumba; (ii) the Maastrichtian-Thanetian episode (71-56 Ma) represented by the volcanic and plutonic units of Sendikari Bay, Tengairi Bay and the Tanadaro Complex in Central Sumba; and (iii) the Lutetian-Rupelian episode (42-31 Ma) of which the products are exposed at Lamboya and Jawila in the western part of Sumba. No Neogene magmatic activity has been recorded.

  19. Ice clouds optical properties in the Far Infrared from the ECOWAR-COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Rolando; Tosi, Ennio

    ECOWAR-COBRA (Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission -Campagna di Osservazioni della Banda Rotazionale del vapor d'Acqua) field campaign took place in Italy from 3 to 17 March 2007 with the main goal of studying the scarcely sensed atmospheric emission occurring beyond 17 microns. Instrumentation involved in the campaign included two different Fourier Transforms Spectrometers (FTS) : REFIR-PAD (at Testa Grigia Station, 3500 m a.s.l.) and FTIR-ABB (at Cervinia Station, 1990 m a.s.l.). In this work cloudy sky data have been ana-lyzed. A cloud properties retrieval methodology (RT-RET), based on high spectral resolution measurements in the atmospheric window (800-1000 cm-1), is applied to both FTS sensors. Cloud properties determined from the infrared retrievals are compared with those obtained from Raman lidar taken by the BASIL Lidar system that was operating at Cervinia station. Cloud microphysical and optical properties retrieved by RT-RET are used to perform forward simulations over the entire FTSs measurements spectral interval. Results are compared to FTS data to test the ability of single scattering ice crystals models to reproduce cloudy sky radiances in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) part of the spectrum. New methods to retrieve cloud optical and microphysical properties exploiting high spectral resolution FIR measurements are also investigated.

  20. Polarización lineal en estrellas simbióticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Ferrer, O. E.

    Se presenta un estudio de polarización lineal en las bandas UBVRI de un grupo de estrellas simbióticas, a fin de analizar el comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición en función de la longitud de onda. En aquellos sistemas observados repetidas veces, se analizan además variaciones temporales en los parámetros de polarización. En base a este comportamiento se determina si la polarización observada es puramente interestelar o si existe una contribución de polarización, intrínseca al objeto. La muestra de objetos estudiados presenta ciertas características comunes, es decir, son sistemas simbióticos tipo D, cuyas respectivas componentes gigantes son variables tipo Mira y además presentan nebulosas ionizadas extendidas con morfología y dimensiones conocidas. Esto es de importancia ya que el conocimiento de la estructura del gas extendido permite interpretar la geometría de scattering que produce la polarización observada. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el Fotopolarímetro de Torino adosado al telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO.

  1. Isotopic (U-Pb, Nd) and geochemical constraints on the origins of the Aileu and Gondwana sequences of Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.

  2. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  3. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  4. [Effect of alcohol on electrical organisation in the brain during a visuospatial working memory task and its relationship with the menstrual cycle].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Martin, Araceli; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Santana, Gloria; Gumá-Díaz, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. El metabolismo del alcohol y el desempeño de muchas funciones cognitivas pueden variar a lo largo del ciclo menstrual. Tanto la ingestion de alcohol como las variaciones hormonales durante el ciclo menstrual se asocian con cambios caracteristicos en la actividad electroencefalografica. Objetivo. Determinar si la actividad electroencefalografica durante una tarea de memoria de trabajo es afectada por el consumo agudo de alcohol, y si dicha actividad varia en funcion del ciclo menstrual. Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 24 mujeres que ingirieron alcohol o placebo durante las fases folicular y lutea temprana. Se registro el electroencefalograma durante la ejecucion de una tarea de memoria de trabajo visuoespacial. Resultados. Aunque el alcohol no deterioro el rendimiento de la tarea de memoria de trabajo, si produjo en el electroencefalograma una disminucion de la potencia relativa de theta y una menor correlacion frontoparietal derecha en las bandas theta y alfa2. Unicamente las mujeres alcoholizadas en la fase folicular presentaron una mayor potencia relativa de alfa1, que podria indicar menor nivel de alertamiento y atencion. Conclusiones. Estos resultados contribuyen a una mejor comprension de los mecanismos cerebrales que subyacen a los cambios cognitivos con el alcohol y su relacion con el ciclo menstrual.

  5. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  6. New constraints on the timing of flexural deformation along the northern Australian margin: Implications for arc-continent collision and the development of the Timor Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saqab, Muhammad Mudasar; Bourget, Julien; Trotter, Julie; Keep, Myra

    2017-01-01

    Numerous extensional faults offset the passive margin strata of the northern Bonaparte Basin. This extensional deformation has been attributed to lithospheric flexure of the descending Australian Plate, in an overall convergence setting. Here we use an extensive 2D and 3D seismic dataset calibrated with well biostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope age data to constrain the timing of deformation along the northern Australian margin during the Neogene. Analysis of fault throw and differential thickness variations give new insights on the propagation and slip history of the faults. Along-dip throw profiles exhibit 'D' shape distributions, skewed towards the top. Positive throw gradients above the throw maxima, coinciding with intervals of growth strata, indicate multiphase fault activity. Results indicate that post-rift extensional deformation initiated during the latest Miocene (ca. 6 Ma). The development of the modern Timor Trough (as a foreland basin) and Cartier Trough also commenced during this period. A second episode of increased tectonic activity occurred around the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary (ca. 3 Ma), and the deformation continued intermittently to the present-day. These new results are in agreement with the timing of initiation of collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc and uplift of the Timor Island, recently derived from stratigraphic analysis in Timor. These regional tectonic events have profoundly affected the paleogeography of the Timor Sea and may explain major changes in oceanic circulation and climate during the Neogene.

  7. Design analysis of vertical wind turbine with airfoil variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Qaedy, T. Masykur Al; Nawawi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    With an ever increasing electrical energy crisis occurring in the Banda Aceh City, it will be important to investigate alternative methods of generating power in ways different than fossil fuels. In fact, one of the biggest sources of energy in Aceh is wind energy. It can be harnessed not only by big corporations but also by individuals using Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). This paper presents a three-dimensional CFD analysis of the influence of airfoil design on performance of a Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The main objective of this paper is to develop an airfoil design for NACA 63-series vertical axis wind turbine, for average wind velocity 2,5 m/s. To utilize both lift and drag force, some of designs of airfoil are analyzed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such us Fluent. Simulation is performed for this airfoil at different angles of attach rearranging from -12°, -8°, -4°, 0°, 4°, 8°, and 12°. The analysis showed that the significant enhancement in value of lift coefficient for airfoil NACA 63-series is occurred for NACA 63-412.

  8. [How do the obese persons perceive their overall health?].

    PubMed

    Ríos-Martínez, Blanca P; Rangel-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Pedraza-Moctezuma, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: conocer cómo la persona con obesidad percibe su salud en diferentes áreas de su vida. Métodos: a 224 pacientes con obesidad, se les aplicó el cuestionario SF-36, el cual mide funcionamiento social y físico, salud mental y física, dolor corporal, limitaciones de roles debido a problemas físicos o emocionales, vitalidad y salud general. Se analizaron las diferencias entre los sexos, el tratamiento y el grado de obesidad. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se aplicó t de Student, Anova y prueba de Tukey Resultados: Las mujeres tuvieron peor funcionamiento social y emocional que los hombres; en cuanto al tipo de tratamiento, los pacientes con derivación gástrica indicaron mayor cansancio que aquellos con banda gástrica y los que tuvieron obesidad mórbida mostraron menor funcionamiento físico, mayor dolor y peor salud general que quienes tenían obesidad. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes analizados tendió a sentirse cansada, exhausta y con la sensación de que su salud ha sido y seguirá deteriorándose.

  9. Permo-Triassic evolution of Gondwanan eastern Indonesia, and the final Mesozoic separation of SE Asia from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.

    2001-08-01

    Continental fragments with Australian/Gondwanan stratigraphic affinities are widely distributed throughout the eastern Indonesia collision complex. Despite their structural isolation from one another as a consequence of Tertiary orogenesis, these fragments show a remarkably uniform pattern of Permo-Triassic tectonostratigraphy, ranging from a granitoid belt in the north, through a continental platform, to an intracontinental rift system in the south. Within the rift system complementary upper and lower plate rifted margins can be recognised in the northern and southern Banda Arcs, respectively. The northern granitoid belt was initiated in the mid-Carboniferous, whilst the intracontinental rift system began to develop in latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian times. Extension in the northern rift margin ceased in the mid-Carnian (early Late Triassic), contemporaneous with a marked decline in igneous activity in the granitoid belt to the north. The Sibumasu Terrane of mainland SE Asia probably originated on the Gondwanaland continental margin, adjacent to reconstructed eastern Indonesia, but rifted away during the Early Permian. Previous interpretations have seen this rifting as marking the final separation between Gondwanaland and continental terranes now forming SE Asia. Alternatively, it is suggested here that Gondwanan eastern Indonesia acted as an indirect continental connection between Sibumasu/Indochina and Australia during the Permian and Triassic. This continental isthmus permitted continuing limited floral and faunal interchange between Gondwanaland and SE Asia until a final separation in the Late Triassic. The mid-Carnian structural event in eastern Indonesia is interpreted as related to this separation.

  10. The "other" side of labor reform: accounts of incarceration and resistance in the Straits Settlements penal system, 1825-1873.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Anoma

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.

  11. Quaternary Uplift of Coral Terraces from Active Folding and Thrusting Along the Northern Coast of Timor-Leste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L.; Harris, R.; Merritts, D.

    2006-12-01

    Emergent coral terraces along the northern coast of Timor-Leste, reveal differential vertical strain along the strike of the active Banda arc-continent collision complex. The number of major coral terraces in surveyed profiles increases from 2 to 25 along a coastal distance of 150 km from central to eastern Timor-Leste. Comparison of 8 separate terrace profiles with sea level curves predicts vertical displacement rates that increase eastward from <0.3 to 1.0-1.5 mm/year. This pattern is corroborated by U-series age analyses that document non-linear increases in vertical strain eastward with the uplift rates ranging from <.04 to 2.0 mm/year. U-series ages also indicates the occurrence of both erosional (regressional) and depositional terraces. Two profiles, dominated by erosional terraces, have associated local lower depositional terraces. The erosional terraces are more abundant, but yield apparent lower uplift rates in comparison with the depositional terraces. This occurrence questions the validity of uplift rates obtained by age analysis for the errosional terraces and/or aids in the conclusion that differential vertical strain not only exists with distance between profiles but with time for each profile. We associate active uplift with northward movement along retro- wedge thrust faults that are well documented in seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the north coast of Timor- Leste.

  12. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  13. Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae; Neotrygon spp.) based on DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, Philippe; Arlyza, Irma S.; Hoareau, Thierry B.; Shen, Kang-Ning

    2017-08-01

    Nine morphologically similar but genetically distinct lineages in the blue-spotted maskray species complex, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle) qualify as cryptic species. Four of these lineages have been previously described as Neotrygon australiae Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon orientale Last, White and Séret, and Neotrygon varidens (Garman), but the morphological characters used in the descriptions offered poor diagnoses and their geographic distributions were not delineated precisely. The objective of the present work is to complete the description of the cryptic species in the complex. Here, an additional four lineages are described as new species on the basis of their mitochondrial DNA sequences: Neotrygon bobwardi, whose distribution extends from the northern tip of Aceh to the western coast of Sumatera; Neotrygon malaccensis, sampled from the eastern part of the Andaman Sea and from the Malacca Strait; Neotrygon moluccensis, from the eastern half of the Banda Sea; and Neotrygon westpapuensis from the central portion of northern West Papua. The geographic distributions of N. australiae, N. coeruleopunctata, N. orientale, and N. varidens are updated. For each species, a diagnosis is provided in the form of a combination of private or partly-private nucleotides at 2-4 nucleotide sites along a 519-base pair fragment of the CO1 gene. We believe that the present taxonomic revision will provide information relevant to the sound management and conservation of cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray in the Coral Triangle region.

  14. Geologic Map of the Albuquerque 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Cole, James C.

    2007-01-01

    local folding and uplift within the complex rift seems to have occurred in the late Miocene, accompanied by erosion and recycling of earlier rift-fill sediments. This deformation may reflect clockwise reorientation of the primary extension direction to its Pliocene and current east-west alignment. Late Miocene and early Pliocene uplift and erosion were widespread in the region, as indicated by channeled and local angular unconformities at the bases of all Pliocene units, especially prominent along basin margins. These Pliocene fluvial and alluvial deposits (Ceja and Ancha Formations and Tuerto Gravel) and the upper part of the Cochiti Formation are all conspicuously coarser grained than the Miocene beds they cover, particularly near source areas along the margins of the rift. These observations together indicate that the regional streams flowed at much greater discharge than the Miocene streams and that the Pliocene onset of cooler, wetter climate worldwide was the most likely cause. Despite these higher discharge conditions, it appears there was no Pliocene trunk stream through the rift valley because the youngest Pliocene beds in the basin center are largely fine grained sand, pebbly sand, and sandy silt. No Pliocene cobble-gravel deposits, or thick crossbed sets indicative of major stream discharge, have been documented in the basin center. Considerable evidence indicates significant erosion began in late Pliocene time, coincident with and following eruption of abundant basalt from several local centers at about 2.7-2.6 Ma. The onset of central valley erosion marks the initiation of the first through-flowing, high-energy trunk stream (the 'ancestral' Rio Grande), which most likely was caused by integration of drainage southward through the Socorro region. No upper Pliocene fluvial deposits have been identified in the valley center; rather, a significant unconformity separates beds with medial (or earliest late) Blancan fauna (older than about 2.2 Ma) from

  15. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  16. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  17. Trazando el brazo de Vela-Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Seggewiss, W.; Feinstein, A.

    Presentamos resultados preliminares basados en análisis fotométricos UBVI para 9 cúmulos abiertos ubicados en la zona de Vela-Puppis (α =7h58m y 9h54m, δ =- 28o a -59o) sobre un total de 15 cúmulos previstos. Estos cúmulos no han sido observados previamente, excepto en algunos pocos casos que se cuenta con fotometría y espectroscospía de algunas estrellas. Se han determinado membrecias, excesos de color, distancias y edades. En el futuro, la muestra global permitirá definir mas claramente este brazo y será utilizada para estudiar las funciones iniciales de masa individuales e integradas y compararlas con las obtenidas en observaciones intensivas realizadas en otras zonas de la Galaxia.

  18. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  19. 'REM-related OSA': a forgotten diagnostic? Possible path to under-diagnosing sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Beneto, A; Soler-Algarra, S; Salavert, V

    2016-12-01

    Introduccion. Recientemente se han propugnado criterios restrictivos para definir el sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva ligado al sueño REM y persisten interrogantes sobre su trascendencia nosologica y manejo clinico. Objetivo. Evaluar los criterios definitorios de la apnea del sueño REM, su relacion con la comorbilidad cardiometabolica y los aspectos relacionados con su diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional retrospectivo sobre datos clinicos y polisomnograficos de pacientes ambulatorios. Se incluyo a 525 pacientes mayores de 18 años que tenian un indice apnea/hipopnea (IAH) por hora de sueño = 5 (total, o parcial en REM o no REM). Resultados. Se han configurado subgrupos 'dependientes de la fase' utilizando un criterio basado en la 'proporcion = 2' y otro 'estricto' basado en uno de los IAH parciales = 5 frente al otro IAH < 5 (en REM o en no REM). En el subgrupo 'apnea del sueño REM estricto', la mitad de los pacientes muestra un IAH global < 5 y menos gravedad en los parametros respiratorios, pero sin menores porcentajes de comorbilidad. Con los criterios diagnosticos actuales quedarian excluidos del diagnostico de sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS). Conclusiones. Aplicar un criterio estricto para detectar apnea del sueño REM permite filtrar formas muy leves de SAHOS asociadas a comorbilidad cardiometabolica en porcentajes no diferentes significativamente de otras formas mas graves. Para evitar el infradiagnostico del SAHOS seria oportuno revisar los criterios diagnosticos actuales y las indicaciones de las tecnicas reducidas.

  20. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  1. Extension Within The Australia-Eurasia Collision: The Metamorphic Rocks Of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, I. M.; Hall, R.; Hennig, J.; Forster, M.

    2012-12-01

    -sense directions, 40Ar-39Ar ages and topographic character it is possible to divide the central Sulawesi metamorphic complexes into a series of low-angle ductile shear zones, cut by an upper brittle detachment in the east which may still be active. Uplift of the metamorphic rocks has been largely in response to sequential unroofing along these structures. The system is bounded in the west by the Palu-Koro Fault, which links to subduction beneath north Sulawesi, and which may flatten at depth into a basal detachment below central Sulawesi. Early extension is synchronous with spreading in the North Banda Sea, and may have been driven by east-directed rollback of the Banda Sea. Later extension (post-5 Ma) was driven by subduction rollback in the north, and much of the extensional deformation in central Sulawesi represents the crustal 'tear' marking the southern limit of the effects of northward extension.

  2. Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe basin, West African craton, in central-west Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Maluwe basin, north-adjacent to the Sunyani basin, is the northernmost of the northeast-trending Eburnean volcaniclastic depositories in Ghana. These basins are separated from one another by remnants of Eoeburnean crust, all formed during the evolution of an arc-backarc basins complex in a Palaeoproterozoic intraoceanic environment. The Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane to the northwest, of mostly Eoeburnean crust is fault bounded with the Maluwe basin along the northeast-trending Bolé-Navrongo fault zone. The stratigraphic sequence, which was the key to unravelling the structural evolution of the study area, was established by means of field observations aided by precision SHRIMP geochronology. The quartzitic, pelitic, quartzofeldspathic and granitic gneisses of the Eoeburnean crust (>2150 Ma) experienced complex metamorphic mineral growth and migmatitization, mostly under static crustal conditions and were subjected to several deformation episodes. The foliated mafic and metasedimentary enclaves within the Ifanteyire granite establish deformation to have taken place prior to ˜2195 Ma, while the tectonically emplaced Kuri amphibolites within the 2187-Ma gneissic Gondo granite indicate a stage of rifting followed by collision. Deformation of granite dykes in the Gondo granites at ˜2150 Ma concluded the development of the Eoeburnean orogenic cycle (DEE). The Sawla Suite, contemporaneous with the deposition of the Maluwe Group, intruded the tectonic exhumed Bolé-Nangodi terrane during extension between ˜2137 and 2125 Ma. The rifting separated the Abulembire fragment from the Bolé-Nangodi terrane. During subsequent northwestward subduction of young back-arc basin oceanic crust the volcaniclastic strata of the Maluwe Group and Sawla granitoids were deformed (DE1) under chlorite/sericite greenschist-grade conditions. The NE-trending folds had subhorizontal axes and subvertical axial planes. Simultaneous to the DE1 orogenesis the molasses of the Banda Group was

  3. Biochemical polymorphisms in Spanish Avileña-Negra Iberica cattle.

    PubMed

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Medjugorac, I; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    . Fueron monomórficos los sistemas siguientes: CAT, DIA1, MDH1 y ME1. Utilizando eletroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida se encontró un par de bandas de migración lenta en el sistema de la proteína GC. Este patrón probablemente está controlado por el infrecuente alelo GC(C) , descrito en unos pocos casos en el ganado vacuno. Además, la electroforesis en gel de almidón permitió detectar en el locus de la albúmina una banda con movilidad intermedia entre los alelos ALB(A) y ALB(B) . Una variante con un patrón electroforético similar ha sido descrita en muy pocas ocasiones en el ganado vacuno. Sin embargo, la utilización de IEF en condiciones desnaturalizantes no permitió diferenciar esta variante del alelo ALB(A) y, por lo tanto, el significado de la misma no está claro. 1994 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Redox-variability and controls in subduction zones from an iron-isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P. A.; Bénard, A.; Wille, M.; Vroon, P. Z.; Arculus, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing controversy in mantle geochemistry concerns the oxidation state of the sources of island arc lavas (IAL). Three key factors control oxidation-reduction (redox) of IAL sources: (i) metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids and/or melts, liberated from the underlying subducted slab; (ii) the oxidation state of the wedge prior to melting and metasomatism; and (iii) the loss of melt from IAL sources. Subsequently, magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallisation, possible crustal contamination and degassing of melts en route to and at the surface can further modify the redox states of IAL. The remote nature of sub-arc processes and the complex interplay between them render direct investigations difficult. However, a possible gauge for redox-controlled, high-temperature pre-eruptive differentiation conditions is variations in stable Fe isotope compositions (expressed here as δ57Fe) in erupting IAL because Fe isotopes can preserve a record of sub-surface mass transfer reactions involving the major element Fe. Here we report Fe isotope compositions of bulk IAL along the active Banda arc, Indonesia, which is well known for a prominent subducted sediment input. In conjunction with other arc rocks, δ57Fe in erupted Banda IAL indicates that fractional crystallisation and possibly crustal contamination primarily control their Fe isotope signatures. When corrected for fractional crystallisation and filtered for contamination, arc magmas that had variable sediment melt contributions in their sources show no resolvable co-variation of δ57Fe with radiogenic isotope tracers. This indicates that crustal recycling in the form of subducted sediment does not alter the Fe isotope character of arc lavas, in agreement with mass balance estimates. Primitive sources of IAL, however, are clearly isotopically lighter than those sourced beneath mid-ocean ridges, indicating either preferential Fe3+-depletion in the mantle wedge by prior, δ57Fe-heavy melt extraction, and

  5. Tectonic History and Mantle Structure of the Sundaland and Indonesian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.; Spakman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The heterogeneous Sundaland region was assembled by closure of Tethyan oceans and addition of continental fragments. Its Mesozoic and Cenozoic history is partly recorded in the mantle, and mantle structure from tomographic imaging can be interpreted using new plate tectonic reconstructions. Continental fragments of east Asian origin, ophiolites and deformed sediments were accreted to eastern Sundaland north of Borneo in the Cretaceous, and a wide zone from Sarawak northwards to South China probably represents subduction at the Pacific margin until about 90 Ma. Eastward rollback at this margin may have contributed to Cretaceous extension and thermal events in Indochina but it is difficult to identify a record of this subduction in the mantle. Continental blocks rifted from western Australia in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous are in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi. West Burma was not one of them; it was already part of SE Asia by the Triassic. The Banda (SW Borneo) block was added to Sundaland at c.110 Ma, and at c.90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc and Argo (East Java-West Sulawesi) block collided with the Sundaland margin causing subduction to cease. A marked change in deep mantle structure at about 110°E reflects the different subduction histories north of India and Australia since 90 Ma. India and Australia were separated by a transform boundary that was leaky from 90 to 75 Ma and slightly convergent from 75 to 55 Ma. West of this I-A transform, ENE-striking high-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle are interpreted to mark subduction zones active as India moved rapidly north from 80 Ma, with north-directed subduction of Tethys, associated with collision of India with an intra-oceanic arc at c.55 Ma, west of Sumatra, before collision with Asia in the Eocene. In contrast, east of the I-A transform little or none of the Mesozoic history can be identified in the mantle. Between 90 and 45 Ma Australia separated very slowly from Antarctica and there was no significant

  6. The 339 Years of Living Dangerously in Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Indonesian Region from 1538 to 1877

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Major, J.

    2013-05-01

    Using 339 years of Dutch records of geophysical events in Indonesia and tsunami modeling, we have identified previously unknown mega-thrust earthquake sources in eastern Indonesia that caused severe devastation in the past and are likely to reoccur in the near future. Indonesia has experienced some of the most extreme geohazards known (Toba, Krakatoa, Tambora, Indian Ocean tsunami). Although most of well known events occurred in western Indonesia, historical records reveal that eastern Indonesia is actually more hazardous. Strain rates in eastern Indonesia are twice those in Sumatra and tsunamis are much more frequent. Adding to the disaster potential in Indonesia is its rapid population growth and urbanization, especially in coastal regions. When the events documented in historical records reoccur in eastern Indonesia, as they have in western Indonesia, ten times more people and assets will be in harms way. Arthur Wichmann's Die Erdbeben Des Indischen Archipels [The Earthquakes of the Indian Archipelago] (1918) documents >100 destructive earthquakes and 68 tsunamis between 1600 and 1877. The largest and best documented are the events of 1629, 1674 and 1852 in the Banda Sea region, 1770 and 1859 in the Molucca Sea region, 1820 in Makassar, 1857 in Dili, Timor, 1815 in Bali and Lombak, 1699, 1771, 1780, 1815, 1848 and 1852 in Java and 1799, 1833 and 1861 in Sumatra. All of these events caused damage over a broad region notwithstanding high seismic attenuation rates, and are associated with years of temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes. Several tsunami are recorded with run-up heights > 15 meters. Many islands were engulfed and coastal communities washed away. The earthquakes associated with these events were felt over a region as large as the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan and were followed by decades of aftershocks. Over the past 160 years no major shallow earthquakes have struck eastern Indonesia, which is characterized as an area incapable of mega

  7. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  8. Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary INDOMIX in-situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Atmadipoera, Agus; van Beek, Pieter; Madec, Gurvan; Aucan, Jérôme; Lyard, Florent; Grelet, Jacques; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Mixing program (INDOMIX) was designed to quantify the very strong mixing that transforms Pacific waters into isohaline Indonesian Waters in the Indonesian archipelago. The turbulent dissipation rates and associated mixing were estimated and analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach that combines physical and geochemical in-situ observations: (1) direct measurements of the dissipation using a microstructure profiler, (2) use of density-based fine-scale methods applied to CTD and XCTD data, and (3) study of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides (radium isotopes and actinium-227). Data were collected at five contrasting stations within the Indonesian archipelago, found above energetic straits or in relatively quiescent large basins. Strong instabilities, inversions of the density profiles and a very strong water mass transformation were observed. A wide range of dissipation values were obtained (between [10-10, 10-4] W kg-1) with spots of higher dissipation in the ocean interior correlated with a strong internal tide signal. Both the fine-scale and micro-scale methods allow us to identify very strong energy dissipation levels above the straits, ranging between [10-7, 10-4] W kg-1, in contrast to lower values at stations further away from the generation sites. The dissipation for the station located in the center of the Halmahera Sea ([10-9, 10-8] W kg-1) is stronger than for the Banda station ([10-11, 10-10] W kg-1), which is even further away from the generation sites. The three approaches agree relatively well and provide vertical eddy diffusivities values ranging between 5×10-4 and 5×10-1 m2 s-1, except in the Banda Sea where values are similar to the ones found in the open ocean (10-6 m2 s-1). CTD and XCTD profilers (deployed between stations) give estimates of dissipation all along the transit. It is found that enhanced mixing occurs preferentially above rough topography, such as in the Ombai Strait, the Halmahera Sea's northern

  9. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Indonesian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspito, Nanang T.; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Miyatake, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kunihiko; Hirahara, Kazuro

    1993-04-01

    Miocene. The blocks along the Sunda and Banda arcs are less well resolved than those in the Philippine Islands and the Molucca Sea region. Nevertheless, overall structures can be inferred. The bowl-shaped distribution of the seismicity of the Banda arc is clearly defined by a horseshoe-shaped high-velocity zone. The tomographic image shows that the Indian oceanic slab subducts to a depth deeper than 300 km i.e., deeper than its seismicity, beneath Andaman Islands and Sumatra and may be discontinuous in northern Sumatra. Along southern Sumatra, Java and the islands to the east, the slab appears to be continuous and can be traced down to at least a depth of the deepest seismicity, where it appears to penetrate into the lower mantle.

  10. Unraveling topography around subduction zones from laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin; Funiciello, Francesca; Faccenna, Claudio; Royden, Leigh H.

    2012-03-01

    The relief around subduction zones results from the interplay of dynamic processes that may locally exceed the (iso)static contributions. The viscous dissipation of the energy in and around subduction zones is capable of generating kilometer scale vertical ground movements. In order to evaluate dynamic topography in a self-consistent subduction system, we carried out a set of laboratory experiments, wherein the lithosphere and mantle are simulated by means of Newtonian viscous materials, namely silicone putty and glucose syrup. Models are kept in their most simple form and are made of negative buoyancy plates, of variable width and thickness, freely plunging into the syrup. The surface of the model and the top of the slab are scanned in three dimensions. A forebulge systematically emerges from the bending of the viscous plate, adjacent to the trench. With a large wavelength, dynamic pressure offsets the foreside and backside of the slab by ~ 500 m on average. The suction, that accompanies the vertical descent of the slab depresses the surface on both sides. At a distance equal to the half-width of the slab, the topographic depression amounts to ~ 500 m on average and becomes negligible at a distance that equals the width of the slab. In order to explore the impact of slab rollback on the topography, the trailing edge of the plates is alternatively fixed to (fixed mode) and freed from (free mode) the end wall of the tank. Both the pressure and suction components of the topography are ~ 30% lower in the free mode, indicating that slab rollback fosters the dynamic subsidence of upper plates. Our models are compatible with first order observations of the topography around the East Scotia, Tonga, Kermadec and Banda subduction zones, which exhibit anomalous depths of nearly 1 km as compared to adjacent sea floor of comparable age.

  11. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-02-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) (r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) (r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) (r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  12. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P < 0.05) showed moderate positive correlation to the condition index. During the 16 month sampling period, four reproductive cycles were observed: each from three to six months. The process of releasing gametes is termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  13. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Kennedy, George L.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1994-07-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ˜80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ˜125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ˜80,000 and the ˜125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ˜105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ˜125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ˜80,000 and ˜105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  14. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  15. Collision, rotation, and the initiation of subduction in the evolution of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Eli A.; McCaffrey, Robert; Smith, Randall B.

    1983-11-01

    The island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been shaped and deformed as a result of collision with the Sula platform, a sliver of continental material from the northern margin of Australia-New Guinea. The collision has resulted in rotation of the north volcanic arm of Sulawesi and the development of the accretionary wedge of the North Sulawesi trench. The North Sulawesi trench changes laterally from a zone of no active deformation in the eastern part to a wide accretionary wedge in the west. Early stages of thrusting produce a steep frontal slope (8°-16°), indicative of relatively high basal shear stress, whereas the more advanced (western) zone of thrusting produces a gentle (2°) slope, consistent with low basal shear stress. Reported paleomagnetic data suggest post late Eocene counter-clockwise rotation of the North Arm, and the offshore geophysics are explained by a pivot of the North Arm with respect to the Celebes basin about the eastern end of the arc. Convergence between the north Banda basin and Southeast Sulawesi is documented by the presence of the Tolo thrust. Its outcrop is strongly arcuate and its accretionary wedge varies in width from a minimum of a few kilometers at each end to a maximum of 30-40 km in the central part. The northern end transforms to the leftlateral Matano fault, with a reported offset of 20 km. The southern end of the thrust projects toward the deformed rocks of Buton, but the structural relations there are not clear. The Matano fault zone appears to connect westward with the Palu fault, which forms the western transform of the North Sulawesi trench. The Palu-Matano fault system acts as a trench-trench transform between the North Sulawesi trench and the Tolo thrust, and this system is described by the same rotation pole as that for the Sulawesi North Arm.

  16. Tectonic controls of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization in orogenic forelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the world's Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits occur in orogenic forelands. We examine tectonic aspects of foreland evolution as part of a broader study of why some forelands are rich in MVT deposits, whereas others are barren. The type of orogenic foreland (collisional versus Andean-type versus inversion-type) is not a first-order control, because each has MVT deposits (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Pine Point, and Cevennes, respectively). In some MVT districts (e.g., Tri-State and Central Tennessee), mineralization took place atop an orogenic forebulge, a low-amplitude (a few hundred meters), long-wavelength (100-200 km) swell formed by vertical loading of the foreland plate. In the foreland of the active Banda Arc collision zone, a discontinuous forebulge reveals some of the physiographic and geologic complexities of the forebulge environment, and the importance of sea level in determining whether or not a forebulge will emerge and thus be subject to erosion. In addition to those on extant forebulges, some MVT deposits occur immediately below unconformities that originated at a forebulge, only to be subsequently carried toward the orogen by the plate-tectonic conveyor (e.g., Daniel's Harbour and East Tennessee). Likewise, some deposits are located along syn-collisional, flexure-induced normal and strike-slip faults in collisional forelands (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Daniel's Harbour, and Tri-State districts). These findings reveal the importance of lithospheric flexure, and suggest a conceptual tectonic model that accounts for an important subset of MVT deposits-those in the forelands of collisional orogens. The MVT deposits occur both in flat-lying and in thrust-faulted strata; in the latter group, mineralization postdated thrusting in some instances (e.g., Picos de Europa) but may have predated thrusting in other cases (e.g., East Tennessee).

  17. An evaluation of public, private, and mobile health clinic usage for children under age 5 in Aceh after the tsunami: implications for future disasters

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Shu, Winnie; Santosham, Mathuram; Burnham, Gilbert; Doocy, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of formal public versus private and mobile health services for children under age 5 with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of care usage. Methods: A household survey of 962 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. Results: Of those caretakers who utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their sick child, 62% used a public health facility, 30% used a private health facility, and 8% used a mobile clinic. In terms of significant factors associated with public, private, and mobile care utilization, mobile clinics were at one side of the spectrum and private clinics were at the other side overall, with public care somewhere in between. This was true for several variables. Mobile clinic users reported the lowest cost of services and medicine and the highest perceived level of accessibility, and private care users reported the highest perceived level of satisfaction. Conclusions: Utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami. The caretaker's perceived satisfaction with public health services could have been improved. Mobile clinics were an accessible source of health care and could be used in future disaster relief efforts to target those populations that seek less care for their sick children, including displaced populations, and those children whose parents have died. PMID:25750788

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1–5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need. PMID:25750772

  20. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  1. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  2. Spondylotic myelopathy mimicking myelitis: diagnostic clues by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rua, Adriana; Blanco, Yolanda; Sepúlveda, María; Sola-Valls, Núria; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Llufriu, Sara; Berenguer, Joan; Graus, Francesc; Saiz, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La mielopatia espondilotica es la causa mas frecuente de mielopatia no traumatica. Sus caracteristicas radiologicas en ocasiones son indistinguibles de las de una mielopatia inflamatoria, y pueden ocasionar retrasos diagnosticos o llevar a un diagnostico y tratamiento incorrectos. La descripcion reciente de un patron caracteristico de realce de gadolinio puede ayudar a diferenciar la mielopatia espondilotica de la causa inflamatoria. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon de 38 años que consulto por historia de dos años de evolucion de parestesias en las extremidades superiores, a las que se añadieron un año mas tarde calambres en las extremidades derechas y acorchamiento en los dermatomas C5 y C6 en relacion con los movimientos del cuello. Caso 2: varon de 44 años que consulto por historia de un año de evolucion de alteracion progresiva de la marcha con trastorno sensitivo en las manos y disfuncion vesical reciente. En ambos casos, la resonancia magnetica medular mostro en las secciones sagitales una hiperseñal cervical fusiforme en T2, asociada a una banda transversa de realce de gadolinio en forma de barra (pancakelike) justo por debajo de la zona de maxima estenosis, y un realce circunferencial o hemimedular en los cortes axiales. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas radiologicas de la mielopatia espondilotica pueden parecerse a las de origen inflamatorio. El reconocimiento de un realce transverso en barra inmediatamente por debajo del lugar de maxima compresion como signo radiologico tipico de la mielopatia espondilotica es importante para reducir el riesgo de errores diagnosticos, y de utilidad para el manejo de estos pacientes.

  3. Seismicity associated with the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Choy, G.; Presgrave, B.; Sipkin, S.; Tarr, A.C.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/ NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the Sumatra-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the Sumatra-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock, a period of about two hours following the Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, and occasionally during the Andaman Sea swarm of 26-30 January 2005. Moderate and larger (mb ???5.5) aftershocks are absent from most of the deep interplate thrust faults of the segments of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands subduction zone on which the 26 December mainshock occurred, which probably reflects nearly complete release of elastic strain on the seismogenic interplate-thrust during the mainshock. An exceptional thrust-fault source offshore of Banda Aceh may represent a segment of the interplate thrust that was bypassed during the mainshock. The 26 December mainshock triggered a high level of aftershock activity near the axis of the Sunda trench and the leading edge of the overthrust Burma plate. Much near-trench activity is intraplate activity within the subducting plate, but some shallow-focus, near-trench, reverse-fault earthquakes may represent an unusual seismogenic release of interplate compressional stress near the tip of the overriding plate. The interplate-thrust Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, in contrast to the 26 December aftershock sequence, was followed by many interplate-thrust aftershocks along the length of its inferred rupture zone.

  4. A importância da poeira e ondas de Alfvén na estabilidade de nuvens moleculares anãs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; de Juli, M. C.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Nuvens moleculares anãs se apresentam dinamicamente estáveis, embora possuam massas muito maiores que a massa de Jeans. Por este motivo, a estabilidade destes objetos não pode ser explicada considerando-se apenas a pressão térmica. Campos magnéticos, aproximadamente uniformes e de ~mG, exercem um termo extra de pressão que sustenta a nuvem, mas somente na direção perpendicular às linhas de campo. Para a direção paralela, ondas de Alfvén geradas por turbulências no meio, por exemplo, têm sido utilizadas. Estas, sendo supostamente fracamente amortecidas, poderiam sustentar a nuvem nesta direção. Entretanto, estes meios contêm grandes quantidades de poeira carregada eletricamente. Estes grãos de poeira possuem frequências cíclotron, que podem entrar em ressonância com as ondas. Neste trabalho calculamos os efeitos que o amortecimento cíclotron da poeira teriam na propagação da onda, e consequentemente na estabilidade da nuvem. Considerando um fluxo de ondas, com um dado espectro de frequências, e uma população de grãos de poeira, com distribuição de tamanho observada, foi possível mostrar que o amortecimento é eficiente em uma larga banda de frequências. Neste caso as ondas seriam rapidamente amortecidas gerando pequenas condensações de alta densidade, e não poderiam ser utilizadas para explicar a estabilidade de uma nuvem inteira. Desta forma, rotação e turbulência seriam candidatos alternativos para garantir a estabilidade destes objetos.

  5. Cache Creek terrane entrapment: Oroclinal paradox within the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalynuk, Mitch G.; Nelson, Joanne; Diakow, Larry J.

    1994-06-01

    Exotic and far-traveled oceanic crustal rocks of the Cache Creek terrane (CC) are bordered by less exotic Quesnel (QN) and Stikine (ST) arc terranes to the east, north, and west. All of these terranes are enveloped by an arcuate belt of displaced continental margin rocks; the Kootenay (KO), Nisling (NS), and parts of the Yukon-Tanana (YTT) terranes, that have indirect ties to ancestral North America (NA). Initial 87Sr/86Sr isopleths conform to this arcuate pattern. Such a pattern of concentric belts presents a geological conundrum: How did the QN, ST, and CC come to be virtually enveloped by terranes with ties to NA? Past and current models that explain assembly of the Canadian Cordillera are deficient in their treatment of this problem. We propose that Early Mesozoic QN and ST were joined through their northern ends as two adjacent arc festoons that faced south toward the Cache Creek ocean (Panthalassa?). Oceanic plateau remnants within the CC today were transported from the Tethyan realm and collided with these arcs during subduction of the Cache Creek ocean. Counterclockwise oroclinal rotation of ST and NS terranes in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic caused enclosure of the CC. Rotation continued until these terranes collided with QN in the Middle Jurassic. Paleomagnetic declination data provide support for this model in the form of large average anticlockwise rotations for Permian to Early Jurassic sites in ST but moderate clockwise rotations for sites in QN. Specific modern analogues for the Cordilleran orocline include the Yap trench, where the Caroline rise is colliding end-on with the Mariana Arc and the Banda Arc, located on the southeastern "tail" of the Asian plate, which is being deformed into a tight loop by interactions with the Australian and Pacific plates.

  6. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  7. Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

    2008-04-23

    To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

  8. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  9. 3D crustal velocity structure beneath the broadband seismic array in the Gyeongju area of Korea by receiver function analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Jung Mo; Cho, Hyun-Moo; Kang, Tae-Seob

    2016-10-01

    A temporary seismic array was in operation between October 2010 and March 2013 in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Teleseismic records of the seismic array appropriate for receiver function analysis were collected, and selected seismograms were split into five groups based on epicenters-the Banda-Molucca, Sumatra, Iran, Aleutian, and Vanuatu groups. 1D velocity structures beneath each seismic station were estimated by inverting the stacked receiver functions for possible groups. The inversion was done by applying a genetic algorithm, whereas surface wave dispersion data were used as constraints to avoid non-uniqueness in the inversion. The composite velocity structure was constructed by averaging the velocity structures weighted by the number of receiver functions used in stacking. The uncertainty analysis for the velocity structures showed that the average of 95% confidence intervals was ± 0.1 km/s. The 3D velocity structure was modeled through interpolation of 1D composite velocity structures. Moho depths were determined in each composite velocity structure based on the AK135-F S-wave velocity model, and the depths were similar to the H-κ analysis results. The deepest Moho depth in the study area was found to be 31.9 km, and the shallowest, was 25.9 km. The Moho discontinuity dips in a southwestward direction beneath the area. A low velocity layer was also detected between 4 and 14 km depth. Adakitic intrusions and/or a high geothermal gradient appear to be the causes of this low velocity layer. The 3D velocity structure can be used to reliably assess seismic hazards in this area.

  10. Emiliani Lecture: Holocene Changes in the Indonesian Throughflow Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.

    2009-12-01

    Proxy data and model simulations suggest large changes in the coupled ocean-atmospheric system occurred during the Holocene in response to insolation trends. It is unclear whether and how the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which transports ~ 10-15 Sv of surface and thermocline water from the tropical Pacific to the Indian Ocean through a network of straits and passages in the Indonesian Seas (Gordon et al., 2005, Sprintall et al., 2009), changed over the course the Holocene. Yet, changes in the ITF - its properties, source, and volume transport - influence the heat and freshwater budgets of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Modern observations suggest that 80% of the ITF is sourced from North Pacific subtropical and intermediate water via the Mindanao Current, and flows through the Makassar Strait (Gordon et al. 2005). The other ~20% of the ITF is sourced from the South Pacific via the South Equatorial Current, and flows through eastern Indonesian Sea passages to the Banda Sea, where it mixes with water from the Makassar Strait before it enters the Indian Ocean. Reconstructions of past ITF variations are preliminary, and the mechanisms underlying the observed changes are poorly constrained. Here I present evidence, collected in collaboration with my colleagues and students, of a Holocene cooling trend in the Makassar Strait, between the surface and ~600m. I discuss possible mechanisms and climate feedbacks associated with this ITF cooling. Late Holocene changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and the hydrologic cycle and other higher frequency climate variability, superimposed on Holocene trends, will also be discussed.

  11. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  12. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Sumatra and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska; Smoczyk, Gregory; Briggs, Richard W.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The plate boundary southwest of Sumatra is part of a long tectonic collision zone that extends over 8,000 km from Papua, New Guinea, in the east to the Himalayan front in the west. The Sumatra-Andaman part of the collision zone forms a subduction zone plate boundary, which accommodates convergence between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates. This convergence is responsible for the intense seismicity in Sumatra. The Sumatra Fault, a major transform structure that bisects Sumatra, accommodates the northwest-increasing lateral component of relative plate motion. Most strain accumulation and release between the two plates occurs along the Sunda megathrust. The increasingly oblique convergence moving northwest is accommodated by crustal seismicity along several transform and normal faults, including the Sumatra Fault. Plate-boundary related deformation is also not restricted to the subduction zone and overriding plate: the Indo-Australian plate actually comprises two somewhat independent plates (India and Australia) that are joined along a broad, actively deforming region that produces seismicity up to several hundred kilometers west of the trench. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April 2012 earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8.6 and M 8.2 strike-slip events and their subsequent aftershocks. Since 2004, much of the Sunda megathrust between the northern Andaman Islands and Enggano Island, a distance of more than 2,000 km, has ruptured in a series of large subduction zone earthquakes—most rupturing the plate boundary south of Banda Aceh. These events include the great M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004; the M 8.6 Nias Island earthquake of March 28, 2005; and two earthquakes on September 12, 2007, of M 8.5 and M 7.9. On October 25, 2010, a M 7.8 on the shallow portion of the megathrust to the west of the Mentawai Islands caused a substantial tsunami on the west coast of those islands.

  13. ALHAMBRA-survey: a new tool for photo-z calibrations in absence of spec-z information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino Benito, A.; Benitez Lozano, N.; The Alhambra-Team

    2013-05-01

    La estimación de los desplazamientos al rojo (redshift) de las galaxias, derivados mediante fotometría multi-banda, se conoce con el nombre de photometric redshifts (photo-z). Es bien sabido que la precisión alcanzable por estas técnicas puede verse incrementada si se dispone de una muestra espectroscópica de galaxias (cuyos redshifts (spec-z) sean conocidos) con la que re-calibrar los puntos cero fotométricos. (Coe et al. 2006, Ilbert et al. 2008, Molino et al. 2012 in prep). ALHAMBRA-survey, que es un cartografiado extragaláctico (de ˜4 grados cuadrados) dedicado a la realización de un estudio de la evolución de las propiedades y contenido del Universo (Moles et al. 2005, 2008), presenta solapamientos parciales con otros cartografiados espectroscópicos ya existentes con el objetivo de validar y mejorar la precisión de sus photo-z. Sin embargo, dada la variabilidad fotométrica entre sus campos, resulta ineficiente extrapolar las correcciones de punto cero, introduciendo sesgos de inhomogeneidad en la precisión de los resultados. En este trabajo se presenta una nueva metodología que permite mejorar la calibración de los puntos cero fotométricos mediante la utilización de la información estadística proporcionada por los propios photo-z. Mediante esta técnica resulta posible no sólo mejorar la precisión de las estimaciones sino, además, soslayar la necesidad de obtener grandes muestras espectroscópicas.

  14. The impact of ENSO on coral heat stress in the western equatorial Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kleypas, Joan A; Castruccio, Frederic S; Curchitser, Enrique N; Mcleod, Elizabeth

    2015-01-28

    The Coral Triangle encompasses an extensive region of coral reefs in the western tropical Pacific with marine resources that support millions of people. As in all other reef regions, coral reefs in the Coral Triangle have been impacted by anomalously high ocean temperature. The vast majority of bleaching observations to date have been associated with the 1998 La Niña phase of ENSO. To understand the significance of ENSO and other climatic oscillations to heat stress in the Coral Triangle, we use a 5-km resolution Regional Ocean Model System for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) to study ocean temperature thresholds and variability for the 1960-2007 historical period. Heat-stress events are more frequent during La Niña events, but occur under all climatic conditions, reflecting an overall warming trend since the 1970s. Mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the region increased an average of ~ 0.1 °C per decade over the time period, but with considerable spatial variability. The spatial patterns of SST and heat stress across the Coral Triangle reflect the complex bathymetry and oceanography. The patterns did not change significantly over time or with shifts in ENSO. Several regions experienced little to no heat stress over the entire period. Of particular interest to marine conservation are regions where there are few records of coral bleaching despite the presence of significant heat stress, such as in the Banda Sea. Although this may be due to under-reporting of bleaching events, it may also be due to physical factors such as mixing and cloudiness, or biological factors that reduce sensitivity to heat stress.

  15. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  16. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    PubMed

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  17. [Exercise and nutritional supplements; effects of combined use in people over 65 years; a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Morales, Andrea; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Revisar sistemáticamente la evidencia existente en la literatura científica, acerca de la influencia y los efectos de los suplementos nutricionales sobre la masa y fuerza muscular al combinarse con entrenamiento físico en ancianos sanos. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se seleccionó la literatura científica de las bases de datos: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI, CINAHL, COCHRANE y LILACS; Teniendo en cuenta como criterio de inclusión sólo ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) y excluyendo documentos que no basaban su estudio en ancianos sanos y que no implementaban un programa de entrenamiento. Resultados: De los 8 artículos seleccionados para la revisión, algunos estudios combinan suplemento con diversas formas de entrenamiento y otros diferentes suplementos con el entrenamiento con resistencia. Los suplementos administrados fueron: Suplemento proteico (bebible), Creatina, Vitamina D y calcio. El entrenamiento asignado fue de resistencia con: pesas, banda elástica, máquinas, ejercicios de equilibrio, orientación y ejercicio aeróbico. Conclusiones: - Combinar el suplemento con ejercicio físico, refuerza los efectos que independientemente cada uno puede tener sobre la mejora de fuerza, balance y velocidad. - La mejora del sistema musculoesquelético favorece la movilidad, contribuyendo a la prevención de sarcopenia y la prolongación de la independencia y autonomía de las personas mayores. - El uso de suplementos debe estar sujeto a un análisis de la ingesta nutricional diaria, las demandas energéticas individuales y la elección de un ejercicio de resistencia física practicado y prolongado en el tiempo, para conservar los beneficios obtenidos.

  18. The Effect of the Great Barrier Reef on the Propagation of the 2007 Solomon Islands Tsunami Recorded in Northeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Toshitaka; Mleczko, Richard; Burbidge, David; Cummins, Phil R.; Thio, Hong Kie

    2008-12-01

    The effect of offshore coral reefs on the impact from a tsunami remains controversial. For example, field surveys after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami indicate that the energy of the tsunami was reduced by natural coral reef barriers in Sri Lanka, but there was no indication that coral reefs off Banda Aceh, Indonesia had any effect on the tsunami. In this paper, we investigate whether the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) offshore Queensland, Australia, may have weakened the tsunami impact from the 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake. The fault slip distribution of the 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake was firstly obtained by teleseismic inversion. The tsunami was then propagated to shallow water just offshore the coast by solving the linear shallow water equations using a staggered grid finite-difference method. We used a relatively high resolution (approximately 250 m) bathymetric grid for the region just off the coast containing the reef. The tsunami waveforms recorded at tide gauge stations along the Australian coast were then compared to the results from the tsunami simulation when using both the realistic 250 m resolution bathymetry and with two grids having fictitious bathymetry: One in which the the GBR has been replaced by a smooth interpolation from depths outside the GBR to the coast (the “No GBR” grid), and one in which the GBR has been replaced by a flat plane at a depth equal to the mean water depth of the GBR (the “Average GBR” grid). From the comparison between the synthetic waveforms both with and without the Great Barrier Reef, we found that the Great Barrier Reef significantly weakened the tsunami impact. According to our model, the coral reefs delayed the tsunami arrival time by 5-10 minutes, decreased the amplitude of the first tsunami pulse to half or less, and lengthened the period of the tsunami.

  19. Stable isotopes of helium, nitrogen and carbon in a coastal submarine hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Francisco V.; Welhan, John; Vidal, Victor M. V.

    1982-03-01

    Geothermal gases from submarine and subaerial hot springs in Ensenada, Baja California Norte, Mexico, were sampled for determination of gas chemistry and helium, nitrogen and stable carbon isotope composition. The submarine hot spring gas is primarily nitrogen (56.1% by volume) and methane (43.5% by volume), whereas nearby subaerial hot spring gases are predominantly nitrogen (95-99% by volume). The N 2/Ar ratios and σ 15N values of the subaerial hot spring gas indicate that it is atmospheric air, depleted in oxygen and enriched in helium. The submarine hot spring gas is most probably derived from marine sediments of Cretaceous age rich in organic matter. CH 4 is a major component of the gas mixture ( σ 13C = -44.05% 0), with only minor amounts of CO 2 ( σ13C= -10.46% 0). The σ 15N of N 2 is + 0.2% 0 with a very high N 2/Ar ratio of 160. The calculated isotopic equilibra tion temperature for CH 4CO 2 carbon exchange at depth in the Punta Banda submarine geothermal field is approximately 200°C in agreement with other geothermometry estimates. The 3He/ 4He ratios of the hot spring gases range from 0.3 to 0.6 times the atmospheric ratio, indicating that helium is predominantly derived from the radioactive decay of U and Th within the continental crust. Thus, not all submarine hydrothermal systems are effective vehicles for mantle degassing of primordial helium.

  20. The effects of Halmahera on the Indonesian throughflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Steven L.; Shriver, Jay F.; O'Brien, James J.

    1999-10-01

    The pathways of the Pacific to Indian Ocean throughflow and the relative contributions of North Pacific (NP) and South Pacific (SP) water to the throughflow are examined using the Navy Layered Ocean Model. The roles of Halmahera Island in directing flow along the pathways and determining the composition of the throughflow are also studied. The global ocean simulations use a horizontal resolution of up to 1/4° between like variables and have a vertical resolution ranging from one and a half layer reduced gravity to six active layers with realistic bottom topography. All of the simulations are forced by the Hellerman and Rosenstein [1983] monthly wind stress climatology. The predominant throughflow pathway consists of NP water traveling through the Celebes Sea, Makassar Strait, Flores Sea, and to the Indian Ocean through the Timor, Savu, and Lombok Straits. Model results show that the island of Halmahera is responsible for preventing a flow of SP water into the Celebes Sea and for diverting some SP water southward through the Seram and Banda Seas. The island impacts the lower thermocline and intermediate water pathways throughout the entire year and affects the surface layer during the boreal spring through fall. To estimate the relative contributions of the NP and SP surface water to the throughflow, Lagrangian drifters are advected backward in time from near the exit to the throughflow region to their respective sources. By tracking these buoys, it is found that the presence of Halmahera changes the throughflow composition in the surface layer from ˜69% NP and 31% SP to 92% NP and 8% SP. Halmahera does not change the composition of the throughflow in the undercurrent layer, which is fed by the NP, or in the lower thermocline and intermediate water layers, which are fed by water from the SP.

  1. Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 Sumatra event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh Sumatra Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 Sumatra event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.

  2. Kinematics of Late Cretaceous subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean reconstructed from ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; de Gelder, Giovanni; van der Goes, Freek; Morris, Antony

    2017-04-01

    Formation of new subduction zones represents one of the cornerstones of plate tectonics, yet both the kinematics and geodynamics governing this process remain enigmatic. A major subduction initiation event occurred in the Late Cretaceous, within the Neo-Tethys Ocean between Gondwana and Eurasia. Supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites (i.e., emerged fragments of ancient oceanic lithosphere accreted at supra-subduction spreading centers) were generated during this subduction event, and are today distributed in the eastern Mediterranean region along three E-W trending ophiolitic belts. Current models associate these ophiolite belts to simultaneous initiation of multiple, E-W trending subduction zones at 95 Ma. Here we report paleospreading direction data obtained from paleomagnetic analysis of sheeted dyke sections from seven Neo-Tethyan ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria, demonstrating that these ophiolites formed at NNE-SSW striking ridges parallel to the newly formed subduction zones. This subduction system was step-shaped and composed of NNE-SSW and ESE-WNW segments. The eastern subduction segment invaded the SW Mediterranean, leading to a radial obduction pattern similar to the Banda arc. Emplacement age constraints indicate that this subduction system formed close to the Triassic passive and paleo-transform margins of the Anatolide-Tauride continental block. Because the original Triassic-Jurassic Neo-Tethyan spreading ridge must have already subducted below the Pontides before the Late Cretaceous, we infer that the Late Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan subduction system started within ancient lithosphere, along NNE-SSW oriented fracture zones and faults parallel to the E-W trending passive margins. This challenges current concepts suggesting that subduction initiation occurs along active intra-oceanic plate boundaries.

  3. Characteristics and risk factors for typhoid fever after the tsunami, earthquake and under normal conditions in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although typhoid transmitted by food and water is a common problem in daily life, its characteristics and risk factors may differ in disaster-affected areas, which reinforces the need for rapid public health intervention. Surveys were carried out post-tsunami in Banda Aceh, post-earthquake in Yogyakarta, and under normal conditions in Bandung, Indonesia. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors with the dependent variable of typhoid fever, with or without complications. Findings Characteristic typhoid fever with complications was found in 5 patients (11.9%) affected by the tsunami in Aceh, 8 (20.5%) after the earthquake in Yogyakarta, and 13 (18.6%) in Bandung. After the tsunami in Aceh, clean water (OR = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.01-0.47) and drug availability (OR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.02-2.43) are significant independent risk factors, while for the earthquake in Yogyakarta, contact with other typhoid patients (OR = 20.30; 95%CI: 1.93-213.02) and education (OR = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.01-0.98) were significant risk factors. Under normal conditions in Bandung, hand washing (OR = 0.07; 95%CI: 0.01-0.50) and education (OR = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.01-0.64) emerged as significant risk factors. Conclusion The change in risk factors for typhoid complication after the tsunami in Aceh and the earthquake in Yogyakarta emphasizes the need for rapid public health intervention in natural disasters in Indonesia. PMID:20398409

  4. Variability on the Hypoxic Conditions in the Northwestern Region of the Baja California Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.

    2015-12-01

    The NW region of the Baja California peninsula in México is dominated by the California Current System (CCS). Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key variable in water bodies because it is considered as a health in biological processes. Hypoxic conditions (DO 60 to 120 μmol kg-1) occur naturally in large areas of the ocean. In the Eastern Pacific, the DO can be altered by eutrophication, derived from anthropogenic activity, especially in shallow and enclosed seas. Fluctuations in the conditions of hypoxia zones may have significant ecological and economic impact. It is of interest in assessing whether hypoxic conditions in the vicinity of Bahia de Todos Santos (BTS) and Coronado Islands in México are altered by anthropogenic activity (Figs. 1 and 2 respectively). For the present study, we worked with data collected from oceanographic expeditions during the period October 2010 to June 2015. The DO was determined using a CTD (SBE Model 25) and by sea water collection with hydrographic bottles using a modification of the Winkler method. The signs of hypoxia are evident in the area near BTS and in the vicinity of Coronado´s Islands, mainly on locations between the Todos Santos Islands and the peninsula of Punta Banda, which shows that the hypoxic zone begins to occur in shallow water between 50-200 m depth. This particular area corresponds to the point where the Mexican Navy determined as a site for dredging materials from the ports of Ensenada and El Sauzal, it is possible that the anthropogenic activity alters the natural conditions of hypoxia in the area to enlarge. In June 2012 for the first time in that region we obtained sediment samples below 700 m depth, which are mixed terrigenous clastic and oceanic sediments.

  5. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  6. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  7. [Tropical spastic paraparesis in a non tropical region].

    PubMed

    Pias-Peleteiro, L; Pias-Peleteiro, J M; Arias, M

    2015-10-16

    Introduccion. El virus linfotropo humano de celulas T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) es el agente causal de la paraparesia espastica tropical. Su prevalencia, elevada en determinadas areas tropicales, es baja en Europa y Norteamerica. Casos clinicos. Se describen dos casos de paraparesia espastica tropical en varones naturales y residentes en Galicia. Se realizaron estudios analiticos en la sangre y el liquido cefalorraquideo (LCR), examenes neurofisiologicos y resonancia magnetica craneal y medular. En ambos pacientes, la presentacion clinica fue la de una mielopatia cronica, con cuadro torpido y progresivo que evoluciono a paraparesia espastica. Un paciente desarrollo uveitis antes de la clinica neurologica. En los dos casos, el estudio del LCR demostro leve pleocitosis linfoide, ligera hiperproteinorraquia, bandas oligoclonales negativas y anticuerpos anti-HTLV-1 positivos. La reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa para HTLV-1 resulto positiva en ambos casos. La resonancia magnetica raquidea resulto normal en un paciente y mostro en el otro hiperseñal medular dorsal, que desaparecio tras el tratamiento. No se demostraron datos de polineuropatia periferica. Recibieron corticoides e interferon alfa, con leve mejoria y estabilizacion del cuadro clinico. La anamnesis dirigida revelo antecedentes de contactos sexuales de riesgo en regiones endemicas de HTLV-1. Conclusiones. La uveitis asociada a HTLV-1 podria ser predictora de paraparesia espastica tropical. Esta es probablemente una entidad infradiagnosticada (alto porcentaje de portadores asintomaticos, clinica insidiosa y bajo indice de sospecha en areas no endemicas). Debe considerarse su diagnostico en zonas no tropicales que reciben inmigrantes de areas endemicas y tambien en regiones con una tradicional emigracion a regiones tropicales.

  8. Fotometría UBVI en NGC 6231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G. L.; Vázquez, R. A.; Feinstein, A.

    Se ha realizado fotometría CCD UBVI en la zona del cúmulo abierto NGC 6231, habiéndose observado 1062 estrellas hasta una magnitud V≈ 19. Esto posibilita tener una imagen clara de la parte inferior de la secuencia principal del cúmulo. Combinando nuestros datos con tipos espectrales tomados de la literatura pudimos re-derivar la ley de absorción en dirección a este cúmulo y encontrar que los valores de R muestran variaciones de estrella a estrella. La secuencia principal inferior muestra también algunos rasgos intrigantes: hay un codo notorio en V≈ 13.5 seguido por un gran ``spread'' de magnitudes a color constante entre las estrellas débiles y una inusualmente alta densidad de estrellas a lo largo de una banda que se extiende 1.5 mag encima de la ZAMS. Los cálculos indican que el número esperado de estrellas de campo en dirección al cúmulo debería ser menor que el observado. Una re-evaluación de las funciones de luminosidad y masa dentro de los límites -7.5 < MV < 1.5 mag y 2 Msolar < M arroja pendientes planas para ambas funciones, lo que parece ser típico de cúmulos muy jóvenes. Todos estos rasgos son congruentes con un escenario joven donde las estrellas en fase de contracción están arribando a la secuencia principal.

  9. New biostratigraphic results from the Kolbano area, southern West Timor: Implications for the Mesozoic—Tertiary stratigraphy of Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.; Wall, D.

    In the Kolbano area of southern West Timor (eastern Indonesia), strongly deformed Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of Australian continental margin affinity are exposed within the Banda arc-continent collision complex. New biostratigraphic age determinations are presented for a suite of rocks from this area which modify the ages and stratigraphic relationships of several formations within this sequence. These results have significance for the evolution of the Australian northwest passive margin, and for the timing of arc-continental collision. A new, more restricted definition of the Jurassic Oe Baat Formation is proposed, with the lower part of the section exposed in the Pasi Inlier reassigned to the Wai Luli Formation. The Oe Baat Formation is dated as entirely Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-Tithonian), and previously reported Lower Cretaceous ages were not confirmed. In the "mid" Cretaceous-Palaeogene sequence, it has been established previously that formations are strongly diachronous. The new data suggest even stronger diachroneity than has been recognised previously. The Wai Bua/Nakfunu Formation ranges locally as young as Lower Eocene, the Borolalo Formation as young as Lower Oligocene, and the Ofu Formation to Lower Oligocene or younger. The Neogene "Batuputih Formation" of the Kolbano area is shown not to be equivalent to the Batu Putih Limestone in the Central Basin. A new name, Siu Formation, is provisionally proposed for the Kolbano sequence. The syn-orogenic Sonalete Formation is found to be at least as old as planktonic foraminiferal zone N19, suggesting that major orogenesis was already underway in the Kolbano area by late Early Pliocene.

  10. Los cambios en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los fenómenos geomagnéticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.

    Uno de los aspectos importantes relativos a la geodinámica del interior terrestre es la correlación entre los eventos de cambio en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los determinados en los elementos del campo geomagnético por ejemplo, la Declinación Magnética, o los coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de representación global de dicho campo. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las características espectrales de los cambios observados en la longitud del día (ldd), y su relación con la estructura espectral de las coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de campo denominados Campo Internacional Geomagnético de Referencia (CIGR). El intervalo estudiado comprende los últimos 100 años. Los resultados muestran una correlación en las bandas de 60 y 30 años, con posibles períodos mucho mayores que no son posibles determinar a partir de los modelos de CIRG. Se efectúa una simulación a partir de los resultados obtenidos por la aplicación del método de máxima entropía con longitudes del filtro predictor de error comprendida entre el 10% y el 95% de la longitud de la serie analizada. Se observan procesos sicrónicos y asincrónicos que, en muy largos intervalos de tiempos, podrían suponerse como caóticos.

  11. On the Indonesian Throughflow in the OCCAM 1/4 degree ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, U. W.; Webb, D. J.

    2008-07-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow is analysed in two runs of the OCCAM 1/4 degree global ocean model, one using monthly climatological winds and one using ECMWF analysed six-hourly winds for the period 1993 to 1998. The long-term model throughflow agrees with observations and the value predicted by Godfrey's Island Rule. The Island Rule has some skill in predicting the annual signal each year but is poor at predicting year to year and shorter term variations in the total flow, especially in El Niño years. The spectra of transports in individual passages show significant differences between those connecting the region to the Pacific Ocean and those connecting with the Indian Ocean. On investigation we found that changes in the northern transports were strongly correlated with changes in the position of currents in the Celebes Sea and off Halmahera. Vertical profiles of transport are in reasonable agreement with observations but the model overestimates the near surface transport through the Lombok Strait and the dense overflow from the Pacific through the Lifamatola Strait into the deep Banda Sea. In both cases the crude representation of the passages by the model appears responsible. In the north the model shows, as expected, that the largest transport is via the Makassar Strait. However this is less than expected and instead there is significant flow via the Halmahera Sea. If Godfrey's Island Rule is correct and the throughflow is forced by the northward flow between Australia and South America, then the Halmahers Sea route should be important. It is the most southerly route around New Guinea to the Indian Ocean and there is no apparent reason why the flow should go further north in order to pass through the Makassar Strait. The model result thus raises the question of why in reality the Makassar Strait route appears to dominate the throughflow.

  12. On the Indonesian throughflow in the OCCAM 1/4 degree ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, U. W.; Webb, D. J.

    2007-03-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow is analysed in two runs of the OCCAM 1/4 degree global ocean model, one using monthly climatological winds and one using ECMWF analysed six-hourly winds for the period 1993 to 1998. The long-term model throughflow agrees with observations and the value predicted by Godfrey's Island Rule. The Island Rule has some skill in predicting the annual signal each year but is poor at predicting year to year and shorter term variations in the total flow especially in El Nino years. The spectra of transports in individual passages show significant differences between those connecting the region to the Pacific Ocean and those connecting with the Indian Ocean. This implies that different sets of waves are involved in the two regions. Vertical profiles of transport are in reasonable agreement with observations but the model overestimates the near surface transport through the Lombok Strait and the dense overflow from the Pacific through the Lifamatola Strait into the deep Banda Sea. In both cases the crude representation of the passages by the model appears responsible. In the north the model shows, as expected, that the largest transport is via the Makassar Strait. However this is less than expected and instead there is significant flow via the Halmahera Sea. If Godfrey's Island Rule is correct and the throughflow is forced by the northward flow between Australia and South America, then the Halmahers Sea route should be important. It is the most southerly route around New Guinea to the Indian Ocean and there is no apparent reason why the flow should go further north in order to pass through the Makassar Strait. The model result thus raises the question of why in reality the Makassar Strait route appears to dominate the throughflow.

  13. Very broadband seismic analysis of the 1992 Flores, Indonesia, earthquake (Mw = 7.9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jos; Lay, Thorne

    1995-09-01

    The December 12, 1992, Flores Island earthquake (Mw = 7.9), which caused a destructive tsunami, is located in the back arc of the transition zone between the Sunda and Banda arcs, a region in active collision with the Australian continental margin. We study the earthquake using four seismological techniques spanning a period range of 1-1000 s and infer that the Flores event may be characterized as a shallow back arc thrust with fault plane strike 70°±30°, dip 28°±10° and rake 80° to 140° (linear trade-off with strike), a rupture consisting of three discrete pulses with a total duration of 70 s (centroid time 26.3 s) and an estimated moment release between 7.5×1020 and 8.0×1020 N m. From the slip vector we infer that compressional forces play an important role in the deformation mechanism of the back arc north of Flores Island. Body waves constrain the hypocentral depth to be 16 km with rupture mainly propagating updip to shallow depth and bilaterally along strike with most subevents located toward the northeast. Evidence for rupture directivity from surface wave deconvolutions is inconclusive, but the overall source function is consistent with body wave results. Our body wave finite fault model is in rough agreement with two models proposed to explain tsunami run-up observations. Normal mode modeling of W phase observations at periods longer than 70 s shows that slow slip is negligible. From this and the slip distribution determined from the body wave analysis we infer that the seismic source is an unlikely candidate to explain anomalously high tsunami run-ups measured on northeastern Flores Island.

  14. Pathways of intraseasonal variability in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, A.; Wijffels, S. E.; Sprintall, J.; Molcard, R.; Oke, P. R.

    2010-08-01

    The recent INSTANT measurements in the Indonesian archipelago revealed a broad spectrum of time scales that influence Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) variability, from intraseasonal (20-90 days) to interannual. The different time scales are visible in all transport and property fluxes and are the result of remote forcing by both the Pacific and Indian Ocean winds, and local forcing generated within the regional Indonesian seas. This study focuses on the time-dependent three-dimensional intraseasonal variability (ISV) in the ITF region, in particular at the locations of the INSTANT moorings at the Straits of Lombok, Ombai and Timor. Observations from the INSTANT program in combination with output from the Bluelink ocean reanalysis provide a comprehensive picture about the propagation of ISV in the ITF region. The reanalysis assimilates remotely sensed and in situ ocean observations into an ocean general circulation model to create a hindcast of ocean conditions. Data from the reanalysis and observations from the INSTANT program reveal that deep-reaching subsurface ISV in the eastern Indian Ocean and ITF is closely linked with equatorial wind stress anomalies in the central Indian Ocean. Having traveled more than 5000 km in about 14 days, the associated Kelvin waves can be detected as far east as the Banda Sea. ISV near the Straits of Ombai and Timor is also significantly influenced by local wind forcing from within the ITF region. At the INSTANT mooring sites the ocean reanalysis agrees reasonably well with the observations. Intraseasonal amplitudes are about ±1.0 °C and ±0.5 m/s for potential temperature and velocity anomalies. Associated phases of ISV are very similar in observations and the reanalysis. Where differences exist they can be traced back to likely deficits in the reanalysis, namely the lack of tidal dissipation, insufficient spatial resolution of fine-scale bathymetry in the model in narrow straits or errors in surface forcing.

  15. A numerical study of the barotropic tides and tidal energy distribution in the Indonesian seas with the assimilated finite volume coastal ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Kuang, Liang

    2012-04-01

    The tides and tidal energetics in the Indonesian seas are simulated using a three-dimensional finite volume coastal ocean model. The high-resolution coastline-fitted model is configured to better resolve the hydrodynamic processes around the numerous barrier islands. A large model domain is adopted to minimize the uncertainty adjacent to open boundaries. The model results with elevation assimilation based on a simple nudge scheme faithfully reproduced the general features of the barotropic tides in the Indonesian Seas. The mean root-mean-square errors between the observed and simulated tidal constants are 2.3, 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 cm for M2, S2, K1, and O1, respectively. Analysis of the model solutions indicates that the semidiurnal tides in the Indonesian Seas are primarily dominated by the Indian Ocean, whereas the diurnal tides in this region are mainly influenced by the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with previous studies. Examinations of tidal energy transport reveal that the tidal energy for both of the simulated tidal constituents are transported from the Indian Ocean into the IS mainly through the Lombok Strait and the Timor Sea, whereas only M2 energy enters the Banda Sea and continues northward. The tidal energy dissipates the most in the passages on both sides of Timor Island, with the maximum M2 and K1 tidal energy transport reaching about 750 and 650 kW m-1, respectively. The total energy losses of the four dominant constituents in the IS are nearly 338 GW, with the M2 constituent dissipating 240.8 GW. It is also shown that the bottom dissipation rate for the M2 tide is about 1-2 order of magnitudes larger than that of the other three tidal components in the Indonesian seas.

  16. Insights on the Quaternary Tectonic Evolution of the SE Indonesia Arc-Continent Collision from the Study of Uplifted Coral Terraces on Sumba Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, F.; Rigaud, S.; Chiang, H. W.; Djamil, Y. S.; Herdiyanti, T.; Johnny, J.; Ildefonso, S.; Meilano, I.; Bijaksana, S.; Abidin, H. Z.; Tapponnier, P.; Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Sumba Island is uniquely positioned within the Sunda-Banda forearc, at the transition between oceanic subduction and arc-continent collision. There, the convergence between the Sunda and Australian plates is accommodated along at least three major structures: the megathrust, the Savu backthrust located south of Sumba and the Flores backthrust located north of the volcanic arc. The incipient collision in the vicinity of Sumba is responsible for coastal vertical movements. Quaternary reefal deposits form spectacular uplifted flights of terraces, which directly overlie Mid Miocene - Early Pliocene deep carbonate and volcaniclastic rocks at elevations exceeding 500m. Although aerial fossil reefs extensively rim the northern and eastern coasts of Sumba, studies have been limited to Cape Laundi where an uplift rate of 0.2-0.5 m/kyr is estimated for the last 400 kyr, partly on the basis of alpha-spectrometric U/Th dating. At the island scale, the relief morphology and the hydrographic network point to a N-S asymmetry, indicating a general tilt toward the north. A subducting seafloor asperity and south-dipping normal faults have been postulated to generate this asymmetry. However as the pattern and kinematics of the deformation remain partially determined, structures and processes capable of driving such deformation and accommodating the nascent collision may be undisclosed. New topographic data coupled with field observations and coral mass-spectrometric U/Th dating allow investigating the morphology, stratigraphy and age of the fossil reef terraces at the island scale. Tectonic structures disrupting the topography are identified and their activities are relatively dated with respect to fossil reef terraces. The deformation pattern of Sumba is characterized, especially in Cape Laundi where the uplift rate is re-evaluated. Through a multi-disciplinary study, we intend to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of Sumba island and, at a larger scale, of the collision in SE

  17. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  18. [Efficiency of initiation with ambrisentan versus bosentan in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Villa, Guillermo; Morano, Raúl; Román, Antonio; Gil, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Se pretende evaluar la eficiencia del tratamiento secuencial de combinación de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar iniciado con antagonistas del receptor de la endotelina, ambrisentan o bosentan, seguido de inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa- 5 y prostanoides, desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Métodos: Se desarrolló un modelo de Markov basado en las cuatro clases funcionales de la New York Heart Association. Un panel de tres expertos alcanzó un consenso sobre el manejo del paciente basado en la práctica clínica. Los pacientes revisaron su tratamiento cada 12 semanas, en función de su estado de salud y de la medicación recibida previamente. Se incluyeron costes farmacológicos y costes asociados al manejo de eventos adversos (EA) muy frecuentes, en un horizonte de 60 semanas. Los resultados se expresaron en términos de los años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad probabilístico. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias clínicamente relevantes en los AVAC por paciente y año para el inicio con ambrisentan y bosentan: 0,6853 y 0,6902, respectivamente. El inicio con ambrisentan resultó en un coste farmacológico y asociado al manejo de EA menor: 35.550 ??y 117 ??frente a 40.224 ??y 171 ?. En el análisis de sensibilidad, el inicio con ambrisentan presentó una diferencia de costes totales negativa y significativa: -4.982 ?; IC95%[-8.014 ?; -2.500 ?]; mientras que no se detectaron diferencias significativas en los AVAC: -0,0044; IC95%[-0,0189; 0,0101]. Conclusiones: El tratamiento secuencial de combinación de la HAP iniciado con ambrisentan, seguido de inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa- 5 y prostanoides, proporciona resultados en salud comparables y menores costes que el tratamiento iniciado con bosentan.

  19. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Viñuela García, Manuel; Vera Ibáñez, Antonio; Colomer Poveda, David; Márquez Sánchez, Gonzalo; Romero Arenas, Salvador

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: actualmente los programas de entrenamiento interválicos de alta intensidad parecen ser una forma de optimizar el tiempo, provocando cambios en la composición corporal debido a la activación de diferentes mecanismos hormonales y metabólicos.Objetivo: observar el efecto de cuatro semanas de entrenamiento de esprints repetidos basados en la prueba de Wingate sobre la potencia y la composición corporal en adultos jóvenes.Métodos: los participantes (22,4 ± 1,8 años) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un grupo experimental o a un grupo control. Antes de comenzar y al acabar el periodo experimental, a los sujetos se les realizó una densitometría de cuerpo completo y una prueba de Wingate. El grupo experimental realizó 12 sesiones de esprints repetidos, realizando de 3 a 6 esprints de 30 segundos con un tiempo de recuperación de 4 minutos. El grupo control continuó con su rutina diaria y no se le aplicó ningún tipo de intervención.Resultados: en el grupo experimental, la potencia media y máxima incrementó un 9,4-16,5% (p < 0,001). Además, disminuyó la masa grasa total un 8,1% (p < 0,028) y la grasa abdominal un 10,0% (p < 0,038). El grupo control no sufrió cambios en ninguna de las variables estudiadas.Conclusiones: cuatro semanas de entrenamiento de esprints repetidos basados en la prueba de Wingate con un volumen específico de ~3 minutos por sesión y una frecuencia de 3 sesiones por semana, muestra mejoras estadísticamente significativas en la potencia máxima y media. Además, provoca cambios en la composición corporal, principalmente en la masa grasa total y de la zona abdominal.

  1. [Effectiveness of a program for treatment of overweight and nonmorbid obesity in primary healthcare and its influence lifestyle modification].

    PubMed

    Arrebola Vivas, E; Gómez-Candela, C; Fernández Fernández, C; Bermejo López, L; Loria Kohen, V

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y Objetivos: la modificación de conductas no saludables es fundamental para tratar la obesidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de un programa basado en dieta, ejercicio y apoyo psicológico en la modificación conductual de pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad tratados en Atención Primaria. Métodos: 60 pacientes con sobrepeso grado II y obesidad grado I-II fueron incluidos en este ensayo piloto. Edad entre 18-50 2013s. Los pacientes recibieron un programa que combinaba educación nutricional, actividad física y apoyo psicológico. Formato grupal, periodicidad quincenal. Los principales resultados medidos al inicio y 6 meses fueron parámetros antropométricos (índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de masa grasa, perímetro cintura) y de estilos de vida usando el Cuestionario para la valoración de hábitos de vida relacionados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Consta de 5 dimensiones: contenido calórico de la dieta (CC), alimentación saludable (AS), ejercicio físico (EF), comer por bienestar psicológico (BP) y consumo de alcohol (CA). La mayor puntuación indica mejores hábitos para CC, AS y EF y peores para BP y CA. Resultados: al final de la intervención mejoraron las escalas CC (2,60± 0,5 vs 3,49± 0,7, p<0,001), EF (2,19± 0,9 vs 3,17± 1,0, p<0,001) y AS (3,04± 0,4 vs 3,43± 0,4, p<0,05) del cuestionario; CA (3,98± 0,7 vs. 4,25± 0,7, p<0,05) y BP (2,82± 1,0 vs. 3,34± 0,7, p<0,001) empeoraron. Conclusión: el programa basado en moderada restricción de la dieta, aumento de actividad física y apoyo psicológico puede mejorar parámetros antropométricos y estilos de vida en pacientes obesos tratados en un centro de Atención Primaria.

  2. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  3. VALIDATION AND COMPARISON OF EQ-5D-3L AND SF-6D INSTRUMENTS IN A SPANISH PARKINSON´S DISEASE POPULATION SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel Ángel; Del Pozo-Cruz, B; Adsuar, J C; Cordero-Ferrera, J M; Abellan-Perpiñan, J M; Sanchez-Martinez, F I

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el uso de cuestionarios de calidad de vida basados en preferencias poblacionales están recibiendo cada vez más atención en el proceso de toma de decisiones en el ámbito sanitario. Sin embargo, a nuestro entender, EQ-5D y SF-6D nunca han sido comparados en una muestra de población con la enfermedad de Parkinson. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de ambos instrumentos en una muestra de población española con enfermos de Parkinson. Métodos: un total de 133 pacientes fueron entrevistados utilizando EQ-5D y SF-6D. La validez, el grado de acuerdo y la sensibilidad de ambos instrumentos fueron calculados para su posterior comparación. Las preferencias de la población española fueron utilizadas en ambos instrumentos. Resultados: las utilidades de EQ-5D y SF-6D han mostrado una fuerte correlación (r> 0,50 y p.

  4. Ajuste de parámetros libres en teorías de campos camaleones a partir de espectros de nubes moleculares galácticas y experimentos terrestres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teppa Pannia, F. A.; Landau, S. J.

    Resultados recientes, basados en el análisis de espectros moleculares de nubes galácticas a través del método del amoníaco, han arrojado nuevos límites sobre la variación del parámetro adimensional μ=m_e /m_p. Los resultados indican Δ μ/μ = (μ_{obs}-μ_{lab})/μ_{lab}= (2.2± 0.4_{est} ±0.3_{sist}) times 10 ^{-8}, en acuerdo con una variación no nula de dicha cantidad (Levshakov et al. 2010). En este trabajo, motivado por los datos astronómicos, estudiamos la solución lineal del modelo teórico fenomenológico de campo escalar camaleón, presentado por Mota y Shaw (2007), que predice variaciones en μ. Con el fin de cotejar estas predicciones con los resultados observacionales, utilizamos datos de experimentos terrestres que testean violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia para analizar el valor de los parámetros libres presentes en el modelo. El trabajo realizado muestra que la solución estudiada no se puede ajustar a los datos experimentales, sugiriendo que el modelo lineal debe ser descartado para explicar las observaciones astronómicas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  6. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  7. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  8. Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados. PMID:24791218

  9. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  10. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  11. Simulaciones hidrodinámicas de flujos complejos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Ibáñez Cabanell, José

    Son muchos los escenarios astrofísicos en que los procesos hidrodinámicos juegan un papel clave. En la complejidad que encierra la descripción de dichos procesos destaca el de la correcta simulación de flujos complejos donde la presencia de ondas de choque fuertes que, eventualmente, interaccionan entre ellas o también la presencia de inestabilidades (Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.) suponen un verdadero desafío numérico. Los códigos hidrodinámicos basados en la solución de un problema de valores iniciales discontinuo (problema de Riemann) son, en la actualidad, los más robustos en el campo de la dinámica de fluidos computacional. En esta charla se dará un resumen de los fundamentos de dichas técnicas numéricas (esquemas de alta resolución de captura de choques) y se ilustrará su potencialidad mostrando una amplia gama de resultados en diferentes aplicaciones astrofísicas.

  12. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  13. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    PubMed

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Los ultimos hallazgos en investigacion demuestran la importancia de la atencion temprana en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) en todas las areas del desarrollo y tambien del lenguaje. El uso de sistemas de comunicacion aumentativa y alternativa (SAAC) favorece el desarrollo comunicativo y linguistico. Objetivo. Demostrar la efectividad de los SAAC a la hora de desarrollar el lenguaje oral en niños pequeños no verbales con diagnostico de TEA. Pacientes y metodos. Treinta niños (25 varones y 5 mujeres) a los que se les diagnostico TEA cuando tenian entre 18 meses y 30 meses, mediante los instrumentos ADOS y ADIR. Ninguno de ellos presentaba desarrollo del lenguaje oral en el momento de la evaluacion. Se diseño un programa de intervencion sobre el area del lenguaje basado en el uso de comunicacion total por parte del terapeuta y entrenamiento del niño en el sistema de comunicacion por intercambio de imagenes. Pasado un año se evaluaron los aspectos formales del lenguaje a traves de la prueba de lenguaje oral de Navarra revisada, ya que se habia desarrollado el lenguaje oral. Resultados. Todos ellos han desarrollado el lenguaje oral en alguna medida en un periodo de un año. Conclusiones. La atencion temprana y el uso de SAAC con apoyos visuales favorecen el desarrollo del lenguaje oral en niños con TEA en los primeros años de vida.

  14. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    PubMed

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. El trastorno de Tourette es el resultado de una disfuncion cerebral frontoestriatal que afecta a personas de todas las edades, con un inicio en la primera infancia y continuacion en la adolescencia y la adultez. Desarrollo. Este articulo revisa los principales aspectos cognitivos, de neuroimagen funcional y estudios relacionados con la creatividad en un trastorno caracterizado por un exceso de dopamina en el cerebro. Conclusiones. Dada la especial configuracion cerebral de estos pacientes, deberian esperarse alteraciones neuropsicologicas, especialmente en las funciones ejecutivas. Sin embargo, los hallazgos son poco concluyentes y estan condicionados por factores como la comorbilidad con el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad y el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo, la edad o variables metodologicas. Por otro lado, los estudios de neuroimagen realizados a lo largo de la ultima decada han podido explicar la sintomatologia clinica de pacientes con trastorno de Tourette, con especial relevancia del area motora suplementaria y el giro cingulado anterior. Finalmente, a pesar de no existir una relacion lineal entre el exceso de dopamina y la creatividad, la literatura cientifica destaca una asociacion entre el trastorno de Tourette y la creatividad musical, lo que podria traducirse en programas de intervencion basados en la musica.

  15. [Implementation of the food choice questionnaire in young adolescents and their relationship to overweight and other socio-demographic variables].

    PubMed

    Canales Ronda, Pedro; Hernández Fernández, Asunción

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo se centra en analizar el comportamiento en la elección de los alimentos entre los jóvenes adolescentes españoles, así como su efecto sobre los posibles problemas relacionados con su peso (sobrepeso y obesidad) y otras variables socio-demográficas. Método: En el estudio participaron 590 alumnos de colegios públicos y privados de la ciudad de Valencia, con edades entre los 14 y 17 años, elegidos aleatoriamente. Se realizó un cuestionario personal basado en el Food Choice Questionaire. Resultados: En general, los jóvenes eligen sus alimentos en función de los aspectos sensoriales y el precio de los mismos, y no les preocupan los efectos que sobre su peso tienen sus hábitos alimentarios. No se detectan diferencias entre los alumnos de centros públicos o privados, ni tampoco entre aquellos con normopeso o sobrepeso. Si que existe alguna diferencia en cuanto al género del encuestado. Conclusiones: Los adolescentes, a la hora de elegir su alimentación, no son muy conscientes de los posibles efectos de los mismos sobre su salud actual y futura.

  16. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas en el contexto de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.; Torres, D. F.

    En este trabajo se estudia por primera vez de manera autoconsistente la evolución de las estrellas enanas blancas en el caso de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo. Teniendo en cuenta que: 1) las enanas blancas son en general estrellas muy viejas y 2) su fuente de energía es básicamente de origen térmico y gravitacional, estos objetos son en principio muy adecuados para analizar distintas teorías de gravitación. Los cálculos que aquí presentamos fueron realizados utilizando nuestro código de evolución estelar, el cual calcula la evolución de estrellas enanas blancas por medio del esquema iterativo de Henyey. Dicho código, basado en una descripción física muy detallada, ha sido modificado para tener en cuenta la variación del valor de G. Encontramos que un G variable (decreciente en el tiempo) modifica fuertemente la evolución de las enanas blancas, conduciendo a un rápido enfriamiento de la estrella. Nuestros resultados son comparados con recientes datos observacionales sobre la función de luminosidad de las enanas blancas.

  17. [Pathogenesis of spinal cord injuries and mechanisms of repair induced by olfactory ensheathing cells].

    PubMed

    Botero, Lucía; Gomez, Rosa Margarita; Chaparro, Orlando

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. La lesion medular es un evento catastrofico, cuyas consecuencias persisten durante toda la vida del paciente. La investigacion en tratamiento se ha basado principalmente en el desarrollo de terapias que reduzcan la discapacidad, pero desde los anos noventa hay un avance significativo y se han probado varios trasplantes celulares en modelos animales de lesion medular, celulas de Schwann, astrocitos y celulas de la glia envolvente olfatoria (CGEO). Objetivo. Hacer un recuento detallado de la patogenia de la lesion medular primaria y secundaria y de los mecanismos por los cuales las CGEO inducirian sus posibles efectos regenerativos descritos en la bibliografia. Desarrollo. Despues del traumatismo, la lesion se desarrolla en dos fases, la primaria se caracteriza por las lesiones de compresion y la secundaria se produce por una serie de factores que se dan en paralelo y que incluyen factores vasculares, celulares, moleculares y formacion de cicatriz glial. La mayoria de los modelos de lesion medular y trasplante con CGEO han comunicado recuperacion funcional, remielinizacion y regeneracion axonal. Estas celulas ejercen su accion de manera indirecta a traves de la produccion de factores de crecimiento y de manera directa induciendo regeneracion neuronal, axonal y remielinizacion. Conclusiones. Las CGEO son una opcion terapeutica en pacientes con lesion medular debido a que inducen de modo directo o indirecto regeneracion neuronal, axonal, remielinizacion de axones, disminucion de cicatriz glial y otros efectos que conducen a la recuperacion funcional.

  18. La dinámica demográfica y la desigualdad educativa en Méxicoa

    PubMed Central

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E.; Vargas Valle, Eunice D.; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una investigación sobre el vínculo entre los procesos educativos y la dinámica demográfica en México. La tradición del pensamiento sobre población y desarrollo ha partido de la hipótesis de que el ritmo de crecimiento poblacional, el tamaño de las familias y la migración influyen sobre la acumulación de capital humano entre la población en edades escolares. Se explora aquí la relación del desempeño educativo de los jóvenes entre 14 y 23 años y la razón de dependencia juvenil, la fecundidad adolescente y la migración interna e internacional; para ello se utilizan datos agregados a escala municipal del año 2000. El análisis incluye indicadores de la oferta educativa municipal basados en estadísticas administrativas de la SEP. PMID:26146427

  19. Diseno de una Actividad de Aprendizaje Basada en la Argumentacion Dialogica en un curso Virtual de Biotecnologia y su Incidencia en el Desarrollo de Competencias Cientificas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Benavides, Fedra Lorena

    El proposito de la investigacion fue evaluar la efectividad de una actividad de aprendizaje basado en la argumentacion dialogica en linea y su incidencia en el desarrollo de competencias cientificas. Se fundamenta en la teoria del aprendizaje socio cultural de Vigotsky (1984), los principios del diseno instruccional de la cognicion situada por Hung y Der-Thang (2001) y como estrategia se aplico la argumentacion dialogica utilizando el Modelo Argumentativo de Toulmin MAT (1984). El diseno experimental comparo dos grupos de estudiantes A y B en el curso virtual de Biotecnologia. El grupo A (experimental) desarrollo la discusion a partir de la estrategia disenada para este estudio y el grupo B (control) realizo la discusion desde las actividades tradicionales. El desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa se valoro con el instrumento de evaluacion para argumentacion dialogica en linea propuesta por Clark y Sampson (2008). La evaluacion de las competencias cientificas se realizo a partir de una postprueba. Los datos fueron analizados con pruebas estadisticas no parametricas. Los resultados de la investigacion, indicaron diferencias significativas en el nivel de la competencia argumental en el grupo experimental en comparacion al grupo control. Igualmente se demostro que existe una relacion positiva entre el nivel de desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa y el nivel de desarrollo de las competencias cientificas.

  20. [Candidemia epidemiology in Córdoba Argentina. Surveillance study of five institutions].

    PubMed

    Riera, F; Medeot, M; Sartori, L; Bergallo, C; Minoli, J; Vilchez, V; Sánchez, P; Abiega, C; Pincheira, C; Correa, S; Bartoli, C; Figueroa, M; Montamat, M; Spitale, N; Minguez, A; Caeiro, J P

    2014-01-01

    La incidencia de infecciones invasivas por Candida ha aumentado en forma dramática en los últimos 20 años, siendo causa importante de mortalidad en torno al 40% en los pacientes hospitalizados. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, basado en reportes de laboratorio de cinco hospitales de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Córdoba entre enero de 2010 y agosto de 2012, con el objetivo de conocer la epidemiología regional. Resultados: 158 pacientes con candidemia, edad promedio de 55.8 años, el 60% internados en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Candida albicans 44%, Candida parapsilosis 22% y Candida tropicalis 12% fueron las principales especies aisladas. Candida parapsilosis estuvo comúnmente asociada a infecciones relacionadas a catéteres. Conclusiones: Esta serie local de la ciudad de Córdoba muestra que C. albicans, C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis son las especies mas frecuentes coincidente con el perfil de las series publicadas en Argentina y Latinoamérica. Esto puede tener implicancias para decidir que agente antifúngico usar empíricamente para tratar las candidemias.

  1. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina.

  2. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  3. 2011 Tohoku tsunami runup hydrographs, ship tracks, upriver and overland flow velocities based on video, LiDAR and AIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Takeda, S.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C.; Takahashi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami marked the advent of survivor videos mainly from tourist areas in Thailand and basin-wide locations. Near-field video recordings on Sumatra's north tip at Banda Aceh were limited to inland areas a few kilometres off the beach (Fritz et al., 2006). The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the Tohoku coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life resulting in the costliest natural disaster in recorded history. The mid-afternoon tsunami arrival combined with survivors equipped with cameras on top of vertical evacuation buildings provided numerous inundation recordings with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. High quality tsunami video recording sites at Yoriisohama, Kesennuma, Kamaishi and Miyako along Japan's Sanriku coast were surveyed, eyewitnesses interviewed and precise topographic data recorded using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The original video recordings were recovered from eyewitnesses and the Japanese Coast Guard (JCG). The analysis of the tsunami videos follows an adapted four step procedure (Fritz et al., 2012). Measured overland flow velocities during tsunami runup exceed 13 m/s at Yoriisohama. The runup hydrograph at Yoriisohama highlights the under sampling at the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) pressure gauge, which skips the shorter period second crest. Combined tsunami and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos based on water surface elevations at surface piercing objects and along slopes identified in the acquired topographic TLS data. Several hydrographs reveal a draw down to minus 10 m after a first wave crest exposing harbor bottoms at Yoriisohama and Kamaishi. In some cases ship moorings resist the main tsunami crest only to be broken by the extreme draw down. A multi-hour ship track for the Asia Symphony with the vessels complete tsunami drifting motion in Kamaishi Bay is recovered from the universal ship borne AIS (Automatic Identification System). Multiple

  4. 2011 Tohoku tsunami video and TLS based measurements: hydrographs, currents, inundation flow velocities, and ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Takeda, S.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C. E.; Takahashi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of the Tohoku region caused catastrophic damage and loss of life in Japan. The mid-afternoon tsunami arrival combined with survivors equipped with cameras on top of vertical evacuation buildings provided spontaneous spatially and temporally resolved inundation recordings. This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Myako, Kamaishi, Kesennuma and Yoriisohama along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent video image calibration, processing, tsunami hydrograph and flow velocity analysis. Selected tsunami video recording sites were explored, eyewitnesses interviewed and some ground control points recorded during the initial tsunami reconnaissance in April, 2011. A follow-up survey in June, 2011 focused on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) at locations with high quality eyewitness videos. We acquired precise topographic data using TLS at the video sites producing a 3-dimensional "point cloud" dataset. A camera mounted on the Riegl VZ-400 scanner yields photorealistic 3D images. Integrated GPS measurements allow accurate georeferencing. The original video recordings were recovered from eyewitnesses and the Japanese Coast Guard (JCG). The analysis of the tsunami videos follows an adapted four step procedure originally developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh, Indonesia (Fritz et al., 2006). The first step requires the calibration of the sector of view present in the eyewitness video recording based on ground control points measured in the LiDAR data. In a second step the video image motion induced by the panning of the video camera was determined from subsequent images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to fixed objects. The third step involves the transformation of the raw tsunami video images from image coordinates to world coordinates with a direct linear transformation (DLT) procedure. Finally, the instantaneous tsunami

  5. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian Widiyantoro, Sri; Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50 km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our

  6. Study on Emission Spectral Lines of Iron, Fe in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Soil Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Fadhli; Ramli, Muliadi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, LIBS technique has been used for detection of heavy metal especially iron, Fe in soil sample. As there are a large number of emission spectral lines due to Fe and other constituents in soil, this study is intended to identify emission spectral lines of Fe and finally to find best fit emission spectral lines for carrying out a qualitative and quantitative analysis. LIBS apparatus used in this work consists of a laser system (Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a spectrograph (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny- Turner) and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) 1024x256 pixels (Andor I*Star). The soil sample was collected from Banda Aceh city, Aceh, Indonesia. For spectral data acquisition, the soil sample has been prepared by a pressing machine in the form of pellet. The laser beam was focused using a high density lens (f=+150 mm) and irradiated on the surface of the pellet for generating luminous plasma under 1 atmosphere of air surrounding. The plasma emission was collected by an optical fiber and then sent to the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for acquisition of the emission spectra. It was found that there are many Fe emission lines both atomic lines (Fe I) and ionic lines (Fe II) appeared in all detection windows in the wavelength regions, ranging from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The emission lines of Fe with strong intensities occurs together with emission lines due to other atoms such as Mg, Ca, and Si. Thus, the identification of emission lines from Fe is complicated by presence of many other lines due to other major and minor elements in soil. Considering the features of the detected emission lines, several emission spectral lines of Fe I (atomic emission line), especially Fe I 404.58 nm occurring at visible range are potential to be good candidate of analytical lines in relation to detection

  7. Convergent margin structure and tectonics of the Java subduction zone (105°E-122°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Barckhausen, U.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Hindle, D. A.; Lueschen, E.; Mueller, C.; Planert, L.; Reichert, C. J.; Shulgin, A. A.; Wittwer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Java margin is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our results show a high variability in subduction zone processes along the Java margin, ranging from accretionary subduction to erosive processes to zero-budget mass transfer. These variations are closely linked to changes in character of the incoming plate. Off Western Java (105°E -109°E), near-full accretion of the trench sediment fill is associated with a well-developed accretionary prism fronting a 4 km deep forearc basin. The Central Java segment (109°E -115°E) experiences the collision of an oceanic plateau dotted with numerous seamounts, causing large-scale uplift of the forearc, coupled with erosion of the frontal prism and correlated mass wasting processes. Intense deformation of the forearc basin results from thrusting and compressional forces. In the neighbouring segment farther to the east (115°E-119°E), the lack of significant sediment input to the trench supports the notion that recycling of upper plate material in the forearc sustains the massive outer high observed here adjacent to a mature forearc basin. The incoming oceanic plate of the Argo Abyssal plain is devoid of a sediment drape and the original spreading fabric overprinted by bending-related faulting near the trench shape its morphology. The transition zone from the Java margin to the Banda Arc (119°E-122°E) experiences the early stages of continent-island arc collision associated with the convergence of the

  8. A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

  9. Implications of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on tsunami forecast and assessment models for great subduction-zone earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Titov, Vasily V.; Arcas, Diego; Pollitz, Fred F.; Bilek, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Results from different tsunami forecasting and hazard assessment models are compared with observed tsunami wave heights from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Forecast models are based on initial earthquake information and are used to estimate tsunami wave heights during propagation. An empirical forecast relationship based only on seismic moment provides a close estimate to the observed mean regional and maximum local tsunami runup heights for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami but underestimates mean regional tsunami heights at azimuths in line with the tsunami beaming pattern (e.g., Sri Lanka, Thailand). Standard forecast models developed from subfault discretization of earthquake rupture, in which deep- ocean sea level observations are used to constrain slip, are also tested. Forecast models of this type use tsunami time-series measurements at points in the deep ocean. As a proxy for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a transect of deep-ocean tsunami amplitudes recorded by satellite altimetry is used to constrain slip along four subfaults of the M >9 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. This proxy model performs well in comparison to observed tsunami wave heights, travel times, and inundation patterns at Banda Aceh. Hypothetical tsunami hazard assessments models based on end- member estimates for average slip and rupture length (Mw 9.0–9.3) are compared with tsunami observations. Using average slip (low end member) and rupture length (high end member) (Mw 9.14) consistent with many seismic, geodetic, and tsunami inversions adequately estimates tsunami runup in most regions, except the extreme runup in the western Aceh province. The high slip that occurred in the southern part of the rupture zone linked to runup in this location is a larger fluctuation than expected from standard stochastic slip models. In addition, excess moment release (∼9%) deduced from geodetic studies in comparison to seismic moment estimates may generate additional tsunami energy, if the

  10. Why did we lose the 59 climbers in 2014 Ontake Volcano Eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, F.

    2015-12-01

    The first historical eruption at Ontake volcano, central Japan was in 1979, and it was a phreatic eruption. Until then, most Japanese volcanologists understood that Ontake is a dormant or an extinct volcano. Re-examination of active volcanoes was done after the eruption.After the first historical eruption in 1979, two small eruptions are repeated in 1991 and 2007. Through the three eruptions, nobody has got injured. The last eruption on September 27, 2014, we lost 65 people included missing. Because it was fine weekend and there were many climbers on the summit. The eruption was almost at lunchtime. Clearly, casualties by tsunamis are inhabitants along the coastlines, and casualties by eruption are visitors not inhabitants around the volcano. Basically, visitors have small information of Ontake volcano. After the accident, one mountain guide tells us that we never have long broken such as lunch around the summit, because an active creator is close, and they are afraid of the volcano gas accidents. All casualties by eruption were lost their lives in the area of 1.0 km distance from the 2014 creators. In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Tsunami, we could not recognize the tsunami inspiration between the habitants in Banda Aceh, Sumatra. They have no idea of tsunami, and they called "Rising Sea" never"Tsunami". As the result, they lost many habitants close to the coast. In 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami, when habitants felt strong shaking close to coast, they understood the tsunami coming. 0ver 50 % habitants decide to evacuate from the coast. However, 20-30 % habitants believe in themselves no tsunami attacking for them. As a result we lost many habitants. Additionally, the tsunami height was higher than broadcasting one by JMA. According to the results of the questionnaire survey in climbers or bereaved families of the eruption day on Ontake volcano (Shinano Mainich Newspaper, 2015), 39 % of them were climbing no understand of "Ontake active volcano". Moreover, only 10

  11. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are commonly seen as unpredictable. Even when scientists believe an earthquake is likely, it is still hard to understand the indications observed, as well as their theoretical and practical implications. There is some controversy surrounding the concept of using animals as a precursor of earthquakes. Nonetheless, several institutes at University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Vienna University of Technology, both Vienna, Austria, and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, as well as Terramath Indonesia, Buleleng, both Indonesia, cooperate in a long-term project, funded by Red Bull Media House, Salzburg, Austria, which aims at getting some decisive step forward from anecdotal to scientific evidence of those interdependencies, and show their possible use in forecasting seismic hazard on a short-term basis. Though no conclusive research has yet been published, an idea in this study is that even if animals do not respond to specific geophysical precursors and with enough notice to enable earthquake forecasting on that basis, they may at least enhance, in conjunction with other indications, the degree of certainty we can get of a prediction of an impending earthquake. In Indonesia, indeed, before the great earthquakes of 2004 and 2005, ominous geophysical as well as biological phenomena occurred (but were realized as precursors only in retrospect). Numerous comparable stories can be told from other times and regions. Nearly 2000 perceptible earthquakes (> M3.5) occur each year in Indonesia. Also, in 2007, the government has launched a program, focused on West Sumatra, for investigating earthquake precursors. Therefore, Indonesia is an excellent target area for a study concerning possible interconnections between geophysical and biological earthquake precursors. Geophysical and atmospheric measurements and behavioral observation of several animal species (elephant, domestic cattle, water buffalo, chicken, rat, catfish) are conducted in three areas

  12. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Cambro-Ordovician Siliciclastic Units of the Humber Arm Allochthon, Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittens, A.; Casey, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Dewey, J. F.; Reid, D.

    2012-12-01

    (Makkovik Province, Torngat Arc Province, and New Quebec Province) may possibly provide a more local source for sediments derivation for the Irishtown, Lower Head, and Goose Tickle Formations; and (5) development of an accretionary wedge in front of the advancing arc may have acted as a sediment barrier to significant arc-derived sediment, explaining low young zircon yields from flysch (e.g. the modern-day Sunda-Banda and Barbados Arcs).

  13. Event-stratigraphy of a caldera-forming ignimbrite eruption on Tenerife: the 273 ka Poris Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J.; Branney, Michael J.

    The 273 ka Poris Formation in the Bandas del Sur Group records a complex, compositionally zoned explosive eruption at Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The eruption produced widespread pyroclastic density currents that devastated much of the SE of Tenerife, and deposited one of the most extensive ignimbrite sheets on the island. The sheet reaches 40-m thick, and includes Plinian pumice fall layers, massive and diffuse-stratified pumiceous ignimbrite, widespread lithic breccias, and co-ignimbrite ashfall deposits. Several facies are fines-rich, and contain ash pellets and accretionary lapilli. Eight brief eruptive phases are represented within its lithostratigraphy. Phase 1 comprised a fluctuating Plinian eruption, in which column height increased and then stabilized with time and dispersed tephra over much of the southeastern part of the island. Phase 2 emplaced three geographically restricted ignimbrite flow-units and associated extensive thin co-ignimbrite ashfall layers, which contain abundant accretionary lapilli from moist co-ignimbrite ash plumes. A brief Plinian phase (Phase 3), again dispersing pumice lapilli over southeastern Tenerife, marked the onset of a large sustained pyroclastic density current (Phase 4), which then waxed (Phase 5), covering increasingly larger areas of the island, as vents widened and/or migrated along opening caldera faults. The climax of the Poris eruption (Phase 6) was marked by widespread emplacement of coarse lithic breccias, thought to record caldera subsidence. This is inferred to have disturbed the magma chamber, causing mingling and eruption of tephriphonolite magma, and it changed the proximal topography diverting the pyroclastic density current(s) down the Güimar valley (Phase 7). Phase 8 involved post-eruption erosion and sedimentary reworking, accompanied by minor down-slope sliding of ignimbrite. This was followed by slope stabilization and pedogenesis. The fines-rich lithofacies with abundant ash

  14. Iron oxide reduction in deep Baltic Sea sediments: the potential role of anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.; Dijkstra, Nikki; Sapart, Célia J.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kasten, Sabine; Riedinger, Natascha; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its emission from marine sediments to the atmosphere is largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Traditionally, sulfate is considered to be the most important electron acceptor for AOM in marine sediments. However, recent studies have shown that AOM may also be coupled to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides (Beal et al., 2009; Riedinger et al., 2014; Egger et al., 2014). In the Baltic Sea, the transition from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish/marine phase (A/L-transition) ca. 9-7 ka ago (Zillén et al., 2008) resulted in the accumulation of methanogenic brackish/marine sediments overlying Fe-oxide rich lacustrine deposits. The downward diffusion of methane from the brackish/marine sediments into the lake sediments leads to an ideal diagenetic system to study a potential coupling between Fe oxide reduction and methane oxidation. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained at sites M0063 and M0065 during the IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013 to identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the apparent Fe oxide reduction in the non-sulfidic limnic sediments below the A/L transition. In this presentation, we will review the various explanations for the elevated ferrous Fe in the porewater in the lake sediments and we will specifically address the potential role of the reaction of methane with Fe-oxides. References: Beal E. J., House C. H. and Orphan V. J. (2009) Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 325, 184-187. Egger M., Rasigraf O., Sapart C. J., Jilbert T., Jetten M. S. M., Röckmann T., van der Veen C., Banda N., Kartal B., Ettwig K. F. and Slomp C. P. (2014) Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 277-283. Riedinger N., Formolo M. J., Lyons T. W., Henkel S., Beck A. and Kasten S. (2014) An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of

  15. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Two-case-report].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Martínez, Ixchel; Cornejo-López, Gilberto; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el pseudomixoma peritoneal se caracteriza por la diseminación celular intraperitoneal de un tumor adenomucinoso; el apéndice cecal es la etiología más frecuente. Objetivo: reportar la experiencia de un grupo de Cirugía General y revisar la bibliografía. Casos clínicos: 1: paciente femenina de 74 años de edad, que cuatro días previos inició con dolor abdominal tipo cólico en el mesogastrio y fosa iliaca derecha, evacuaciones diarreicas y fiebre. A su ingreso al hospital se la encontró con datos de irritacion peritoneal y resistencia muscular, leucocitosis de 14,500 células por mm3, neutrófilos 89%, bandas 1%. Se diagnosticó: apendicitis aguda y se programó para laparoscopia diagnóstica, con distensión importante de asas, por lo que se decidió convertir a laparotomía. Caso 2: paciente masculino de 73 años de edad; el padecimiento actual se inició con dolor intermitente en la fosa iliaca derecha e hipogastrio, de un año de evolución. Al cuadro se agregaron: disnea, estreñimiento alternado con periodos de diarrea, plenitud gástrica, y pirosis. A la exploración física se encontró un tumor palpable en el mesogastrio y ambas fosas iliacas. Por eso se le realizó la laparotomía exploradora. En ambos casos el diagnóstico se estableció en el transoperatorio con el hallazgo de múltiples implantes tumorales mucinosos multilobulados diseminados en la cavidad peritoneal, el diagnóstico se confirmó con el reporte histopatológico de pseudomixoma peritoneal. Conclusiones: el pseudomixoma peritoneal es una neoplasia poco frecuente y de difícil diagnóstico, caracterizada por producción copiosa de ascitis mucinosa y de múltiples implantes tumorales en la serosa de las vísceras intracavitarias. El tratamiento ideal es la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal perioperatoria o la quimioterapia postoperatoria, o ambas.

  16. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  17. The Permian of Timor: stratigraphy, palaeontology and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.; Barber, A. J.; Harris, R. A.; Barkham, S. T.; Bird, P. R.; Archbold, N. W.; Morris, N. J.; Nicoll, R. S.; Owen, H. G.; Owens, R. M.; Sorauf, J. E.; Taylor, P. D.; Webster, G. D.; Whittaker, J. E.

    2002-08-01

    The Permian of Timor in the Lesser Sunda Islands has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century because of the richness, diversity and excellent state of preservation of its fauna. These abundant fossil data have been compiled and updated for the present account. The Permian rocks of Timor were deposited on the northern margin of Australia. At the present time the northern margin of Australia, in the region of Timor, is involved in a continent-arc collision, where Australia is colliding with the Banda Arcs. As a result of this collision, Permian rocks of the Australian margin have been disrupted by folding and faulting with the generation of mud-matrix mélange, and uplifted to form part of the island of Timor. Due to this tectonic disruption, it has proved difficult to establish a reliable stratigraphy for the Permian units on Timor, especially as the classic fossil collections were obtained largely from the mélange or purchased from the local people, and do not have adequate stratigraphic control. Detailed systematic, structural, stratigraphic and sedimentological studies since the 1960s have provided a firmer stratigraphic and palaeogeographic background for reconsideration of the significance of the classic fossil collections. Permian rocks on Timor belong either to a volcanic-carbonate sequence (Maubisse Formation), or to a clastic sequence (Atahoc and Cribas formations) in which volcanics are less prominent. The Permian sequences were deposited on Australian continental basement which was undergoing extension with spasmodic volcanic activity. Carbonates of the Maubisse Formation were deposited on horst blocks and volcanic edifices, while clastic sediments of the Atahoc and Cribas formations were deposited in grabens. The clastic sediments are predominantly fine-grained, derived from a distant siliciclastic source, and are interbedded with sediments derived from the volcanics and carbonates of adjacent horst blocks

  18. Measuring impact: a cross-sectional multi-stage cluster survey to assess the attainment of durable solutions in post-tsunami Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Doocy, Shannon; Deli, Anwar; Kirsch, Thomas; Weiss, William; Robinson, Courtland

    2014-11-17

    There exists little agreement on the choice of indicators to be used to assess the impact of humanitarian assistance. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami led to significant mortality and displacement in Aceh Province, Indonesia, as well as a nearly unprecedented humanitarian response. Six years after the disaster we conducted an impact assessment of humanitarian services rendered in Aceh using a comprehensive set of rights-based indicators and sought to determine modifiable predictors of improved outcomes in disaster-affected households. A sample of 597 returned and non-returned households in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh was selected using a multistage stratified cluster survey design. We employed principle components analysis and the Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons to develop a comprehensive and rights-based approach to humanitarian impact measurement using multivariate regression models. The attainment of durable solutions was equivalent in both returned households 100.1 [CI] 97.63-102.5) and households that integrated elsewhere (99.37 [CI] 95.43-103.3, P = 0.781). Standard of living as well as education and health facility satisfaction increased significantly whereas monthly income decreased after the tsunami, from 2585241 IDR ([CI] 2357202-2813279 IDR) to 2038963 ([CI] 1786627-2291298 IDR, P < 0.001). Shelter (P = 0.007) and legal assistance (P < 0.001) were both significantly associated with positive durable solutions outcomes, whereas prolonged displacement duration was significantly associated with poorer outcomes (P < 0.001). Livelihood assistance received after one year was associated with higher odds of increasing or maintaining pre-tsunami income levels (OR = 3.02, P = 0.008), whereas livelihood assistance received within one year was associated with lower odds of attaining pre-tsunami income (OR = 0.52, P = 0.010). We find that after adjusting for pre-tsunami conditions and tsunami-related damages, the impact of sectoral responses

  19. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Madlazim

    2012-06-20

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant

  20. The origin of mélanges: Cautionary tales from Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    The origin of block-in-matrix mélanges has been the subject of intense speculation by structural and tectonic geologists working in accretionary complexes since their first recognition in the early twentieth century. Because of their enigmatic nature, a number of important international meetings and a large number of publications have been devoted to the problem of the origin of mélanges. As mélanges show the effects of the disruption of lithological units to form separate blocks, and also apparently show the effects shearing in the scaly fabric of the matrix, a tectonic origin has often been preferred. Then it was suggested that the disruption to form the blocks in mélanges could also occur in a sedimentary environment due to the collapse of submarine fault scarps to form olistostromes, upon which deformation could be superimposed tectonically. Subsequently it has proposed that some mélanges have originated by overpressured clays rising buoyantly towards the surface, incorporating blocks of the overlying rocks in mud or shale diapirs and mud volcanoes. Two well-known examples of mélanges from the Banda and Sunda arcs are described, to which tectonic and sedimentary origins were confidently ascribed, which proved on subsequent examination to have been formed due to mud diapirism, in a dynamically active environment, as the result of tectonism only indirectly. Evidence from the Australian continental Shelf to the south of Sumba shows that large quantities of diapiric mélange were generated before the diapirs were incorporated in the accretionary complex. Comparable diapirs can be recognised in Timor accreted at an earlier stage. Evidence from both Timor and Nias shows that diapiric mélange can be generated well after the initial accretion process was completed. The problem is: Why, when diapirism is so abundantly found in present convergent margins, is it so rarely reported from older orogenic belts? Many occurrences of mélanges throughout the world to

  1. 2011 Japan tsunami current and flow velocity measurements from survivor videos using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C.; Takahashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan (Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Joint Survey Group). This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Yoriisohama, Kesennuma, Kamaishi and Miyako along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent video image calibration, processing and tsunami flow velocity analysis. Selected tsunami video recording sites were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and some ground control points recorded during the initial tsunami reconnaissance from April 9 to 25. A follow-up survey from June 9 to 15, 2011 focused on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) at locations with previously identified high quality eyewitness videos. We acquired precise topographic data using TLS at nine video sites with multiple scans acquired from different instrument positions at each site. These ground-based LiDAR measurements produce a 3-dimensional "point cloud" dataset. Digital photography from a scanner-mounted camera yields photorealistic 3D images. Integrated GPS measurements allow accurate georeferencing of the TLS data in an absolute reference frame such as WGS84. We deployed a Riegl VZ-400 scanner (1550 nm wavelength laser, 42,000 measurements/second, <600 meter max range) and peripheral equipment from the UNAVCO instrument pool. The original full length videos recordings were recovered from eyewitnesses and the Japanese Coast Guard (JCG). Multiple videos were synchronized and referenced in time (UTC). The analysis of the tsunami videos follows a four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh, Indonesia (Fritz et al., 2006). The first step requires the calibration of the sector of view present in the eyewitness video recording based on visually identifiable ground control points measured in the LiDAR point cloud data

  2. 2011 Japan tsunami survivor video based hydrograph and flow velocity measurements using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C. E.; Takahashi, T.

    2012-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan (Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Joint Survey Group). This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Yoriisohama, Kesennuma, Kamaishi and Miyako along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent video image calibration, processing, tsunami hydrograph and flow velocity analysis. Selected tsunami video recording sites were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and some ground control points recorded during the initial tsunami reconnaissance from April 9 to 25. A follow-up survey from June 9 to 15, 2011 focused on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) at locations with previously identified high quality eyewitness videos. We acquired precise topographic data using TLS at nine video sites with multiple scans acquired from different instrument positions at each site. These ground-based LiDAR measurements produce a 3-dimensional "point cloud" dataset. Digital photography from a scanner-mounted camera yields photorealistic 3D images. Integrated GPS measurements allow accurate georeferencing of the TLS data in an absolute reference frame such as WGS84. We deployed a Riegl VZ-400 scanner (1550 nm wavelength laser, 42,000 measurements/second, <600 meter max range) and peripheral equipment from the UNAVCO instrument pool. The original full length videos recordings were recovered from eyewitnesses and the Japanese Coast Guard (JCG). Multiple videos were synchronized and referenced in time (UTC). The analysis of the tsunami videos follows a four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh, Indonesia (Fritz et al., 2006). The first step requires the calibration of the sector of view present in the eyewitness video recording based on visually identifiable ground control points measured in the LiDAR point

  3. Ophiolite emplacement by collision between the Sula Platform and the Sulawesi Island Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Eli A.; McCaffrey, Robert; Joyodiwiryo, Yoko; Stevens, Scott

    1983-11-01

    Much of the tectonic complexity displayed in eastern Indonesia results from a series of Neogene collision events between island arcs, continental fragments, and the Australian continent. Here we examine the emplacement of a large ophiolite belt, resulting from the Miocene collision between the Sulawesi island arc and a continental fragment, the Sula platform. We present the results of several marine geophysical expeditions to the SW Molucca Sea and the NW Banda Sea, plus gravity and geology on the east arms of Sulawesi. The Batui thrust separates the ophiolite from sedimentary rocks deformed along the leading edge of the Sula platform. We mapped this thrust eastward from Sulawesi along the southern margin of the Gorontalo basin. The latter is floored by oceanic crust, and its south edge is uplifted against the thrust. Thus the Sulawesi ophiolite can be traced offshore to its origin as basement of the Gorontalo basin. The ophiolite is composed of harzburgite in the Southeast Arm and passes upward through a complex of gabbros and diabase dikes in the East Arm. Ophiolite melange underlies the harzburgites on the Southeast Arm beneath low-angle thrust contacts where seen. Our local observations show the melange to be composed of thrust packets of both serpentine and red shale matrix varieties. The packets are several hundred meters thick, and the melange, where studied, has a moderate north to northeast dipping foliation. This orientation, if regionally representative of the melange fabric, is consistent with a significant northward component of movement of the lower plate, probably the Sula platform or its margin. Where the ophiolite is in contact with rocks of the central schist belt, it dips under the schist, but where it encounters melange, or Mesozoic or Paleogene sedimentary rocks, the ophiolite is thrust over them. The tectonic overlap sequence, from west to east, is schist over ophiolite over older sediments or melange. The ophiolite appears to have been

  4. On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

  5. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  6. Impact of the viscoelastic postseismic deformation following megathrust earthquake on seismic hazard in subduction zones : the case of the Maule and Illapel earthquakes in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Emilie; Vigny, Christophe; Fleitout, Luce; Garaud, Jean-Didier

    2016-04-01

    , precisely where the Illapel earthquake occurred. Therefore, we suggest that post-seismic relaxation after the Maule Earthquake has been instrumental (along with geometrical particularities of the slab geometry in this area) in triggering the 2015 rupture and forbidding (for now) a similar earthquake in front of Valparaiso. We suggest the same mechanism has been active along the Sumatran trench where a similar highly coupled and mature seismic gap remains unbroken between the Banda-Aceh and Nias earthquakes of 2004 and 2005 on one side and the Bengkulu earthquake of 2007 on the other side : the Padang gap.

  7. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  8. Effects of Isotropic and Anisotropic Structure in the Lowermost Mantle on High-Frequency Body Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, L.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Ritsema, J.

    2015-12-01

    It has been observed that vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarised S waves crossing the lowermost mantle sometimes are split by a few seconds The splitting of such waves is often interpreted in terms of seismic anisotropy in the D" region. Here we investigate systematically the effects of elastic, anelastic, isotropic and anisotropic structure on shear-wave splitting, including 3-D variations in some of these physical properties. Taking advantage of accurate waveform modeling techniques such as Gemini and the Spectral Element Method we generate three-component theoretical waveforms in a wide set of 1-D and 3-D, isotropic and radially anisotropic earth models, accurate down to a wave period of T~5.6s. Our numerical simulations in isotropic earth models show that the contamination of S waves by other phases can generate an apparent splitting between SH and SV waves. In particular, in the case of very shallow sources, the sS phase can interfere with the direct S phase, resulting in split SH and SV pulses when the SH and SV (or sSH and sSV) waves have different polarity or a substantial amplitude difference. In the case of deep earthquake sources, a positive shear velocity jump at the top of the D" can cause the triplication of S waves and the ScSH and ScSV phases can have different polarity. Thus, when the triplicated S wave is combined with the ScS phase, the resulting SH-ScSH and SV-ScSV phases may seem split. On the other hand, in the absence of a sharp vertical variation in the shear wave velocity, the difference in polarity between ScSH and ScSV can make the SH pulse larger than SV and thus also lead to apparent splitting between these phases. This effect depends on the thickness of the D" and the Vs gradient within it. S waveforms simulated in radially anisotropic models reveal that a radial anisotropy of ξ=1.07 in the D" seems to be necessary to explain the 2-3s of splitting observed in waveforms recorded in Tanzania from an event in the Banda Sea

  9. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  10. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  11. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  12. Discovering Plate Boundaries Update: Builds Content Knowledge and Models Inquiry-based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pringle, M. S.; Henning, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Discovering Plate Boundaries (DPB) is a jigsaw-structured classroom exercise in which students explore the fundamental datasets from which plate boundary processes were discovered. The exercise has been widely used in the past ten years as a classroom activity for students in fifth grade through high school, and for Earth Science major and general education courses in college. Perhaps more importantly, the exercise has been used extensively for professional development of in-service and pre-service K-12 science teachers, where it simultaneously builds content knowledge in plate boundary processes (including natural hazards), models an effective data-rich, inquiry-based pedagogy, and provides a set of lesson plans and materials which teachers can port directly into their own classroom (see Pringle, et al, this session for a specific example). DPB is based on 4 “specialty” data maps, 1) earthquake locations, 2) modern volcanic activity, 3) seafloor age, and 4) topography and bathymetry, plus a fifth map of (undifferentiated) plate boundary locations. The jigsaw is structured so that students are first split into one of the four “specialties,” then re-arranged into groups with each of the four specialties to describe the boundaries of a particular plate. We have taken the original DPB materials, used the latest digital data sets to update all the basic maps, and expanded the opportunities for further student and teacher learning. The earthquake maps now cover the recent period including the deadly Banda Aceh event. The topography/bathymetry map now has global coverage and uses ice-free elevations, which can, for example, extend to further inquiry about mantle viscosity and loading processes (why are significant portions of the bedrock surface of Greenland and Antarctica below sea level?). The volcanic activity map now differentiates volcano type and primary volcanic lithology, allowing a more elaborate understanding of volcanism at different plate boundaries

  13. The efficacy of a combined larvicide-adulticide in ultralow volume and fumigant canister formulations in controlling the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwest of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, Maria J; Zaidenberg, Mario; Santana, Mirta

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of an ultralow volume formulation (ULV) and fumigant canister, containing both permethrin and pyriproxyfen, was compared with that of standard permethrin applications in a field assay conducted in Banda del Río Salí, Tucumán (north-western Argentina). Five treatment areas were established: first area was sprayed with a ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin, a second area was treated using a fumigant canister containing 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen, the third area was sprayed with a ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen, the fourth area with ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin using a portable aerosol generator and the fifth area was a left untreated area. Immature and adult Aedes aegypti individuals placed in containers and sentinel cages were positioned within the treated and control areas. The effects of treatment and time on larval, pupal and adult survival were tested. We also investigated the effects of treatment and time on the numbers of larval and pupal deaths, on the proportion of larvae that metamorphosed into pupae and adults, and on the proportion of dead adults. Larval A. aegypti survivorship in 250 mL containers revealed a significant treatment effect and significant treatment × time interaction 2 and 24 h after the application of the ULV treatment with 10 % permethrin using the portable aerosol generator. The number of dead larvae in 20 L containers differed significantly by treatment and by time. ULV treatment with 10 % permethrin and 10 % permethrin plus 3 % pyriproxyfen using the cold fogger truck mount ULV resulted in the greatest numbers of dead larvae; most larvae died 2 weeks after application. Adult A. aegypti mortality in all treatments did not differ significantly 2 and 24 h after application. In addition, we found no significant differences in adult mortality between cages exposed at 3 m and those at 6 m from the ULV application line. However, there was a significant difference in

  14. Sedimentary deposits of the 26 December 2004 tsunami on the northwest coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kamataki, T.; Triyono, R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami flooded coastal northern Sumatra to a depth of over 20 m, deposited a discontinuous sheet of sand up to 80 cm thick, and left mud up to 5 km inland. In most places the sand sheet is normally graded, and in some it contains complex internal stratigraphy. Structures within the sand sheet may record the passage of up to 3 individual waves. We studied the 2004 tsunami deposits in detail along a flow-parallel transect about 400 m long, 16 km southwest of Banda Aceh. Near the shore along this transect, the deposit is thin or absent. Between 50 and 400 m inland it ranges in thickness from 5 to 20 cm. The main trend in thickness is a tendency to thicken by filling low spots, most dramatically at pre-existing stream channels. Deposition generally attended inundation - along the transect, the tsunami deposited sand to within about 40 m of the inundation limit. Although the tsunami deposit contains primarily material indistinguishable from material found on the beach one month after the event, it also contains grain sizes and compositions unavailable on the current beach. Along the transect we studied, these grains become increasingly dominant both landward and upward in the deposit; possibly some landward source of sediment was exposed and exploited by the passage of the waves. The deposit also contains the unabraded shells of subtidal marine organisms, suggesting that at least part of the deposit came from offshore. Grain sizes within the deposit tend to fine upward and landward, although individual units within the deposit appear massive, or show reverse grading. Sorting becomes better landward, although the most landward sites generally become poorly sorted from the inclusion of soil clasts. These sites commonly show interlayering of sandy units and soil clast units. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami in Sumatra demonstrate the complex nature of the deposits of large tsunamis. Unlike the deposits of smaller tsunamis, internal stratigraphy is

  15. Kinematics of back-arc extension driven by the interference of subduction and/or collisional zones: application to a number of Mediterranean orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, L.; Cloetingh, S.

    2013-12-01

    The large number and distribution of roll-back systems in Mediterranean orogens infers the possibility of interacting extensional back-arc deformation driven by different slabs. Classical models of orogenic evolution assume that such back arc basins form in the hinterland of orogens, collapsing the upper plate above oceanic subduction zones. This is a common characteristic thought to apply to all low-topography orogens of Mediterranean type driven by the fast roll-back of genetically related slabs, or to other analogues such as the Miocene to recent evolution of the SE Asia subduction zones. This extension may take place far at the interior of the upper plate, as is the case in various segments of the Carpathians or in the core of the SE Asian domain, but in most cases of the Dinarides, Apennines or Hellenides it take place superposed or far into the foreland when compared with the position of oceanic suture zones. Mediterranean orogens often diverge from the typical scenario by widespread extensional deformation taking place during moments of continent-continent collision and by the interference of such deformation driven by different subduction zones. For instance, the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is generally related to the rapid Miocene roll-back of a slab attached to the European continent. The present-day extensional geometry of the Pannonian back-arc formed essentially during the Carpathians collision and was also driven by an additional Middle Miocene roll-back of a Dinaridic slab. In other orogenic systems, the back-arc extension takes place during continent-continent collision along major detachments that are located in the core of the orogen (Rif, Betics), in the accreted crustal material of the lower plate (Apennines, Dinarides) or even in a presumed former fore-arc (Aegean, Sunda-Banda arc). In all these subduction zones, collision has largely duplicated crustal blocks from the lower plate and has gradually shifted subduction zone far

  16. Observações espectroscópicas da candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Martins, S.; Pereira, C. B.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho apresentamos a análise fotosférica da estrela candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155. Com os dados obtidos no espectrógrafo FEROS foram determinados os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias fotosféricas utilizando o código MOOG. A análise do espectro mostrou que IRAS 19386+0155 possui os seguintes parâmetros atmosféricos : Teff = 6800K, log g = 1.4, [M/H] = -1.5 e Vt = 8.4 km/s. O padrão de abundância obtido para os elementos mais leves (Carbono, Nitrogênio e Oxigênio) e elementos a (Magnésio, Silício e Cálcio) foi inferior ao solar (log C = 7.74, log N = 7.28, Log O = 8.43, log Mg = 7.14, log Si = 7.54 e log Ca = 5.91). Uma inspeção visual do espectro ISO deste objeto revela a presença de poeira fria na forma de silicatos cristalinos. Embora as bandas mais marcantes de silicatos amorfos (em 10 mm e 18mm) não sejam observadas, a emissão em 21 mm, presente em algumas pós-AGBs também não está presente. O espectro ISO parece revelar um meio rico em oxigênio, mas a forma da distribuição de energia no infravermelho não obedece ao padrão apresentado por outras pós-AGBs. Nossos resultados nos levam a sugerir que IRAS 19386+0155 talvez faça parte de um sistema binário, uma vez que outras pós-AGBs que são membros de sistemas binários apresentam padrão de abundância semelhante.

  17. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF THE CHIMERIC GENE DERIVED FROM THE GROUP 1 ALLERGENS OF DUST MITES.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: se reconstituyó con éxito el gen del grupo 1 alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo, y obtuvo un conjunto de genes barajadas. Con el fin de verificar la predicción en el gen quimérico, hemos clonado tentativamente R8 en el vector que se expresó prokaryoticly, purificó y se evaluó por sus actividades-bio. Métodos: el producto expresado se detectó por SDS-PAGE y la proteína diana se purificó. La proteína purificada R8 se detectó por ELISA. Setenta y cinco ratones BALB/ c se dividieron en 5 grupos, a saber: PBS, rDer f1, rDer p1, R8 y el grupo de asma. Los ratones fueron tratados con alérgenos de ácaros del polvo a los 0, 7, 14 días mediante inyección intraperitoneal y inhaladas desafío como aerosol en día 21 durante 7 días. La inmunoterapia específica para el alérgeno se realizó utilizando rDer f1, rDer p1 y alérgenos R8, respectivamente. El nivel de IFN e IL-4 en BALF se detectó por ELISA. Resultados: el gen quimérico R8 se expresó con una banda de aproximadamente Mr 35000. En comparación con los grupos de rDer f 1 y rDer p 1 [(80,44 ± 15,50) y (90,79 ± 10,38) μg/ml, respectivamente], la capacidad de unión a IgE de la proteína R8 (37,03 ± 12,46) μg/ml fue estadísticamente inferior (P.

  18. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  19. Calibración del retardo ionosférico en observaciones astrométricas y geodésicas a partir de observaciones GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Kleusberg, A.; Arias, E. F.; de Biasi, M. S.

    Los parámetros astrométricos y geodésicos de precisión se determinan hoy mediante la observación con técnicas espaciales (VLBI, GPS y LSR). Las técnicas VLBI y GPS operan en la banda de microondas y en ella la ionósfera terrestre es dispersiva. Las señales que provienen de las radiofuentes y de los satélites atraviesan la ionósfera, donde el índice de refracción difiere de la unidad en una cantidad que es proporcional a la densidad de electrones libres e inversamente proporcional al cuadrado de la frecuencia de la onda portadora. Actualmente el International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) mantiene operacional una red global integrada por más de 50 estaciones equipadas con receptores GPS de alta performance; las observaciones diarias son accesibles a los usuarios mediante ftp. La posibilidad de utilizar estas observaciones en un monitoreo continuo de la ionósfera fue señalada por diversos autores, razón por la cual en los últimos años se ha invertido un significativo esfuerzo en la producción de mapas ionosféricos regionales y globales. En el presente trabajo se utilizan 28 estaciones cuyas observaciones mapean la mayor parte de la ionósfera global. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la posibilidad de obtener mapas ionosféricos globales con una resolución de medio día y con una precisión de (1.5 nseg (rms)). Dichos mapas proveen valores medios globales para el intervalo ajustado. Los residuos del ajuste por mínimos cuadrados constituyen una señal a partir de la cual pueden estudiarse mejor las variaciones geográficas de la ionósfera y las componentes estadísticas de su variación temporal.

  20. Mapping mantle-melting anomalies in Baja California: a combined helium-seismology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Spelz, R. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Tellez, M.; González-Yahimovich, O.

    2015-12-01

    In active tectonic settings, the presence of helium in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the contribution of mantle-derived volatiles to the total volatile inventory. This is an indicative of the presence of mantle-derived melts, which act to transfer volatiles from the solid Earth towards the surface. Thus, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle which are undergoing partial melting - a phenomenon which should also be evident in the seismic record. Reports of high 3He/4He in hot springs in Baja California (BC) has prompted us to initiate a survey of the region to assess relationship(s) between He isotopes and geophysical images of the underlying mantle. Previous studies report 3He/4He ratios of 0.54 RA for submarine hot springs (Punta Banda 108oC; Vidal, 1982) and 1.3 RA for spring waters (81oC) at Bahia Concepcion (Forrest et al.,2005). Our new survey of hot springs in northern BC has revealed that all 6 localities sampled to date, show the presence of mantle He with the highest ratio being 1.74RA (21% mantle-derived) at Puertecitos on the Gulf coast. He ratios are generally lower on the Pacific coast with the minimum mantle He contribution being 5% at Sierra Juárez (0.11RA). Thus, preliminary trends are of a west-to-east increase in the mantle He signal across the peninsula. He results presented in this study correlate well with high resolution Rayleigh wave tomography images by Forsythe et al. (2007). Shear velocity variations in the BC crust and upper mantle have been interpreted as low velocity anomalies associated with dynamic upwelling and active melt production. More extensive sampling throughout BC coupled with analysis of other geochemical indicators of mantle degassing (e.g. CO2) will allow more detailed characterization of the extent and distribution of mantle melts in the region, facilitating assessment of the region's geothermal

  1. [Acute gastric volvulus: late complication of Nissen fundoplication. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zamorano, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el vólvulo gástrico puede clasificarse por su etiología en primario o secundario, por su anatomía en órgano axial o mesentérico axial y por su presentación en crónico o agudo. El tratamiento del vólvulo gástrico secundario agudo siempre debe ser quirúrgico y la elección del procedimiento basarse en la etiología y en los casos asociados con cirugía previa será importante la lisis de adherencias y el retiro de cuerpos extraños (material de sutura, mallas, banda gástrica). La funduplicatura Nissen es un procedimiento seguro y efectivo que rara vez puede tener complicaciones tardías severas entre las que se encuentran el vólvulo gástrico. Objetivo: comunicar 2 casos y revisar la bibliografía médica. Casos clínicos: se describen 2 casos de vólvulo gástrico agudo secundarios a funduplicatura tipo Nissen laparoscópica, con síntomas de dolor epigástrico y vómito no productivo, ambos tratados por laparoscopia. Se revisan los síntomas de presentación, incidencia, diagnóstico, tratamiento y los factores predisponentes de vólvulo gástrico postfunduplicatura. Conclusión: el vólvulo gástrico rara vez puede ser una complicación de una funduplicatura Nissen con incidencia similar a la de otras de sus complicaciones tardías. Los mecanismos descritos que lo originan se relacionan con adherencias postquirúrgicas, material de sutura (poliéster), mallas, tubos de gastrostomía, gastropexia y por herniación gástrica interna a través del túnel "transfunduplicatura." En pacientes con síntomas de obstrucción gástrica dentro del primer año posterior a una funduplicatura Nissen laparoscópica se requiere un alto índice de sospecha. El tratamiento quirúrgico laparoscópico es seguro con o sin gastropexia para corregir los mecanismos que lo originan.

  2. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (<20 mm/a) often show sparse OR/OTS seismicity. It is unclear if such low activity is a long-term feature of these systems or is a consequence of the long return times of great IPT earthquakes (e.g., the sparse OR/OTS seismicity before the 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra earthquake and many subsequent OR/OTS events). (3) OR/OTS shocks are generally sparse or absent where incoming plates are very young (<20 Ma) (e.g., Cascadia, southern Mexico, Nankai, and South Shetlands). (4) Subducting plates of intermediate age (20 to about 65 Ma) display a diversity of focal mechanisms and seismicity patterns. In the Philippines, NE Indonesia, and Melanesia, bands of reverse faulting events occur at or near the trench and SNF earthquakes are restricted to OR/OTS sites further from the trench. (5) Clustering of OR/OTS events of all types commonly occurs where

  3. Earthquake related tsunami hazard along the western coast of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvholt, F.; Bungum, H.; Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Lindholm, C. D.; Pedersen, G.

    2006-11-01

    The primary background for the present study was a project to assist the authorities in Thailand with development of plans for how to deal with the future tsunami risk in both short and long term perspectives, in the wake of the devastating 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami. The study is focussed on defining and analyzing a number of possible future earthquake scenarios (magnitudes 8.5, 8.0 and 7.5) with associated return periods, each one accompanied by specific tsunami modelling. Along the most affected part of the western coast of Thailand, the 2004 tsunami wave caused a maximum water level ranging from 5 to 15 m above mean sea level. These levels and their spatial distributions have been confirmed by detailed numerical simulations. The applied earthquake source is developed based on available seismological and geodetic inversions, and the simulation using the source as initial condition agree well with sea level records and run-up observations. A conclusion from the study is that another megathrust earthquake generating a tsunami affecting the coastline of western Thailand is not likely to occur again for several hundred years. This is in part based on the assumption that the Southern Andaman Microplate Boundary near the Simeulue Islands constitutes a geologic barrier that will prohibit significant rupture across it, and in part on the decreasing subduction rates north of the Banda Ache region. It is also concluded that the largest credible earthquake to be prepared for along the part of the Sunda-Andaman arc that could affect Thailand, is within the next 50-100 years an earthquake of magnitude 8.5, which is expected to occur with more spatial and temporal irregularity than the megathrust events. Numerical simulations have shown such earthquakes to cause tsunamis with maximum water levels up to 1.5-2.0 m along the western coast of Thailand, possibly 2.5-3.0 m on a high tide. However, in a longer time perspective (say more than 50-100 years

  4. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    to strike-slip/collision regimes that takes places in the northeastern Caribbean. Vertical cross-sections from p-wave global tomography Hispaniola do not show a northward-dipping fast velocity layer suggesting that the Caribbean plate's interior does not subduct in the upper mantle under the Muertos margin. The Eastern Greater Antilles arc is therefore likely a crustal-scale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedge formed during unidirectional subduction. Other examples of island arcs in which a crustal-scale thrust belt develops in the back-arc region with a vergence opposite to that of the accretionary prism, include Banda, Vanuatu and Panama.

  5. Three factors to enlarge tsunami disaster in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Satake, K.

    2010-12-01

    NGO now just concentrates on the first factor, tsunami hazard. We have contributed to education program by using tsunami height poles in Banda Aceh (Fig 1). As for Padang, we try to visualize tsunami by showing inundation data, hazard map and tsunami height poles for people to understand hazard. It is important build up social system to deal with natural hazard. Otherwise natural hazard is amplified by social aspects without proper deals. *Acknowledgment: This work was supported by SATREPS by JST, JICA, RISTEK and LIPI.

  6. Estudo da região HII galática NGC 2579

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Desde a descoberta dos gradientes de abundância química em galáxias espirais, as regiões HII galáticas têm sido intensamente estudadas com o objetivo de determinar a forma do gradiente de abundância química na Via-Láctea. Entretanto, a forma do gradiente galático continua controversa e existem muitas regiões HII que continuam inexploradas. A região HII galática NGC 2579 é um objeto que aparece em imagens Ha, como uma pequena mancha brilhante de aproximadamente 2 segundos de arco de diâmetro a 20 segundos de arco ao leste de RCW 20, sendo NGC 2579 muitas vezes confundida com esta última. Apesar de seu alto brilho superficial, NGC 2579 é um objeto pouco estudado provavelmente por problemas de identificação deste objeto. Como parte de um projeto de reavaliação dos gradientes de abundância química das regiões HII na Via-Láctea, estamos realizando um estudo extensivo das propriedades físicas básicas como temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica e composição química da região HII galática NGC 2579. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa na faixa de 3700Å a 7750Å obtidos com o telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO, Chile, em 2002. Determinamos a temperatura eletrônica usando a razão entre as linhas do [OIII] (l4959+l5007/l4363) e a densidade eletrônica pela razão entre as linhas do [SII] (l6716/l6731). As abundâncias químicas do O, N, Cl, S, Ne e He foram determinadas. Realizamos um estudo de imagens fotométricas nas bandas UBVRI obtidas em 2000 no observatório astronômico San Pedro Mártir, México, para identificar e classificar as estrelas ionizantes de NGC 2579 e determinar a distância deste objeto.

  7. Survey infravermelho do braço espiral de scuttum e da barra no centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amôres, E. B.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    O survey infravermelho consiste de observações utilizando a CAMIV no telescópio de 60 cm do LNA. Nosso principal objetivo é melhor caracterizar a população estelar dos braços espirais e de uma estrutura existente no centro galáctico que acreditamos ser devido à existência de uma barra, cujas extremidades estariam localizadas em longitudes galácticas l~23° e l~14°. As observações realizadas em vários filtros (imagens J, H e K) são particularmente importantes nas direções que tangenciam os braços espirais, desta forma, comparamos uma direção que atravessa um braço a uma direção próxima que não passa pelo braço, sendo que ambas possuem a mesma contribuição de contagens foreground. Nas missões realizadas até o presente, observamos a região na direção tangencial ao braço de Scuttum, com observações de l = 30.04° até l = 31.04°, a cada intervalo de longitude de 0.1°, para latitude galáctica de 0.0°, 0.25°, 0.50°. Para as regiões que acreditamos serem as extremidades da barra, observamos as faixas de longitude compreendidas entre -15° £ l £ -13° e 24° £ l £ 22° a cada intervalo de 0.25°, para latitude galáctica de 0.0° e 0.25°. As observações nos filtros J e H foram feitas com tempo de integração de 60s, na banda K, as observações foram feitas utilizando o filtro C1 com tempo de integração de aproximadamente 210 s (12x15s). Elaboramos diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude onde podemos verificar a existência de regiões com diferentes contagens e população estelar à medida que um braço espiral é atravessado.

  8. Identificação de variáveis cataclísmicas eruptivas na direção do bojo galáctico e Nuvens de Magalhães usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na década de 90 iniciaram-se vários programas para a pesquisa de matéria escura na Galáxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratégia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande número de estrelas (dezenas de milhões) tão freqüentemente quanto possí vel e por longos perí odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemática de observação, além de descobrir inúmeras lentes gravitacionais, é também muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variáveis. De fato, inúmeras novas variáveis de vários tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereços http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variáveis cataclí smicas eruptivas (novas clássicas, novas recorrentes e novas anãs) são objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razão, devem ter sido detectadas em grande número nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade nós procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variáveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variação de brilho como critério principal. Este critério forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direção da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães, 1162 na direção da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhães e o restante na direção do Bojo Galáctico. A análise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupções com as características acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clássicas e 33 novas anãs. Além disso, pode-se mencionar a identificação de candidatas a outros tipos de variáveis como: estrelas simbióticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae

  9. Multi-parameter observation of pre-earthquake signals and their potential for short -term earthquake forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Bobrovskiy, Vadim; Neumann, Libor; Boborykina, Olga; Nazarevych, Andrij; Šebela, Stanka; Kvetko, Július; Shen, Wen-Bin

    2013-04-01

    We present methodologies for the multi-parameter observations of pre-earthquake phenomena and their retrospective/prospective testing. The hypothesis that the strongest earthquakes depend on the global stress field leads to global observations and a multi-parameter and multi-sensors approach. In 2012 we performed coordinated tests of several geophysical and environmental parameters, which are associated with the earthquakes preparation processes, namely: 1) Rocks deformation measurements (Kalenda et al. 2012); 2) Subterranean non-stationary electric processes (Bobrovskij 2011); 3) superconducting gravimeters (SGs) records and broadband seismometers (BS) time series (Shen et al); and 4) satellite infra-red observations (10-13 μm) measured at the top of the atmosphere (Ouzounov et al , 2011). In the retrospective test for the two most recent major events in Asia: Wenchuan earthquake (2008,China) and the latest Tohoku earthquake/tsunami (2011, Japan) our combined analysis showed a coordinated appearance of anomalies in advance (days) that could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters and the earthquake preparation processes. In 2012 three internal retrospective alerts were issued in advance (days) associated with the following events: M7.7 Okhotsk sea of August 14; M7.3 Honshu EQ of December 7 and M7.1 Banda sea EQ on December 10. Not all observations were able to detect anomalies before the M 7.4 Guatemala EQ of November 11. We discuss the reliability of each observation, their time lag, ability to localize and estimate the magnitude of the main shock. References Bobrovskij V. (2011): Kamchatkian Subterranean Electric Operative Forerunners of Catastrophic Earthquake with M9, occurred close to Honshu Island 2011/03/11 . IUGG Meeting Melbourne, 2011. postrer. Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, global tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp. Ozounov D. et al. (2011): Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku

  10. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) - Part 2: Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Elodie; Reffray, Guillaume; Gehlen, Marion; Triyulianti, Iis; Berlianty, Dessy; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Banda Sea and at the exit of the archipelago. While the model overestimates the mean surface chlorophyll a, the seasonal cycle is in phase with satellite estimations, with higher chlorophyll a concentrations in the southern part of the archipelago during the SE monsoon and in the northern part during the NW monsoon. The time series of chlorophyll a anomalies suggests that meteorological and ocean physical processes that drive the interannual variability of biogeochemical properties in the Indonesian region are reproduced by the model.

  11. Dynamic temperature and humidity environmental profiles: impact for future emergency and disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, William J; Louie, Richard F; Tang, Chloe S; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Kost, Gerald J

    2014-02-01

    During disasters and complex emergencies, environmental conditions can adversely affect the performance of point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowledge of these conditions can help device developers and operators understand the significance of temperature and humidity limits necessary for use of POC devices. First responders will benefit from improved performance for on-site decision making. To create dynamic temperature and humidity profiles that can be used to assess the environmental robustness of POC devices, reagents, and other resources (eg, drugs), and thereby, to improve preparedness. Surface temperature and humidity data from the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina USA) was obtained, median hourly temperature and humidity were calculated, and then mathematically stretched profiles were created to include extreme highs and lows. Profiles were created for: (1) Banda Aceh, Indonesia at the time of the 2004 Tsunami; (2) New Orleans, Louisiana USA just before and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005; (3) Springfield, Massachusetts USA for an ambulance call during the month of January 2009; (4) Port-au-Prince, Haiti following the 2010 earthquake; (5) Sendai, Japan for the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami with comparison to the colder month of January 2011; (6) New York, New York USA after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in 2012; and (7) a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii USA to the Marshall Islands. Profiles were validated by randomly selecting 10 days and determining if (1) temperature and humidity points fell inside and (2) daily variations were encompassed. Mean kinetic temperatures (MKT) were also assessed for each profile. Profiles accurately modeled conditions during emergency and disaster events and enclosed 100% of maximum and minimum temperature and humidity points. Daily variations also were represented well with 88.6% (62/70) of temperature readings and 71.1% (54/70) of relative humidity readings falling within diurnal patterns. Days

  12. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlazim, Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics; Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia

    2012-06-01

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, Tdur. Tdur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (μ) while Tdur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or μ. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/μ, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because Tdur is proportional L and greater Mo/μ. Because Mo/μ is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min

  13. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash; Widiyantoro, Sri; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono, Sutiyono, Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-01

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50 km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our

  14. Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Fredensborg, Brian L.; Huspeni, Todd C.; Lorda, Julio; Sandhu, Parwant K.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Torchin, Mark E.; Whitney, Kathleen L.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2001-01-01

    This data set presents food webs for three North American Pacific coast estuaries and a “Metaweb” composed of the species/stages compiled from all three estuaries. The webs have four noteworthy attributes: (1) parasites (infectious agents), (2) body-size information, (3) biomass information, and (4) ontogenetic stages of many animals with complex life cycles. The estuaries are Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California (CSM); Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California (EPB); and Bahía Falsa in Bahía San Quintín, Baja California (BSQ). Most data on species assemblages and parasitism were gathered via consistent sampling that acquired body size and biomass information for plants and animals larger than ∼1 mm, and for many infectious agents (mostly metazoan parasites, but also some microbes). We augmented this with information from additional published sources and by sampling unrepresented groups (e.g., plankton). We estimated free-living consumer–resource links primarily by extending a previously published version of the CSM web (which the current CSM web supplants) and determined most parasite consumer–resource links from direct observation. We recognize 21 possible link types including four general interactions: predators consuming prey, parasites consuming hosts, predators consuming parasites, and parasites consuming parasites. While generally resolved to the species level, we report stage-specific nodes for many animals with complex life cycles. We include additional biological information for each node, such as taxonomy, lifestyle (free-living, infectious, commensal, mutualist), mobility, and residency. The Metaweb includes 500 nodes, 314 species, and 11 270 links projected to be present given appropriate species' co-occurrences. Of these, 9247 links were present in one or more of the estuarine webs. The remaining 2023 links were not present in the estuaries but are included here because they may occur in other places or times. Initial analyses have examined

  15. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Se determinaron la diversidad genética y la resistencia de una colección de más de 100 cepas de Lactobacillus bulgaricus subespecie delbrueckii, aisladas de diferentes yogures caseros de las áreas rurales de Bulgaria. Métodos: La cepa K98 fue la más resistente a las sales biliares y al pH bajo. La supervivencia y los efectos sobre la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta se evaluó en 20 voluntarios sanos. Se observó una alta diversidad genética en la colección de L. bulgaricus mediante RAPD, mientras que la capacidad de tolerar concentraciones altas del ácido desoxicólico y de diferentes niveles de pH fue variable. Se seleccionó la cepa K98 y se usó para preparar un yogur casero que se administró a los 20 voluntarios (500 ml/día durante 15 días). Se recogieron muestras fecales basales y tras la ingesta del yogur. Resultados: Los experimentos DGGE, empleando cebadores universales y para bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL) demostraron que no hubo cambios significativos en la composición cualitativa de la composición de la microflora intestinal. Se observó una banda correspondiente a L. bulgaricus en las 20 muestras. Sólo se recuperó una cepa viable de L. bulgaricus K98 en un único voluntario. Tras la ingesta de yogur, hallamos un aumento de BAL y de Clostridium perfringens y una disminución de Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. Además, se detectó un aumento en las heces de los ácidos acético, butírico y 2-hidroxibutírico. Conclusiones: La diversidad genética de L. delbrueckii subespecie bulgaricus es alta. Hemos aislado una cepa probiótica resistente a la bilis y a la acidez elevada, L. delbrueckii subesp. bulgaricus-K98. Se hallaron cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en la microflora intestinal tras la ingesta de yogur casero que contenía esta cepa, con un aumento concomitante en las heces de AGCC. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan el interés por desarrollar estudios futuros con cantidades variables de L. delbrueckii

  16. Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: Tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2013-04-01

    Sibumasu Terrane (including the Baoshan and Tengchong blocks of Yunnan) collided with the Sukhothai Arc and South China/Indochina in the Triassic, closing the Palaeo-Tethys. A third collage of continental blocks, including the Lhasa block, South West Borneo and East Java-West Sulawesi (now identified as the missing "Banda" and "Argoland" blocks) separated from NW Australia in the Late Triassic-Late Jurassic by opening of the Ceno-Tethys and accreted to SE Sundaland by subduction of the Meso-Tethys in the Cretaceous.

  17. Vernal Point and Plate Tectonics: Indo-Australian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez C, Teodosio; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel; Chavez S, Nadia

    2013-04-01

    A precession coordinate system (eccentricity -100Ka, obliquity -40Ka and precession -25Ka) developed by Milankovicht was the precession of the equinoxes, where the vernal point retrograde 1° every 72 years approximately and enter (0°) into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. The vernal point is a maximum conductivity sensitive axis in the EEJ given at the equinoxes. There was a relationship between the equatorial electrojet - magnetic equator - crust, and besides there was a long history of studies of coupling between earthquake-ionosphere that can be founded in the following revisions: Liperovsky et al. (1990); Gaivoronskaya (1991); Liperovsky et al. (1992); Parrot et al. (1993); Pulinets et al. (1994) and Gokhberg et al. (1995). In IUGG (2007), Cusco was propose as a prime meridian (72° W == 0°) that was parallel to the Andes; the objective was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). The coordinate system had the vernal point from meridian (72° W == 0°) and March 20, 1940. The retrograde movement of the vernal point was the first precessional degree (2012 = 1940 + 72); from the new prime meridian (72° W == 0°) it has obtained the opposite meridian (72° E == 180°). The first precessional degree (2012) near the meridian (72 ° E) was related to the date of April 11, 2012 where a massive earthquake of 8.6 on the Richter scale, followed by several aftershocks, one of 8.2 degrees struck Indonesia with epicenter near Banda Aceh. Five months after that date, Matthias Delescluse et.al (2012), Han Yue et.al (2012), and Fred F. Pollitz et.al, (2012), explained that the two violent earthquakes would be evidence of a break in the Indo-Australian Plate Tectonics caused earthquakes around

  18. Mesozoic and late tertiary submarine fan sequences and their tectonic significance, Sumba, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Der Borch, C. C.; Grady, A. E.; Hardjoprawiro, S.; Prasetyo, H.; Hadiwisastra, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Indonesian island of Sumba occupies a critical zone which separates a "normal" subduction complex (Java Trench System) from a continent-island arc collision zone (Banda Arc). Sumba is considered by some authors to be a microcontinental fragment, although in this context its pre-fragmentation origin is uncertain. Detailed studies of the stratigraphy of Sumba, however, throw light on the origin and subsequent geological history of the island and surrounding areas. On available evidence, the oldest outcropping rocks are of Cretaceous age and locally contain a tropical Tethyan marine fauna. They comprise dark-coloured, sometimes carbonaceous and often volcanogenic mudstones, sandstones, gravels and diamictites, pervasively intruded by andesitic and dacitic dykes and locally intruded by granodiorite plutons. These sediments are siliclastic and appear to have had a continental provenance. The Cretaceous rocks in many areas compromise part of a major submarine fan complex which, at least in south-central Sumba, prograded towards the southwest and south. Shallow marine and non-marine Paleogene sediments and volcanic agglomerates lie unconformably above the uplifted, tilted and eroded Cretaceous strata. These are overlain in turn by the widely outcropping Miocene Sumba Formation, an oceanic sequence with island-arc affinities. Accessible outcrops of the Sumba Formation comprise platform carbonates with abundant reef developments in west Sumba, and a major submarine fan—pelagic chalk complex in east Sumba. The fan complex, which extends beneath the southern Savu Sea north of Sumba, is dominated by large-scale slumps, olistostromes and thin- and thick-bedded turbidites. Turbidite sands and gravels invariably are volcaniclastic, containing components derived from a typical inner (volcanic) arc complex. Paleocurrent indicators are difficult to find in the Sumba Formation, thus it is uncertain at this stage whether the volcaniclastic turbidites were derived from the

  19. The development of volcanic hosted massive sulfide and barite gold orebodies on Wetar Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotney, Philip M.; Roberts, Stephen; Herrington, Richard J.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Burgess, Ray

    2005-07-01

    Wetar Island is composed of Neogene volcanic rocks and minor oceanic sediments and forms part of the Inner Banda Arc. The island preserves precious metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide and barite deposits, which produced approximately 17 metric tonnes of gold. The polymetallic massive sulfides are dominantly pyrite (locally arsenian), with minor chalcopyrite which are cut by late fractures infilled with covellite, chalcocite, tennantite tetrahedrite, enargite, bornite and Fe-poor sphalerite. Barite orebodies are developed on the flanks and locally overly the massive sulfides. These orebodies comprise friable barite and minor sulfides, cemented by a series of complex arsenates, oxides, hydroxides and sulfate, with gold present as <10 μm free grains. Linear and pipe-like structures comprising barite and iron-oxides beneath the barite deposits are interpreted as feeder structures to the barite mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration around the orebodies is zoned and dominated by illite kaolinite smectite assemblages; however, local alunite and pyrophyllite are indicative of late acidic, oxidizing hydrothermal fluids proximal to mineralization. Altered footwall volcanic rocks give an illite K Ar age of 4.7±0.16 Ma and a 40Ar/39Ar age of 4.93±0.21 Ma. Fluid inclusion data suggest that hydrothermal fluid temperatures were around 250 270°C, showed no evidence of boiling, with a mean salinity of 3.2 wt% equivalent NaCl. The δ34S composition of sulfides ranges between +3.3‰ and +11.7‰ and suggests a significant contribution of sulfur from the underlying volcanic edifice. The δ34S barite data vary between +22.4‰ and +31.0‰, close to Miocene seawater sulfate. Whole rock 87Sr/86Sr analyses of unaltered volcanic rocks (0.70748 0.71106) reflect contributions from subducted continental material in their source region. The 87Sr/86Sr barite data (0.7076 0.7088) indicate a dominant Miocene seawater component to the hydrothermal system. The mineral deposits formed on

  20. Large-Scale Present-Day Plate Boundary Deformations in the Eastern Hemisphere Determined from VLBI Data: Implications for Plate Tectonics and Indian Ocean Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Schuh, H.; Yuvraaj, N.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the planet Earth are manifestations of diverse plate tectonic processes which have been occurring since the Archean period of the Earth's evolution and continue to deform the plate boundaries. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is an efficient space geodetic method that enables precise measurement of plate motion and associated deformations. We analyze here VLBI measurements made during a period of approximately three decades at five locations on the Eastern hemisphere of the globe, which are geographically distributed over five continents (plates) around the Indian Ocean. Computed rate of change of baseline length show the deformation pattern and its rate at the boundaries between the major tectonic plates constituting the Eastern hemisphere of the Earth. The African (Nubian) and Antarctic plates are moving apart at 13.5 mm/year, which is mostly attributed to spreading of the South West Indian Ridge. Similarly, spreading of 59.0 mm/year is observed for the South East Indian Ridge that separates the Antarctic and Australian plates. Shortening at the rate of 3.9 mm/year is estimated across the subduction boundary between Africa (Nubia) and Eurasia. Similar convergence is evident between the Australian and Sunda blocks (of the Eurasian plate). The associated deformation of -54.8 mm/year seems to be chiefly accommodated along the Banda arc system, where the Australian plate is subducting under the Sunda block. VLBI sites within the Eurasian plate, Wettzell in Germany, and Seshan on the South China block, are moving apart at 3.6 mm/year. This relative motion between locations on the same plate is interpreted as a result of the deformation process along a large strike-slip fault, which is identified as the Western boundary of the South China block. Expansion of the Indian Ocean, at +91.5 m2/year, is also estimated from the rate of deformation estimated within the five baselines studied here. From the Hurst exponent values, which are indicators of

  1. The Indonesian throughflow during 2004-2006 as observed by the INSTANT program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, A. L.; Sprintall, J.; Van Aken, H. M.; Susanto, D.; Wijffels, S.; Molcard, R.; Ffield, A.; Pranowo, W.; Wirasantosa, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Indonesian seas provide a sea link between the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The connection is not simple, not a single gap in a 'wall', but rather composed of the intricate patterns of passages and seas of varied dimensions. The velocity and temperature/salinity profiles Indonesian throughflow (ITF) are altered en route from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean by sea-air buoyancy and momentum fluxes, as well as diapycnal mixing due to topographic boundary effects and dissipation of tidal energy. The INSTANT program measured the ITF in key channels from 2004 to 2006, providing the first simultaneous view of the main ITF pathways. The along-channel speeds vary markedly with passage; the Makassar and Timor flow is relatively steady in comparison to the seasonal and intraseasonal fluctuations observed in Lombok and Ombai Straits. The flow through Lifamatola Passage is strongly bottom intensified, defining the overflow into the deep Indonesian basins to the south. The 3-year mean ITF transport recorded by INSTANT into the Indian Ocean is 15 × 10 6 m 3/s, about 30% greater than the values of non-simultaneous measurements made prior to 2000. The INSTANT 3-year mean inflow transport is nearly 13 × 10 6 m 3/s. The 2 × 10 6 m 3/s difference between INSTANT measured inflow and outflow is attributed to unresolved surface layer transport in Lifamatola Passage and other channels, such as Karimata Strait. Introducing inflow within the upper 200 m to zero the water column net convergence still requires upwelling within the intervening seas, notably the Banda Sea. A layer of minimum upwelling near 600 m separates upwelling within the thermocline from a deep water upwelling pattern driven by the deep overflow in Lifamatola Passage. For a steady state condition upwelling thermocline water is off-set by a 3-year mean sea to air heat flux of 80 W/m 2 (after taking into account the shoaling of thermocline isotherms between the inflow and outflow portals), which agrees with

  2. Timing of the intensification of Australian Monsoon during the last two terminations recorded in the deep sea sediment core from Timor Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiike, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sakai, S.; Ohkouchi, N.; Kawahata, H.; Suzuki, A.; Oda, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2007-12-01

    Timing of the past variations of the monsoon is a key to understand low to mid latitude climate in the past. We therefore examined a sediment core MD05-2970 obtained from Timor Sea to understand the evolution of the Australian monsoon since previous works proposed much lesser Australian monsoon during the ice ages. Radiocarbon dates as well as oxygen isotope of the planktonic foraminifers indicates that the core covers last 220 kyr which enables us to compare the last two glacial-to-interglacial climatic terminations. Our planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic compositions range from -1.0 permil for the last glacial maximum to -2.8 permil for the Holocene which is consistent with the record previously reported from nearby locations.(Spooner et al., 2005). The present study showed the similar structures of oxygen isotopes between the penultimate glacial maximum and the last interglacial. However the oxygen isotope record obtained from the Makasser Strait indicated - 1.0permil and -4.0 permil respectively for the last two glacial maxima and the interglacials (Visser et al., 2003). No differences in the SST between the two core sites are recognized and hence any discrepancies in the oxygen isotopes are attributable to changes in the oxygen isotopes of seawater due to the hydrological differences. Modern satellites based observations show that the sea surface salinity in Makasser Strait is reduced as much as 4 psu during the Austral summer due to the transportation of the fresher water from the Banda Sea by Austral summer monsoon(Gordon et al., 2003). This creates the salinity difference between the Makasser Strait and the Timor Sea. On the other hand no salinity differences between the two sites were observed during the Austral winter. Therefore Austral summer monsoon was not as strong as today to create salinity differences between the two during the glacial times. Time series analyses of the two oxygen isotope curves would tell us the inception of the intensified

  3. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  4. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafaella de Andrade; Malta, Flávia Monteiro França; Correia, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    écnicas de banda gástrica ajustável e bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux, no Centro Hospitalar de São João, E.P.E., Porto - Portugal, no período de 2005-2010. Foram coletadas: técnica cirúrgica, sexo, idade, estado civil, concentrações séricas de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico e o estilo de vida no pós-operatório. Para análise estatística foi utilizado nível de significância de 5% (p< 0,05). Dentre os 286 indivíduos avaliados, houve predomínio do sexo feminino (90,9%) em ambas as técnicas cirúrgicas, sendo a banda gástrica a mais realizada (68,9%); no entanto maiores deficiências de micronutrientes foram detectadas após o bypass gástrico. A deficiência de micronutriente mais prevalente foi a de ferro (21,3%), seguida da vitamina B12 (16,9%) e do ácido fólico (4,5%). A ingestão de bebida alcoólica de leve-moderada, a adesão à dieta e o uso de polivitamínicos reduziu a frequência, mas não evitou a carência de micronutrientes. A deficiência de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico foi observada durante o primeiro e o segundo anos após as duas técnicas avaliadas, sendo mais frequente nos pacientes submetidos ao bypass gástrico.

  5. FROM COMPLEX EVOLVING TO SIMPLE: CURRENT REVISIONAL AND ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURES FOLLOWING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Zorron, Ricardo; Galvão-Neto, Manoel Passos; Campos, Josemberg; Branco, Alcides José; Sampaio, José; Junghans, Tido; Bothe, Claudia; Benzing, Christian; Krenzien, Felix

    complicated endoscopic solutions. Bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux (BGYR) é procedimento padrão em cirurgia bariátrica. Gastrectomia vertical e banda gástrica, embora com bons resultados na literatura, estão mostrando taxas mais elevadas de insucesso no tratamento para reduzir a morbidade associada à obesidade e peso corporal. Outros problemas pós-operatórios podem ocorrer, como a erosão da banda, e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico refratária à medicação. Portanto, conversão laparoscópica para BGYR pode ser alternativa eficaz, desde que indicações específicas para a revisão sejam cumpridas. Analisar os nossos dados e os da literatura sobre procedimentos bariátricos revisionais para avaliar melhores alternativas para a prática atual. Foram efetuados experiência institucional e revisão sistemática da literatura sobre cirurgia bariátrica revisional. Procedimentos endoscópicos estão sendo aplicados recentemente para melhorar a falha e complicações de procedimentos bariátricos. Falha terapêutica após BGYR ocorre em até 20%. A redução transoral é atualmente um método alternativo para reduzir a anastomose gastrojejunal. A gastrectomia vertical pode apresentar aumento de volume e do diâmetro do pouch , o qual podem ser reduzidos por meio de sutura total endoscópica longitudinal. Síndrome de dumping e episódios de hipoglicemia grave (neuroglicopenia) podem estar presentes nos pacientes com BGYR. Os episódios hipoglicêmicos devem ser avaliados e geralmente podem ser tratados convencionalmente. Para evitar pancreatectomia parcial ou conversão à anatomia normal, uma nova abordagem laparoscópica com ressecção do remanescente gástrico e interposição de jejuno, pode ser aplicada como alternativa em não-respondedores. Episódios de hipoglicemia melhoram, enquanto a perda de peso é mantida. Procedimentos revisionais endoscópicos podem ser aplicados após cirurgia bariátrica em pacientes com sintomas colaterais ou na falha do tratamento

  6. Gravity field and structure of the Sorong Fault Zone, eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardjono

    free-air gravity were observed in south of Mangole (about 13 mGal/km) and west of Obi (about 15 mGal/km) but elsewhere were gentler. Analyses of gravity data along the Sorong Fault Zone in the region of Barggal-Sula Islands controlled in part by geological, reflection seismic and sidescan sonar data, have produced four models which suggest that the crustal structures beneath the zone consist predominantly of attenuated continental fragments, juxtaposed to thick layer of tectonic melange and anomalous oceanic crusts. The continental fragments appear to be severely attenuated and limited in extent in the east but thicker and wider towards the west. The tectonic melange is underlain by deep seated oceanic crust in the Molucca Sea region. The anomalously thin North Banda Sea crust appears to underlie a very thin layer of sediments and to have suffered some degree of arching. The deep seated oceanic crust and the thick layer of tectonic melange are interpreted as the result of the sinking of the lithospheric plate of the Molucca Sea. The descent of this plate may have produced bending forces which may have initiated flexure which propagates through the surrounding region. Depending on the rigidity of the crustal slab, arching and fracturing may have occurred in the crustal rocks. The arching of the oceanic crust of the North Banda Sea may have been one result of this process. The continental fragments of the Banggai-Sula region appear to dip northwards and this may, in addition to the effect of shear tectonics along the Sorong Fault Zone, also be interpreted as the response of the continental fragments to the sinking of the lithospheric plate of the Molucca Sea. In the Obi region, the gravity data suggest that most of the island is underlain by peridotitic and basaltic rocks. Continental crust appears to form the basement in the south and extend offshore south of the island and juxtaposed to oceanic rock. The ultramafic and basic rocks appear to be emplaced on Obi by a high

  7. Estrategias educativas y de evaluación en la formación de médicos especialistas.

    PubMed

    Gaona-Flores, Verónica Alejandra; Campos-Navarro, Luz Arcelia; Arenas-Osuna, Jesús; Alcalá-Martínez, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Las estrategias didácticas se han definido como procedimientos, medios o recursos que el docente utiliza para promover el aprendizaje significativo. Identificar las estrategias de enseñanza y de evaluación que utiliza el profesor con residentes en hospitales de tercer nivel de atención médica. Estudio transversal, con profesores de diversas especialidades, en el Centro Médico Nacional La Raza. Se aplicó un cuestionario que valora las estrategias utilizadas en la enseñanza y la evaluación. En una muestra de 90 profesores, 35 especialidades médicas con profesores ayudantes, adjuntos y titulares, las actividades de enseñanza que más realizan son organizar a los alumnos a exponer temas, seguido de realizar preguntas sobre temas vistos. Respecto a las estrategias educativas, la más frecuente fue análisis de casos y aprendizaje basado en problemas. Para evaluación del desempeño teórico, los métodos más utilizados fueron participación en clase, exposición de temas y exámenes. las actividades de enseñanza están basadas en la exposición de temas por los médicos residentes. La estrategia educativa más utilizada fue llevar a cabo análisis de casos clínicos, seguido por aprendizaje basado en problemas. La evaluación del desempeño en aspectos teóricos se realiza a partir de la participación en clase, la exposición de temas y exámenes. Teaching strategies have been defined as procedures, means or resources that teachers used to promote meaningful learning. Identify teaching strategies and evaluation used by the professor with residents in tertiary hospitals health care. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with full, associate and assistant professors of various medical specialties. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate the strategies used by professors to teach and evaluate students. We included a sample of 90 professors in 35 medical specialties. The most frequent teaching activities were: organizing students to develop presentations

  8. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion

  9. [Nutritional characteristics of school lunch menus in Biscay (Basque Country, Spain) in 2012/2013].

    PubMed

    Sancho Uriarte, Patricia; Cirarda Larrea, Francisco Borja; Valcárcel Alonso, Santiago

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: Uno de los elementos abordados desde la Estrategia para la Nutrición, Actividad física y prevención de la Obesidad y Salud (NAOS) es la alimentación en el medio escolar. Objetivo: Evaluar, tomando como referencia el conjunto mínimo de indicadores y recomendaciones de la Estrategia NAOS, una muestra de menús distribuidos en varios comedores escolares de Bizkaia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal basado en la revisión teórica de los menús basales distribuidos por siete cocinas centrales que abastecen a 324 centros escolares (80.969 alumnos). Se determinó y valoró la frecuencia semanal de varios grupos de alimentos; los documentos de referencia fueron “Evaluación y Seguimiento de la Estrategia NAOS: Conjunto de Indicadores” y las recomendaciones del “Documento de Consenso sobre la alimentación en los centros educativos”. Resultados y discusión: El 100% de los comedores cumple con los mínimos relativos a legumbres, pescados y precocinados y con las recomendaciones relativas a carne y productos cárnicos. Si bien se aproximan bastante, ninguno cumple con los mínimos de fruta, verdura o con la información nutricional complementaria. Se han evidenciado diferencias entre las recomendaciones de La Estrategia NAOS y las condiciones exigidas por el Departamento de Educación, así como dificultades en la cuantificación y clasificación de varios alimentos. Conclusiones: Se recomienda incrementar el contenido en frutas, verduras, huevos y pescado azul de los menús escolares, así como ofrecer a las familias una información de los menús más detallada.

  10. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-12-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of the dual burden of malnutrition at the household level in Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bassete, M N; Romaguera, D; Giménez, M A; Lobo, M O; Samman, N C

    2014-02-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los hogares en los que coexisten el sobrepeso y bajo peso (doble carga de malnutrición) y explorar los factores que podrían contribuir a la doble carga de malnutrición en los hogares de esta población. Después de aplicar los criterios de exclusión, se incluyeron 136 hogares. Las madres fueron clasificadas como de peso normal o con sobrepeso/ obesidad basado en puntos de corte del índice de masa corporal (IMC), los niños y adolescentes fueron clasificados según z–score de la talla para la edad, si tenían o no retraso en el crecimiento (Stunted). Los hogares con una madre obesa y niños o adolescentes con retraso en el crecimiento fueron clasificados como hogares de doble carga. La prevalencia de hogares con doble carga fue del 12 %. En comparación con los otros hogares, en los hogares con doble carga de malnutrición habitan un mayor número de personas en la casa, y el nivel de educación del jefe de familia fue menor. Las personas que viven en hogares de doble carga mostraron ingestas de energía global más bajas y eran más propensos a tener una ingesta insuficiente de calcio y hierro. Una de las principales causas de la doble carga de malnutrición observada en esta comunidad podría ser la transición nutricional. Los resultados presentados aquí indican la necesidad de considerar a los programas que se centran en un solo tipo de problema nutricional y que en realidad podrían exacerbar el otro.

  12. [Bariatric surgery in adults: variables that facilitate and hinder weight loss from pacients perspective].

    PubMed

    Lecaros-Bravo, Javiera; Cruzat-Mandich, Claudia; Díaz-Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore-Infante, Catalina

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La obesidad se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Asociado a esto, las cirugías bariátricas han ido en progresivo aumento, dada su efectividad en la baja de peso a corto plazo. Sin embargo, se ha visto que existe un alto porcentaje de reganancia de peso a partir del tercer año post cirugía y existen pocos estudios de seguimiento de estos pacientes. Objetivos: Describir los facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la pérdida de peso, desde la perspectiva de adultos que han sido sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Métodos: Se utilizó un enfoque cualitativo, descriptivo, basado en la Teoría Fundamentada. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y los datos se analizaron a través de codificación abierta. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 8 mujeres y 3 hombres adultos, intervenidos en clínicas privadas. Resultados: Se generaron cinco categorías de análisis: (1) variables que favorecen la pérdida de peso post cirugía bariátrica, (2) variables que dificultan la pérdida y mantención de peso post cirugía, (3) evaluación de los resultados de la cirugía bariátrica, (4) problematización de la obesidad, y (5) relación con la comida. Discusión: Los principales hallazgos indican que el fracaso y el éxito en la pérdida de peso post cirugía se encuentra asociado a la posibilidad de tener una red de apoyo emocional y social, así como a la posibilidad de comprender y modificar el rol de la comida como mecanismo de regulación emocional.

  13. [Early detection and stability of diagnosis in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, R; Magan-Maganto, M; Bejarano-Martin, A; De Pablos-De la Morena, A; Bueno-Carrera, G; Manso-De Dios, S; Martin-Cilleros, M V

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La intervencion temprana en los niños con un trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) depende de una deteccion precoz y fiable. Aunque de manera general se habla de un diagnostico estable, se ha evidenciado la necesidad de profundizar mas en los factores que influyen en dicha estabilidad. Pacientes y metodos. Los participantes de la muestra fueron 142 menores con TEA (118 varones y 24 mujeres), con una mediana de 33 meses y un recorrido intercuartilico de 12 en la primera evaluacion, y con una mediana de 47 meses y un recorrido intercuartilico de 29 en el seguimiento. Los diagnosticos se realizaron con las siguientes pruebas: escala Merrill-Palmer revisada, escala de Leiter revisada, escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para preescolar y primaria III y escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños revisada y IV; ademas de la escala Vineland y la escala de observacion diagnostica del autismo generica (ADOS-G), basandose el diagnostico clinico en los criterios diagnosticos del Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, cuarta edicion, texto revisado (DSM-IV-TR), y quinta edicion (DSM-5). Para la evaluacion de la estabilidad diagnostica, se realizaron tablas de contingencia para las valoraciones del diagnostico en funcion del juicio clinico y los resultados de la ADOS-G. Resultados. El diagnostico clinico basado en los criterios del DSM-IV-TR, el DSM-5 y el juicio clinico se mantiene estable a traves del tiempo en un 96% de los casos. Si se valora la estabilidad diagnostica teniendo en cuenta los resultados del ADOS-G (n = 30), el 87% de los casos mantiene el diagnostico. El ANOVA muestra diferencias estadisticamente significativas para las medidas del factor intrasujeto del cociente intelectual y la edad social global, pero no para el diagnostico. Conclusiones. La estabilidad diagnostica se beneficia de un uso informado del criterio clinico y de la participacion de un equipo multidisciplinar.

  14. PubMed

    Serrano-Guzmán, María; Valenza-Peña, Carmen M; Serrano-Guzmán, Carmen; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Olmedo-Alguacil, Milagrosa; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-11-29

    Objetivo: este estudio tuvo como objetivo probar la eficacia de un programa de danzaterapia en la composición corporal y calidad de vida en mujeres mayores de 65 años, que no realizan ejercicio físico de forma habitual. Métodos: cincuenta y dos mujeres sedentarias (edad media de 69,27 ± 3,85 años) fueron asignadas al azar para realizar un programa de danzaterapia (n = 27) o formar parte del grupo control (n = 25). El grupo de danza, participó durante ocho semanas en un programa de danza, tres sesiones semanales de 50 minutos cada una, basado en danza popular española (sevillanas) y ballet. Ambos grupos reciben información sobre la importancia de la alimentación y del ejercicio físico al comienzo y mitad del estudio. La circunferencia de la cintura, la presión arterial, el índice de masa corporal y la calidad de vida se evaluaron al inicio y después del tratamiento en ambos grupos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con un 2 × 2 ANOVA.Resultados: las mujeres del grupo de danza mostraron reducción significativa de la circunferencia de la cintura (p = 0,001) en comparación con las del grupo control. Los cambios en el IMC y la calidad de vida, aunque mejoraron en el grupo de danza, no alcanzaron significación estadística. Conclusión: la danzaterapia española es una forma de ejercicio físico eficaz para reducir la grasa visceral y prevenir comorbilidades en mujeres mayores, contribuyendo a cambiar estilos de vida poco saludables.

  15. [Sarcopenic obesity and physical fitness in octogenarians: the multi-center EXERNET Project].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Arribas, Alberto; Mata, Esmeralda; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Espino, Luis; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Gómez-Cabello, Alba

    2013-11-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la utilidad de diferentes test de condición física para detectar el riesgo de sufrir obesidad sarcopénica (OS) en octogenarios. Métodos: 306 sujetos (76 hombres, 230 mujeres) con una media de edad de 82,5±2,3 años, del total de la muestra del Proyecto Multi-céntrico EXERNET cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. La composición corporal se evaluó en todos los sujetos mediante impedancia bioeléctrica. Se crearon 4 grupos basados en el porcentaje de masa grasa y masa muscular: 1) normal, 2) elevada masa grasa, 3) baja masa muscular y 4) OS. La condición física fue evaluada utilizando 8 test diferentes adaptados de las baterías “Senior Fitness Test” y “Eurofit” (batería EXERNET). La probabilidad de padecer OS en función del nivel de condición física se estudió mediante regresión logística. Resultados: Entre las pruebas de condición física estudiadas, los test que mejor predecían el riesgo de sufrir OS fueron la falta de fuerza de piernas, fuerza de brazos, agilidad, velocidad y equilibrio en hombres; 95% CI [(0,606-0,957); (0,496-0,882); (1,116-3,636); (1,060-1,825); (0,913-1,002); todos p.

  16. A strategy for weight loss based on healthy dietary habits and control of emotional response to food.

    PubMed

    Pontes Torrado, Yolanda; García-Villaraco Velasco, Ana; Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: el sedentarismo y los hábitos alimentarios poco saludables son las principales causas de un balance energético negativo y un exceso de peso corporal. El estilo de vida del patrón de dieta mediterránea reduce significativamente los factores de riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles. Por otra parte, las emociones tienen un poderoso efecto en el comportamiento alimentario. Existe una relación directa entre la elección de alimentos, las emociones y el aumento de la ingesta energética. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento emocional de los individuos para facilitar el establecimiento de pautas dietéticas personalizadas basadas en hábitos alimentarios saludables y aumentar la fidelidad del paciente hasta conseguir el peso deseado. Material y métodos: 99 personas adultas con sobrepeso fueron sometidos a un programa de reducción de peso basado en establecer unos hábitos alimentarios y un estilo de vida saludables. La adhesión al patrón de dieta Mediterránea y el efecto de las emociones en la elección de alimentos se determinaron utilizando los cuestionarios MEDAS (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) y EEQ (Emocional Eater Questionnaire), respectivamente. Resultados: la población estudiada era sedentaria, consumía una dieta poco saludable y su conducta alimentaria era dependiente de las emociones. La mayoría de los participantes (66% mujeres y 71% hombres) fueron clasificados como comedores emocionales. Durante el programa de tratamiento, los participantes modificaron sus hábitos alimentarios y su estilo de vida, consiguiendo reducir el peso corporal en al menos un 10% respecto al peso inicial. Conclusión: conocer la relación entre la ingesta de alimentos y las emociones permite personalizar la estrategia dietética para disminuir el peso corporal y la tasa de abandono.

  17. [Preventive program for postoperative delirium in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ocádiz-Carrasco, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Padilla, Ruth Alicia; Páramo-Rivas, Frida; Serrano, Alejandro Tovar; Hernández-Ortega, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el delirium es un padecimiento poco reconocido en los pacientes quirúrgicos que frecuentemente se confunde con deterioro cognitivo o demencia. Es de vital importancia conocer las medidas que pueden disminuir su incidencia y reconocerlo de manera temprana para iniciar el tratamiento específico. Objetivo: implementar un programa educativo en delirium para el equipo de salud, con el propósito de disminuir su incidencia. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, longitudinal y analítico basado en medidas no farmacológicas y con apoyo de los familiares con quienes se tuvieron sesiones educativas, material didáctico, cuestionarios y estrategias específicas para todos los pacientes mayores de 65 años. Se realizaron dos evaluaciones al personal médico y de enfermería antes y después de implementar el programa.Resultados: se observó mejoría en la capacidad para dentificar el delirium (22% inicial vs 93%; p= 0.000). Se incluyeron 200 pacientes en el grupo de ensayo a un año y se encontró un solo caso de delirium que mostró reducción importante respecto a la incidencia previa en el hospital (10 vs 0.5% p= 0.000), mientras que en el subgrupo de 98 pacientes quirúrgicos no hubo ningún caso de delirium (4.8% inicial vs 0% p= 0.01, NNT= 21). Conclusiones: la implementación de un programa preventivo para el delirium es factible. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, por lo que puede considerarse una estrategia efectiva para reducir la incidencia de esta afección que puede causar gran morbilidad y mortalidad postoperatoria.

  18. [Carcinosarcoma of the breast a rare entity with fatal prognosis. One case report].

    PubMed

    Villalón-López, José Sebastián; Souto-del Bosque, Rosalía; Alonso-Briones, Marco Vinicio; Trujillo-de Anda, Ana Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los carcinomas metaplásticos de la glándula mamaria son un grupo heterogéneo de neoplasias con pobre pronóstico en comparación con el carcinoma ductal invasor. Corresponden a menos de 1% del total de las neoplasias malignas de la glándula mamaria. Casi siempre se manifiestan como tumores de alto grado con menor índice de metástasis ganglionares y menor expresión de receptores de estrógeno y progesterona, Her2 y mayor expresión de Her1 y Ki-67. Caso clínico: se reporta el caso de una mujer de 52 años de edad con carcinosarcoma mamario que se manifiesta con un tumor mamario izquierdo, fungado, ulcerado, polipoide, de 18 cm de diámetro, con metástasis ganglionares al momento del diagnóstico. Recibió tratamiento multimodal con quimioterapia neoadyuvante seguida de mastectomía y quimioterapia complementaria; evolucionó con metástasis pulmonares y recurrencia local masiva. Falleció por complicaciones derivadas de la enfermedad.Conclusiones: los carcinomas metaplásticos de la glándula mamaria son padecimientos sumamente raros. Debido a la naturaleza de la enfermedad y su forma de presentación el pronóstico es pobre. Existen varios subtipos histológicos basados en estudios de hematoxilina y eosina o tinciones de inmunohistoquímica. El tratamiento debe ser multimodal (cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia) para obtener mejores resultados.

  19. [Acute coronary syndromes in Latin America: lessons from the ACCESS registry].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Jerjes-Sánchez, Carlos; Nicolau, José Carlos; Bazzino, Oscar; Antepara, Norka; Mármol, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: se desconocen las características, la evolución y el tratamiento de pacientes latinoamericanos con síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA). Métodos: registro internacional multicéntrico y prospectivo para evaluar riesgo, terapéutica y evolución en SCA. Punto primario: toda causa de mortalidad durante el primer año y mortalidad a 30 días. Ingresaron pacientes con síntomas de isquemia coronaria aguda en las primeras 24 horas del inicio de los síntomas y evidencia electrocardiográfica de isquemia. El diagnóstico final requirió pruebas invasivas o no invasivas. Resultados: entre el 2007 y 2008 se ingresaron en ocho países latinoamericanos 4436 pacientes, 2562 con angina inestable o infarto sin elevación del ST y 2374 con infarto con elevación del ST. Al ingreso tuvieron síntomas agudos 79 y 90 %, respectivamente. Ambos grupos tuvieron retraso entre el inicio de síntomas y el ingreso hospitalario. En infarto y elevación del ST se observó baja accesibilidad a reperfusión farmacológica (29 %) y mecánica (32 %). Al ingreso en ambos el porcentaje de tratamiento basado en evidencia fue bajo. Las complicaciones hospitalarias fueron la insuficiencia cardiaca (angina inestable e infarto sin elevación del ST 10 % y el infarto con elevación del ST 20 %) e isquemia recurrente (8 y 11 %). La mortalidad a 30 días fue 2 % y a un año 8 %. Conclusiones: el registro ACCESS ofrece información contemporánea sobre el espectro de pacientes, el manejo hospitalario y la evolución clínica subsecuente.

  20. [Adherence and toxicity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    González Rosa, V; Gutiérrez Nicolás, F; Gavira Moreno, R; Viña Romero, M M; Moreno Carvajal, M T; Gázquez Pérez, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la adherencia y la toxicidad del tratamiento con inhibidores de tirosinquinasa (TKIs) en pacientes diagnosticados de Leucemia Mieloide Crónica (LMC). Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de 18 meses de duración (enero 2011-junio 2012) en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes diagnosticados de LMC en un hospital de se - gundo nivel (550 camas) en tratamiento con imatinib, dasatinib o nilotinib. Las variables recogidas fueron sexo, edad de diagnóstico, años de tratamiento y reacciones adversas. La adherencia se valoró mediante un sistema combinado basado en el autocuestionario SMAQ y el registro de dispensaciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 25 pacientes. El 92,0% experimentaron reacciones adversas a imatinib; 83,3% a dasatinib y 66,7% a nilotinib. La adherencia media fue de 71,3%. Se identificaron como posibles parámetros de falta de adherencia el sexo femenino (55,6% vs. 66,7%, p = 0,586), mayores de 50 años (55,6% vs. 83,3%, p = 0,125), más de cuatro años de duración de tratamiento (70,0% vs. 57,1%, p = 0,521) y la presencia de determinados efectos adversos (trastornos gastrointestinales y dolor musculoesquelético). Conclusiones: Casi un tercio de los pacientes en tratamiento fueron considerados no adherentes. A pesar de que el tamaño muestral no nos ha permitido establecer relaciones estadísticamente significativos entre la adherencia y las variables analizadas, la relevancia clínica de estos resultados muestran la importancia de realizar futuros estudios con poblaciones mayores que confirmen las tendencias establecidas en este estudio.

  1. [Antimicrobial resistance trends in pathogens isolated from nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Rincón-León, Héctor A; Navarro-Fuentes, Karla R

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento de las infecciones nosocomiales se dificulta por la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a antimicrobianos de los gérmenes que las causan. El objetivo fue evaluar las tendencias en la resistencia de las bacterias de aislados de infección nosocomial. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo de 2009 a 2012 en un hospital de tercer nivel en Chiapas. Resultados: fueron obtenidos 1300 gérmenes, 62.3 % bacterias Gram negativas, 22.8 % Gram positivas y 14.9 % levaduras; Pseudomonas aeruginosa pasó del 47.1 al 60.5 % de resistencia a imipenem; Escherichia coli mostró un aumento en la resistencia a aztreonam, cefepime y ceftazidima; Acitenobacter baumannii incrementó su resistencia a amikacina, cefepime, ceftazidima y ciprofloxacino; Klebsiella pneumoniae disminuyó su resistencia a amikacina y piperacilina/tazobactam; la resistencia a vancomicina fue del 3.6 al 25.5 %. Conclusiones: predominaron los gérmenes Gram negativos y mostraron tendencias al incremento en la resistencia antimicrobiana. Hubo un aumento proporcional de la incidencia de infección por E. coli, Candida tropicalis y Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Es indispensable contar con planes y programas para el uso racional y basado en evidencia de antimicrobianos, así como la difusión y el apego a las guías de práctica clínica y la implementación de programas novedosos para la vigilancia y el control de las infecciones hospitalarias, las técnicas de aislamiento y los cuidados generales.

  2. Agregación de para-H2 en chorros supersónicos: del dímero al sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, José

    En este trabajo se mostrarán los estudios de expansiones supersónicas de para-H2 desde toberas criogénicas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodinámica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, próximo a la línea Q(0) del monómero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, además de la línea Q(0) del monómero, se observan unos picos débiles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transición homóloga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados pequeños (de 2 a 13 moléculas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al líquido y al sólido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbación, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrarán detalles de la instalación experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretación cuantitativa.

  3. [Energy expenditure prediction equations in burn patients; bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Villaveirán, Teresa; Sánchez, Manuel; Millán, Pablo; Martínez-Méndez, Jose Ramón; Iglesias, Carmen; Casado-Pérez, César; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: La valoración de las necesidades calóricas del paciente quemado se ha basado en la medición del gasto energético en reposo (GER) mediante calorimetría indirecta, no siempre disponible en las unidades de quemados, o en su estimación mediante el uso de ecuaciones predictivas. Objetivos: analizar la historia y estado del arte del uso de las ecuaciones predictivas de GER en el paciente quemado crítico, y determinar su validez. Métodos: revisión bibliográfica de estudios y revisiones en español y en inglés entre 1989 y 2013. Resultados: Se han diseñado más de 190 ecuaciones para estimar el gasto energético que pueden ser imprecisas por estar basadas en mediciones con metodología heterogénea y en grupos heterogéneos. Describimos los distintos parámetros que aplican las distintas fórmulas predictivas (factores de estrés y de actividad, superficie corporal quemada, tiempo desde la lesión, masa corporal magra), la influencia de la edad en el cálculo de las necesidades calóricas y las fórmulas más utilizadas en el momento actual. También describimos los artículos que evalúan exactitud de las fórmulas cuando se comparan con mediciones mediante calorimetría indirecta. Conclusiones: Las ecuaciones predictivas son poco precisas en general en el paciente quemado. Hasta que se desarrollen ecuaciones predictivas más precisas, recomendamos calcular los requerimientos nutricionales de los pacientes quemados basándose en la medición del gasto energético por calorimetría indirecta.

  4. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  5. Simple predictive model for Early Childhood Caries of Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Fierro Monti, Claudia; Pérez Flores, M; Brunotto, M

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las caries temprana de la infancia (CTI), a pesar de ser una enfermedad prevenible, permanece como uno de los problemas de salud pública, tanto en países industrializados como en los que están en vías de desarrollo, afectando principalmente a poblaciones vulnerables. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue generar un modelo sencillo basado en factores de riesgo que sea predictivo del riesgo de CTI en niños de 3-5 años de edad a fin de mejorar las estrategias preventivas a nivel de salud pública. Métodos: Se recolectaron datos clínicos, del hogar y psico-socio-cultural de niños (n=250) de ambos sexos que concurren a centros de salud en la región del Bio Bio – Chile mediante historia clínica y encuesta de comportamiento. Resultados: 24% de los niños presentó problemas de comportamiento (un comportamiento extraño fue la principal característica observada como problema de comportamiento). Las variables asociadas a ceo ?4 fueron: mal temperamento del niño (OR=2,43 [1,34; 4,40]) y estrés del hogar (OR=3,14 [1,54; 6,41]). Se observe que el modelo estratificado por género masculino fue el que presentó la mayor precisión diagnóstica de CTI (AUC= 78%, p-valor=0.000); además Conclusiones: Proponemos un modelo donde la higiene oral, el consumo de azúcar, el género masculino y el mal temperamento son los principales factores de predictivos de CTI. Este modelo podría ser una herramienta promisoria para el costo-efectividad del control de caries temprana.

  6. [Psychomotor skills assessment in basic procedures of laparoscopic surgery in undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine of the University of Colima].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Díaz-Chávez, Emilio; Medina-Chávez, José Luís; Martínez-Lira, Rafael; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Vázquez-Jiménez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la educación basada en competencias señala que el estudiante debe dominar tres rubros: saber, saber hacer y ser. El primero se refiere al conjunto de conocimientos teórico-prácticos, el segundo a las habilidades psicomotrices y el tercero al comportamiento profesional. El estudiante de Medicina adquiere las primeras destrezas en cirugía laparoscópica a través de modelos animales y simuladores virtuales. Sin embargo, no hemos evaluado la trascendencia de esta capacitación. Objetivo: evaluar en alumnos de pregrado las destrezas en cirugía laparoscópica obtenidas después de un curso con un simulador virtual. Material y métodos: estudio de investigación educativa, analíticocomparativo efectuado como parte de las actividades del programa de Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas de la asignatura de Educación y Técnica Quirúrgica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Colima. Resultados: todos los participantes alcanzaron en el simulador un mejor nivel durante la tarea 1 después de tres repeticiones (p= 0.001). En la evaluación de la calificación final de los alumnos se observaron diferencias significativas en las medias que fueron más bajas durante la evaluación inicial (8.60 ± 0.76) en comparación con la final (8.96 ± 0.58) p= 0.001. Conclusiones: la adquisición de habilidades en el simulador es más prolongada y al final es superior a la adquisición de habilidades basada en el método tradicional; demuestra que conduce a la adquisición de competencias que favorecen la transferencia de habilidades al entorno quirúrgico.

  7. [Characterisation of the paediatric population of Costa Rica with tuberous sclerosis and a description of the behaviour of the associated epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ulate-Campos, Adriana; Benavides-Lara, Adriana; Hernández, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis tuberosa (ET) es una patologia autosomica dominante debida a un trastorno en la diferenciacion y proliferacion celular que produce hamartomas en diferentes organos. Afecta de forma variable el sistema nervioso central, los riñones, la piel y otros organos. No existen estudios de su prevalencia ni de su comportamiento en la poblacion pediatrica de Costa Rica. Objetivos. Caracterizar la poblacion pediatrica costarricense con ET y describir el comportamiento de su epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de prevalencias basado en la revision de expedientes clinicos de todos los pacientes menores de 18 años con diagnostico de ET seguidos en el Hospital Nacional de Niños durante el periodo 2000-2010. Resultados. Durante el periodo de estudio se incluyeron 37 pacientes para una prevalencia de 3,09 por 100.000 nacidos vivos (intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,88-4,31). No se presentaron diferencias significativas por sexo. La mediana de edad al diagnostico fue de 14 meses. Los criterios mayores mas frecuentes fueron manchas hipomelanoticas (97,3%), angiofibromas faciales (56%) y tuberomas corticales (54,1%). Treinta y cinco pacientes presentaron convulsiones (95%). Los tratamientos que lograron reduccion de al menos un 50% de las crisis convulsivas fueron la vigabatrina (16,2%) y la cirugia de epilepsia (16,2%). Conclusiones. En todo paciente con epilepsia debe realizarse una valoracion minuciosa de la piel, ya que las lesiones en la piel son un hallazgo muy frecuente en la ET. La epilepsia en la ET es farmacorresistente en un elevado numero de pacientes y la vigabatrina debe valorarse como tratamiento farmacologico de primera linea.

  8. [Design and validation of a classification system for assessing the degree of disability of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Diaz-Gomez, M F; Ortiz-Corredor, F

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. Actualmente no existe un sistema de clasificacion validado y de uso comun para estadificar la gravedad de la esclerosis lateral amiotrofica. Pacientes y metodos. Basados en la escala de valoracion funcional para la esclerosis lateral amiotrofica revisada, se establecieron cuatro dominios (bulbar, destrezas manuales, funcion motora gruesa y funcion respiratoria). A cada item se le asigno una puntuacion de 0 si su calificacion era igual o mayor de 3 (independencia), o 1 si su calificacion era menor de 3 (dependencia). La escala de clasificacion funcional se definio desde el estadio 1 (sin perdida de independencia en ningun dominio) hasta el estadio 5 (perdida de independencia en los cuatro dominios). Esta clasificacion se correlaciono con la necesidad de ayudas externas, la calidad de vida aplicando la escala del cuestionario de evaluacion de la esclerosis lateral amiotrofica-40, la fuerza muscular y la sobrevida. Resultados. De un total de 244 pacientes, el 14,3% se encontraba en estadio 1; el 23,8%, en estadio 2; el 21,3%, en estadio 3; el 19,3%, en estadio 4; y el 21,3%, en estadio 5. Fuerza muscular y calidad de vida fueron inversamente proporcionales a la etapa de la enfermedad. La necesidad de ayudas externas se relaciona directamente con el aumento de los estadios de la enfermedad de 1 a 5 (p < 0,012). Se encontro una mayor sobrevida de los pacientes en los estadios 1 y 2 con respecto a los estadios 3, 4 y 5 (p = 0,004). Conclusion. El sistema de clasificacion propuesto es de facil aplicacion y se correlaciona bien con la clinica del paciente, su calidad de vida, el requerimiento de recursos y la sobrevida.

  9. NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.

  10. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 σ y ~3 σ por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  11. [Psychopedagogical intervention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Herrero, Raquel; Suay, Enrique

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan alteraciones en los mecanismos atencionales y en los procesos de control inhibitorio (impulsividad e hiperactividad), que afectan de distinta manera a su rendimiento academico, socioemocional y conductual, por lo que es fundamental la consideracion de estrategias de intervencion en el ambito psicopedagogico que puedan incidir de forma favorable en el curso evolutivo de los afectados. Objetivo. Revisar las bases psicopedagogicas en la intervencion sobre el TDAH, considerando la relacion de la anatomia funcional con la sintomatologia clinica y los correspondientes programas de intervencion. Desarrollo. Se destacan los tres sindromes preferentes: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral y en el cingulo a nivel medial. Las fases de la intervencion psicopedagogica deben abarcar tanto al niño como a la familia y el colegio. El entrenamiento neurocognitivo se centra en el niño, basado en programas de entrenamiento de las funciones ejecutivas y en las actuaciones sobre el ambito academico, conductual y socioafectivo. Los programas de modificacion de conducta son complementarios y en muchas ocasiones mejoran el comportamiento comprometido en los niños con TDAH. Las orientaciones psicopedagogicas en la escuela deben considerarse necesarias para una intervencion eficaz en el entorno academico. Conclusiones. La intervencion psicopedagogica de los niños con TDAH debe contemplar la individualizacion del tratamiento dentro de una metodologia multidisciplinar, teniendo en cuenta todos los contextos en los que se desarrolla el niño, su rendimiento cognitivo y las intervenciones farmacologicas apropiadas en cada caso.

  12. [Neonatal Hearing Screening and Early Intervention, a screening program to evaluate all infants to identify the hearing impaired].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Beatriz; Delgado-Mendoza, Efrén; Rojano-González, Rafael; Valdez-Izaguirre, Florencia; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Pedro; Márquez-Celedonio, Félix Guillermo; González-Santes, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el Tamiz Auditivo Neonatal e Intervención Temprana (TANIT) es un programa de cribado que consiste en evaluar a todos los neonatos para identificar discapacidades auditivas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los factores asociados a hipoacusia en neonatos, basados en el programa TANIT. Métodos: estudio analítico, transversal, en el que se incluyeron 234 neonatos en el programa TANIT. La audición se exploró evaluando las emisiones otoacústicas transitorias evocadas (EOAT) en frecuencias de 1.5 a 4.5 kHz, y los estímulos con intensidad de 40-60 dB. Las variables fueron: edad de uno a 28 días de nacido, sexo, edad gestacional y antecedentes perinatales. Los datos se analizaron con estadística descriptiva y regresión logística binaria. Resultados: la presencia de los factores de riesgo en los neonatos resultó significativa en la prueba de ómnibus (p < 0.05), valor de predicción por el modelo R cuadrado de Nagelkerke de 77%. Los antecedentes heredofamiliares, la infección adquirida, las anormalidades craneofaciales, el bajo peso, la dificultad respiratoria al nacer y los síndromes genéticos fueron factores que se asociaron de manera significativa (p < 0.05) a hipoacusia en neonatos. Conclusiones: la incidencia de deficiencia auditiva en recién nacidos diagnosticada mediante el programa de TANIT fue mayor a la reportada en la literatura (5/234 recién nacidos).

  13. ACTITUDES HACIA LA COMUNICACIÓN SEXUAL ENTRE PADRES/MADRES Y ADOLESCENTES EN PUERTO RICO*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ana Michelle; McFarlane, Melvin Negrón; González, Ricardo; Díaz, Leslie; Betancourt-Díaz, Elba; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Villarruel, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN La comunicación sobre sexualidad entre padres/madres y adolescentes enfrenta dificultades particulares producto de factores socioculturales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo documentar las actitudes de padres/madres y adolescentes hacia la comunicación sobre temas de sexualidad. Los resultados emanan de la medición inicial del Proyecto Cuídalos. Los datos de este estudio forman parte de un estudio amplio que evaluó un módulo interactivo basado en la web para mejorar comunicación sobre temas de salud entre padres/madres y adolescentes entre 13–17 años. En este artículo, reportamos datos basales que contestaron los/as participantes sobre comodidad al hablar sobre temas de salud sexual. La muestra, de los datos aquí expuestos, estuvo compuesta por 458 diadas de madres/padres y sus hijos/as adolescentes (n=916). Se realizó análisis de frecuencias y medidas de tendencia central con los datos obtenidos inicialmente. La edad promedio de los adolescentes fue de 15 años, de los que un 15% se encontraban activos sexualmente. Los/as adolescentes tienen mejor disposición que los/as padres/madres para hablar sobre sexualidad. Sin embargo, los/as padres/madres entienden que comparten suficiente información sobre temas relacionados a la sexualidad. Los/as padres/madres y adolescentes reportaron algún grado de dificultad e incomodidad al hablar sobre métodos específicos de prevención. Los resultados destacan la necesidad de incorporar a los/as padres/madres en intervenciones con adolescentes sobre temas de salud sexual. En Puerto Rico es necesario desarrollar programas dirigidos a minimizar las conductas sexuales de alto riesgo en jóvenes. PMID:28736599

  14. [The role of diffusion tensor imaging in the pre-surgical study of temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pallero, M A; Torres, C V; Manzanares-Soler, R; Camara, E; Sola, R G

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. La imagen por tensor de difusion (DTI) es una tecnica no invasiva que puede ser utilizada para evaluar la integridad de la sustancia blanca cerebral. Objetivo. Investigar la utilidad de la DTI en pacientes con epilepsia del lobulo temporal (ELT) y ver su relacion con la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizan 11 pacientes diagnosticados de ELT segun el protocolo de evaluacion prequirurgica de nuestra unidad de epilepsia, y libres de crisis a los dos años de la realizacion de una lobectomia temporal mas amigdalohipocampectomia (tecnica de Spencer). Como parte de su estudio preoperatorio, se realiza una resonancia magnetica cerebral de 1,5 T con secuencia de tensor de difusion y se estudian, mediante un analisis basado en voxel, las diferencias en la conectividad entre el hemisferio intervenido y el contralateral. Resultados. Comparado con el hemisferio contralateral, se observo una reduccion de la anisotropia fraccional estadisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en el cuerpo calloso, el cingulo, el fasciculo longitudinal superior, las radiaciones talamicas anteriores, la capsula interna, los nucleos ventral lateral y pulvinar del talamo, el fasciculo frontooccipital inferior, el fasciculo uncinado, el fasciculo longitudinal inferior y el giro parahipocampal ipsilaterales al foco epileptogeno. Conclusiones. La caracterizacion de las anormalidades en la conectividad de la sustancia blanca cerebral, a traves de la DTI en pacientes con ELT, puede tener un valor importante para la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en la evaluacion prequirurgica. Serian necesarios estudios con un numero mas elevado de pacientes para confirmar estos resultados.

  15. [Algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema as a tool for management].

    PubMed

    Baeza, María Luisa; Caballero Molina, Teresa; Crespo Diz, Carlos; González-Quevedo; Guilarte Clavero, Mar; Hernández Fernández de Rojas, Dolores; Lobera Labairu, Teófilo; Marcos Bravo, Carmen; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés; Navarro Ruiz, A; Poveda Andrés, José Luis; Poveda Andrés, J L; Cebollero, María Antonia; Cebollero de Torre, A

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El angioedema hereditario es una enfermedad rara de baja prevalencia y gran heterogeneidad en la gravedad del cuadro clínico, lo que dificulta su diagnóstico, y establece la necesidad de iniciar un tratamiento precoz y específico con el fin de evitar complicaciones. Objetivo: Proponer un algoritmo de decisión en el angioedema hereditario (AEH), basado en la evidencia disponible, sobre el diagnóstico, valoración clínica y tratamiento. Se trata de presentar opciones terapéuticas disponibles, así como un algoritmo de decisión para seleccionar el tratamiento más eficiente en cada momento. Material y Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica mediante una búsqueda a través de PubMed y otras fuentes de interés. Resultados: Se han desarrollado cuatro algoritmos de decisión para el AEH; diagnóstico de angioedema mediado por bradicinina, tratamiento del ataque agudo y profilaxis a corto y largo plazo del AEH por déficit del inhibidor C1. Conclusiones: La aplicación de un algoritmo de decisión, en función de unas variables clínicas, ayuda a la selección de la opción terapéutica más eficiente en cada momento y puede ser un instrumento de utilidad en el abordaje terapéutico.

  16. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior. PMID:25601893

  17. [Hypolipidemic agents drug interactions: approach to establish and assess its clinical significance. Structured review].

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Henao, Y; Monsalve, M; Gutiérrez, F; Hincapie, J; Amariles, P

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar una revisión estructurada sobre interacciones medicamentosas de los hipolipemiantes y valorar su relevancia clínica. Método: Revisión estructurada de interacciones medicamentosas con hipolipemiantes en humanos, en PubMed/Medline de artículos publicados sin restricción de idioma, con acceso a texto completo hasta junio 30 de 2012. La búsqueda se realizó con los siguientes terminos Mesh: Drug Interactions, Lipid Regulating Agents, Herb-Drug Interactions, Food-Drug Interactions y Hypolipidemic Agents (Pharmacological Action). La información se complementó con artículos considerados importantes. Por último, se utilizó un método para evaluar la relevancia clínica de la interacción, basado en la probabilidad de ocurrencia y en la gravedad del efecto de la interacción. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 849 publicaciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron 243 referencias, en las los que se identificaron 189 interacciones. De ellas 33 fueron valoradas como de riesgo muy alto (nivel 1) y 42 de riesgo alto (nivel 2), asociadas fundamentalmente al aumento del riesgo de rabdomiólisis. La inhibición enzimática de la CYP450 fue el mecanismo más común de las interacciones. Conclusiones. En los pacientes en tratamiento con hipolipemiantes, de las interacciones identificadas 60,3% (128/189) son clínicamente relevantes (riesgo muy alto o alto), asociadas principalmente a la aparición de rabdomiólisis. La mayoría de dichas interacciones son atribuidas al uso simultáneo de reconocidos inhibidores de la CYP3A4. Por ello, las estatinas metabolizadas por la CYP3A4 (simvastatina, lovastatina y atorvastatina) son las que más interacciones de relevancia clínica presentan.

  18. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  19. Transcendence, historicity and temporality of being elderly: nursing reflection-using Heidegger.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castañeda, Raúl Fernando; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Vargas, Maria Guadalupe Ojeda

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to reflect on historicity and temporality as paths for the transcendence of being elderly, based on the phenomenological concepts of Martin Heiddeger. A review of the concepts of transcendence, historicity and temporality was carried out in the work of Martín Heidegger, integrating them in the perspective of nursing for the elderly. The transcendence of the elderly adult is feasible by accessing the temporality of self in the path of its historicity to arrive at the understanding of itself that he has achieved: transcending, which is but a process of the Being itself. Being is time in itself existing in the world, existence given by the encounter of the past (to have been), present and future (becoming), the same encounter that determines the historicity of the Being. The encounter has been consummated and the Being is transcendence, with the understanding of the Being itself as a supreme point. RESUMEN El objetivo es reflexionar en la historicidad y temporalidad como caminos para la trascendencia del ser adulto mayor, basado en los conceptos fenomenológicos de Martín Heiddeger. Se llevó a cabo una revisión de los conceptos de trascendencia, historicidad y temporalidad en la obra de Martín Heidegger, realizando su integración en la perspectiva de enfermería al adulto mayor. La trascendencia del ser adulto mayor es factible accediendo a la temporalidad del mismo en el camino de su historicidad para llegar a la comprensión de sí a la que ha llegado: trascendiendo, que no es sino un proceso del mismo ser. El ser es el tiempo en sí mismo existiendo en el mundo, existencia dada por el encuentro del pasado (haber sido), presente y futuro (devenir), mismo encuentro que determina la historicidad del ser. El encuentro se ha consumado y el ser es trascendencia, como punto supremo la comprensión del ser mismo.

  20. The "SABEIS" Project: Warning systems based on earthquake and tsunamis-induced ionospheric effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Bouza, Marta; Sánchez-Dulcet, Francisco; Herraiz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania; Santoyo, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    The study of a possible lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAI) is mainly focused on the analysis and comprehension of atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies caused by extreme lithospheric events. In this context, earthquakes are considered as possible sources of atmosphere-ionosphere anomalies. The goal of the two-year long project SABEIS (Sistemas de Alerta Basados en Efectos de terremotos y tsunamis en la IonoSfera) granted by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, is to analyze the disturbances caused by earthquakes and tsunamis and their possible contribution to warning systems. These topics are receiving increased attention in the scientific community and their correct understanding can meaningfully contribute to the protection of people and economic assets in areas subject to seismic threat. The project is based on the analysis of Total Electron Content (TEC) obtained from signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and anomalies of the ionospheric F2 layer observed in ionograms. This methodology was partially applied in a previous study of the Mw6.1 earthquake in Greece occurred on January 26, 2014. In that case two TEC disturbances were detected the days prior the earthquake. The first one, four days before, was registered by the majority of the stations analyzed over Europe and after studying its temporal variation, was considered unrelated to the earthquake. The second one occurred the day before the earthquake. This anomaly appeared only at stations close to the epicenter and their temporal proximity to the earthquake point to a possible connection with the earthquake preparation process. In the SABEIS project possible anomalies caused by earthquakes in Mexico and Peru with magnitude ranging from 5.5 to 8.2, will be studied. If the results confirm the influence of seismic events on the ionosphere, the possibility of incorporating this type of analysis in a seismic alert network for the Gulf of Cadiz (southern Iberian