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Sample records for banding nanotool evaluation

  1. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalk, David M.; Paik, Samuel Y.; Swuste, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. A recent survey shows that a majority of nanomaterial producers are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. The CB Nanotool, used internationally, was developed to conduct qualitative risk assessments to control nanoparticle exposures. Nanotoxicology experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters to ensure better utility and consistency of research. Such standardization would fit well in the CB Nanotool's severity and probability risk matrix, therefore enhancing the protection of nanotechnology industry workers. This article further evaluates the CB Nanotool for structure, weighting of risk factors, and utility for exposure mitigation, and suggests improvements for the CB Nanotool and the research needed to bolster its effectiveness.

  2. Control Banding Nanotool: Evaluation of a qualitative risk assessment method for the control of nanoparticulate exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S; Swuste, P

    2009-01-27

    Control Banding strategies offer a simplified control of worker exposures when there is an absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry fits this classification as there are overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. Many experts have suggested Control Banding as a solution for these issues. A recent survey shows a majority of nanomaterial users are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. A Control Banding Nanotool has been developed and implemented to afford a qualitative risk assessment toward the control of nanoparticle exposures. The international use of the Control Banding Nanotool reflects on both its need and its possibilities. By developing this dynamic Control Banding Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of Control Banding appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations. This success can be seen in providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them, and initiating an appropriate discussion of these risks with nonexperts. Experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters, affording better utility and consistency of research. This database of toxicological research findings should be harnessed and presented in a format feeding directly into the Control Banding Nanotool severity and probability risk matrix. Making the latest research available for experts and practitioners alike will provide the best protection of workers in the nanotechnology industries. This presentation will also show the science behind the simplified Control Banding Nanotool approach, its structure, weighting of risks, utility for exposure mitigation, and the research needs to bolster its effectiveness.

  3. AFM Nanotools for Surgery of Biological Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, J. D.; Gordeev, S. N.; Guy, R. H.

    2011-03-01

    Using a method of electron-beam induced deposition, we have been able to fabricate specialized AFM probes with application as "nanotools" for the manipulation of biological structures ("nanosurgery"). We describe several such tools, including a "nanoscalpel", "nanoneedles" for probing intracellular structures, and a "nanotome" which can separate surface layers from a biological structure. These applications are demonstrated by performing nanomanipulation on corneocyte cells from the outer layer of human skin.

  4. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  5. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation are to evaluate and monitor the radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (Band 6) data to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Efforts this period have concentrated on underflight data collection. Two successful flights were made on September 18 and October 6. The radiosonde data for these flights have been obtained.

  6. LANDSAT-4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (band 6) data was evaluated to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Primary data analysis was spent in evaluating the line to line and detector to detector variation in the thermal infrared data. The data studied was in the core area of Lake Ontario where very stable temperatures were expected. The detectors and the scan direction were taken as separate parameters and an analysis of variance was conducted. The data indicate that significant variability exists both between detectors and between scan directions.

  7. LANDSAT-D band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A filter, fabricated to match the spectral response of the LANDSAT band 6 sensors, was received and the combined system response function computed. The half power points for the aircraft system are 10.5 micrometer and 11.55 micrometer compared to the 10.4 and 11.6 micrometer values for the satellite. These discrepancies are considered acceptable; their effect on the apparent temperature observed at the satellite is being evaluated. The filter was installed in the infrared line scanner and the line scanner was installed in the aircraft and field checked. A daytime underflight of the satellite is scheduled for the next clear overpass and the feasibility of a nightime overpass is being discussed with NASA. The LOWTRAN 5 computer code was obtained from the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory and is being implemented for use on this effort.

  8. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kim, Suezie; Calcei, Jacob G; Park, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in runners, cyclists, and military recruits. Affected patients report lateral knee pain associated with repetitive motion activities. The diagnosis is usually made based on a characteristic history and physical examination, with imaging studies reserved for cases of recalcitrant disease to rule out other pathologic entities. Several etiologies have been proposed for iliotibial band syndrome, including friction of the iliotibial band against the lateral femoral epicondyle, compression of the fat and connective tissue deep to the iliotibial band, and chronic inflammation of the iliotibial band bursa. The mainstay of treatment is nonsurgical; however, in persistent or chronic cases, surgical management is indicated.

  9. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  10. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-08-09

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.

  11. Evaluation of transmittance of selected infrared bands. [of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Computer programs were developed for evaluating homogeneous path transmittance with line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations. Spectral transmittances for some selected bands of different gases (CO, N2O, CO2, H2O) were obtained using these programs. Results of theoretical computations are compared with available experimental measurements. Significant errors are observed in the results obtained from a quasi-random band model formulation, indicating that it is inadequate to meet the accuracy requirements for atmospheric work.

  12. Longwave Band-by-band Cloud Radiative Effect and its Application in GCM Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xianglei; Cole, Jason N. S.; He, Fei; Potter, Gerald L.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Suarez, Max; Loeb, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud radiative effect (CRE) of each longwave (LW) absorption band of a GCM fs radiation code is uniquely valuable for GCM evaluation because (1) comparing band-by-band CRE avoids the compensating biases in the broadband CRE comparison and (2) the fractional contribution of each band to the LW broadband CRE (f(sub CRE)) is sensitive to cloud top height but largely insensitive to cloud fraction, presenting thus a diagnostic metric to separate the two macroscopic properties of clouds. Recent studies led by the first author have established methods to derive such band ]by ]band quantities from collocated AIRS and CERES observations. We present here a study that compares the observed band-by-band CRE over the tropical oceans with those simulated by three different atmospheric GCMs (GFDL AM2, NASA GEOS-5, and CCCma CanAM4) forced by observed SST. The models agree with observation on the annual ]mean LW broadband CRE over the tropical oceans within +/-1W/sq m. However, the differences among these three GCMs in some bands can be as large as or even larger than +/-1W/sq m. Observed seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) in major bands are shown to be consistent with the seasonal cycle of cloud top pressure for both the amplitude and the phase. However, while the three simulated seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) agree with observations on the phase, the amplitudes are underestimated. Simulated interannual anomalies from GFDL AM2 and CCCma CanAM4 are in phase with observed anomalies. The spatial distribution of f(sub CRE) highlights the discrepancies between models and observation over the low-cloud regions and the compensating biases from different bands.

  13. Synthetic G-Quartets as Versatile Nanotools for the Luminescent Detection of G-Quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Aurelien; Levillain, Marine; Stefan, Loic; Haudecoeur, Romain; Katranji, Fares; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a tremendous increase in the biotechnological applications of nucleic acid-based nanotools. Beyond their biological relevance, nucleobases have indeed found new scopes of applications in bionanotechnology, which are expanding nowadays at an accelerated pace. Among the four canonical nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine), guanine is certainly the most useful and used base, thanks to its versatile H-bond donating/accepting properties that make it suitable for being involved in various assemblies ranging from base-pairs to base-quartets. Here, we would like to report on an innovative guanine-based molecular tool named Tb. Pyro-DOTASQ: this metal complex has a sophisticated chemical structure that allows formation of an intramolecular G-quartet upon interaction with alternative secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. This target-promoted molecular switch triggers a luminescence response that would permit the use of Tb. Pyro-DOTASQ to search and detect quadruplex-forming DNA and RNA sequences: its unique design indeed allows it i) to create specific interaction with quadruplexes, ii) to provide an easily readable luminescent output to monitor this association and iii) to be readily immobilized on graphene surface, thus making Tb. Pyro-DOTASQ a high-value molecular device. Results obtained in the course of in-depth biophysical analyses raise questions about the actual supramolecular structure of Tb. Pyro-DOTASQ: these results thus shed a bright light on the care that must be exercised when using intricate molecular architectures to construct elaborated supramolecular metal complexes.

  14. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  15. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  16. Shuttle orbiter S-band communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of S-band communication equipment includes: (1) the review and analysis of the ability of the various subsystem avionic equipment designs to interface with, and operate on signals from/to adjoining equipment; (2) the performance peculiarities of the hardware against the overall specified system requirements; and (3) the evaluation of EMC EMI test results of the various equipment with respect to the possibility of mutual interferences.

  17. Venus banded terrain: Evaluation of tectonic models for the origin of banding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A tectonic orgin for Venus banded terrain is consistent with band spacing. Both compressional (folding) and extensional models for band formation can fit present observations. Band spacing cannot distinguish among scenarios for global heat loss and for the origin of highland terrain. Tectonic models for band formation indicate that the surface brittle layer in the venus highlands is no more than a few kilometers thick.

  18. Venus banded terrain: Evaluation of tectonic models for the origin of banding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A tectonic orgin for Venus banded terrain is consistent with band spacing. Both compressional (folding) and extensional models for band formation can fit present observations. Band spacing cannot distinguish among scenarios for global heat loss and for the origin of highland terrain. Tectonic models for band formation indicate that the surface brittle layer in the venus highlands is no more than a few kilometers thick.

  19. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J.; Holmes, J.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R.; Maronde, R.; Polydoros, A.; Weber, C.; Broad, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tasks performed in an examination and critique of a Ku-band radar communications system for the shuttle orbiter are reported. Topics cover: (1) Ku-band high gain antenna/widebeam horn design evaluation; (2) evaluation of the Ku-band SPA and EA-1 LRU software; (3) system test evaluation; (4) critical design review and development test evaluation; (5) Ku-band bent pipe channel performance evaluation; (6) Ku-band LRU interchangeability analysis; and (7) deliverable test equipment evaluation. Where discrepancies were found, modifications and improvements to the Ku-band system and the associated test procedures are suggested.

  20. Dual-band infrared thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.; Shapiro, A.B.

    1993-04-01

    The authors have developed dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermography that is being applied to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging aircraft. The DBIR technique resolves 0.2 degrees C surface temperature differences for inspecting interior flaws in heated aircraft structures. It locates cracks, corrosion sites, disbonds or delaminations in metallic laps and composite patches. By removing clutter from surface roughness effects, the authors clarify interpretation of subsurface flaws. To accomplish this, the authors ratio images recorded at two infrared bands, centered near 5 microns and 10 microns. These image ratios are used to decouple temperature patterns associated with interior flaw sites from spatially varying surface emissivity noise. They also discuss three-dimensional (3D) dynamic thermal imaging of structural flaws using dual-band infrared (DBIR) computed tomography. Conventional thermography provides single-band infrared images which are difficult to interpret. Standard procedures yield imprecise (or qualitative) information about subsurface flaw sites which are typically masked by surface clutter. They use a DBIR imaging technique pioneered at LLNL to capture the time history of surface temperature difference patterns for flash-heated targets. They relate these patterns to the location, size, shape and depth of subsurface flaws. They have demonstrated temperature accuracies of 0.2{degree}C, timing synchronization of 3 ms (after onset of heat flash) and intervals of 42 ms, between images, during an 8 s cooling (and heating) interval characterizing the front (and back) surface temperature-time history of an epoxy-glue disbond site in a flash-heated aluminum lap joint.

  1. Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding: prospective evaluation of intragastric migration of the lap-band.

    PubMed

    Silecchia, G; Restuccia, A; Elmore, U; Polito, D; Perrotta, N; Genco, A; Bacci, V; Basso, N

    2001-08-01

    Intragastric prosthesis (Lap-Band, BioEnterics Co., Carpinteria, CA, U.S.A.) migration is one of the major long-term complications of laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding. The causes, clinical signs, timing, and overall incidence of band entrapment have not been prospectively investigated in a large series. The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the incidence of Lap-Band intragastric migration and to establish the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive band removal. Between January 1996 and June 2000, 148 consecutive patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary bariatric program underwent laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding. In the follow-up treatment, gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed routinely. One hundred twenty-three patients with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months were entered into the study group. Eleven (9.2%) patients had long-term major complications. Intragastric band migration was observed in nine (7.5%) patients. The diagnosis was established by routine endoscopy between 10 and 41 months after surgery. Five erosions occurred in the first 30 cases (learning curve period). In six patients, the band was removed by an intragastric endoscopic-assisted approach avoiding laparotomy. The remaining three patients are under endoscopic surveillance. The results of this study show that routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy can discover asymptomatic band migrations early. Band erosion did not require emergency treatment and can be removed safely by a minimally invasive approach.

  2. A clinical retrospective evaluation of 2 orthodontic band cements.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; Hallgren, A; McCluskey, L A; McAuley, F; Fornell, A C; Love, J; Christie, H

    2001-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the time to first failure of stainless steel orthodontic first permanent molar bands cemented with either a modified composite (Band-Lok, Reliance Orthodontic Products) or a conventional glass ionomer cement (AquaCem, De Trey Dentsply). The effect of patient sex, patient age at the start of treatment, the presenting malocclusion, treatment mechanics, and the operator proficiency on band survival was also assessed. Data for 219 bands cemented with Band-Lok in 108 patients and for 395 bands cemented with AquaCem in 183 patients were analyzed. For each case, a single molar band, either the band that was first to fail or the band that had the shortest follow-up time, was chosen for analysis. For each cement, whether headgear was used or not, there was no significant difference in time to first band failure (P = .398). Twenty-six percent of patients had at least one band failure with Band-Lok, and 30% of patients had at least one band failure with AquaCem, representing an 18% band failure rate for each cement. There was no significant difference in time to first band failure for either cement with respect to sex of the patient (P = .842), patient age at the start of treatment (P = .257), presenting malocclusion (P = .319), or operator proficiency (P = .062). The use of headgear, however, reduced significantly the time to first band failure irrespective of cement type (P = .0069). Headgear use was identified as a predictor of first permanent molar band survival. Clinical performance of bands cemented with either cement appears to be similar and was influenced significantly by the use of headgear.

  3. Shuttle orbiter S-band quad antenna switching evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, J. F.; Orr, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Automatic switching of the shuttle orbiter S-band quad antennas by the orbiter on-board computers was evaluated. The development and use of an extensive computer program to determine antenna switch position states as a function of time for various orbital activities is described. The selection of the optimum quad antenna element at any given time is based on the look angle to the appropriate Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). It is shown that a 2.4 second period is required for updating the S-band quad antenna switch state based on a maximum roll rate of 2 deg per second. The possibility of a variable update period is suggested since the 2 deg per second attitude rate is seldom encountered and would, for example, dictate approximately 248,000 on-board computer calculations during Reference Mission 2. The average number of antenna switch state changes was found to be in the range of 1,300 for Reference Mission 2.

  4. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maronde, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  5. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maronde, R. G.

    1980-07-01

    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  6. Evaluation of Landsat-7 ETM+ Panchromatic Band for Image Fusion with Multispectral Bands

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianguo

    2000-12-15

    The Landsat-7 ETM+ panchromatic band is taken simultaneously with multispectral bands using the same sensor system. The two data sets, therefore, are coregistered accurately and the solar illumination and other environmental conditions are identical. This makes ETM+ Pan advantageous to SPOT Pan for resolution fusion. A spectral preserve image fusion technique, Smoothing Filter-Based Intensity Modulation (SFIM), can produce optimal fusion data without altering the spectral properties of the original image if the coregistration error is minimal. With TM/SPOT Pan fusion, the technique is superior to HSI and Brovey transform fusion techniques in spectral fidelity, but has slightly degraded edge sharpness as a result of TM/SPOT Pan coregistration error because SFIM is sensitive to coregistration accuracy and temporal changes of edges. The problem is self-resolved for ETM+ because there is virtually no coregistration error between the panchromatic band and the multispectral bands. Quality fusion imagery data thus can be produced.

  7. Sonographic evaluation of the iliotibial band at the lateral femoral epicondyle: does the iliotibial band move?

    PubMed

    Jelsing, Elena J; Finnoff, Jonathan T; Cheville, Andrea L; Levy, Bruce A; Smith, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the iliotibial band (ITB) moves relative to the lateral femoral epicondyle (LFE) as a function of knee flexion in both non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing positions in asymptomatic recreational runners. Five male and 15 female asymptomatic recreational runners (10-30 miles/wk) aged 18 to 40 years were examined with sonography to assess the distance between the anterior fibers of the ITB and the LFE in full extension, 30° of knee flexion, and 45° of knee flexion. Measurements were obtained on both knees in the supine (non-weight-bearing) and standing (weight-bearing) positions. The distance between the anterior fibers of the ITB and the LFE decreased significantly from full extension to 45° of knee flexion in both supine (0.38-cm average decrease; P < .001) and standing (0.71-cm average decrease; P < .001) positions. These changes reflect posterior translation of the ITB during the 0° to 45° flexion arc of motion in both the supine and standing positions. Sonographic evaluation of the ITB in our study population clearly revealed anteroposterior motion of the ITB relative to the LFE during knee flexion-extension. Our results indicate that the ITB does in fact move relative to the femur during the functional ranges of knee motion. Future investigations examining ITB motion in symptomatic populations may provide further insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of ITB syndrome and facilitate the development of more effective treatment strategies.

  8. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, B.; Molthan, A.; Yu, R.; Stark, D.; Yuter, S. E.; Nesbitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is ~0.25 m s-1 too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were ~0.25 m s-1 too slow, while the SBU

  9. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Molthan, Andrew; Yu, Ruyi; Stark, David; Yuter, Sandra; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is 0.25 meters per second too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were 0.25 meters per second too

  10. Evaluation of Model Microphysics within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Yu, Ruyi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is approx 0.25 m/s too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were approx 0.25 m/s too slow, while the

  11. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-08-06

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications.

  12. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications. PMID:26245759

  13. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications.

  14. Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Annuloplasty Band for Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827

  15. Shuttle orbiter S-band payload communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.; Maronde, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the design, and the performance assessment of the Orbiter S-band communication equipment are reported. The equipment considered include: network transponder, network signal processor, FM transmitter, FM signal processor, payload interrogator, and payload signal processor.

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of experimental cigarettes manufactured with banded papers.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Jerome, Ann M; DeSoi, Darren J; Coggins, Christopher R E; Oldham, Michael J; McKinney, Willie J

    2013-01-01

    To comply with state requirements, cigarette manufacturers have added low-permeability bands to the cigarette paper. These bands can extinguish the cigarette when it is no longer being puffed by a smoker. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicology resulting from the addition of different types of bands to experimental cigarettes. A battery of assays that are typically used in toxicology studies with cigarette smoke, namely smoke chemistry, in vitro mutagenicity and cytotoxicity, and inhalation studies with rats, were used to evaluate different band characteristics added to cigarette paper. Although differences in the amount of band material was associated with an increase in some metals measured in mainstream tobacco smoke, it was not dose responsive to any band design parameter (base paper permeability, band width, band spacing, band chalk amount, or citrate). Occasional, minor differences were produced by the different types of bands; overall, there was no increased toxicity. Although there were increases and decreases in some mainstream smoke constituents, the in vitro and in vivo testing performed demonstrated that low-permeability bands on cigarettes do not modify the toxicity of smoke inhaled by smokers.

  17. Evaluation of ALMA Band 8 S/N01 Cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Ito, T.; Kumagai, K.; Satou, N.; Kamikura, M.; Serizawa, Y.; Naruse, N.; Niizeki, Y.; Fujimoto, Y.; Shan, W. L.

    2009-04-01

    ALMA Band 8 (385 - 500 GHz) is one of frequency bands which cover atmospheric windows on the Atacama desert in the northern Chile. We have developed a cartridge-type receiver which receives two orthogonal polarizations and down-converts the sideband separated signals to intermediate frequencies (IF) between 4 and 8 GHz. A waveguide polarization splitter or ortho-mode transducer (OMT) has been developed, which enables the cryogenic optics quite simple. It achieved low loss of ~0.4 dB at 4 K and polarization isolation of -25 dB in 385 - 500 GHz [1]. A sideband separating mixer consists of two SB Nb-based SIS mixers and waveguide quadrature coupler [2]. The receiver noise temperature was less than 8 hf/k or 196 K in SSB and the image rejection ratio of > 10 dB in the 90 % of ALMA Band 8 frequency. Gain compression of this receiver was measured. The amplitude and phase stabilities were confirmed to comply the ALMA specifications. The co-polar and cross polar beam patterns of this receiver were measured in five frequencies [3]. Test results of S/N 01 cartridge will be presented.

  18. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Yu, Ruyi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Nesbitt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized microphysical predictions have greater uncertainties/errors when there are complex interactions that result from mixed phased processes like riming. Use Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission ground validation studies in Ontario, Canada to verify and improve parameterizations. The WRF realistically simulated the warm frontal snowband at relatively short lead times (1014 h). The snowband structire is sensitive to the microphysical parameterization used in WRF. The Goddard and SBUYLin most realistically predicted the band structure, but overpredicted snow content. The double moment Morrison scheme best produced the slope of the snow distribution, but it underpredicted the intercept. All schemes and the radar derived (which used dry snow ZR) underpredicted the surface precipitation amount, likely because there was more cloud water than expected. The Morrison had the most cloud water and the best precipitation prediction of all schemes.

  19. Evaluation of an insecticide dust band treatment method for controlling bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard; Liu, Chaofeng; Buczkowski, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    Current bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., control usually involves insecticide applications that pose a high risk of insecticide exposure to residents and applicators. To minimize these risks and the amount of insecticides used, we designed and evaluated a dust band treatment technique. The laboratory assay showed that 1% cyfluthrin dust treated bands are highly effective in killing bed bugs. We further evaluated this technique in bed bug infested apartments. The "dust band" treatment consisted of installing a 3.8-cm-wide fabric band on furniture legs and brushing Tempo dust (1% cyfluthrin) (Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) onto the bands. In addition, interceptors were installed under furniture legs. Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran) aerosol spray was applied directly to live bed bugs found on furniture during biweekly inspections. This treatment was compared with two other treatments: "integrated pest management" (IPM) and "control." The IPM treatment included dust bands plus the following: applying hot steam to infested furniture and surrounding areas, installing mattress encasements, applying 1% cyfluthrin dust around room perimeters, and installing interceptors under furniture legs. Alpine aerosol was applied to live bed bugs found during biweekly inspections. In the control group, the apartments received cursory treatment with insecticide sprays by the existing pest control contractor hired by the property management office. Bed bug numbers before and after treatments were determined based on biweekly interceptor counts or a combination of interceptor counts and visual inspections. From 0 to 12 wk, mean bed bug counts of the dust band, IPM, and the control treatment decreased by 95, 92, and 85%, respectively. Both dust band and IPM resulted in higher bed bug reduction than the control. There was no significant difference in the final counts between dust band and IPM treatments. An additional field experiment showed installing 1% cyfluthrin dust

  20. Feasibility of quasi-random band model in evaluating atmospheric radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Mirakhur, N.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the quasi-random band model in evaluating upwelling atmospheric radiation is investigated. The spectral transmittance and total band adsorptance are evaluated for selected molecular bands by using the line by line model, quasi-random band model, exponential sum fit method, and empirical correlations, and these are compared with the available experimental results. The atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance were calculated by using the line by line and quasi random band models and were compared with the results of an existing program called LOWTRAN. The results obtained by the exponential sum fit and empirical relations were not in good agreement with experimental results and their use cannot be justified for atmospheric studies. The line by line model was found to be the best model for atmospheric applications, but it is not practical because of high computational costs. The results of the quasi random band model compare well with the line by line and experimental results. The use of the quasi random band model is recommended for evaluation of the atmospheric radiation.

  1. Radio Frequency Compatibility Evaluation of S Band Navigation Signals for Future BeiDou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanbo; Xue, Rui; Zhao, Danfeng; Wang, Dun

    2017-05-05

    With L band frequency allocations for satellite navigation getting more crowded, S band (2483.5-2500 MHz) is already allocated for navigation services, where Globalstar broadcasts downlink communications to user terminals. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is transmitting navigation signals and Galileo exploits some potential signals in S band. Also, several candidate S band signals based on binary offset carrier (BOC), binary phase shift keying (BPSK), continuous phase modulation (CPM) and minimum shift keying-BOC (MSK-BOC) are suggested for BeiDou system (BDS). In quite narrow S band, mutual interference among these systems is inevitable, thus the compatibility issue is particularly significant for S band signal design. To explore desired S band signals for BDS, the paper firstly describes a comprehensive compatibility evaluation methods based on effective carrier-to-noise ratio degradation for acquisition and code tracking. Then a real simulation is established using space constellations, modulation schemes and received power. Finally, the worst mutual interference of BDS candidate signals with Galileo, IRNSS and Globalstar is calculated and compared. The results indicate that CPM signal is easier to allow peaceful coexistence of other systems with minimal mutual interference in S band compared to other BDS candidates.

  2. Radio Frequency Compatibility Evaluation of S Band Navigation Signals for Future BeiDou

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanbo; Xue, Rui; Zhao, Danfeng; Wang, Dun

    2017-01-01

    With L band frequency allocations for satellite navigation getting more crowded, S band (2483.5–2500 MHz) is already allocated for navigation services, where Globalstar broadcasts downlink communications to user terminals. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is transmitting navigation signals and Galileo exploits some potential signals in S band. Also, several candidate S band signals based on binary offset carrier (BOC), binary phase shift keying (BPSK), continuous phase modulation (CPM) and minimum shift keying-BOC (MSK-BOC) are suggested for BeiDou system (BDS). In quite narrow S band, mutual interference among these systems is inevitable, thus the compatibility issue is particularly significant for S band signal design. To explore desired S band signals for BDS, the paper firstly describes a comprehensive compatibility evaluation methods based on effective carrier-to-noise ratio degradation for acquisition and code tracking. Then a real simulation is established using space constellations, modulation schemes and received power. Finally, the worst mutual interference of BDS candidate signals with Galileo, IRNSS and Globalstar is calculated and compared. The results indicate that CPM signal is easier to allow peaceful coexistence of other systems with minimal mutual interference in S band compared to other BDS candidates. PMID:28475142

  3. Using an Elastic Band Device After a Severe Obstetric Pubic Symphyseal Separation: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lasbleiz, Jeremy; Sevestre, François-Xavier; Moquet, Pierre-Yves

    2017-09-01

    Severe separation of the pubic symphysis is a rare delivery complication. Facing this pathology, we decided to study a new elastic band device. To evaluate the elastic band device, clinical (pain-rated) and imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and radiography) evaluations with and without the device were performed. The elastic band device is a European Conformity-certified medical device, which is made of neoprene straps, that reduces the mobility of the pelvis and the use of the internal rotator muscles. Once the elastic band device was in place, on postpartum day 1, radiography showed a decrease of the pubic width from 41 to 12 mm. Furthermore, pain decreased from 10 of 10 to 2 of 10 in 2 days, allowing the patient to ambulate and avoid surgery. After 1 month, the pubic width (6 mm) and anatomy were recovered but minor pain was still present with hip rotatory movements. The elastic band device was worn 24 hours a day from postpartum days 1-90 and 12 hours a day from postpartum days 90 to 150; afterward, the patient returned to normal life without the elastic band device. Use of an elastic band device was associated with a reduction of the pubic width and pain associated after obstetric pubic symphysis separation.

  4. Evaluation and Analysis of a Multi-Band Transceiver for Next Generation Telemetry Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Transceiver for Next Generation Telemetry Applications June 2014 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited...Evaluation and Analysis of a Multi-Band Transceiver for Next Generation Telemetry Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: W900KK-12-C-0048 5b. GRANT NUMBER: N...analysis of two multi-band, transceiver architectures that address the current demands in telemetry applications. One architecture used image rejection

  5. Evaluating the Potential of Q-Band ESR Spectroscopy for Dose Reconstruction of Fossil Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Guilarte, Verónica; Trompier, François; Duval, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The potential of Q-band Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) for quantitative measurements has been scarcely evaluated in the literature and its application for dose reconstruction of fossil tooth enamel with dating purposes remains still quite unknown. Hence, we have performed a comparative study based on several Early to Middle Pleistocene fossil tooth samples using both X- and Q-band spectroscopies. Our results show that Q-band offers a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity and signal resolution: it allows not only to work with reduced amounts of valuable samples (< 4 mg), but also to identify different components of the main composite ESR signal. However, inherent precision of the ESR intensity measurements at Q-band is clearly lower than that achieved at X-band, highlighting the necessity to carry out repeated measurements. All dose values derived from X- and Q-band are nevertheless systematically consistent at either 1 or 2 sigma. In summary, our results indicate that Q-band could now be considered as a reliable tool for ESR dosimetry/dating of fossil teeth although further work is required to improve the repeatability of the measurements. PMID:26930398

  6. Can Control Banding be Useful for the Safe Handling of Nanomaterials? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” Methods A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control’, ‘hazard’, ‘exposure’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The quality of the evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these

  7. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question "can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials." A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included `control,' `hazard,' `exposure,' and `risk' banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended exposure controls using

  8. Evaluating the impact of cold focal plane temperature on Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Aqua MODIS, the second MODIS instrument of the NASA Earth Observation System, has operated for over thirteen years since launch in 2002. MODIS has sixteen thermal emissive bands (TEB) located on two separate cold focal plane assemblies (CFPA). The TEB are calibrated using onboard blackbody and space view observations. MODIS CFPA temperature is controlled by a radiative cooler and heaters in order to maintain detector gain stability. Beginning in 2006, the CFPA temperature gradually varies from its designed operating temperature with increasing orbital and seasonal fluctuations, with the largest observed impacts on the TEB photoconductive (PC) bands. In Aqua Collection 6 (C6), a correction to the detector gain due to the CFPA temperature variation is applied for data after mid-2012. This paper evaluates the impact of the CFPA temperature variation on the TEB PC band calibration through comparisons with simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Our analysis shows that the current L1B product from mid-2011 to mid-2012 is affected by the CFPA temperature fluctuation. The MODIS-IASI comparison results show that no drift is observed in PC bands over the CFPA temperature variation range. Similarly, in the MODIS-AIRS comparison, bands 31-34 show nearly no trend over the range of CFPA temperature while a slight drift in bands 35-36 are seen from the comparison results.

  9. Self-Efficacy, Self-Evaluation, and Music Performance of Secondary-Level Band Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, relationships between two components of self-regulation (self-efficacy and self-evaluation) and gender, school level, instrument family, and music performance were examined. Participants were 340 middle and high school band students who participated in one of two summer music camps or who were members of a private middle…

  10. The Effect of a Recorded Model on Band Students' Performance Self-Evaluations, Achievement, and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Steven J.; Montemayor, Mark; Wiltshire, Eric S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of recorded models in the context of ensemble rehearsals was examined. Over a 5-week treatment period, directors of three middle/junior high and two high school bands systematically included professional recordings as part of their preparation of selected pieces. Students completed weekly self-evaluation reports…

  11. Laser-induced optical breakdown spectroscopy of polymer materials based on evaluation of molecular emission bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautner, Stefan; Jasik, Juraj; Parigger, Christian G.; Pedarnig, Johannes D.; Spendelhofer, Wolfgang; Lackner, Johannes; Veis, Pavel; Heitz, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for composition analysis of polymer materials results in optical spectra containing atomic and ionic emission lines as well as molecular emission bands. In the present work, the molecular bands are analyzed to obtain spectroscopic information about the plasma state in an effort to quantify the content of different elements in the polymers. Polyethylene (PE) and a rubber material from tire production are investigated employing 157 nm F2 laser and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation in nitrogen and argon gas background or in air. The optical detection reaches from ultraviolet (UV) over the visible (VIS) to the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. In the UV/VIS range, intense molecular emissions, C2 Swan and CN violet bands, are measured with an Echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The measured molecular emission spectra can be fitted by vibrational-rotational transitions by open access programs and data sets with good agreement between measured and fitted spectra. The fits allow determining vibrational-rotational temperatures. A comparison to electronic temperatures Te derived earlier from atomic carbon vacuum-UV (VUV) emission lines show differences, which can be related to different locations of the atomic and molecular species in the expanding plasma plume. In the NIR spectral region, we also observe the CN red bands with a conventional CDD Czerny Turner spectrometer. The emission of the three strong atomic sulfur lines between 920 and 925 nm is overlapped by these bands. Fitting of the CN red bands allows a separation of both spectral contributions. This makes a quantitative evaluation of sulfur contents in the start material in the order of 1 wt% feasible.

  12. Laser-induced optical breakdown spectroscopy of polymer materials based on evaluation of molecular emission bands.

    PubMed

    Trautner, Stefan; Jasik, Juraj; Parigger, Christian G; Pedarnig, Johannes D; Spendelhofer, Wolfgang; Lackner, Johannes; Veis, Pavel; Heitz, Johannes

    2017-03-05

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for composition analysis of polymer materials results in optical spectra containing atomic and ionic emission lines as well as molecular emission bands. In the present work, the molecular bands are analyzed to obtain spectroscopic information about the plasma state in an effort to quantify the content of different elements in the polymers. Polyethylene (PE) and a rubber material from tire production are investigated employing 157nmF2 laser and 532nm Nd:YAG laser ablation in nitrogen and argon gas background or in air. The optical detection reaches from ultraviolet (UV) over the visible (VIS) to the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. In the UV/VIS range, intense molecular emissions, C2 Swan and CN violet bands, are measured with an Echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The measured molecular emission spectra can be fitted by vibrational-rotational transitions by open access programs and data sets with good agreement between measured and fitted spectra. The fits allow determining vibrational-rotational temperatures. A comparison to electronic temperatures Te derived earlier from atomic carbon vacuum-UV (VUV) emission lines show differences, which can be related to different locations of the atomic and molecular species in the expanding plasma plume. In the NIR spectral region, we also observe the CN red bands with a conventional CDD Czerny Turner spectrometer. The emission of the three strong atomic sulfur lines between 920 and 925nm is overlapped by these bands. Fitting of the CN red bands allows a separation of both spectral contributions. This makes a quantitative evaluation of sulfur contents in the start material in the order of 1wt% feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Four-Tap RF Canceller Evaluation for Indoor In-Band Full-Duplex Wireless Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-24

    settings for In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) systems. The signifi- cant multipath effects of realistic environments, such as inside buildings , can severely...this canceller evaluation is an indoor laboratory setting, which is characteristic of many wireless nodes operating inside buildings . In order to...in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1–4, May 2015. [3] T. Huusari, Y. S. Choi, P. Liikkanen, D. Korpi, S. Talwar, and M

  14. Evaluation of radar backscattering models using L- and C-band synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Liangliang; Li, Jing; Jiang, Jinbao; He, Shi; Cai, Qingkong; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Five surface backscattering models, including Oh, integral equation model (IEM), advanced integral equation model (AIEM), Dubois, and Shi models are selected to evaluate and reproduce synthetic aperture radar backscatter coefficients based on radar configuration and ground measurements at L- and C-bands. Regardless of bands or polarizations, the Oh model can attain a better performance among the five models with a root mean square error (RMSE) of about 2 dB, with the only exception being the AIEM and Shi models in VV polarization at the C-band. The Dubois model overestimates the radar signal and an underestimation is produced using the Shi model. The estimation accuracy of AIEM is significantly higher than that of IEM. Meanwhile, the performance of the scattering models in 0 to 7.6 cm is better than that in 0 to 20 cm. The frequency distribution of soil moisture over the field site approximates the normal distribution. Nevertheless, the estimated accuracy is not satisfactory for the inversion of AIEM. A site-specific calibration parameter is used at the C-band and improves the backscatter prediction for the AIEM. After calibration, the mean differences between the AIEM and RADARSAT-2 are nearly -1 dB with RMSEs of about 1 dB in the HH and VV polarizations. This work indicates that effective calibration factors can significantly improve the estimation accuracy and precisely implement soil moisture retrieval.

  15. Application preliminary evaluation of HJ-1-C SAR satellite of S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    On Nov 19, 2012, HJ-1-C launched successfully, which is belong to Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Prediction Small Satellite Constellation, and is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in China and the first successful SAR satellite of S band on-orbit operation in the world. During the on-orbit test period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC) preliminarily evaluated its disaster reduction application ability in the ice, flood, drought, snow, landslide and debris flow, etc. The results show that SAR satellite of S band has more highlight advantage than the HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B in the detailed characterization, and has well disaster reduction potential.

  16. Engineering evaluations and studies. Report for Ku-band studies, exhibit A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Maronde, R. G.; Roberts, D.

    1981-01-01

    System performance aspects of the Ku band radar communication hardware and investigations into the Ku band/payload interfaces are discussed. The communications track problem caused by the excessive signal dynamic range at the servo input was investigated. The management/handover logic is discussed and a simplified description of the transmitter enable logic function is presented. Output noise produced by a voltage-controlled oscillator chip used in the SPA return-link channel 3 mid-bit detector is discussed. The deployed assembly (DA) and EA-2 critical design review data are evaluated. Cross coupling effects on antenna servo stability were examined. A series of meetings on the acceptance test specification for the deployed assembly is summarized.

  17. Evaluating SAR polarization modes at L-band for forest classification purposes in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenberg, Veraldo; Gloaguen, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Single, interferometric dual, and quad-polarization mode data were evaluated for the characterization and classification of seven land use classes in an area with shifting cultivation practices located in the Eastern Amazon (Brazil). The Advanced Land-Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data were acquired during a six month interval. A clear-sky Landsat-5/TM image acquired at the same period was used as additional ground reference and as ancillary input data in the classification scheme. We evaluated backscattering intensity, polarimetric features, interferometric coherence and texture parameters for classification purposes using support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection. Results showed that the forest classes were characterized by low temporal backscattering intensity variability, low coherence and high entropy. Quad polarization mode performed better than dual and single polarizations but overall accuracies remain low and were affected by precipitation events on the date and prior SAR date acquisition. Misclassifications were reduced by integrating Landsat data and an overall accuracy of 85% was attained. The integration of Landsat to both quad and dual polarization modes showed similarity at the 5% significance level. SVM was not affected by SAR dimensionality and feature selection technique reveals that co-polarized channels as well as SAR derived parameters such as Alpha-Entropy decomposition were important ranked features after Landsat' near-infrared and green bands. We show that in absence of Landsat data, polarimetric features extracted from quad-polarization L-band increase classification accuracies when compared to single and dual polarization alone. We argue that the joint analysis of SAR and their derived parameters with optical data performs even better and thus encourage the further development of joint techniques under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  18. Evaluation of a 433 MHz band body sensor network for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saim; Brendle, Christian; Lee, Hyun-Young; Walter, Marian; Gloeggler, Sigrid; Krueger, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-14

    Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth or WiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%).

  19. A Cooperative Distance Learning Method based on the Narrow-band Internet and Its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilwaldi, Dilmurat; Takahashi, Toshiya; Takata, Akinobu; Koizumi, Hisao

    This paper describes the experimental evaluation of a cooperative distance learning method, which can be utilized on the narrow-band Internet. In this method, students of group-learning perform a series of study a couple of times, which create an on-line report, communicating through the chat about given theme. they try to gain improvement in the study effect with higher cooperative attitude. Teacher gives a short lecture at the first stage, and then gives supplementary explanation after grasping the degree of comprehension of students at the middle stage of the study. Teaching materials are distributed to students' PCs beforehand and the lecture could be carried out on the narrow-band environment by transmitting the commands. The teacher analyzes students' communication logs and gives advice for the next study. This paper describes the result of the evaluation of the proposed method by carrying out simulated installation of the environment within the campus supposing a trial of cooperative distance learning in overseas desert circumference area environment.

  20. Evaluation of a 433 MHz Band Body Sensor Network for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saim; Brendle, Christian; Lee, Hyun-Young; Walter, Marian; Gloeggler, Sigrid; Krueger, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433 MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433 MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth or WiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%). PMID:23344383

  1. Multi-Temporal Evaluation of Landslide Movements and Impacts on Buildings in San Fratello (Italy) By Means of C-Band and X-Band PSI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Di Traglia, Federico; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    This work provides a multi-temporal and spatial investigation of landslide effects in the San Fratello area (Messina province within the Sicily region, Italy), by means of C-band and X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, integrated with in situ field checks and a crack pattern survey. The Sicily region is extensively affected by hydrogeological hazards since several landslides regularly involved local areas across time. In particular, intense and catastrophic landslide phenomena have recently occurred in the San Fratello area; the last event took place in February 2010, causing large economic damage. Thus, the need for an accurate ground motions and impacts mapping and monitoring turns out to be significantly effective, in order to better identify active unstable areas and to help proper risk-mitigation measures planning. The combined use of historical and recent C-band satellites and current X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors of a new generation permits spatially and temporally detection of landslide-induced motions on a local scale and to properly provide a complete multi-temporal evaluation of their effects on the area of interest. PSI ground motion rates are cross-compared with local failures and damage of involved buildings, recently recognized by in situ observations. As a result, the analysis of landslide-induced movements over almost 20 years and the validation of radar data with manufactured crack patterns, permits one to finally achieve a complete and reliable assessment in the San Fratello test site.

  2. 3D/4D sonographic evaluation of amniotic band syndrome in early pregnancy: a supplement to 2D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Noguchi, Junko

    2011-06-01

    We present two cases of amniotic band syndrome diagnosed using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound with three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound in early pregnancy. In Case 1, at 13 weeks' gestation, multiple amniotic bands, acrania, the absence of fingers and amputation of the toes bilaterally were clearly shown using transvaginal 3D/4D ultrasound. In Case 2, at 15 weeks' gestation, several amniotic bands, acrania and a cleft lip were depicted with transabdominal 3D/4D ultrasound. The spatial relationship between the amniotic bands and the fetus was clearly visualized and easily discernible by 3D/4D ultrasound. The parents and families could readily understand the fetal conditions and undergo counseling; they then choose the option of termination of pregnancy. 3D/4D ultrasound has the potential to be a supplement to conventional 2D ultrasound in evaluating amniotic band syndrome.

  3. Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited.

  4. Evaluation of Spaceborne L-band Radiometer Measurements for Terrestrial Freeze/Thaw Retrievals in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Brucker, L.; Langlois, A.; Mailon, A.; Kerr, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape freeze/thaw (FT) state has an important impact on the surface energy balance, carbon fluxes, and hydrologic processes; the timing of spring melt is linked to active layer dynamics in permafrost areas. L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission could allow the monitoring of surface state dynamics due to its sensitivity to the pronounced permittivity difference between frozen and thawed soil. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of both Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band passive microwave measurements using a polarization ratio-based algorithm for landscape FT monitoring. Weekly L-band satellite observations are compared with a large set of reference data at 48 sites across Canada spanning three environments: tundra, boreal forest, and prairies. The reference data include in situ measurements of soil temperature (Tsoil) and air temperature (Tair), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and snow cover area (SCA) products. Results show generally good agreement between Lband FT detection and the surface state estimated from four reference datasets. The best apparent accuracies for all seasons are obtained using Tair as the reference. Aquarius radiometer 2 (incidence angle of 39.6) data gives the best accuracies (90.8), while for SMOS the best results (87.8 of accuracy) are obtained at higher incidence angles (55- 60). The FT algorithm identifies both freeze onset and end with a delay of about one week in tundra and two weeks in forest and prairies, when compared to Tair. The analysis shows a stronger FT signal at tundra sites due to the typically clean transitions between consistently frozen and thawed conditions (and vice versa) and the absence of surface vegetation. Results in the prairies were poorer because of the influence of vegetation growth in summer (which decreases the polarization ratio) and the high frequency of ephemeral thaw events during winter. Freeze onset

  5. Engineering Evaluation and Calibration of Iowa X-Band Polarimetric Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay Mishra, Kumar; Kruger, Anton; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The detailed knowledge and extensive monitoring of the precipitation structure at smaller temporal and spatial scales are critical to the scientific understanding of the hydrological cycle and associated processes. The hydrometeorological information at smaller scales is usually not available with the current weather radar systems which operate at lower frequencies such as S- and C-bands. This has necessitated the use of higher frequency (X-band) weather radars to obtain rainfall data at improved accuracy and near-ground coverage at shorter ranges. The University of Iowa has acquired four scanning, mobile, X-band polarimetric (XPOL) Doppler weather radars with the objective of accurate quantitative estimation of the rainfall at a high temporal and spatial resolution. These four XPOL radars will be deployed for short-range multiple-view observations of the same weather event thus reducing uncertainties introduced by the signal attenuation and instrument-wide errors. This network of radars is intended to serve multiple areas of hydrological research including uncertainty modelling, urban hydrology, flood and flash-flood prediction, and soil erosion. Compared to the existing networks of X-band weather radars, several features place the XPOL radar systems in a distinctly attractive position for the scientific community. Firstly, the Iowa XPOL radars are mounted on mobile platforms, and consequently, are deployed at any location of interest. Secondly, these systems are capable of acquiring data at a programmable range sampling which can be as low as 30m. Thirdly, the use of dual-polarization provides additional information about the hydrometeors at smaller scales. The radars can operate in staggered PRT and dual-PRF pulsing modes and can process data using either standard pulse-pair or spectral mode techniques. The Iowa XPOL radar systems are currently being evaluated and calibrated to participate in their first field campaigns in the upcoming NASA IFloodS (Iowa Flood

  6. Evaluation of Spaceborne L-band Radiometer Measurements for Terrestrial Freeze/Thaw Retrievals in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Brucker, L.; Langlois, A.; Mailon, A.; Kerr, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape freeze/thaw (FT) state has an important impact on the surface energy balance, carbon fluxes, and hydrologic processes; the timing of spring melt is linked to active layer dynamics in permafrost areas. L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission could allow the monitoring of surface state dynamics due to its sensitivity to the pronounced permittivity difference between frozen and thawed soil. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of both Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band passive microwave measurements using a polarization ratio-based algorithm for landscape FT monitoring. Weekly L-band satellite observations are compared with a large set of reference data at 48 sites across Canada spanning three environments: tundra, boreal forest, and prairies. The reference data include in situ measurements of soil temperature (Tsoil) and air temperature (Tair), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and snow cover area (SCA) products. Results show generally good agreement between Lband FT detection and the surface state estimated from four reference datasets. The best apparent accuracies for all seasons are obtained using Tair as the reference. Aquarius radiometer 2 (incidence angle of 39.6) data gives the best accuracies (90.8), while for SMOS the best results (87.8 of accuracy) are obtained at higher incidence angles (55- 60). The FT algorithm identifies both freeze onset and end with a delay of about one week in tundra and two weeks in forest and prairies, when compared to Tair. The analysis shows a stronger FT signal at tundra sites due to the typically clean transitions between consistently frozen and thawed conditions (and vice versa) and the absence of surface vegetation. Results in the prairies were poorer because of the influence of vegetation growth in summer (which decreases the polarization ratio) and the high frequency of ephemeral thaw events during winter. Freeze onset

  7. A Study of Criteria for the Evaluation of Secondary School Instrumentalists When Auditioning for Festival Bands. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Curtis D., Jr.

    This study purposed to develop a means of evaluating student performance in auditions for festival bands which would minimize the inconsistencies of subjective judgment. Tape recordings of student auditions were played three times to judges. During the first audition, evaluators rated students on a continuum scale with numerical divisions, and…

  8. Evaluation of chlorophyll-a retrieval algorithms based on MERIS bands for optically varying eutrophic inland lakes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Heng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Cao, Kai; Wang, Qiao; Li, Yunmei

    2015-10-15

    Fourteen field campaigns were conducted in five inland lakes during different seasons between 2006 and 2013, and a total of 398 water samples with varying optical characteristics were collected. The characteristics were analyzed based on remote sensing reflectance, and an automatic cluster two-step method was applied for water classification. The inland waters could be clustered into three types, which we labeled water types I, II and III. From water types I to III, the effect of the phytoplankton on the optical characteristics gradually decreased. Four chlorophyll-a retrieval algorithms for Case II water, a two-band, three-band, four-band and SCI (Synthetic Chlorophyll Index) algorithm were evaluated for three water types based on the MERIS bands. Different MERIS bands were used for the three water types in each of the four algorithms. The four algorithms had different levels of retrieval accuracy for each water type, and no single algorithm could be successfully applied to all water types. For water types I and III, the three-band algorithm performed the best, while the four-band algorithm had the highest retrieval accuracy for water type II. However, the three-band algorithm is preferable to the two-band algorithm for turbid eutrophic inland waters. The SCI algorithm is recommended for highly turbid water with a higher concentration of total suspended solids. Our research indicates that the chlorophyll-a concentration retrieval by remote sensing for optically contrasted inland water requires a specific algorithm that is based on the optical characteristics of inland water bodies to obtain higher estimation accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Bands for Empirical Estimation of Green LAI and Chlorophyll Content

    PubMed Central

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA’s upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed “Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve” (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  10. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 red-edge bands for empirical estimation of green LAI and chlorophyll content.

    PubMed

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA's upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed "Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve" (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2.

  11. Evaluation of two "integrated" polarimetric Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) algorithms at C-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabary, Pierre; Boumahmoud, Abdel-Amin; Andrieu, Hervé; Thompson, Robert J.; Illingworth, Anthony J.; Le Bouar, Erwan; Testud, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    SummaryTwo so-called "integrated" polarimetric rate estimation techniques, ZPHI ( Testud et al., 2000) and ZZDR ( Illingworth and Thompson, 2005), are evaluated using 12 episodes of the year 2005 observed by the French C-band operational Trappes radar, located near Paris. The term "integrated" means that the concentration parameter of the drop size distribution is assumed to be constant over some area and the algorithms retrieve it using the polarimetric variables in that area. The evaluation is carried out in ideal conditions (no partial beam blocking, no ground-clutter contamination, no bright band contamination, a posteriori calibration of the radar variables ZH and ZDR) using hourly rain gauges located at distances less than 60 km from the radar. Also included in the comparison, for the sake of benchmarking, is a conventional Z = 282 R1.66 estimator, with and without attenuation correction and with and without adjustment by rain gauges as currently done operationally at Météo France. Under those ideal conditions, the two polarimetric algorithms, which rely solely on radar data, appear to perform as well if not better, pending on the measurements conditions (attenuation, rain rates, …), than the conventional algorithms, even when the latter take into account rain gauges through the adjustment scheme. ZZDR with attenuation correction is the best estimator for hourly rain gauge accumulations lower than 5 mm h -1 and ZPHI is the best one above that threshold. A perturbation analysis has been conducted to assess the sensitivity of the various estimators with respect to biases on ZH and ZDR, taking into account the typical accuracy and stability that can be reasonably achieved with modern operational radars these days (1 dB on ZH and 0.2 dB on ZDR). A +1 dB positive bias on ZH (radar too hot) results in a +14% overestimation of the rain rate with the conventional estimator used in this study (Z = 282R1.66), a -19% underestimation with ZPHI and a +23

  12. Role of EUS evaluation after endoscopic eradication of esophageal varices with band ligation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Fred Olavo Aragão Andrade; Retes, Felipe Alves; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Albers, Débora Vieira; Chaves, Dalton Marques; Dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo Lera; Herman, Paulo; Chaib, Eleazar; Sakai, Paulo; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Maluf Filho, Fauze

    2016-09-01

    Variceal recurrence after endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for secondary prophylaxis is a frequent event. Some studies have reported a correlation between variceal recurrence and variceal rebleeding with the EUS features of paraesophageal vessels. A prospective observational study was conducted to correlate EUS evaluation of paraesophageal varices, azygos vein, and thoracic duct with variceal recurrence after EBL variceal eradication in patients with cirrhosis. EUS was performed before and 1 month after EBL variceal eradication. Paraesophageal varices, azygos vein, and thoracic duct maximum diameters were evaluated in predetermined anatomic stations. After EBL variceal eradication, patients were submitted to endoscopic examinations every 3 months for 1 year. We looked for EUS features that could predict variceal recurrence. Thirty patients completed a 1-year endoscopic follow-up. Seventeen patients (57%) presented variceal recurrence. There was no correlation between azygos vein and thoracic duct diameter with variceal recurrence. Larger paraesophageal varices predicted variceal recurrence in both evaluation periods. Paraesophageal varices diameters that best correlated with variceal recurrence were 6.3 mm before EBL (52.9% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity, and .749 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) and 4 mm after EBL (70.6% sensitivity, 84.6% specificity, and .801 AUROC). We conclude that paraesophageal varices diameter measured by EUS predicts variceal recurrence within 1 year after EBL variceal eradication. Paraesophageal diameter after variceal eradication is a better recurrence predictor, because it has a lower cut-off parameter, higher sensitivity, and higher AUROC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Radiometric and Stability Evaluation Using Deep Convective Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    This work takes advantage of the stable distribution of deep convective cloud (DCC) reflectance measurements to assess the calibration stability and detector difference in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands. VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) from February 2012 to June 2015 are utilized to analyze the long-term trending, detector difference, and half angle mirror (HAM) side difference. VIIRS has two thermal emissive bands with coverage crossing 11 microns for DCC pixel identification. The comparison of the results of these two processing bands is one of the indicators of analysis reliability. The long-term stability analysis shows downward trends (up to approximately 0.4 per year) for the visible and near-infrared bands and upward trends (up to 0.5per year) for the short- and mid-wave infrared bands. The detector difference for each band is calculated as the difference relative to the average reflectance overall detectors. Except for the slightly greater than 1 difference in the two bands at 1610 nm, the detector difference is less than1 for other solar reflective bands. The detector differences show increasing trends for some short-wave bands with center wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm and remain unchanged for the bands with longer center wavelengths. The HAM side difference is insignificant and stable. Those short-wave bands from 400 to 600 nm also have relatively larger HAM side difference, up to 0.25.Comparing the striped images from SDR and the smooth images after the correction validates the analyses of detector difference and HAM side difference. These analyses are very helpful for VIIRS calibration improvement and thus enhance product quality

  14. VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Radiometric and Stability Evaluation Using Deep Convective Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    This work takes advantage of the stable distribution of deep convective cloud (DCC) reflectance measurements to assess the calibration stability and detector difference in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands. VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) from February 2012 to June 2015 are utilized to analyze the long-term trending, detector difference, and half angle mirror (HAM) side difference. VIIRS has two thermal emissive bands with coverage crossing 11 microns for DCC pixel identification. The comparison of the results of these two processing bands is one of the indicators of analysis reliability. The long-term stability analysis shows downward trends (up to approximately 0.4 per year) for the visible and near-infrared bands and upward trends (up to 0.5per year) for the short- and mid-wave infrared bands. The detector difference for each band is calculated as the difference relative to the average reflectance overall detectors. Except for the slightly greater than 1 difference in the two bands at 1610 nm, the detector difference is less than1 for other solar reflective bands. The detector differences show increasing trends for some short-wave bands with center wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm and remain unchanged for the bands with longer center wavelengths. The HAM side difference is insignificant and stable. Those short-wave bands from 400 to 600 nm also have relatively larger HAM side difference, up to 0.25.Comparing the striped images from SDR and the smooth images after the correction validates the analyses of detector difference and HAM side difference. These analyses are very helpful for VIIRS calibration improvement and thus enhance product quality

  15. Iliotibial band syndrome: soft tissue and biomechanical factors in evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert L; Souza, Richard B; Fredericson, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Muscle performance factors and altered loading mechanics have been linked to a variety of lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In this article, biomechanical risk factors associated with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) are described, and a strategy for incorporating these factors into the clinical evaluation of and treatment for that disorder is presented. Abnormal movement patterns in runners and cyclists with ITBS are discussed, and the pathophysiological characteristics of this syndrome are considered in light of prior and current studies in anatomy. Differential diagnoses and the use of imaging, medications, and injections in the treatment of ITBS are reviewed. The roles of hip muscle strength, kinematics, and kinetics are detailed, and the assessment and treatment of muscle performance factors are discussed, with emphasis on identifying and treating movement dysfunction. Various stages of rehabilitation, including strengthening progressions to reduce soft-tissue injury, are described in detail. ITBS is an extremely common orthopedic condition that presents with consistent dysfunctional patterns in muscle performance and movement deviation. Through careful assessment of lower quarter function, the clinician can properly identify individuals and initiate treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of narrow band imaging in evaluation of possible nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Yin; Lee, Yi-Lun; Chu, Pen-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the narrow band imaging (NBI) system for its ability to differentiate between malignant neoplasm and benign neoplasm by real-time image during nasopharyngoscopy, the quality of the visualization, and the limitation of the NBI in nasopharyngeal lesions. Between June 2009 and May 2010, 63 patients who had a suspected nasopharyngeal tumor via nasopharyngoscopy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were included in this study. All of the patients received nasopharyngoscopy with conventional view and NBI view and nasopharyngeal biopsy. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the pathological results: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoid hyperplasia/chronic inflammation (LH). Forty-one patients were in the NPC group and 22 patients were in the LH group. The pattern of the NBI view showed regular cobblestone in the LH group, except for one patient. The pattern of the NBI view showed an irregular engorged vascular pattern and/or microvascular proliferative pattern in 32 of 41 NPC patients (78.0%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of NBI in nasopharynx (NP) were 78.0, 95.5, 97.0, and 70.0%, respectively, in NP neoplasm. NBI could be helpful in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasm in the NP region. Using NBI in NP regions had some limitations, including bleeding and mucus coating.

  17. Performance evaluation of a W-band monopulse radar in rotorcraft brownout landing aid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Yang, Ken; Sykora, Brian; Salha, Imad

    2009-05-01

    BAE Systems recently developed a rotorcraft brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) to satisfy the urgent need for brownout landing capability. BLAST uses a W-band monopulse (MP) radar in conjunction with radar signal processing and synthetic display techniques to paint a three-dimensional (3-D) perspective of the landing zone (LZ) in real time. Innovative radar signal processing techniques are developed to process the radar data and generate target data vectors for 3-D image synthesis and display. Field tests are conducted to characterize the performance of BLAST with MP and non-MP (only using the sum channel of the MP radar) modes in clear and brownout conditions. Data processing and analysis are performed to evaluate the system's performance in terms of visual effect, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target height estimation, ground-mapping effect, and false alarm rate. Both MP and non-MP modes reveal abilities to sufficiently display the 3-D volume of the LZ; the former shows advantage over the latter in providing accurate ground mapping and object height determination.

  18. Multicenter Comparison of Three Different Analytical Systems for Evaluation of DNA Banding Patterns from Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Gianluigi; Martini, Alessandro; Preziosi, Roberta; Bistoni, Francesco; Baldelli, Franco

    2002-01-01

    The enormous improvement of molecular typing techniques for epidemiological and clinical studies has not always been matched by an equivalent effort in applying optimal criteria for the analysis of both phenotypic and molecular data. In spite of the availability of a large collection of statistical and phylogenetic methods, the vast majority of commercial packages are limited by using only the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean algorithm to construct trees and by considering electrophoretic pattern only as migration distances. The latter method has serious drawbacks when different runs (separate gels) of the same molecular analysis are to be compared. This work presents a multicenter comparison of three different systems of banding pattern analysis on random amplified polymorphic DNA, (GACA)4, and contour-clamped homogeneous electric field patterns from strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolated in different clinical and geographical situations and a standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain employed as an outgroup. The systems considered were evaluated for their actual ability to(i) recognize identities, (ii) define complete differences (i.e., the ability to place S. cerevisiae out of the C. neoformans cluster), and (iii) estimate the extent of similarity among different strains. The ability to cluster strains according to the patient from which they were isolated was also evaluated. The results indicate that different algorithms do indeed produce divergent trees, both in overall topology and in clustering of individual strains, thus suggesting that care must be taken by individual investigators to use the most appropriate procedure and by the scientific community in defining a consensus system. PMID:12037071

  19. Endocytoscopic narrow-band imaging efficiency for evaluation of inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yasuharu; Ohtsuka, Kazuo; Kudo, Shin-ei; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Mori, Yuichi; Ogata, Noriyuki; Wada, Yoshiki; Misawa, Masashi; Yamauchi, Akihiro; Hayashi, Seiko; Kudo, Toyoki; Hayashi, Takemasa; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Yamamura, Fuyuhiko; Ishida, Fumio; Inoue, Haruhiro; Hamatani, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of endocytoscopic narrow-band imaging (EC-NBI) for evaluating the severity of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a single tertiary care referral center. We included UC patients who underwent colonoscopy with endocytoscopy from July 2010 to December 2013. EC-NBI was performed, and the images were evaluated by assessing visibility, increased vascularization, and the increased calibers of capillaries and were classified as Obscure, Visible or Dilated. Obscure was indicative of inactive disease, while Visible and Dilated were indicative of acute inflammation. This study received Institutional Review Board approval. The primary outcome measures included the diagnostic ability of EC-NBI to distinguish between active and inactive UC on the basis of histological activity. The conventional endoscopic images were classified according to the Mayo endoscopic score. A score of 0 or 1 indicated inactive disease, whereas a score of 2 indicated active disease. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were enrolled. There was a strong correlation between the EC-NBI findings and the histological assessment (r = 0.871, P < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EC-NBI for diagnosing acute inflammation were 84.0%, 100%, 87.1%, 100%, and 92.3%, respectively, while those for the Mayo endoscopic score were 100%, 40.7%, 100%, 61.0%, and 69.2%, respectively. Compared with conventional endoscopy, EC-NBI was superior in diagnostic specificity, negative predictive value, and accuracy (P < 0.001, P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). CONCLUSION: The EC-NBI finding of capillaries in the rectal mucosa was strongly correlated with histological inflammation and aided in the differential diagnosis between active and inactive UC. PMID:25717245

  20. Evaluation of SCIAMACHY Oxygen A band cloud heights using Cloudnet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.

    2014-05-01

    Two SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) O2 A band cloud height products are evaluated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA (European Space Agency) Level 2 (L2) version 5.02 cloud top height and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) version 6 cloud height. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for 1 h centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time. In total we have 217 cases of single-layer clouds and 204 cases of multilayer clouds. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top height has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top height than the Cloudnet cloud middle height. The ESA L2 cloud top height is on average 0.4 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top height, with a standard deviation of 3.1 km. The FRESCO cloud height is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle height than the Cloudnet cloud top height. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is -0.1 km with a standard deviation of 1.9 km. The ESA L2 cloud top height is higher than the FRESCO cloud height. The differences between the SCIAMACHY cloud (top) height and the Cloudnet cloud top height are linked to cloud optical thickness. The SCIAMACHY cloud height products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height in 1 km bins. For single-layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud top height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3-7 km. The difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0-6 km. The results are similar for multilayer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single-layer clouds. We may conclude that the FRESCO cloud height is accurate for low and middle

  1. Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Cocco, D; Del Bon, F; Mangili, S; Nicolai, P; Peretti, G

    2011-04-01

    Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by white light and narrow band imaging ± high definition television endoscopy, both in the pre-/intra-operative setting and during follow-up. Tumour resection was performed taking into account narrow band imaging and high definition television information to obtain histopathologic confirmation of their validity. Endoscopic and pathologic data were subsequently matched to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy. Overall, 110 (25%) patients showed adjunctive findings by narrow band imaging ± high definition television when compared to standard white light endoscopy. Of these patients, 98 (89%) received histopatological confirmation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy for white light-high definition television were 41%, 92%, 87%, 82%, and 67%, for narrow band imaging alone 75%, 87%, 87%, 74%, and 80%, and for narrow band imaging-high definition television 97%, 84%, 88%, 96%, and 92%. The highest diagnostic gain was observed in the oral cavity and oropharynx (25%). Narrow band imaging and high definition television were of value in the definition of superficial tumour extension, and in the detection of synchronous lesions in the pre-/intra-operative settings. These technologies also played an important role during post-treatment surveillance for early detection of persistences, recurrences, and metachronous tumours.

  2. First principles scheme to evaluate band edge positions in potential transition metal oxide photocatalysts and photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Kanan, Dalal K; Alidoust, Nima; Isseroff, Leah Y; Liao, Peilin; Carter, Emily A

    2011-10-06

    The positions of electronic band edges are one important metric for determining a material's capability to function in a solar energy conversion device that produces fuels from sunlight. In particular, the position of the valence band maximum (conduction band minimum) must lie lower (higher) in energy than the oxidation (reduction) reaction free energy in order for these reactions to be thermodynamically favorable. We present first principles quantum mechanics calculations of the band edge positions in five transition metal oxides and discuss the feasibility of using these materials in photoelectrochemical cells that produce fuels, including hydrogen, methane, methanol, and formic acid. The band gap center is determined within the framework of DFT+U theory. The valence band maximum (conduction band minimum) is found by subtracting (adding) half of the quasiparticle gap obtained from a non-self-consistent GW calculation. The calculations are validated against experimental data where possible; results for several materials including manganese(ii) oxide, iron(ii) oxide, iron(iii) oxide, copper(i) oxide and nickel(ii) oxide are presented.

  3. Evaluation of VIIRS and MODIS Thermal Emissive Band Calibration Stability Using Ground Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Brinkmann, Jake; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-01-01

    The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, a polar orbiting Earth remote sensing instrument built using a strong MODIS background, employs a similarly designed on-board calibrating source - a V-grooved blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The central wavelengths of most VIIRS TEBs are very close to those of MODIS with the exception of the 10.7 micron channel. To ensure the long term continuity of climate data records derived using VIIRS and MODIS TEB, it is necessary to assess any systematic differences between the two instruments, including scenes with temperatures significantly lower than blackbody operating temperatures at approximately 290 K. Previous work performed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASAGSFC used the frequent observations of the Dome Concordia site located in Antarctica to evaluate the calibration stability and consistency of Terra and Aqua MODIS over the mission lifetime. The near-surface temperature measurements from an automatic weather station (AWS) provide a direct reference useful for tracking the stability and determining the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments. In this study, the same technique is applied to the VIIRS TEB and the results are compared with those from the matched MODIS TEB. The results of this study show a small negative bias when comparing the matching VIIRS and Aqua MODIS TEB, implying a higher scene temperature retrieval for S-VIIRS at the cold end. Statistically no significant drift is observed for VIIRS TEB performance over the first 3.5 years of the mission.

  4. New-generation narrow band imaging improves visibility of polyps: a colonoscopy video evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Kitae, Hiroaki; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Inada, Yutaka; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Akio; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-09-01

    The benefits of narrow band imaging (NBI) in colorectal polyp detection remain questionable. Previous NBI has poorer brightness and resolution than white light (WL). However, recently these factors were improved by the new-generation video processor system (EVIS LUCERA ELITE) in comparison with the previous system (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether NBI with EVIS LUCERA ELITE could improve the visibility of colorectal polyps compared to WL. We analyzed prospectively 240 colorectal polyps (group 1: ELITE with CF-HQ290 scope, 80 polyps; group 2: ELITE with PCF-Q260AZI scope, 80 polyps; group 3: SPECTRUM with PCF-Q260AZI scope, 80 polyps) whose videos were recorded using NBI and WL at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. The videos were evaluated in a randomized order by three experts and three non-experts. Each polyp was assigned a polyp visibility score from 4 (excellent visibility) to 1 (poor visibility). The polyp visibility scores in each mode and their relationship to the clinical characteristics were analyzed. The mean polyp visibility scores of NBI with ELITE system were significantly higher than those of WL (ELITE with CF-HQ290: 3.14 ± 0.87 vs. 2.75 ± 0.98, p < 0.0001, ELITE with PCF-Q260AZI: 3.03 ± 0.92 vs. 2.83 ± 0.93, p = 0.0006). Conversely, the mean polyp visibility score of NBI using SPECTRUM system with PCF-Q260AZI was significantly lower than WL (2.75 ± 1.06 vs. 3.05 ± 0.92, p < 0.0001). Our study showed that NBI using EVIS LUCERA ELITE improved polyp visibility.

  5. Band alignment of semiconductors and insulators using dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals: Toward high-throughput evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Kumagai, Yu; Tanaka, Isao; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2017-02-01

    The band alignment of prototypical semiconductors and insulators is investigated using first-principles calculations. A dielectric-dependent hybrid functional, where the nonlocal Fock exchange mixing is set at the reciprocal of the static electronic dielectric constant and the exchange correlation is otherwise treated as in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE0) hybrid functional, is used as well as the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid and PBE semilocal functionals. In addition, these hybrid functionals are applied non-self-consistently to accelerate calculations. The systems considered include C and Si in the diamond structure, BN, AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, InP, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe in the zinc-blende structure, MgO in the rocksalt structure, and GaN and ZnO in the wurtzite structure. Surface band positions with respect to the vacuum level, i.e., ionization potentials and electron affinities, and band offsets at selected zinc-blende heterointerfaces are evaluated as well as band gaps. The non-self-consistent approach speeds up hybrid functional calculations by an order of magnitude, while it is shown using HSE06 that the resultant band gaps and surface band positions are similar to the self-consistent results. The dielectric-dependent hybrid functional improves the band gaps and surface band positions of wide-gap systems over HSE06. The interfacial band offsets are predicted with a similar degree of precision. Overall, the performance of the dielectric-dependent hybrid functional is comparable to the G W0 approximation based on many-body perturbation theory in the prediction of band gaps and alignments for most systems. The present results demonstrate that the dielectric-dependent hybrid functional, particularly when applied non-self-consistently, is promising for applications to systematic calculations or high-throughput screening that demand both computational efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

  6. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  7. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  8. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  9. Preliminary geologic evaluation of L-band radar imagery: Arkansas test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W. P.

    1977-01-01

    The relatively small angles of incidence (steep depression angles) of the L-band system provide minimal shadowing on terrain back-slopes and considerable foreshortening on terrain fore-slopes which sacrifice much of the topographic enhancement afforded by a more oblique angle of illumination. In addition, the dynamic range of the return from vegetated surfaces is substantially less for the L-band system, and many surface features defined primarily by subtle changes in vegetation are lost. In areas having terrain conditions similar to those of northern Arkansas, and where LANDSAT and shorter wavelength aircraft radar data are available, the value of the JPL L-band imagery as either a complimentary or supplementary geologic data source is not obvious.

  10. Simultaneous seeing measurement through the Subaru Telescope in the visible and near-infrared bands for the wavelength dependence evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shin; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Minowa, Yosuke

    2016-08-01

    Stellar images have been obtained under natural seeing at visible and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously through the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea. The image quality is evaluated by the full-width at the half-maximum (FWHM) of the stellar images. The observed ratio of FWHM in the V-band to the K-band is 1.54 ± 0.17 on average. The ratio shows tendency to decrease toward bad seeing as expected from the outer scale influence, though the number of the samples is still limited. The ratio is important for simulations to evaluate the performance of a ground-layer adaptive optics system at near-infrared wavelengths based on optical seeing statistics. The observed optical seeing is also compared with outside seeing to estimate the dome seeing of the Subaru Telescope.

  11. An Evaluation of Total Solar Reflectance and Spectral Band Ratioing Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1977-01-01

    For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.

  12. Shuttle orbiter KU-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An expanded introduction is presented which addresses the in-depth nature of the tasks and indicates continuity of the reported effort and results with previous work and related contracts, and the two major modes of operation which exist in the Ku-band system, namely, the radar mode and the communication mode, are described. The Ku-band radar system is designed to search for a target in a designated or undesignated mode, then track the detected target, which might be cooperative (active) or passive, providing accurate, estimates of the target range, range rate, angle and angle rate to enable the orbiter to rendezvous with this target. The radar mode is described along with a summary of its predicted performance. The principal sub-unit that implements the radar function is the electronics assembly 2(EA-2). The relationship of EA-2 to the remainder of the Ku-band system is shown. A block diagram of EA-2 is presented including the main command and status signals between EA-2 and the other Ku-band units.

  13. Band gap and conductivity evaluation of carbon nanotube with hematite for green ammonia synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Yahya, Noorhana; Shafie, A'fza; Soleimani, Hassan; Alqasim, Bilal Hassan; Irfan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Saima

    2016-11-01

    To understand the change in number of electrons, band gap and total energy in the catalyst simulation was performed using Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP). Two catalyst were taken into consideration namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hematite adjacent with CNTs. The simulation based study of the adsorption of hydrogen and nitrogen with reference to change in number of electron and band-gap of carbon nano tubes and hematite mixed with carbon nanotubes was not reported in literature. For this reason carbon nanotubes band gap for different chirality and number of walls was calculated through simulation. After that simulation for number of electrons, band gap and average total energy of CNTs alone and a mixture hematite with CNTs was performed before and after adsorption of hydrogen and nitrogen. From simulation the number of electrons were found to be doubled for hematite mixed with CNTs and average total energy was also increased as compared to similar parameter for CNTs without hematite. In conclusion the hematite with carbon nanotubes is preferred candidate for ammonia synthesis using magnetic induction method. Ammonia synthesis was done using MIM. Ammonia yield was quantified by Kjaldal method.

  14. External Evaluation of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Jim C.; Williams, John

    The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program seeks to prevent substance abuse through experiences offered in an after-school program. In 1990-91 the program served 710 students in grades K-8 in 7 of the reservation's 8 schools, each of which tailors the program to its own needs. Five components were common to…

  15. Evaluation of S-Band FM Direct Link Signal and System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The adequacy of the S-band FM downlink as part of space shuttle orbiter communication links, was assessed to satisfy all known requirements during all mission phases. Some potential performance problems are described and corrective actions are recommended when appropriate.

  16. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties of five cements for orthodontic band cementation.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Diego Andrei; Ritter, Daltro Enéas; Rocha, Roberto; Locks, Arno; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural, compressive and diametral tensile strengths of five cements used in orthodontics for band cementation. Twelve specimens of each cement were tested: 1 - GC Fuji Ortho Band (FJ), GC America Inc.; 2 - Meron (MR), Voco; 3 - Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Band Cement (MC), 3M Unitek; 4 - Band-Lok (BL), Reliance Orthodontic Products; and 5 - Ketac Cem (KC), 3M ESPE. The results (mean) for diametral tensile strength were: 10.51 MPa (FJ), 9.60 MPa (MR), 20.04 MPa (MC), 42.80 MPa (BL), and 4.08 MPa (KC). The results for compressive strength were (in the same order): 64.50 MPa, 77.71 MPa, 94.21 MPa, 193.88 MPa, and 81.93 MPa. The results for flexural strength were (in the same order): 20.72 MPa, 25.84 MPa, 53.41 MPa, 137.41 MPa, and 20.50 MPa. The statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests with p-value £ 0.05. In terms of diametral tensile strength, BL showed the highest strength statistically, and MC, the second highest. In terms of compressive tensile strength, BL showed the highest strength statistically, and FJ did not attain the minimum recommended strength. In terms of flexural tensile strength, BL cement was superior to MC, and MR, FJ and KC were equivalent and inferior to BL and MC.

  18. An Evaluation of Total Solar Reflectance and Spectral Band Ratioing Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1977-01-01

    For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.

  19. Evaluation of Deep Space Ka-Band Data Transfer using Radiometeorological Forecasts and Radiometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank S.; Biscarini, Marianna; Milani, Luca; Cimini, Domenico; De Sanctis, Klaide; Di Fabio, Saverio

    2016-04-01

    Deep space exploration is aimed at acquiring information about the solar system. In this scenario, telecommunications links between Earth ground receiving stations and extra-terrestrial satellite platforms have to be designed in order to ensure the optimal transfer of the acquired scientific data back to the Earth. A significant communication capacity has to be planned when very large distances, as those characterising deep space links, are involved thus fostering more ambitious scientific mission requirements. At the current state of the art, two microwave channel frequencies are used to perform the deep space data transfer: X band (~ 8.4 GHz) and Ka band (~ 32 GHz) channel. Ka-band transmission can offer an advantage over X-band in terms of antenna performance with the same antenna effective area and an available data transfer bandwidth (50 times higher at Ka band than X band). However, Earth troposphere-related impairments can affects the space-to-Earth carrier signals at frequencies higher than 10 GHz by degrading its integrity and thus reducing the deep space channel temporal availability. Such atmospheric impairments, especially in terms of path attenuation, their statistic and the possibility to forecast them in the next 24H at the Earth's receiving station would allow a more accurate design of the deep space link, promoting the mitigation of the detrimental effects on the link availability. To pursue this aim, meteorological forecast models and in situ measurements need to be considered in order to characterise the troposphere in terms of signal path attenuation at current and future time. In this work, we want to show how the synergistic use of meteorological forecasts, radiative transfer simulations and in situ measurements such as microwave radiometry observations, rain gauges and radiosoundings, can aid the optimisation of a deep space link at Ka band and improve its performance with respect to usual practices. The outcomes of the study are in the

  20. Evaluating the potential of X-band polarimetric radar observations in mountainous hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios; Kalogiros, John; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Marra, Francesco; Mair, Elisabeth; Bertolidi, Giacomo; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Borga, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Alpine catchments hydrology is strongly determined by orographic effects on the space-time structure of precipitation. Mountain precipitation results from a multitude of processes such as mechanical lifting, enhancement, shadowing etc. Many of these processes are poorly understood, especially at small spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, this limits the predictive capability of hydrological models and our understanding of the majority of the precipitation-related natural hazards occurring in both high- and lowlands. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the intrinsic limitations of our best measurement techniques: raingauges and weather radars. Raingauges provide relatively accurate but only point-like observations, while weather radars produce instantaneous spatially distributed rainfall maps but their operation over complex terrain creates a number of limitations, which make their estimates reliable in a limited space-time domain. A solution to this limitation might be the use of a number of cost-effective short-range X-band radars as complement to raingauges and conventional, large and expensive weather radars. The study focuses on a 64 km2 mountainous basin located in Northern Italy. Rainfall observations from a dense network of raingauges located at different elevation, a C-band and an X-band polarimetric mobile unit are used to force a semi-distributed hydrologic model. A number of storm events are simulated and compared to investigate the potential of using high-res rainfall input from X-band polarimetric radar for simulating the hydrologic response. Events have been discriminated on the basis of rainfall intensity, snowfall limit and hydrological response. Results reveal that in contrast with the other two rainfall sources, X-band observations offer an improved representation of orographic enhancement of precipitation, which turns to have a significant impact in simulating peak flows.

  1. Evaluation of the JPL X-band 32 element active array. [for deep space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Conroy, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Tests performed on an X-band 32-element active array are described. Antenna pattern characteristics of the array were tested in its standard operating mode as well as several degraded performance modes, including failures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, and 31 elements. Additionally, the array was characterized with the addition of a metallic shroud, and also characterized versus rf drive level and at a single off-axis electronic beamsteered position. Characterization was performed on several of the 3/4-watt, three-stage, X-band solid-state power amplifier modules. The characterization included swept amplitude response, amplitude and phase versus temperature from -20 to +60 C, and intermodulation distortion of selected modules. The array is described and conclusions and recommendations based upon the experience and results achieved are included.

  2. A comparative evaluation between conditions of the wrist band capacitively-coupled ECG recording through signal-to-noise ratio.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideo; Shimada, Koichiro; Fujie, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance to measure ECG recording based on signal-to-noise ratio of ECG signals recorded with three types of electrodes in four experimental conditions for discussion on appropriate form of the electrodes. The wrist band shaped capacitively-coupled electrodes have been developed. We evaluated the signal-to-noise ratios with statistical methods when the reference and the properties of the electrodes were substituted. From our results, it is indicated that not only performance of the electrodes themselves but also stabilization of electrodes around skin are important for steady ECG recording.

  3. A portable Ka-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 2: Tests on the antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    In part one of this article, a description was given of a Ka-band test package developed to enable testing of the Deep Space Station (DDS) 13 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at 32 GHz. Test results were given for the Ka-band test package in an on-the-ground test configuration. This article is a companion article concerned with Ka-band test results for the test package in an on-the-antenna test configuration. Included are Ka-band zenith noise-temperature values, tipping-curve data, and subreflector test results obtained at the Cassegrain focal point, as well as at the final BWG focal point (located in a subterranean pedestal room). Test results show that, through the use of the Ka-band test package, the BWG antenna performance was successfully evaluated at Ka-band. The Ka-band test package operated well in all of the different antenna test configurations.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Cold-Sprayed Copper Rotating Bands for Large-Caliber Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    munition, thereby causing the projectile to spin. Pure copper, copper alloy, and brass rotating bands are typically fabricated to steel munitions using...few projectile lengths after muzzle exit with an unknown shiny object trailing the projectile...with a charge mass of 157.4 oz of propellant and achieves a muzzle velocity is 513 m/s. It is noted that the shiny object identified in Fig. 11d is

  5. Evaluation of C-band SAR data from SAREX 1992: Tapajos study site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Filho, Pedro Hernandez; Lee, David Chung Liang; Ahern, F. J.; Paivadossantosfilho, Celio; Rolodealmeida, Rionaldo

    1993-01-01

    As part of the SAREX'92 (South American Radar Experiment), the Tapajos study site, located in Para State, Brazil was imaged by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS) Convair 580 SAR system using a C-band frequency in HH and VV polarization and 3 different imaging modes (nadir, narrow, and wide swath). A preliminary analysis of this dataset is presented. The wide swath C-band HH polarized image was enlarged to 1:100,000 in a photographic form for manual interpretation. This was compared with a vegetation map produced primarily from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and with single-band and color composite images derived from a decomposition analysis of TM data. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image shows well the topography and drainage network defining the different geomorphological units, and canopy texture differences which appear to be related to the size and maturity of the forest canopy. Areas of recent clearing of the primary forest can also be identified on the SAR image. The SAR system appears to be a source of information for monitoring tropical forest which is complementary to the Landsat Thematic Mapper.

  6. Evaluation of C-band SAR data from SAREX 1992: Tapajos study site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Filho, Pedro Hernandez; Lee, David Chung Liang; Ahern, F. J.; Paivadossantosfilho, Celio; Rolodealmeida, Rionaldo

    1993-01-01

    As part of the SAREX'92 (South American Radar Experiment), the Tapajos study site, located in Para State, Brazil was imaged by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS) Convair 580 SAR system using a C-band frequency in HH and VV polarization and 3 different imaging modes (nadir, narrow, and wide swath). A preliminary analysis of this dataset is presented. The wide swath C-band HH polarized image was enlarged to 1:100,000 in a photographic form for manual interpretation. This was compared with a vegetation map produced primarily from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and with single-band and color composite images derived from a decomposition analysis of TM data. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image shows well the topography and drainage network defining the different geomorphological units, and canopy texture differences which appear to be related to the size and maturity of the forest canopy. Areas of recent clearing of the primary forest can also be identified on the SAR image. The SAR system appears to be a source of information for monitoring tropical forest which is complementary to the Landsat Thematic Mapper.

  7. Use of band-pass filter analysis to evaluate outcomes in an antidepressant trial for treatment resistant patients.

    PubMed

    Targum, Steven D; Burch, Daniel J; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Petersen, Timothy; Gomeni, Roberto; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    Band-pass filtering is a novel statistical methodology that proposes that filtering out data from trial sites generating non-plausible high or low levels of placebo response can yield a more accurate effect size and greater separation of active drug (when efficacious) from placebo. We applied band-pass filters to re-analyze data from a negative antidepressant trial (NCT00739908) evaluating CX157 (a reversible and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor-A) versus placebo. 360 patients from 29 trial sites were randomized to either CX157 treatment (n=182) or placebo (n=178). We applied two filters of<3 or>7 points (filter #1) or<3 and>9 points (filter #2) mean change of the total MADRS placebo scores for each site. Trial sites that had mean placebo MADRS score changes exceeding the boundaries of these band-pass filter thresholds were considered non-informative and all of the data from these sites were excluded from the post-hoc re-analysis. The two band-pass filters reduced the sample of informative patients from 353 patients in the mITT population to 62 in filter #1 and 152 in the filter #2 group. The placebo response was reduced from 31.1% in the mITT population to 9.4% with filter #1 and 20.8% with filter #2. MMRM analysis revealed a non-statistically significant trend of p=0.13 and 0.16 for the two filters in contrast to the mITT population (p= 0.58). Our findings support the band-pass filter hypothesis and highlight issues related to site-based scoring variability and inappropriate subject selection that may contribute to trial failure.

  8. Evaluation of energy band offset of Si1‑ x Sn x semiconductors by numerical calculation using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Yuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Araidai, Masaaki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Shiraishi, Kenji; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2017-04-01

    We examined the numerical calculation for evaluating the energy band offset of Si1‑ x Sn x semiconductors and compared our calculation results with the results of previous theoretical calculation and experimental estimation. By estimating the charge neutrality level of Si1‑ x Sn x as a mutual basis level for comparison of the first-principles calculations for different Si1‑ x Sn x contents, the calculated valence band offset of Si1‑ x Sn x to Si was found to sensitively shift with upward bowing with increasing Sn content compared with that obtained using a conventional linear interpolation model. This is in good agreements with the experimental result.

  9. Zero crossings properties of a narrow band process to determine the reliability of a two frequency encoding: Application to evaluating its autocorrelation envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J.

    1981-03-01

    A mathematical model of narrow band Gaussian noise zero crossing was developed to facilitate the calibration of electronic equipment for detecting two frequency codes on single track tape. The model makes use of the small probability that a narrow band process will have a long series of zero crossings. The model is also considered with respect to evaluating the autocorrelation envelope.

  10. Specific or nonspecific? Evaluation of band, baseline, and cognitive specificity of sensorimotor rhythm- and gamma-based neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is often criticized because of the lack of empirical evidence of its specificity. Our present study thus focused on the specificity of NF on three levels: band specificity, cognitive specificity, and baseline specificity. Ten healthy middle-aged individuals performed ten sessions of SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15Hz) NF training. A second group (N=10) received feedback of a narrow gamma band (40-43Hz). Effects of NF on EEG resting measurements (tonic EEG) and cognitive functions (memory, intelligence) were evaluated using a pre-post design. Both training groups were able to linearly increase the target training frequencies (either SMR or gamma), indicating the trainability of these EEG frequencies. Both NF training protocols led to nonspecific changes in other frequency bands during NF training. While SMR NF only led to concomitant changes in slower frequencies, gamma training affected nearly the whole power spectrum. SMR NF specifically improved memory functions. Gamma training showed only marginal effects on cognitive functions. SMR power assessed during resting measurements significantly increased after SMR NF training compared to a pre-assessment, indicating specific effects of SMR NF on baseline/tonic EEG. The gamma group did not show any pre-post changes in their EEG resting activity. In conclusion, SMR NF specifically affects cognitive functions (cognitive specificity) and tonic EEG (baseline specificity), while increasing SMR during NF training nonspecifically affects slower EEG frequencies as well (band non-specificity). Gamma NF was associated with nonspecific effects on the EEG power spectrum during training, which did not lead to considerable changes in cognitive functions or baseline EEG activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of narrow band laser ultrasonics to the nondestructive evaluation of thin bonding layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Wu, T T; Lee, C K

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, a modified laser induced grating technique (LIG) has been utilized to generate narrow band surface waves in an epoxy-bonded copper-aluminum layered structure. A high performance optical interferometer system was utilized to detect the laser-generated surface waves. The dispersion of surface wave in an epoxy-bonded copper-aluminum specimen was measured and compared with the theoretical solution. An inverse algorithm based on the simplex method was then introduced to determine the bonding thickness as well as the elastic properties of the bonding layer. The inversion results demonstrated that the thickness in the microm range or the elastic properties of the bonding layer could be successfully determined.

  12. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.

    2013-01-01

    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of mucosal vascular contrast in narrow band imaging using Monte Carlo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Du; Wang, Quanzeng; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Pfefer, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a spectrally-selective reflectance imaging technique for enhanced visualization of superficial vasculature. Prior clinical studies have indicated NBI's potential for detection of vasculature abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal mucosal neoplasia. While the basic mechanisms behind the increased vessel contrast - hemoglobin absorption and tissue scattering - are known, a quantitative understanding of the effect of tissue and device parameters has not been achieved. In this investigation, we developed and implemented a numerical model of light propagation that simulates NBI reflectance distributions. This was accomplished by incorporating mucosal tissue layers and vessel-like structures in a voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm. Epithelial and mucosal layers as well as blood vessels were defined using wavelength-specific optical properties. The model was implemented to calculate reflectance distributions and vessel contrast values as a function of vessel depth (0.05 to 0.50 mm) and diameter (0.01 to 0.10 mm). These relationships were determined for NBI wavelengths of 410 nm and 540 nm, as well as broadband illumination common to standard endoscopic imaging. The effects of illumination bandwidth on vessel contrast were also simulated. Our results provide a quantitative analysis of the effect of absorption and scattering on vessel contrast. Additional insights and potential approaches for improving NBI system contrast are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of skew-planar antenna for UAV communication at 2.4 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakoso, T.; Yaqin, A. A.; Ibrahim; Santoso, I.; Triwiyatno, A.; Riyadi, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Skew-planar antenna is suitable for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) since it has circular polarization (avoiding polarization-mismatched), omnidirectional radiation pattern (low pointing loss) thus comply with maneuver angles of UAV, and also small size. Investigation with electromagnetic simulations shows that tilt angle and coaxial length are the most sensitive parameters. Modified design with 55° tilt angle (original design: 45°) and 100 mm coaxial length (original: 60 mm) potentially provides wider bandwidth (400 MHz vs. 290 MHz), better impedance-matched (|S11|: -47.1 dB vs. -13.6 dB), and better gain (1.98 dBi vs 1.61 dBi). The antenna is predicted capable to support service distance of 3 km in 2.4 GHz band if used with communication module with 18 dBm transmit power and -100 dBm receiver sensitivity. Therefore, the modified antenna is suitable to be applied in UAV.

  15. Genotoxicity evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by 835-MHz mobile phone frequency band.

    PubMed

    Chang, S-K; Choi, J-S; Gil, H-W; Yang, J-O; Lee, E-Y; Jeon, Y-S; Lee, Z-W; Lee, M; Hong, M-Y; Ho Son, T-; Hong, S-Y

    2005-04-01

    It is still unclear whether the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation is directly linked to cancer. We examined the biological effects of an EMF at 835 MHz, the most widely used communication frequency band in Korean CDMA mobile phone networks, on bacterial reverse mutation (Ames assay) and DNA stability (in vitro DNA degradation). In the Ames assay, tester strains alone or combined with positive mutagen were applied in an artificial mobile phone frequency EMF generator with continuous waveform at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 48 h. In the presence of the 835-MHz EMF radiation, incubation with positive mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and cumene hydroxide further increased the mutation rate in Escherichia coli WP2 and TA102, respectively, while the contrary results in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA1535 treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and sodium azide, respectively, were shown as antimutagenic. However, these mutagenic or co-mutagenic effects of 835-MHz radiation were not significantly repeated in other relevant strains with same mutation type. In the DNA degradation test, the exposure to 835-MHz EMF did not change the rate of degradation observed using plasmid pBluescript SK(+) as an indicator. Thus, we suggest that 835-MHz EMF under the conditions of our study neither affected the reverse mutation frequency nor accelerated DNA degradation in vitro.

  16. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-01-01

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a “default” communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band. PMID:28042863

  17. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Ruben M; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-12-31

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a "default" communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  18. Measurements methodology for evaluation of Digital TV operation in VHF high-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudwell Chaves de Almeida, M.; Vladimir Gonzalez Castellanos, P.; Alfredo Cal Braz, J.; Pereira David, R.; Saboia Lima de Souza, R.; Pereira da Soledade, A.; Rodrigues Nascimento Junior, J.; Ferreira Lima, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental setup of field measurements carried out for evaluating the operation of the ISDB-TB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Terrestrial, Brazilian version) standard digital TV in the VHF-highband. Measurements were performed in urban and suburban areas in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Besides the direct measurements of received power and environmental noise, a measurement procedure involving the injection of Gaussian additive noise was employed to achieve the signal to noise ratio threshold at each measurement site. The analysis includes results of static reception measurements for evaluating the received field strength and the signal to noise ratio thresholds for correct signal decoding.

  19. Amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis and umbilical cord entrapment: A case report emphasizing the value of evaluation of umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Chandra, Tushar; Rajeswari, Kathiah; Devi, Thangammal Kandasamy Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a rare congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts by fibrous amniotic bands in utero. The congenital anomalies seen in this syndrome vary widely and defects may be isolated or multiple and do not follow a specific pattern. Asymmetric distribution of defects is the hallmark of this syndrome. The diagnosis is difficult to make on ultrasound and relies on identification of amniotic bands. We report a case of amniotic band syndrome with sacral agenesis diagnosed on routine antenatal ultrasound scan in the second offspring of a recently diagnosed diabetic mother. The associated features were entrapment of umbilical cord, caudal adhesions and lower limb anomalies. Medical termination of pregnancy was done and all the fetal anomalies as well as umbilical cord abnormalities were confirmed. The importance of meticulous scanning to evaluate for amniotic bands and the umbilical cord in addition to the fetal structures is emphasized. PMID:25926929

  20. The TRICLOBS Dynamic Multi-Band Image Data Set for the Development and Evaluation of Image Fusion Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    The fusion and enhancement of multiband nighttime imagery for surveillance and navigation has been the subject of extensive research for over two decades. Despite the ongoing efforts in this area there is still only a small number of static multiband test images available for the development and evaluation of new image fusion and enhancement methods. Moreover, dynamic multiband imagery is also currently lacking. To fill this gap we present the TRICLOBS dynamic multi-band image data set containing sixteen registered visual (0.4–0.7μm), near-infrared (NIR, 0.7–1.0μm) and long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8–14μm) motion sequences. They represent different military and civilian surveillance scenarios registered in three different scenes. Scenes include (military and civilian) people that are stationary, walking or running, or carrying various objects. Vehicles, foliage, and buildings or other man-made structures are also included in the scenes. This data set is primarily intended for the development and evaluation of image fusion, enhancement and color mapping algorithms for short-range surveillance applications. The imagery was collected during several field trials with our newly developed TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) all-day all-weather surveillance system. This system registers a scene in the Visual, NIR and LWIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum using three optically aligned sensors (two digital image intensifiers and an uncooled long-wave infrared microbolometer). The three sensor signals are mapped to three individual RGB color channels, digitized, and stored as uncompressed RGB (false) color frames. The TRICLOBS data set enables the development and evaluation of (both static and dynamic) image fusion, enhancement and color mapping algorithms. To allow the development of realistic color remapping procedures, the data set also contains color photographs of each of the three scenes. The color statistics derived from these photographs can be

  1. The TRICLOBS Dynamic Multi-Band Image Data Set for the Development and Evaluation of Image Fusion Methods.

    PubMed

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A; Pinkus, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    The fusion and enhancement of multiband nighttime imagery for surveillance and navigation has been the subject of extensive research for over two decades. Despite the ongoing efforts in this area there is still only a small number of static multiband test images available for the development and evaluation of new image fusion and enhancement methods. Moreover, dynamic multiband imagery is also currently lacking. To fill this gap we present the TRICLOBS dynamic multi-band image data set containing sixteen registered visual (0.4-0.7μm), near-infrared (NIR, 0.7-1.0μm) and long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14μm) motion sequences. They represent different military and civilian surveillance scenarios registered in three different scenes. Scenes include (military and civilian) people that are stationary, walking or running, or carrying various objects. Vehicles, foliage, and buildings or other man-made structures are also included in the scenes. This data set is primarily intended for the development and evaluation of image fusion, enhancement and color mapping algorithms for short-range surveillance applications. The imagery was collected during several field trials with our newly developed TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) all-day all-weather surveillance system. This system registers a scene in the Visual, NIR and LWIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum using three optically aligned sensors (two digital image intensifiers and an uncooled long-wave infrared microbolometer). The three sensor signals are mapped to three individual RGB color channels, digitized, and stored as uncompressed RGB (false) color frames. The TRICLOBS data set enables the development and evaluation of (both static and dynamic) image fusion, enhancement and color mapping algorithms. To allow the development of realistic color remapping procedures, the data set also contains color photographs of each of the three scenes. The color statistics derived from these photographs can be used to

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Combined Cultivator and Band Sprayer with a Row-Centering RTK-GPS Guidance System

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Ruiz, Manuel; Carballido, Jacob; Agüera, Juan; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Typically, low-pressure sprayers are used to uniformly apply pre- and post-emergent herbicides to control weeds in crop rows. An innovative machine for weed control in inter-row and intra-row areas, with a unique combination of inter-row cultivation tooling and intra-row band spraying for six rows and an electro-hydraulic side-shift frame controlled by a GPS system, was developed and evaluated. Two weed management strategies were tested in the field trials: broadcast spraying (the conventional method) and band spraying with mechanical weed control using RTK-GPS (the experimental method). This approach enabled the comparison between treatments from the perspective of cost savings and efficacy in weed control for a sugar beet crop. During the 2010–2011 season, the herbicide application rate (112 L ha−1) of the experimental method was approximately 50% of the conventional method, and thus a significant reduction in the operating costs of weed management was achieved. A comparison of the 0.2-trimmed means of weed population post-treatment showed that the treatments achieved similar weed control rates at each weed survey date. Sugar beet yields were similar with both methods (p = 0.92). The use of the experimental equipment is cost-effective on ≥20 ha of crops. These initial results show good potential for reducing herbicide application in the Spanish beet industry. PMID:23478600

  3. Evaluation of a skin protection cream for dry skin in patients undergoing narrow band UVB phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, A; Leone, G

    2011-06-01

    Severe dry skin is very often associated with chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis vulgaris and can be treated with emollients and moisturizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a new cream containing glycerol, vaseline, and liquid paraffin versus an ointment containing vaseline in patients with severe dry skin and undergoing narrow band UVB phototherapy for moderate psoriasis vulgaris. 54 patients were included in this study (age range, 18-63 years): 26 were randomized to receive treatment with the skin protection cream twice a day; 28 received treatment with a vaseline ointment twice a day. Clinical parameters (erythema, desquamation, and lichenification) were assessed at 3 time points (baseline, after two weeks of treatment, and at the end of the four-week study period). Treatment efficacy and tolerability were assessed by comparing changes in skin hydration as measured by corneometry. At the final assessment, greater improvement in clinical parameters and self-reported questionnaire responses was observed in the cream-treated than in the vaseline-treated group. Improved skin hydration was noted in the cream-treated group already after one week into therapy and the product was well tolerated. The new formulation cream was found to be effective in reducing eythema, flaking and lichenification and to improve skin hydration in patients undergoing narrow band UVB phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris.

  4. Development and evaluation of a combined cultivator and band sprayer with a row-centering RTK-GPS guidance system.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Manuel; Carballido, Jacob; Agüera, Juan; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2013-03-11

    Typically, low-pressure sprayers are used to uniformly apply pre- and post-emergent herbicides to control weeds in crop rows. An innovative machine for weed control in inter-row and intra-row areas, with a unique combination of inter-row cultivation tooling and intra-row band spraying for six rows and an electro-hydraulic side-shift frame controlled by a GPS system, was developed and evaluated. Two weed management strategies were tested in the field trials: broadcast spraying (the conventional method) and band spraying with mechanical weed control using RTK-GPS (the experimental method). This approach enabled the comparison between treatments from the perspective of cost savings and efficacy in weed control for a sugar beet crop. During the 2010-2011 season, the herbicide application rate (112 L ha(-1)) of the experimental method was approximately 50% of the conventional method, and thus a significant reduction in the operating costs of weed management was achieved. A comparison of the 0.2-trimmed means of weed population post-treatment showed that the treatments achieved similar weed control rates at each weed survey date. Sugar beet yields were similar with both methods (p = 0.92). The use of the experimental equipment is cost-effective on ≥20 ha of crops. These initial results show good potential for reducing herbicide application in the Spanish beet industry.

  5. Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with band and loop space maintainers: A clinico-biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen Kommineni; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kasa; Padakandla, Prathyusha; Togaru, Harshini; Kalagatla, Swathi; Reddy, Vinay Chand M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. Aim: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with band and loop space maintainers. Materials and Methods: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy children and twenty children with band and loop space maintainers. Periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, plaque index, and Russell's periodontal index. The GCF samples were quantified by ELISA, and the levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β were determined. Results: The mean MIP-1α concentrations in healthy children and those with space maintainers were 395.75 pg/µl and 857.85 pg/µl, respectively, and MIP-1β was 342.55 pg/µl and 685.25 pg/µl, respectively. MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels in GCF from children with space maintainers were significantly higher than in the healthy group, and statistically significant difference existed between these two groups. Conclusion: MIP-1α and MIP-1β can be considered as novel biomarkers in the biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of gingival inflammation in children with space maintainers. PMID:27630491

  6. Radiometric evaluation of the SNPP VIIRS reflective solar band sensor data records via inter-sensor comparison with Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Mike; Sun, Juniqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2016-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) in the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite has been on orbit for nearly five years since its launch on 28 October 2011. The NOAA Ocean Color (OC) Team through the investigations of Sun and Wang has recently achieved robust calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSBs) and generated its own version of the sensor data records (SDRs) with accuracy sufficient for ocean color applications. For the purpose of making a direct evaluation of the SDR performance, for both the OC version and the official Interface Processing Data Segment (IDPS) version, we utilize an inter-sensor radiometric comparison of SNPP VIIRS against the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite for the spectrally matching RSBs. The VIIRS RSBs M1-M8, from 410 to 1238 nm in the spectral range, are tested. Except for the VIIRS M1 versus MODIS Band 8 result, the radiance comparison time series shows that the OC SDRs demonstrate good agreement with Aqua MODIS and overall better results than the IDPS SDRs, such as less variation, no large discrepancy at the beginning of the VIIRS mission, and no long-term drift. The VIIRS M1 versus MODIS Band 8 trend is the lone exception showing a drift in the OC SDR-based trends, but eventually a downward drift of 1% in Aqua MODIS Band 8 is identified to be the cause. It is readily concluded that the inter-comparison result directly demonstrates the OC SDRs to be correct within statistics, especially considering that the ocean color products derived from the OC SDRs have already matured and demonstrated good agreement with in situ data. On the other hand, the IDPS SDR results demonstrably expose the known inherent growing bias in RSB calibration that affects any versions of the SNPP VIIRS SDRs not using the correctly mitigated calibration baseline. The inter-comparison of two moderate resolution sensors is also an exercise in statistics, and we

  7. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  8. Evaluation of X-band polarimetric radar estimation of rainfall and rain drop size distribution parameters in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, A. K.; Gosset, M.; Zahiri, E.-P.; Ochou, A. D.; Kacou, M.; Cazenave, F.; Assamoi, P.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field campaign an X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar was deployed in Benin, West-Africa, in 2006 and 2007, together with a reinforced rain gauge network and several optical disdrometers. Based on this data set, a comparative study of several rainfall estimators that use X-band polarimetric radar data is presented. In tropical convective systems as encountered in Benin, microwave attenuation by rain is significant and quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at X-band is a challenge. Here, several algorithms based on the combined use of reflectivity, differential reflectivity and differential phase shift are evaluated against rain gauges and disdrometers. Four rainfall estimators were tested on twelve rainy events: the use of attenuation corrected reflectivity only (estimator R(ZH)), the use of the specific phase shift only R(KDP), the combination of specific phase shift and differential reflectivity R(KDP,ZDR) and an estimator that uses three radar parameters R(ZH,ZDR,KDP). The coefficients of the power law relationships between rain rate and radar variables were adjusted either based on disdrometer data and simulation, or on radar-gauges observations. The three polarimetric based algorithms with coefficients predetermined on observations outperform the R(ZH) estimator for rain rates above 10 mm/h which explain most of the rainfall in the studied region. For the highest rain rates (above 30 mm/h) R(KDP) shows even better scores, and given its performances and its simplicity of implementation, is recommended. The radar based retrieval of two parameters of the rain drop size distribution, the normalized intercept parameter NW and the volumetric median diameter Dm was evaluated on four rainy days thanks to disdrometers. The frequency distributions of the two parameters retrieved by the radar are very close to those observed with the disdrometer. NW retrieval based on a combination of ZH

  9. Quantitative SERS by hot spot normalization - surface enhanced Rayleigh band intensity as an alternative evaluation parameter for SERS substrate performance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haoran; McCarthy, Alexis; Song, Junyeob; Zhou, Wei; Vikesland, Peter J

    2017-09-19

    The performance of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates is typically evaluated by calculating an enhancement factor (EF). However, it is challenging to accurately calculate EF values since the calculation often requires the use of model analytes and requires assumptions about the number of analyte molecules within the laser excitation volume. Furthermore, the measured EF values are target analyte dependent and thus it is challenging to compare substrates with EF values obtained using different analytes. In this study, we propose an alternative evaluation parameter for SERS substrate performance that is based on the intensity of the surface plasmon enhanced Rayleigh band (IRayleigh) that originates from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the laser. Compared to the EF, IRayleigh reflects the enhancing capability of the substrate itself, is easy to measure without the use of any analytes, and is universally applicable for the comparison of SERS substrates. Six SERS substrates with different states (solid, suspended in liquid, and hydrogel), different plasmonic nanoparticle identities (silver and gold), as well as different nanoparticle sizes and shapes were used to support our hypothesis. The results show that there are excellent correlations between the measured SERS intensities and IRayleigh as well as between the SERS homogeneity and the variation of IRayleigh acquired with the six SERS substrates. These results suggest that IRayleigh can be used as an evaluation parameter for both SERS substrate efficiency and reproducibility.

  10. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  11. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  12. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PROPHYLAXIS WITH PROPRANOLOL AND ELASTIC BAND LIGATION IN VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOTIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Júlio Rocha; Ferreira, Alexandre Rodrigues; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; Resende, Camilo Brandão de; Fagundes, Eleonora Druve Tavares; Silva, Isabela Maria Lopes da

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of nonselective β-blocker and endoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic variceal ligation, as primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic adults was demonstrated by numerous controlled trials, but in pediatric population, few are the number of studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the primary prophylaxis with β-blocker in cirrhotic children and adolescents with portal hypertension. This is a cohort study encompassing 26 cirrhotic patients. β-blocker prophylaxis was performed with propranolol. When contraindicated the use of β-blocker, or if side effects presents, the patients were referred to endoscopic therapy with band ligation. Patients were evaluated by endoscopy, and those who had varicose veins of medium and large caliber or reddish spots, regardless of the caliber of varices, received primary prophylaxis. Of the 26 patients evaluated, 9 (34.6%) had contraindications to the use of propranolol and were referred for endoscopic prophylaxis. Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who received β-blocker (propranolol), had bled after a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. β-blockage dosage varied from 1 mg/kg/day to 3.1 mg/kg/day and seven (41.2%) patients had the propranolol suspended due to fail of the β-blockage or adverse effects, such as drowsiness, bronchospasm and hypotension. Patients who received endoscopic prophylaxis (elastic bandage) had no bleeding during the follow-up period. All of the patients that had upper gastroinstestinal bleeding in this study were under propranolol prophylaxis. The use of propranolol showed a high number of contraindications and side effects, requiring referral to endoscopic prophylaxis. The endoscopic prophylaxis was effective in reducing episodes of bleeding.

  13. Demonstration and Evaluation of the Ka-Band Array Feed Compensation System on the 70-m Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Fort, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current plan for DSN evolution calls for the use of Ka-band (32GHz) frequencies on large DSN antennas to increase antenna gain and useful communications bandwidth over that of current X- and S-band systems, with reduced sensitivity to plasma effects.

  14. Evaluation of the L-band scattering characteristics of volcanic terrain in aid of lithologic identification, assessment of SIR-B calibration, and development of planetary geomorphic analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zisk, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) scattering study and calibration investigation of volcanic terrain are to delineate textural and structural features, to evaluate the L-band scattering characteristics, and to assess SIR-B calibration. Specific tasks are outlined and expected results are summarized.

  15. Surface soil moisture retrieval using the L-band synthetic aperture radar onboard the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite and evaluation at core validation sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper evaluates the retrieval of soil moisture in the top 5-cm layer at 3-km spatial resolution using L-band dual-copolarized Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that mapped the globe every three days from mid-April to early July, 2015. Surface soil moisture ...

  16. Zero crossings properties of a narrow band process to determine the reliability of a two frequency encoding - Application to evaluating its autocorrelation envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J.

    1980-09-01

    The development of an appropriate mathematical model of narrow band Gaussian noise zero crossings was required in order to facilitate the calibration of electronic equipment detecting two-frequency codes used on single track tape recordings with a wide dynamic range, and to find out its decoding reliability. The possibilities of evaluating the autocorrelation envelope is also mentioned.

  17. Zero crossings properties of a narrow-band process to determine the reliability of a two-frequency encoding - Application to evaluating its autocorrelation envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J.

    1980-08-01

    The development of an appropriate mathematical model of narrow band Gaussian noise zero crossings was required in order to facilitate the calibration of electronic equipment detecting two-frequency codes used on single track tape recordings with a wide dynamic range, and to find out its decoding reliability. The possibilities of evaluating the autocorrelation envelope is also mentioned.

  18. Exploring Novel Bands and Key Index for Evaluating Leaf Equivalent Water Thickness in Wheat Using Hyperspectra Influenced by Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xia; Jia, Wenqing; Si, Haiyang; Guo, Ziqing; Tian, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaojun; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Leaf equivalent water thickness (LEWT) is an important indicator of crop water status. Effectively monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments is important for effective water management in precision agriculture. Trends in the variation of LEWT in wheat plants during plant growth were analyzed based on field experiments in which wheat plants under various water and nitrogen treatments in two consecutive growing seasons. Two-band spectral indices [normalized difference spectral indices (NDSI), ratio spectral indices (RSI), different spectral indices (DSI)], and then three-band spectral indices were established based on the best two-band spectral index within the range of 350–2500 nm to reduce the noise caused by nitrogen and saturation. Then, optimal spectral indices were selected to construct models of LEWT monitoring in wheat. The results showed that the two-band spectral index NDSI(R1204, R1318) could be used for LEWT monitoring throughout the wheat growth season, but the model performed differently before and after anthesis. Therefore, further two-band spectral indices NDSIb(R1445, R487), NDSIa(R1714, R1395), and NDSI(R1429, R416), were constructed for the two developmental phases, with NDSI(R1429, R416) considered to be the best index. Finally, a three-band index (R1429−R416−R1865)/(R1429+R416+R1865), which was superior for monitoring LEWT and reducing the noise caused by nitrogen, was formed on the best two-band spectral index NDSI(R1429, R416) by adding the 1,865 nm wavelenght as the third band. This produced more uniformity and stable performance compared with the two-band spectral indices in the LEWT model. The results are of technical significance for monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments in precision agriculture. PMID:24914778

  19. Band heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Naila, N

    2010-01-01

    Band heterotopias are one of the rarest groups of congenital disorder that result in variable degree of structural abnormality of brain parenchyma. Band of heterotopic neurons result from a congenital or acquired deficiency of the neuronal migration. MRI is the examination of choice for demonstrating these abnormalities because of the superb gray vs. white matter differentiation, detail of cortical anatomy and ease of multiplanar imaging. We report a case of band heterotopia that showed a bilateral band of gray matter in deep white matter best demonstrated on T2 Wt. and FLAIR images.

  20. Automating Giemsa banding of chromosomes: protocol for and evaluation of the use of a programmable, high-throughput automatic stainer.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C; Maher, E

    2009-12-01

    The use of prometaphase chromosomes prepared for high-resolution imaging is essential for accurate cytogenetic investigations. The process of Giemsa chromosome banding (G-banding), however, is often time consuming and difficult to standardize owing to differing ambient conditions and inter-operator variability. Consequently, many laboratories currently are introducing automatic metaphase finder and analysis systems to achieve the goals of higher throughput of samples and more consistent chromosome quality. In this context, we investigated the use of automation to improve the G-banding process. We investigated the use of the Shandon Thermo Varistain Gemini automatic stainer to replicate the manual process of G-banding. We compared the current manual method and the automated procedure and found that automation provided equivalent quality, and increased consistency while decreasing the time required and reducing the cost per preparation.

  1. Evaluation of out-of-core computer programs for the solution of symmetric banded linear equations. [simultaneous equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    FORTRAN coded out-of-core equation solvers that solve using direct methods symmetric banded systems of simultaneous algebraic equations. Banded, frontal and column (skyline) solvers were studied as well as solvers that can partition the working area and thus could fit into any available core. Comparison timings are presented for several typical two dimensional and three dimensional continuum type grids of elements with and without midside nodes. Extensive conclusions are also given.

  2. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. D. Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Nand, Mangla; Jha, S. N.; Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-04-28

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p{sub 3/2} core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  3. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Nand, Mangla; Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Shukla, D. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Phase, D. M.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2016-04-01

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al2O3 substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p3/2 core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al2O3 layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al2O3 heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  4. Bacterial exopolysaccharide based magnetic nanoparticles: a versatile nanotool for cancer cell imaging, targeted drug delivery and synergistic effect of drug and hyperthermia mediated cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Sreejith, Raveendran; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Iwai, Seiki; Suzuki, Masashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Hasumura, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthikumar, Dasappan Nair

    2014-06-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are highly heterogeneous polymers produced by fungi and bacteria that have garnered considerable attention and have remarkable potential in various fields, including biomedical research. The necessity of biocompatible materials to coat and stabilize nanoparticles is highly recommended for successful application of the same in biomedical regime. In our study we have coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with two bacterial EPS-mauran (MR) and gellan gum (GG). The biocompatibility of EPS coated MNPs was enhanced and we have made it multifunctional by attaching targeting moiety, folate and with encapsulation of a potent anticancerous drug, 5FU. We have conjugated an imaging moiety along with nanocomposite to study the effective uptake of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the dye labeled folate targeted nanoparticles could effectively enter into cancer cells and the fate of nanoparticles was tracked with Lysotracker. The biocompatibility of EPS coated MNPs and synergistic effect of magnetic hyperthermia and drug for enhanced antiproliferation of cancer cells was also evaluated. More than 80% of cancer cells was killed within a period of 60 min when magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) was applied along with drug loaded EPS coated MNPs, thus signifying the combined effect of drug loaded MNPs and MHT. Our results suggests that MR and GG coated MNPs exhibited excellent biocompatibility with low cell cytotoxicity, high therapeutic potential, and superparamagnetic behavior that can be employed as prospective candidates for bacterial EPS based targeted drug delivery, cancer cell imaging and for MHT for killing cancer cells within short period of time.

  5. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A portable Ku-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna has been built a Deep Space Station 13 (DDS 13) in the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This antenna is designed to be efficient at X-, Ku-, and Ka-bands, and it is the first NASA tracking antenna to use a BWG design. The design of a Ku-band test package for the new BWG antenna at 11.7-12.2 GHz is presented. Results of linear polarization measurements with the test package on the ground are also presented. This report is the fifth in a series of articles concerned with test package design and performance.

  7. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band communication function for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Udalov, S.; Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The forward link of the overall Ku-band communication system consists of the ground- TDRS-orbiter communication path. Because the last segment of the link is directed towards a relatively low orbiting shuttle, a PN code is used to reduce the spectral density. A method is presented for incorporating code acquisition and tracking functions into the orbiter's Ku-band receiver. Optimization of a three channel multiplexing technique is described. The importance of Costas loop parameters to provide false lock immunity for the receiver, and the advantage of using a sinusoidal subcarrier waveform, rather than square wave, are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of a Bio Nano-Sensing Probe Fabricated by Focused-Ion-Beam Chemical Vapor Deposition for Single Organelle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kometani, Reo; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Haruyama, Yuichi; Kaito, Takashi; Matsui, Shinji

    2007-12-01

    It is necessary to manipulate and analyze single cells and organelles with high accuracy for a deeper understanding of their biological phenomena. For this purpose, bio nano-tools are very useful. We fabricated a bio nano-sensing probe by using focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) and evaluated it using a cell of an Egeria densa leaf. We found that the probe functions as a measurement electrode. This indicates that the bio nano-sensing probe is useful for single organelle analyses.

  9. Narrow-band imaging: a new tool for evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Dessouky, O; Peretti, G; Cocco, D; De Benedetto, L; Nicolai, P

    2008-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract is well known for its frequently late presentation and diagnosis at an advanced stage. In addition, it is well recognized that it may arise in multiple sites, either synchronously or metachronously. Thus it should be imperative to endoscopically screen the upper aerodigestive tract of patients at risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a new diagnostic tool, especially due to the fact that early lesions are very difficult to detect even by multiple passes with a standard endoscopy, if they are < or = 1 cm in diameter. Lugol chromoendoscopy, which is mainly used in the oesophagus, is not suitable for the head and neck region due to severe mucosal irritation. Herein, narrow-band imaging is described, a diagnostic tool already proved as a useful screening method in other endoscopic fields, and its application in the early detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, as reported by previous studies in the otolaryngologic literature. Narrow-band imaging relies on the principle of depth of penetration of light, with the narrow-band blue light having a short wavelength (415 nm) penetrating into the mucosa and highlighting the superficial vasculature. Furthermore, the blue filter is designed to correspond to the peak absorption spectrum of haemoglobin to enhance the image of capillary vessels on surface mucosa. Thus, superficial mucosal lesions that would be missed by regular white light endoscopy, are identified, in view of their neoangiogenetic pattern of vasculature, using the blue light of the narrow-band imaging. Narrow-band imaging has been used extensively in the lower aerodigestive system, yet there are only 2 reports of applications in the region of the head and neck, specifically the oropharynx and the hypopharynx. However, these are not the only sites that can benefit from narrow-band imaging. Herewith, the uses and importance are highlighted of narrow-band

  10. Evaluating the potential use of a high-resolution X-band polarimetric radar observations in Urban Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Marzano, Frank S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Baldini, Luca; Nikolopoulos, EfThymios; Montopoli, Mario; Picciotti, Errico

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. Every year in central and south Europe we witness several fatal and economical disasters from severe storm rainfall triggering Flash Floods, and its impacts are increasing worldwide, but remain very difficult to manage. The spatial scale of flash flood occurrence is such that its vulnerability is often focused on dispersed urbanization, transportation and tourism infrastructures (De Marchi and Scolobig 2012). Urbanized and industrialized areas shows peculiar hydrodynamic and meteo-oceanographic features and they concentrate the highest rates of flash floods and fatal disasters. The main causes of disturbance being littoral urban development and harbor activities, the building of littoral rail- and highways, and the presence of several polluted discharges. All the above mentioned characteristics limit our ability to issue timely flood warnings. Precipitation estimates based on raingauge networks are usually associated with low coverage density, particularly at high altitudes. On the other hand, operational weather radar networks may provide valuable information of precipitation at these regimes but reliability of their estimates is often limited due to retrieval (e.g. variability in the reflectivity-to-rainfall relationship) and spatial extent constrains (e.g. blockage issues, overshooting effects). As a result, we currently lack accurate precipitation estimates over urban complex terrain areas, which essentially means that we lack accurate knowledge of the triggering factor for a number of hazards like flash floods and debris flows/landslides occurring in those areas. A potential solution to overcome sampling as well as retrieval uncertainty limitations of current observational networks might be the use of network of low-power dual-polarization X-band radars as complement to raingauges and gap-filling to

  11. Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focussing on plant canopy interception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Chemura, Abel

    2017-08-01

    Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest-RF and Stochastic Gradient Boosting-SGB) in estimating LAI. Comparatively, the results of the study have demonstrated that the inclusion of spectral information derived from the Red Edge band yields high accurate LAI estimates, when compared to the use of traditional traditional Red, Green, Blue and Near Infra-Red (traditional RGBNIR) spectral information. The results indicate that the use of the four traditional RGBNIR bands yielded comparatively lower R2 values and high Root Mean Squares, Mean Absolute Error (Pinus taeda: R2 of 0.60; the lowest RMSE (0.35 m2/m2) and MAE of 28); whereas the use of integration of traditional RGBNIR + RE in more accurate LAI estimates (Pinus taeda: R2 = 0.65; RMSE = 0.30 m2/m2) and the lowest MAE of 0.23). These findings therefore underscores the importance of new generation multispectral sensors with strategically-position bands and machine learning algorithms in estimating LAI for quantifying canopy interception, especially in resource-poor areas.

  12. Evaluation of Radar Backscattering Models IEM, OH, and Dubois using L and C-Bands SAR Data over different vegetation canopy covers and soil depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabazan, S.; Motagh, M.; Hosseini, M.

    2013-09-01

    Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature to invert radar measurements to estimate surface soil moisture. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of the most common surface back scattering models including the theoretical integral equation model (IEM) of Fung et al. (1992), and the semi-empirical models of Oh et al. (1992, 1994, 2002 and2004) and Dubois et al. (1995). This analysis uses four AIRSAR data in L and C band together with in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness) over bare soil and vegetation covers area and three different soil depths. The results show that Dubois model tend to over-estimate the radar response in both bands while IEM model and Oh model frequently over-estimate the radar response in L band but under-estimate them in C band. By evaluating of all models in different soil depths, the best results were obtained in 0-3 cm depths. For vegetation area poor correlation between models backscatter simulation and radar response was observed.

  13. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  14. [Molecular evaluation on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric fungal bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana].

    PubMed

    Ding, De-Gui; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Meng, Yan-Qiong; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Xia, Cheng-Run

    2007-03-01

    By using molecular marker of group I intron, a field evaluation was made on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana. The results showed that the control efficacy in two treated plots was 19.5% and 10.8%, and 14.2% and 11% when evaluated with conventional and molecular evaluation methods, respectively, suggesting that the conventional method which evaluated the control efficacy in terms of microbes mortality or infection rate couldn't distinguish the efficacies caused by released biocontrol agents and indigenous pathogens, while molecular method could avoid the interference of indigenous pathogens and give an objective and reasonable evaluation on the efficacy of microbial control.

  15. The evaluation of various designs for a C and L band superfluorescent source based erbium doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani Jazi, M.; Shahi, S.; Hekmat, M. J.; Saghafifar, H.; Khuzani, A. T.; Khalilian, H.; Baghi, M. D.

    2013-06-01

    An efficient erbium doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) is proposed by comparing the different configurations in the C and L band regions. The flat spectrum of the source over a wide range is examined in various arrangements. The suggested array employed is based on loop mirror and double-pass bidirectional sources for making a flat and stable amplified spontaneous emission power. The maximum power of each of the two 980 nm laser diodes was optimized at 180 mW. Furthermore, the place effect of the laser diode’s power near the output port was demonstrated for the first time. Finally, the optimum flattening manner of this ASE source was achieved in 185-50 mW pump powers and 32 mW total power over the 1525-1605 nm region (C+L band).

  16. Evaluation of shock mitigating materials in a V-band pyroshock environment simulated with a resonant fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    An explosively activated V-band joint is used on a multistage rocket payload to release components at prescribed times in the rocket`s flight and creates a pyroshock environment that the other payload components must survive. Accelerometer response data was measured close to an actual V-band pyroshock. With the shock spectra calculated from these data, a resonant fixture was designed to simulate a V-band pyroshock event. The characteristics of the data and the design process are described. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine that the desired shock spectra with an unusually high knee at about 8,000 Hz. was produced with the resonant fixture. The fixture was then mounted on a 29 in. diameter, 2 in. thick plate simulation of a payload plate. Simulated electronic components were also mounted on the plate. The pyroshock environment simulation was created by the resonant fixture response to a projectile impact, and the component response to the environment was measured at the electronic components. The component responses to the pyroshock were measured with five different shock mitigating materials inserted between the resonant fixture and the payload plate simulation, and the peak response values were tabulated.

  17. Evaluation of quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal characteristics in W-band radio-over-fiber transmission using direct in-phase/quadrature-phase conversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Meisaku; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances are evaluated with a direct IQ down-converter in the W-band (75-110 GHz). The IQ imbalance of the converter is measured within a range of +/-10 degrees in an intermediate frequency of DC-26.5 GHz. 1-8-G-baud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are transmitted successfully with observed bit error rates within a forward error correction limit of 2×10-3 using radio over fiber (RoF) techniques. The direct down-conversion technique is applicable to next-generation high-speed wireless access communication systems in the millimeter-wave band.

  18. Noise exposure in marching bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  19. Evaluation of SAR in a human body model due to wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tsuchida, Shogo; Hirata, Akimasa; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2012-08-07

    This study discusses a computational method for calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) due to a wireless power transmission system in the 10 MHz frequency band. A two-step quasi-static method comprised of the method of moments and the scalar potential finite-difference method are proposed. The applicability of the quasi-static approximation for localized exposure in this frequency band is discussed by comparing the SAR in a lossy dielectric cylinder computed with a full-wave electromagnetic analysis and the quasi-static approximation. From the computational results, the input impedance of the resonant coils was affected by the existence of the cylinder. On the other hand, the magnetic field distribution in free space and considering the cylinder and an impedance matching circuit were in good agreement; the maximum difference in the amplitude of the magnetic field was 4.8%. For a cylinder-coil distance of 10 mm, the difference between the peak 10 g averaged SAR in the cylinder computed with the full-wave electromagnetic method and our quasi-static method was 7.8%. These results suggest that the quasi-static approach is applicable for conducting the dosimetry of wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band. With our two-step quasi-static method, the SAR in the anatomically based model was computed for different exposure scenarios. From those computations, the allowable input power satisfying the limit of a peak 10 g averaged SAR of 2.0 W kg(-1) was 830 W in the worst case exposure scenario with a coil positioned at a distance of 30 mm from the chest.

  20. Band Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  1. Evaluation of band offset at amorphous-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interfaces by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Ryota; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Du, Weijie; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi; Ito, Keita; Ueda, Shigenori; Kimura, Akio

    2016-04-28

    The 730 nm-thick undoped BaSi{sub 2} films capped with 5 nm-thick amorphous Si (a-Si) intended for solar cell applications were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band (VB) offset at the interface between the BaSi{sub 2} and the a-Si was measured by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the carrier transport properties by the determination of the band offset at this heterointerface. We performed the depth-analysis by varying the take-off angle of photoelectrons as 15°, 30°, and 90° with respect to the sample surface to obtain the VB spectra of the BaSi{sub 2} and the a-Si separately. It was found that the barrier height of the a-Si for holes in the BaSi{sub 2} is approximately −0.2 eV, whereas the barrier height for electrons is approximately 0.6 eV. This result means that the holes generated in the BaSi{sub 2} layer under solar radiation could be selectively extracted through the a-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interface, promoting the carrier separation in the BaSi{sub 2} layer. We therefore conclude that the a-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interface is beneficial for BaSi{sub 2} solar cells.

  2. Evaluation of the possibility of increasing the downlink E.I.R.P. density limits in the Ku band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shriram; Schmitt, Neil M.; Friedman, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of increasing the downlink E.I.R.P. density limits for operation of Fixed Satellite Service (F.S.S.) links in the Ku band. The Ku band is extensively used for voice, video, data, remote sensing applications and for transmission to VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals) networks. However, the limit on downlink E.I.R.P. density is considered to be conservative and it's assumed that much higher E.I.R.P. densities should be possible without causing significant interference to adjacent users. If this is proved, it would be possible to achieve lower Bit Error Rates and thereby increase reliability of satellite links. The increased power transmission capability would also allow transmission of more signals with the available bandwidth or lead to reduction in size of receiving antennas. With the help of existing F.C.C. limits on antenna gain patterns and the I.T.U. interference criterion, an increase in downlink E.I.R.P. density per carrier by more than 66% is shown to be possible. This increase in power would dramatically affect Fixed Satellite Services.

  3. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  4. Observed versus modelled u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry of local galaxies - evaluation of model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, K. S. Alexander; Lisker, Thorsten; Grebel, Eva K.

    2012-12-01

    We test how well available stellar population models can reproduce observed u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry of the local galaxy population (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.03) as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our study is conducted from the perspective of a user of the models, who has observational data in hand and seeks to convert them into physical quantities. Stellar population models for galaxies are created by synthesizing star formation histories and chemical enrichments using single stellar populations from several groups (STARBURST99, GALAXEV, the Maraston models, GALEV). The role of dust is addressed through a simplistic, but observationally motivated, dust model that couples the amplitude of the extinction to the star formation history, metallicity and the viewing angle. Moreover, the influence of emission lines is considered (for the subset of models for which this component is included). The performance of the models is investigated by (1) comparing their prediction with the observed galaxy population in the SDSS using the (u - g)-(r - i) and (g - r)-(i - z) colour planes, (2) comparing predicted stellar mass and luminosity weighted ages and metallicities, specific star formation rates, mass-to-light ratios and total extinctions with literature values from studies based on spectroscopy. Strong differences between the various models are seen with several models occupying regions in the colour-colour diagrams where no galaxies are observed. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of the choice of model. Using our preferred model we find that the star formation history, metallicity and also dust content can be constrained over a large part of the parameter space through the use of u-, g-, r-, i-, z-band photometry. However, strong local degeneracies are present due to overlap of models with high and low extinction in certain parts of the colour space.

  5. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  6. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  7. A method for performance evaluation using WeeFIM data collected for the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' ORYX initiative: The 0.5 band control chart analysis.

    PubMed

    Slomine, Beth S; Brintzenhofeszoc, Karlynn; Salorio, Cynthia F; Warren, Lana; Wieczorek, Beth H; Carney, Joan; Moore, Delores A; Christensen, James R

    2004-03-01

    This article describes the employment of a method of data analysis for detailed internal program evaluation, which we call the 0.5 Band Control Chart Analysis. We describe how the 0.5 Band Control Chart Analysis can be used in conjunction with the data collected and analyzed as part of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' ORYX initiative to enhance program evaluation. How this procedure helped identify problems and drove performance improvement at our facility is also discussed.

  8. Partial Melt Systems in Plate-Driven Corner Flow: Evaluating the Formation of Porosity Bands as a Mechanism for Magma Focusing at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, D.; Butler, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The imposition of an external shear on a system of partial melt will result in compaction of the solid matrix and concentration of the interstitial liquid melt leading to the formation of regions of contrasting high and low porosity. In experiments, direct and torsional shear geometries have demonstrated that these regions of varying porosity form in bands orientated at low angles relative to the shear plane. A variety of numerical models have been employed to recreate these experimental results. Simple shear, pure shear and torsional shear geometries have been used in both linear and nonlinear numerical settings to model the formation of the porosity bands. In this contribution the numerical models utilize a shear geometry derived from the velocity field of the plate-driven corner flow of a mid-ocean ridge. Motivation for using the velocity field of a mid-ocean ridge comes from evidence that suggests the existence of lateral melt channeling from either side of the ridge axis. Imposing the shear from a mid-ocean ridge corner flow allows for the evaluation of the resulting porosity bands in terms of suitability for channeling melt laterally toward the ridge axis. This is done using both slow and fast spreading ridge geometries. The degree of similarity between previous numerical and experimental results has been found to be greatly influenced by the imposed viscosity law of the solid matrix phase. In order to keep this in mind, the numerical models in this contribution use three different matrix viscosity laws: strain-rate independent, strain-rate dependent and anisotropic. Of these rheologies, strain-rate independence results in the poorest orientation for channeling melt directly to the ridge axis. The strain-rate dependent and anisotropic viscosities present more favorable direct-channeling orientations for the fastest growing porosity bands, but in both cases the background flow will rotate bands to less ideal orientations over time. However, these less

  9. Evaluation of elastic bands for lower extremity resistance training in adults with and without musculo-skeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, C H; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K; Zebis, M K; Andersen, L L

    2014-10-01

    Therapists commonly use elastic bands in resistance exercises during rehabilitation of smaller muscles, such as in the shoulder. However, the effectiveness has not yet been investigated for larger muscle groups. This study investigates muscle activity during lower extremity exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 10 muscles was measured in 24 women and 18 men during lunges with elastic resistance, lunges with dumbbells, and unilateral leg press in machine using 10 repetition maximum loadings, and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG. Lunges with dumbbells and leg press showed higher activity than lunges with elastic resistance for the vasti and rectus femoris (P < 0.01), whereas lunges with elastic resistance showed higher activity of gluteus maximus, hamstrings, and erector spinae (P < 0.01). Gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip did not influence these findings. However, pain in the lower back decreased muscular activity of the gluteus maximus and vastus medialis (P < 0.01). Lunges with elastic resistance induce high levels of muscle activity in all the large muscle groups at the hip, knee, and back. Importantly, the efficiency of these exercises was equally high regardless of gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip, whereas pain in the lower back led to altered activation strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development and evaluation of automated systems for detection and classification of banded chromosomes: current status and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Wood, Marc; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei; Liu, Hong

    2005-08-01

    Automated detection and classification of banded chromosomes may help clinicians diagnose cancers and other genetic disorders at an early stage more efficiently and accurately. However, developing such an automated system (including both a high-speed microscopic image scanning device and related computer-assisted schemes) is quite a challenging and difficult task. Since the 1980s, great research efforts have been made to develop fast and more reliable methods to assist clinical technicians in performing this important and time-consuming task. A number of computer-assisted methods including classical statistical methods, artificial neural networks and knowledge-based fuzzy logic systems, have been applied and tested. Based on the initial test using limited datasets, encouraging results in algorithm and system development have been demonstrated. Despite the significant research effort and progress made over the last two decades, computer-assisted chromosome detection and classification systems have not been routinely accepted and used in clinical laboratories. Further research and development is needed.

  11. DSN 70-meter antenna X- and S-band calibration. Part 2: System noise temperature measurements and telecommunications link evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Richter, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The X- and S-band system operating noise temperatures of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m antennas are presented. Models of atmosphere and ground noise temperature contributions, as they affect the antenna calibrations, are given for future use in telecommunications link modeling. The measured 70-m antenna network gain/system noise temperature (G/T) performance is presented. Compared with the earlier 64-m antenna network, G/T improvements of from 1.8 dB to 2.5 dB, depending on elevation angle, were achieved. G/T comparisons are made with the DSN/Flight Project Design Handbook and the Voyager telecommunications design control table. Actual Voyager telecommunications link performance is compared with predictions made by TPAP (the Voyager telecommunications prediction and analysis program) and with measured performance of the individual 70-m antennas. A modification in the use of antenna gain, system noise temperature, and atmospheric attenuation in existing telecommunications design control tables is suggested.

  12. Insight from Frogs: Sonic Hedgehog Gene Expression and a Re-evaluation of the Vertebrate Odontogenic Band.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Theresa M; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2016-08-01

    While the identification of conserved processes across multiple taxa leads to an understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms, the ways in which different animals fail to conform to common developmental processes can elucidate how evolution modifies development to result in the vast array of morphologies seen today-the developmental mechanisms that lead to anatomical variation. Odontogenesis-how teeth are initiated and formed-is well suited to the examination of both developmental conservation and phenotypic diversity. We suggest here that the study of early tooth development, the period of odontogenic band development, reveals departures from conserved mechanisms that question the role of players in the developmental process. In the earliest stages of odontogenesis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression is interpreted as critical evidence of tooth initiation prior to any histological indication. However, a detailed examination of studies of tooth development across a wide range of taxa reveals that several vertebrate species fail to conform to the expectations of the Shh Consensus Model, calling for a reconsideration of the assumed causality of epithelial Shh in tooth initiation. We present new Shh gene expression data for an amphibian, the frog Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis. In these animals, craniofacial and odontogenic developmental processes are more disjunct, and thereby provide a natural test of the hypothesis that Shh is immediately required for subsequent tooth development. Our results suggest that Shh expression may actually be related to the formation of the mouth rather than a required precursor to subsequent tooth formation. Anat Rec, 299:1099-1109, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorok. to target larvae and adults of Capnodis tenebrionis (L.) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in soil and fiber band applications.

    PubMed

    Marannino, Pierdomenico; Santiago-Alvarez, Cándido; de Lillo, Enrico; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work has been to evaluate in the laboratory the potential of entomopathogenic fungi against adults and larvae of Capnodis tenebrionis (L.) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) through fiber band application and a potted plant bioassay with soil application, respectively. Our previous findings revealed that Metarhizium anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate was the most virulent against neonate larvae of the buprestid. In the present work, M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate has been also shown to be highly virulent against adult beetles by immersion in a conidial suspension; thus it was selected to accomplish our objectives. When adult beetles were stimulated to climb 100 x 200 mm non-woven commercial fiber bands impregnated with conidia of M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate, total mortality rates varied from 85.7% to 100.0%; whereas no significant correlation was detected between the time needed to cross the band (mean value 648.7+/-22.4s) and the time of death, with mean average survival time ranging between 10.3 and 16.0 days, compared to 28 days of the controls. Potted seedlings (5-6 months old) of cherry plum (Prunus myrobalana Lois.), a commonly used apricot rootstock, were used to study the efficacy of soil treatment with M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate against neonate C. tenebrionis larvae. The soil inoculation with M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate had a significant effect on the mean number of dead larvae recovered from the roots, with mean mortality ranging from 83.3% to 91.6%; whereas no significant differences were detected between the three fungal doses. In all cases, dead larvae found within roots exhibited external signs of fungal growth. Hence, it may be possible to use M. anisopliae EAMa 01/58-Su isolate in a biocontrol strategy targeting both adults and larvae of C. tenebrionis.

  14. Histologic, biomechanical, and biological evaluation of fan-folded iliotibial band allografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Delcroix, Gaëtan J-R; Kaimrajh, David N; Baria, Dinah; Cooper, Sonya; Reiner, Teresita; Latta, Loren; D'Ippolito, Gianluca; Schiller, Paul C; Temple, H Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the fan-folded iliotibial band (FITB) allograft and compare it with anterior tibialis tendons (ATs) and native anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) to determine whether it measures up to those tissues. We compared the histologic structure, tensile strength to failure, creep, and stress-relaxation properties of FITBs with those of ATs and ACLs. In vitro cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of FITBs were also compared with ATs. No structural difference was observed between the tissues studied. FITB ultimate tensile strength (3,459 ± 939 N) was not significantly different (P > .9999) from ultimate tensile strength of ATs (3,357 ± 111 N) and was significantly greater (P = .0005) than that of ACLs (886 ± 254 N). No significant difference (P > .9999) was observed in the increase in length resulting from creep testing between FITBs (9.5 ± 3.0 mm) and ATs (9.7 ± 4.0 mm). During stress-relaxation testing, FITBs reached 181 ± 46 N, which was not significantly different (P > .9999) from ATs (166 ± 40 N). Finally, we showed that cytotoxicity of FITBs and ATs was negligible. In vitro biocompatibility of FITBs and ATs was very good, whereas FITBs had a higher propensity to favor the attachment and infiltration of cells that proliferated for at least 4 weeks on their contact. We found that FITBs, ACLs, and ATs shared a similar structure made of aligned collagen fibers. No significant difference was observed between FITB and AT ultimate tensile strength, creep, and stress-relaxation viscoelastic properties. Ultimate tensile strength to failure of ACLs was lower than that of FITBs and ATs, whereas ACLs were superior to both FITBs and ATs during creep and stress-relaxation testing. FITBs and ATs showed low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility in vitro, with a somewhat higher propensity of FITBs to favor cell attachment and infiltration over time. This study suggests that FITBs have the potential to perform as well as

  15. Electromagnetic and thermal evaluation of an applicator specialized to permit high-resolution non-perturbing optical evaluation of cells being irradiated in the W-band.

    PubMed

    Pickard, William F; Moros, Eduardo G; Shafirstein, Gal

    2010-02-01

    To permit epi-illuminated, high-resolution optical microscopy of cells in monolayer culture during unperturbed W-band (75-110 GHz) irradiation, a new class of applicator has been developed based upon WR10 rectangular waveguide components: the cells are normally plated onto the underside of a coverslip which is then placed against the under side of a waveguide flange and receives a roughly circular exposure pattern, with the +/-1 dB central spot roughly 1 mm in diameter. Constructed and tested with 94 GHz millimeter waves, water-immersion optics, and free-convection cooling, the applicator works robustly and permits SARs at the cell layer as high as 4500 W/kg before the steady-state temperature rise at the cell layer exceeds 0.5 K. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Structural analysis and evaluation of actual PC bridge using 950 keV/3.95 MeV X-band linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, H.; Yano, R.; Ozawa, I.; Mitsuya, Y.; Dobashi, K.; Uesaka, M.; Kusano, J.; Oshima, Y.; Ishida, M.

    2017-07-01

    In Japan, bridges constructed during the strong economic growth era are facing an aging problem and advanced maintenance methods have become strongly required recently. To meet this demand, we develop the on-site inspection system using 950 keV/3.95 MeV X-band (9.3 GHz) linac X-ray sources. These systems can visualize in seconds the inner states of bridges, including cracks of concrete, location and state of tendons (wires) and other imperfections. At the on-site inspections, 950 keV linac exhibited sufficient performance. But, for thicker concrete, it is difficult to visualize the internal state by 950 keV linac. Therefore, we proceeded the installation of 3.95 MeV linac for on-site bridge inspection. In addition, for accurate evaluation, verification on the parallel motion CT technique and FEM analysis are in progress.

  17. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Treesearch

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  18. Technical evaluation of a dual-junction same-band-gap amorphous silicon photovoltaic system at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, T; Mrig, L; Hansen, R; Emery, K

    1994-12-01

    On December 7, 1992, a 1.8-kW{sub ac} utility-interconnect photovoltaic (PV) system using amorphous silicon modules was brought on-line at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s photovoltaic test site. This system was deployed to conduct an in-situ technical evaluation of the PV array (in a high voltage configuration) and system performance and reliability in a utility-interconnect application. The system is unique due to the installation of construction-grade insulation on the back of each PV module. This use of insulation is an attempt to levelize the annual array power output by elevating the operating temperature of the modules. This paper presents array and system performance data. Emphasis is placed on quantifying the effects of individual losses as well as seasonal changes on PV array and system performance.

  19. Effects of color bands on Semipalmated Sandpipers banded at hatch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Battaglia, D.; Senner, N.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of color bands on adult birds have been investigated in many studies, but much less is known about the effects of bands on birds banded at hatch. We captured Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) chicks at hatch on the Alaskan North Slope and attached 0-3 bands to them. The chicks were resighted and reweighed during the subsequent two weeks. The number of chicks banded varied from 18 to 21 among treatments; 6-9 were resighted, and 6-7 were reweighed, per treatment. The proportion resighted varied from 0.33 to 0.45. The estimated resighting probability, given that we encountered a brood, was 82%. We tested for effects of the bands on survival and mass gain by analyzing whether the proportion of chicks resighted, or their mass, varied with the number of bands. We found no evidence that bands affected the chicks and were able to rule out (with 95% confidence) a decline in survivorship of more than 13% and a loss of mass of more than 10%. Although bands had little if any effect on chicks in our study, we believe their effects should be evaluated whenever survivorship or mass gain are estimated using color-marked chicks.

  20. Evaluation of Conidia-Dust Formulation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae to Biocontrol the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F.

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, Mona; Mossadegh, Mohammad Saeed; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa (F.) as a mechanical vector of pathogens and source of allergens has recently become widespread in the city of Ahvaz, southwestern Iran. Objectives: This research was done to evaluate the efficacy of a dust-formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IRAN 437C, as a common entomopathogenous fungus, against S. longipalpa. Materials and Methods: Conidia dust-formulations of M. anisopliae were prepared in proportions of 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% with bad wheat flour as the carrier. Cockroaches were exposed to surfaces treated with 1.5 mg/cm2 of the formulations under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Results: Cockroach mortality rates increased and survival times (ST50) decreased with an increased proportion of conidia from 1% to 100% but records taken for mortality and survival time from proportions of 25%, 50% and 100% were not significantly different. The mortality rates reached 100% and 90-100% in adults and nymphs, respectively on the seventh day. The lowest ST50 was related to the proportion of 100% (3 days). Probit analysis indicated LD50 and LD90 values of 1.7 × 106 and 1.7 × 107 conidia/cm2 for adults and these values changed to 4.5 × 106 and 2.9 × 107 for third and fourth instar nymphs at three days post exposure. Proportion of 25% caused mortality rates of 87%, 81% and 73% in adult, adult & nymph and nymph populations, respectively at four days after exposure under room conditions. Conclusions: Conidia dust-formulation of M. anospliae isolate IRAN 437C could present a promising alternative to control the brown-banded cockroach. PMID:25371804

  1. Performance evaluation of high-resolution rainfall estimation by X-band dual-polarization radar for flash flood applications in mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Tarolli, Michele; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Borga, Marco

    2010-11-01

    SummaryDifferent relations between surface rainfall rate, R, and high-resolution polarimetric X-band radar observations were evaluated using a dense network of rain gauge measurements over complex terrain in Central Italian Alps. The specific differential phase shift, KDP, rainfall algorithm (RKDP) although associated with low systematic error it exhibits low sensitivity to the spatial variability of rainfall as compared to the standard algorithm (RSTD) that is based on the reflectivity-to-rainfall (Z-R) relationship. On the other hand, the dependence of the reflectivity measurement on the absolute radar calibration and the rain-path radar signal attenuation introduces significant systematic error on the RSTD rainfall estimates. The study shows that adjusting the Z-R relationship for mean-field bias determined using the RKDP estimates as reference is the best technique for acquiring unbiased radar-rainfall estimates at fine space-time scales. Overall, the bias of the RKDP-adjusted Z-R estimator is shown to be lower than 10% for both storm cases, while the relative root-mean-square error is shown to range from 0.6 (convective storm) to 0.9 (stratiform storm). A vertical rainfall profile correction (VPR) technique is tested in this study for the stratiform storm case. The method is based on a newly developed VPR algorithm that uses the X-band polarimetric information to identify the properties of the melting layer and devices a precipitation profile that varies for each radar volume scan to correct the radar-rainfall estimates. Overall, when accounting for the VPR effect there is up to 70% reduction in the systematic error of the 3° elevation estimates, while the reduction in terms of relative root-mean-square error is limited to within 10%.

  2. On the use of the post-closure method uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Imukova, K.; Högy, P.; Streck, T.

    2014-12-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modeling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W m-2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty of EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  3. On the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Imukova, K.; Högy, P.; Streck, T.

    2015-04-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modelling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure methods uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W m-2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty in EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  4. On the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Imukova, Kristina; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modeling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W/m2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty of EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  5. S and Ku band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

  6. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band combined radar/communication functions for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The Ku band radar system on the shuttle orbiter operates in both a search and a tracking mode, and its transmitter and antennas share time with the communication mode in the integrated system. The power allocation properties and the Costa subloop subcarrier tracking performance associated with the baseline digital phase shift implementation of the three channel orbiter Ku band modulator are discussed.

  7. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  8. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-03

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  9. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae): A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, Mona; Safdari, Farhad; Siahpoush, Amir; Kassiri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa. Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013. Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5%) of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 μl/L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the concentration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment. Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity. PMID:28032105

  10. Comparative evaluation of new and conventional classifications of magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging for invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, T; Tajika, M; Tanaka, T; Ishihara, M; Mizuno, N; Hara, K; Hijioka, S; Imaoka, H; Yatabe, Y; Hirooka, Y; Goto, H; Yamao, K; Niwa, Y

    2017-11-01

    A new classification of magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) for diagnosing and staging superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) was proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society in 2011. This study aimed to compare the new classification with the conventional classifications (Inoue's classification and Arima's classification). This was a prospective analysis of data from a single cancer center involving 151 consecutive patients with 156 SESCCs that were endoscopically or surgically resected. Initially, only ME-NBI images were selected and reviewed independently by three experienced endoscopists. White light imaging (WLI) was then evaluated separately after an interval. The diagnostic performance of each classification and interobserver agreement were assessed, and the WLI findings that affect the diagnosis by the new classification were identified. The specificity for classifying invasive depth as epithelium (EP)/lamina propria mucosae (LPM) confined was higher with the new classification than with Inoue's classification (0.512 vs. 0.349; P = 0.02) and Arima's classification (0.512 vs. 0.279; P < 0.01). However, the sensitivity was lower (0.902 vs. 1.000; P < 0.01) compared with Arima's classification. The concordance rates of three evaluators (κ values) were 0.52 for the new classification, 0.50 for Inoue's classification, and 0.23 for Arima's classification. On multivariate analysis, thickness on WLI independently affected the accuracy of diagnosis with the new classification (OR 3.23; 95%CI, 1.30-8.03). The new classification is superior to conventional classifications with respect to specificity for diagnosing SESCC with depth EP/LPM. Thickness on WLI was a factor negatively affecting the diagnostic performance of the new classification. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I J M; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-05-15

    The Sentinel-1 will carry onboard a C-band radar instrument that will map the European continent once every four days and the global land surface at least once every twelve days with finest 5 × 20 m spatial resolution. The high temporal sampling rate and operational configuration make Sentinel-1 of interest for operational soil moisture monitoring. Currently, updated soil moisture data are made available at 1 km spatial resolution as a demonstration service using Global Mode (GM) measurements from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT. The service demonstrates the potential of the C-band observations to monitor variations in soil moisture. Importantly, a retrieval error estimate is also available; these are needed to assimilate observations into models. The retrieval error is estimated by propagating sensor errors through the retrieval model. In this work, the existing ASAR GM retrieval error product is evaluated using independent top soil moisture estimates produced by the grid-based landscape hydrological model (AWRA-L) developed within the Australian Water Resources Assessment system (AWRA). The ASAR GM retrieval error estimate, an assumed prior AWRA-L error estimate and the variance in the respective datasets were used to spatially predict the root mean square error (RMSE) and the Pearson's correlation coefficient R between the two datasets. These were compared with the RMSE calculated directly from the two datasets. The predicted and computed RMSE showed a very high level of agreement in spatial patterns as well as good quantitative agreement; the RMSE was predicted within accuracy of 4% of saturated soil moisture over 89% of the Australian land mass. Predicted and calculated R maps corresponded within accuracy of 10% over 61% of the continent. The strong correspondence between the predicted and calculated RMSE and R builds confidence in the retrieval error model and derived ASAR GM error estimates. The ASAR GM and Sentinel-1 have

  12. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia

    PubMed Central

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The Sentinel-1 will carry onboard a C-band radar instrument that will map the European continent once every four days and the global land surface at least once every twelve days with finest 5 × 20 m spatial resolution. The high temporal sampling rate and operational configuration make Sentinel-1 of interest for operational soil moisture monitoring. Currently, updated soil moisture data are made available at 1 km spatial resolution as a demonstration service using Global Mode (GM) measurements from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT. The service demonstrates the potential of the C-band observations to monitor variations in soil moisture. Importantly, a retrieval error estimate is also available; these are needed to assimilate observations into models. The retrieval error is estimated by propagating sensor errors through the retrieval model. In this work, the existing ASAR GM retrieval error product is evaluated using independent top soil moisture estimates produced by the grid-based landscape hydrological model (AWRA-L) developed within the Australian Water Resources Assessment system (AWRA). The ASAR GM retrieval error estimate, an assumed prior AWRA-L error estimate and the variance in the respective datasets were used to spatially predict the root mean square error (RMSE) and the Pearson's correlation coefficient R between the two datasets. These were compared with the RMSE calculated directly from the two datasets. The predicted and computed RMSE showed a very high level of agreement in spatial patterns as well as good quantitative agreement; the RMSE was predicted within accuracy of 4% of saturated soil moisture over 89% of the Australian land mass. Predicted and calculated R maps corresponded within accuracy of 10% over 61% of the continent. The strong correspondence between the predicted and calculated RMSE and R builds confidence in the retrieval error model and derived ASAR GM error estimates. The ASAR GM and Sentinel-1 have

  13. A portable X-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 2: Tests on the antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are given for an X-band (8.45 GHz) test package for testing the new 34-m beam-waveguide antenna at Goldstone in an 'on-the-antenna' configuration. Included are X-band zenith noise temperature values and tipping-curve data obtained at the Cassegrain focal point F1 as well as at the pedestal room focal point F3. Subreflector Z-defocus test results for both F1 and F3 are also presented. The X-band test package operated well in all of the different test configurations and exceeded expected performance.

  14. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  15. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  16. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Nessibou, T.; Nilsen, P. W.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The interfaces between the Ku-band system and the TDRSS, between the S-band system and the TDRSS, GSTDN and SGLS networks, and between the S-band payload communication equipment and the other Orbiter avionic equipment were investigated. The principal activities reported are: (1) performance analysis of the payload narrowband bent-pipe through the Ku-band communication system; (2) performance evaluation of the TDRSS user constraints placed on the S-band and Ku-band communication systems; (3) assessment of the shuttle-unique S-band TDRSS ground station false lock susceptibility; (4) development of procedure to make S-band antenna measurements during orbital flight; (5) development of procedure to make RFI measurements during orbital flight to assess the performance degradation to the TDRSS S-band communication link; and (6) analysis of the payload interface integration problem areas.

  17. Granulometric characterization and evaluation of annually banded mid-Holocene estuarine silts, Welsh Severn Estuary (UK): coastal change, sea level and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. R. L.; Haslett, S. K.

    2006-07-01

    Holocene silts (salt marshes) and highest intertidal-supratidal peats are superbly exposed on a 15 km coastal transect which reveals two laterally extensive units of annually banded silts (Beds 3, 7) associated with three transgressive-regressive silt-peat cycles (early sixth-early fourth millennium BC). Bed 3 in places is concordantly and gradationally related to peats above and below, but in others transgresses older strata. Bed 7 also grades up into peat, but everywhere overlies a discordance. The banding in Bed 3 at three main and two minor sites was resolved and characterized texturally at high-resolution (2.5/5 mm contiguous slices) using laser granulometry (LS230 with PIDS) and a comprehensive scheme of data-assessment. Most of Bed 3 formed very rapidly, at peak values of several tens of millimetres annually, in accordance with modelled effects of sea-level fluctuations on mature marshes (bed concordant and gradational) and on marshes growing up after coastal erosion and retreat (bed with discordant base). Using data from the modern Severn Estuary, the textural contrast within bands, and its variation between bands, points to a variable but overall milder mid-Holocene climate than today. The inter-annual variability affected marsh dynamics, as shown by the behaviour of the finely divided plant tissues present. Given local calibration, the methodology is applicable to other tidal systems with banded silts in Britain and mainland northwest Europe.

  18. Evaluation of an e-learning system for diagnosis of gastric lesions using magnifying narrow-band imaging: a multicenter randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Doyama, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hideki; Uedo, Noriya; Gotoda, Takuji; Kato, Mototsugu; Nagao, Shigeaki; Nagami, Yasuaki; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Imagawa, Atsushi; Kodaira, Junichi; Mitsui, Shinya; Kobayashi, Nozomu; Muto, Manabu; Takatori, Hajime; Abe, Takashi; Tsujii, Masahiko; Watari, Jiro; Ishiyama, Shuhei; Oda, Ichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yokoi, Chizu; Ueo, Tetsuya; Uchita, Kunihisa; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Morita, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Shinichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Inamura, Katsuhisa; Kinjo, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Araki, Hiroshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Mori, Hirohito; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Motohashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Endo, Masaki; Yamano, Hiroo; Murakami, Kazunari; Koike, Tomoyuki; Hirasawa, Kingo; Miyaoka, Youichi; Hamamoto, Hidetaka; Hikichi, Takuto; Hanabata, Norihiro; Shimoda, Ryo; Hori, Shinichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kodashima, Shinya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mannami, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yashima, Kazuo; Tanabe, Satoshi; Satoh, Hiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Ikeda, Yoshiou; Nishisaki, Hogara; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Matsuda, Akio; Tamura, Fumio; Nishiyama, Hitoshi; Arita, Keiko; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Hoppo, Kazushige; Oka, Masashi; Ishihara, Shinichi; Mukasa, Michita; Minamino, Hiroaki; Yao, Kenshi

    2017-10-01

    Background and study aim Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) is useful for the accurate diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, acquiring skill at M-NBI diagnosis takes substantial effort. An Internet-based e-learning system to teach endoscopic diagnosis of EGC using M-NBI has been developed. This study evaluated its effectiveness. Participants and methods This study was designed as a multicenter randomized controlled trial. We recruited endoscopists as participants from all over Japan. After completing Test 1, which consisted of M-NBI images of 40 gastric lesions, participants were randomly assigned to the e-learning or non-e-learning groups. Only the e-learning group was allowed to access the e-learning system. After the e-learning period, both groups received Test 2. The analysis set was participants who scored < 80 % accuracy on Test 1. The primary end point was the difference in accuracy between Test 1 and Test 2 for the two groups. Results A total of 395 participants from 77 institutions completed Test 1 (198 in the e-learning group and 197 in the non-e-learning group). After the e-learning period, all 395 completed Test 2. The analysis sets were e-learning group: n = 184; and non-e-learning group: n = 184. The mean Test 1 score was 59.9 % for the e-learning group and 61.7 % for the non-e-learning group. The change in accuracy in Test 2 was significantly higher in the e-learning group than in the non-e-learning group (7.4 points vs. 0.14 points, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of the e-learning system in improving practitioners' capabilities to diagnose EGC using M-NBI.Trial registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000008569). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Evaluation of single-band snow-patch mapping using high-resolution microwave remote sensing: an application in the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Carla; Jiménez, Juan Javier; Pina, Pedro; Catalão, João; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-01-01

    The mountainous and ice-free terrains of the maritime Antarctic generate complex mosaics of snow patches, ranging from tens to hundreds of metres. These can only be accurately mapped using high-resolution remote sensing. In this paper we evaluate the application of radar scenes from TerraSAR-X in High Resolution SpotLight mode for mapping snow patches at a test area on Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetlands). Snow-patch mapping and characterization of snow stratigraphy were conducted at the time of image acquisition on 12 and 13 January 2012. Snow was wet in all studied snow patches, with coarse-grain and rounded crystals showing advanced melting and with frequent ice layers in the snow pack. Two TerraSAR-X scenes in HH and VV polarization modes were analysed, with the former showing the best results when discriminating between wet snow, lake water and bare soil. However, significant overlap in the backscattering signal was found. Average wet-snow backscattering was -18.0 dB in HH mode, with water showing -21.1 dB and bare soil showing -11.9 dB. Single-band pixel-based and object-oriented image classification methods were used to assess the classification potential of TerraSAR-X SpotLight imagery. The best results were obtained with an object-oriented approach using a watershed segmentation with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, with an overall accuracy of 92 % and Kappa of 0.88. The main limitation was the west to north-west facing snow patches, which showed significant error, an issue related to artefacts from the geometry of satellite imagery acquisition. The results show that TerraSAR-X in SpotLight mode provides high-quality imagery for mapping wet snow and snowmelt in the maritime Antarctic. The classification procedure that we propose is a simple method and a first step to an implementation in operational mode if a good digital elevation model is available.

  20. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain < 0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  1. Band offset of Al1‑ x Si x O y mixed oxide on GaN evaluated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kenji; Kikuta, Daigo; Narita, Tetsuo; Kataoka, Keita; Isomura, Noritake; Kitazumi, Kousuke; Mori, Tomohiko

    2017-04-01

    An Al1‑ x Si x O y mixed oxide has been deposited on GaN by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. The band diagrams between the mixed oxide and GaN for various Si atom fraction x values are determined by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The band gap of the mixed oxide increases with increasing x. This dependence has a large bowing parameter of 1.5 eV. We have successfully obtained conduction band offset (ΔE C) and valence band offset (ΔE V) as a function of x: ΔE C (eV) = 1.6 + 0.4x + 1.2x 2 and ΔE V (eV) = 1.7 + 0.34x + 0.36x 2. These relationships enable us to design GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using the Al1‑ x Si x O y mixed oxide.

  2. Adjustable gastric banding (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal digestive process. In this procedure, a hollow band made of special material is placed around the ... pouch and causes a feeling of fullness. The band can be tightened or loosened over time to ...

  3. Low Power Band to Band Tunnel Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-15

    the E-field and tunneling at the source- pocket junction you form a parasitic NPN + transistor and the injection mechanism of carriers into the...hypothesis that the 1000 ° C, 5s anneal split lead to a very wide pocket and the accidental formation of a NPN + transistor , while the 1000 ° C, 1s anneal...Low Power Band to Band Tunnel Transistors Anupama Bowonder Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley

  4. A portable Ka-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 1: Design and ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A unique experimental method was used to test the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna at Deep Space Station (DDS) 13 in the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California. The methodology involved the use of portable test packages to make measurements of operating noise temperatures and antenna efficiencies (as functions of antenna pointing angles) at the Cassegrain focal point and the final focal point located in a subterranean pedestal room. Degradations caused by the BWG mirror systems were determined by making comparisons of the measured parameters at the two focal points of the antenna. Previous articles were concerned with the design, performance characteristics, and test results obtained with an X-band test package operating at 32 GHz. Noise temperature measurement results are presented for the Ka-band test package in an on-the-ground test configuration.

  5. A portable Ka-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 1: Design and ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A unique experimental method was used to test the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna at Deep Space Station (DDS) 13 in the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California. The methodology involved the use of portable test packages to make measurements of operating noise temperatures and antenna efficiencies (as functions of antenna pointing angles) at the Cassegrain focal point and the final focal point located in a subterranean pedestal room. Degradations caused by the BWG mirror systems were determined by making comparisons of the measured parameters at the two focal points of the antenna. Previous articles were concerned with the design, performance characteristics, and test results obtained with an X-band test package operating at 32 GHz. Noise temperature measurement results are presented for the Ka-band test package in an on-the-ground test configuration.

  6. Status of the NOAO evaluation of the Hughes 20x64 Si:As impurity band conduction array. [for ground and space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Hughes 20 x 64 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays designed for ground-based and spaceborne astronomy observations is described together with experiments performed at NOAO to test these arrays. Special attention is given to the design and the characteristics of the test system and to the test methods. The initial tests on two columns of one array indicate that the array is easy to operate and performed satisfactorily.

  7. Status of the NOAO evaluation of the Hughes 20x64 Si:As impurity band conduction array. [for ground and space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Hughes 20 x 64 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays designed for ground-based and spaceborne astronomy observations is described together with experiments performed at NOAO to test these arrays. Special attention is given to the design and the characteristics of the test system and to the test methods. The initial tests on two columns of one array indicate that the array is easy to operate and performed satisfactorily.

  8. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    PubMed

    Millett, D T; Glenny, A M; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Mandall, N A

    2007-04-18

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. Electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (29th January 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 29th January 2007) and EMBASE (1980 to 29th January 2007). A search of the internet was also undertaken. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors were involved in study selection, validity assessment and data extraction without blinding to the authors, adhesives used or results

  9. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    PubMed

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  10. Foliar spray banding characteristics

    Treesearch

    A.R. Womac; C.W. Smith; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2004-01-01

    Foliar spray banding was explored as a means of reducing peticide use compared to broadcast applications. Barious geometric spray patterns and delivery angles of foliar spray bands were investigated to increase spray deposits in a crop row at a constant spray rate of 94 L/ha. Wind-free laboratory results indicated that a banded application using three 65° hollow-cone...

  11. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs.

  12. Venus banded terrain - Tectonic models for band formation and their relationship to lithospheric thermal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Two classes of tectonic models for the formation of band structure on Venus mountain ranges are quantitatively evaluated: folding models and extensional models. The characteristics of banded terrain on Ishtar Terra are reviewed, particularly the evidence for a tectonic origin and such important details of band geometry as the spacing between adjacent bands. The tectonic models are tested against these observed features, and it it shown that both classes of models are possible explanations of banded terrain as long as the outer elastic-brittle layer of the Venus crust is at most a few kilometers thick. A general assessment is given of hypotheses for the origin of banded terrain and of the relationship between mechanical models for band formation and the thermal structure of the Venus lithosphere.

  13. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of glass fiber reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer and its comparison with the conventional band and loop space maintainer. An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, C; Jain, R L; Neeraj, M; Harsimrat, K; Samriti, B; Anuj, C

    2012-01-01

    Premature primary tooth loss may result in deleterious changes in dental arch integrity like space loss, crowding and midline shift, compromising the eruption of succedaneous teeth and altering the development of normal occlusion. The most confident way to cope with these problems is through the use of space maintainers. Today is an era of bondontics, which gives us a chance to test challenging materials like glass fiber reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of GFRCR as a space maintainer and to compare it with the conventional Band and Loop space maintainer. Twenty children aged 4-9 years requiring bilateral space maintainers for premature loss of primary first molar or primary second molar were selected for the study. GFRCR and Band and Loop space maintainers were applied bilaterally and their retention was evaluated at 1, 3 and 5 months interval. In comparison to band and loop space maintainers, the GFRCR space maintainers showed a higher success but the difference was statistically non significant. This study showed that GFRCR space maintainer can be a new alternative to the conventional space maintainer for short-term space maintenance for primary tooth loss.

  14. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  15. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  16. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  17. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  18. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  19. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  20. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band combined radar/communication functions for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Udalov, S.; Alem, W.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of the space shuttle orbiter's Ku-Band integrated radar and communications equipment is analyzed for the radar mode of operation. The block diagram of the rendezvous radar subsystem is described. Power budgets for passive target detection are calculated, based on the estimated values of system losses. Requirements for processing of radar signals in the search and track modes are examined. Time multiplexed, single-channel, angle tracking of passive scintillating targets is analyzed. Radar performance in the presence of main lobe ground clutter is considered and candidate techniques for clutter suppression are discussed. Principal system parameter drivers are examined for the case of stationkeeping at ranges comparable to target dimension. Candidate ranging waveforms for short range operation are analyzed and compared. The logarithmic error discriminant utilized for range, range rate and angle tracking is formulated and applied to the quantitative analysis of radar subsystem tracking loops.

  1. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  2. ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE: DOUBLE BAND OR SINGLE BAND?

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Luiz Antonio Zanotelli; Junior, Adair Bervig; Badotti, Augusto Alves; Michelin, Alexandre Froes; Algarve, Rodrigo Ilha; de Quadros Martins, Cesar Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the double-band and single-band techniques for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and demonstrate that the double-band technique not only provides greater anterior stability but also causes less pain and a better subjective patient response. Methods: We selected 42 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, by means of either the single-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using flexor tendon grafts with two tunnels, or the double-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using four tunnels and grafts from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All fixations were performed using interference screws. There was no variation in the sample. Before the operation, the objective and subjective IKDC scores, Lysholm score and length of time with the injury were evaluated. All these variables were reassessed six months later, and the KT-1000 correlation with the contralateral knee was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but the single-band group showed better results in relation to range of motion and objective evaluations including KT-1000 (with statistical significance). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but better results were found using the single-band anatomical technique, in relation to objective evaluations. PMID:27042621

  3. Evaluate the Invasion of dwarf bamboo to alpine snow-meadow in northern Japan based on ground measurement and L-band microwave backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemori, Maino; Buho, Hoshino; Kudo, Gaku; Kaneko, Masami; Yabuki, Tetsuo

    Dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis) is extensively increasing the distribution area in the alpine snow-meadow within the wilderness area of the Taisetsu Mountains, northern Japan. This rapid change may be related to the soil desiccation and expansion of annual growing period caused by the recent acceleration of snowmelt time (Kudo et al., 2010). Control the expansion of the dwarf bamboo, first it is necessary to identify spatial distribution of the soil moisture. However, Soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally. In order to estimate soil moisture, extrapolation of much point's ground measurements has been necessary (Wood et al., 1993, Hall, 1996). The theoretical basis for measuring soil moisture by backscattering coefficient (dB) of microwave satellite is based on the large contrast between the dielectric properties of liquid water and of dry soil (Hoshino et al., 2009). The following variables affect the measurement of soil moisture: surface roughness, soil texture, vegetation canopy effects and instrument parameters such as incidence angle, frequency and polarization. With this study, we made a correlation model between backscattering coefficient (dB) and Volumetric Water Content (VWC, %) based extrapolation of point's ground measurements and PALSAR L-band backscatter. However, it did not shows good correlation in the place where dwarf bamboo high density area. Probably it is because the dwarf bamboo cover (surface roughness) plays a dominant role compared to the soil moisture in this case. The degree to which vegetation, both dwarf bamboo and alpine, affects the determination of soil moisture depends on the mass of vegetation and the wavelength. The effect of a rough surface is to increase the surface emissivity and thus to decrease the sensitivity to soil moisture, and, as mentioned earlier, whether or not a surface is smooth depends on the wavelength. But, the microwave backscatter very effectively method for the Taisetuzan Mountains area

  4. Evaluation of near-surface soil moisture data from an AAFC monitoring network in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for L-band satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Justin R.; McNairn, Heather; Berg, Aaron A.; Champagne, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines near-surface soil moisture data (top ∼6 cm) from an Agriculture and Agri-food Canada (AAFC) monitoring network in southern Manitoba, Canada, over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. This network is intended for use (in part) as a core validation site for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The network currently consists of 9 stations sited within agricultural fields. Each station uses a triplicate configuration of horizontally installed Hydra Probe soil moisture sensors at near-surface (∼5 cm) to root-zone soil depths, in addition to permanently installed vertical surface sensors (0-5.7 cm). This domain was studied intensively over the 6.5 week SMAPVEX12 ground campaign in June/July 2012, providing coincident soil moisture datasets to assess network up-scaling over the domain. Results demonstrate that statistical differences exist between the network-level data from the horizontal (θ3.5-6.5cm) and vertical (θ0-5.7cm) surface Hydra Probes over 2012-13. Bootstrap resampling shows that a mean difference of 0.018 m3 m-3 (at 99% confidence) is observed between θ3.5-6.5cm and θ0-5.7cm measurement depths (θ0-5.7cm sensors exhibit dry bias). Individual station analysis shows that the largest differences between θ3.5-6.5cm and θ0-5.7cm measurement depth occur at sites with higher clay content, whereas sensors located in sandy soils exhibit negligible differences. Up-scaling comparisons of the AAFC network to field-sampled data and a dense temporary network over SMAPVEX12 demonstrate that it is representative of the domain within 0.04 m3 m-3 RMSE. This suggests that the AAFC network is suitable for coarse resolution L-band microwave soil moisture validation. Comparison of Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 soil moisture product data to the up-scaled AAFC network data over 2012-13 shows that superior temporal correlation is found with the θ0-5.7cm dataset. The difference in RMSEs between the SMOS comparisons to θ3.5-6.5cm

  5. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  6. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  7. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  8. Prospective clinical and histological study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a targeted high-intensity narrow band UVB/UVA1 therapy for striae alba.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Magro, Cynthia; Hoenig, Alison

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a targeted narrow band UVB/UVA1 therapy for the treatment of striae alba. Fourteen individuals with skin types II-VI were enrolled in this 22-week trial that consisted of up to 10 treatments with a combination of UVB/UVA1 (MultiClear, Curelight Ltd, Israel). Participants were treated with a maximum of 10 treatments unless 100% repigmentation of stretch was achieved prior to the tenth treatment. Biopsies were taken from willing participants at baseline, immediately after the final treatment and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Nine participants completed all treatment visits. After the final treatment, all the participants had >51% repigmentation of the treated striae. At the 4-week follow-up visit, 67% of participants had greater than 51% improvement, and 56% had greater than 51% improvement at the 8-week and 12-week follow-ups. Hyperpigmentation of striae was seen in >50% of the participants treated. The pretreatment biopsies were confirmatory of striae. There were no diagnostic light microscopic differences in the 4-week post-treatment biopsy set available in one patient. This high intensity UVB\\UVA1 device is an effective and safe modality for the short-term repigmentation of hypopigmented stretch marks. Additional morphologic studies over time are needed to confirm these clinical findings.

  9. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  10. Evaluation of total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples of companies producing their own feed in Edincik and Bandırma province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Eseceli, Hüseyin; Demir, Ergün; Sentürklü, Songül

    2012-01-01

    Feed contamination by fungi can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food can be harmful to both people and animals. The aim of this study was to determine total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples from companies producing their own feed in Edincik and Bandırma provinces in Turkey and to discuss the potential risk to animal health. The results of the analyses indicated that mean total aflatoxin (AFT) ranged from 0.4 to 36.8 µg kg(-1) and from 0.45 to 47.0 µg kg(-1) in the year 2007 and the year 2008 samples, respectively. It was determined that nitrate levels were 2.4-10 and 1.7-13 µg kg(-1) and that nitrite levels were 0-2.4 µg kg(-1) and 0-2.6 µg kg(-1) in these years, respectively. The levels of total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite in the layer samples could not be considered a risk to poultry health and productivity.

  11. Ku-band miniature modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Ku-band microminiature modulators were designed to convert a 10 mW signal at 400 MHz to a 10 mW signal at 15 GHz. The designs incorporate gallium arsenide Schottky barrier varactors used in upper-sideband up-converters. The use of Ku-band microstrip circulators and hairpin resonator bandpass filters at 2.1 GHz and 2.5 GHz is included. The design and fabrication of a single up-conversion unit with a double up-conversion unit are compared. Various filter configurations are studies, and the use of both alumina and quartz substrates are considered. The various impedance matching networks are evaluated using computer aided design techniques.

  12. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  13. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  14. Validated assessment scale for platysmal bands.

    PubMed

    Geister, Thorin L; Bleßmann-Gurk, Birgit; Rzany, Berthold; Harrington, Laura; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Pooth, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    Marked platysmal bands in the neck are an unwelcome sign of aging. Botulinum neurotoxin type A has been used successfully to treat this indication, but there is a need for a validated tool for accurate assessment of dynamic platysmal bands to evaluate treatment efficacy objectively. To develop a scale for objective assessment of dynamic platysmal bands and to validate its use in the clinical setting. A new 5-point photonumeric assessment scale for platysmal bands was developed. Ten experts experienced in aesthetic dermatology used the scale to rate frontal and lateral neck photographs of 50 subjects in two separate validation cycles. Inter- and intrarater reliability of the scale was assessed. The scale comprises five ratings of platysmal band severity ranging from 0 (no relevant prominence of platysmal bands) to 4 (very severe prominence of platysmal bands). Interrater reliability was "almost perfect," with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 for the first validation cycle and 0.82 for the second. Mean intrarater reliability was also high (0.89), with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging between 0.87 and 0.91. The new 5-point dynamic platysmal band photonumeric assessment scale is a valuable tool for use in the aesthetic clinical setting. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. The Use of the Johnson-Neyman Confidence Bands and Multiple Regression Models To Investigate Interaction Effects: Important Tools for Educational Researchers and Program Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, John W.; Newman, Isadore

    When investigating the impact of predictor variables on an outcome variable or measuring the effectiveness of an educational program, educational researchers and program evaluators cannot ignore the possible influences of interaction effects. The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure that educational researchers can follow in order to…

  16. Arteriovenous access banding revisited.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Gabriela; Almeida, Paulo; Sousa, Clemente N; Teles, Paulo; De Sousa, Paulo; Loureiro, Luís; Teixeira, Sérgio; Rego, Duarte; Almeida, Rui; Norton de Matos, António

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study is to validate the current applicability of arteriovenous access banding in high flow access (HFA) and/or haemodialysis access-induced distal ischaemia (HAIDI). This retrospective study was conducted at the GEV (Grupo de Estudos Vasculares) vascular access centre. The clinical records of consecutive patients undergoing banding for HAIDI and HFA symptoms, between June 2011 and January 2015, were reviewed until April 2015. All vascular access patients' consultation records and surgical notes were reviewed. We analysed and compared patients' age, gender, comorbidities, symptoms and intraoperative ultrasound control. We defined technical failure as recurrence of symptoms, requiring new banding. Excessive banding, access thrombosis, rupture and false aneurysm development were registered as complications. Primary clinical success was defined as improvement of symptoms or effective flow reduction after banding, with no need for reintervention. If one reintervention was necessary, we have defined it as secondary clinical success. Overall, 119 patients underwent banding: 64 (54%) with HAIDI and 55 (46%) with HFA. The HAIDI group was significantly older (65 ± 13 years compared with 56 ± 22 years, p = 0.001) and had significantly greater number of patients with diabetes (56% vs 24%, p = 0.004). Primary success was achieved in 85 patients (71.4%) and the secondary success rate was 84.9%. Older age (p = 0.016) and intraoperative ultrasound control (p = 0.012) were significantly associated with primary success. Our results do not corroborate the high incidence of thrombosis previously reported as associated with AV access banding and suggest that ultrasound control is crucial for preventing technical failure. The procedure was effective on both compared groups.

  17. S-Band propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  18. Jupiter's Bands of Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-22

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's bands of light and dark clouds was created by citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. Three of the white oval storms known as the "String of Pearls" are visible near the top of the image. Each of the alternating light and dark atmospheric bands in this image is wider than Earth, and each rages around Jupiter at hundreds of miles (kilometers) per hour. The lighter areas are regions where gas is rising, and the darker bands are regions where gas is sinking. Juno acquired the image on May 19, 2017, at 11:30 a.m. PST (2:30 p.m. EST) from an altitude of about 20,800 miles (33,400 kilometers) above Jupiter's cloud tops. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21393

  19. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  20. Synthesizing folded band chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Hayes, Scott T.; Pethel, Shawn D.; Blakely, Jonathan N.

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics.

  1. Hyperspectral band selection using statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Jochen; Groß, Wolfgang; Middelmann, Wolfgang; Ebert, Alfons

    2011-06-01

    Hyperspectral sensors are delivering a data cube consisting of hundreds of images gathered in adjacent frequency bands. Processing such data requires solutions to handle the computational complexity and the information redundancy. In principle, there are two different approaches deployable. Data compression merges this imagery to some few images. Hereby only the essential information is preserved. Small variations are treated as disturbances and hence removed. Band selection eliminates superfluous bands, leaving the others unmodified. Thus even minor deviations are preserved. In our paper, we present a novel band selection method especially developed for surveillance purposes. Hereby, the capability to detect even small variations poses an essential requirement, only fulfilled by the second approach. The computational complexity and the performance of such an algorithm depend on the available information. If complete knowledge about the targets and the background is available, contrast maximization establishes a perfect band selection. Without any knowledge the selection has to be performed by exploiting the band attributes often resulting in a poor choice. In order to avoid this, the developed algorithm incorporates the accessible information from the monitoring scene. In particular, features (e.g. anomalies) based on proximity relations are extracted in each band. Subsequently, an assessment of their suitability is accomplished by means of the value margins and the associated distributions. The final selection is then based on the inspection of the variations caused by the illumination and other external effects. We demonstrate and evaluate the appropriateness of this new method with a practical example.

  2. Antibacterial nanosilver coated orthodontic bands with potential implications in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Rahul Damodaran; Kandasamy, Rajasigamani; Sivaraman, U. Sajeev; Nandkumar, Maya A.; Nair, Prabha D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Fixed orthodontic treatment, an indispensable procedure in orthodontics, necessitates insertion of dental bands. Insertion of band material could also introduce a site of plaque retention. It was hypothesized that band materials with slow-release antimicrobial properties could help in sustained infection control, prevention of dental plaque formation and further associated health risks. Considering the known antimicrobial proprieties of silver, a coating of silver nanoparticle (SNP) onto the stainless steel bands was done and characterized for its beneficial properties in the prevention of plaque accumulation. Methods: Coatings of SNPs on conventional stainless steel dental bands were prepared using thermal evaporation technology. The coated dental bands were characterized for their physicochemical properties and evaluated for antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. The physiochemical characterization of band material both coated and uncoated was carried out using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopyand contact angle test. Biocompatibility tests for coated band material were carried using L929 mouse fibroblast cell culture and MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Antimicrobial activity of coated band material against Gram-positive bacteria was tested. Results: A stable and uniform coating of SNPs was obtained. The coated band materials were biocompatible as well as possessed distinct antimicrobial activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The SNP coated dental bands could be potential antimicrobial dental bands for future clinical use. Further studies need to be done to validate the efficiency of coated band materials in oral environments. PMID:28256467

  3. Banded Sunflower Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  4. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  5. Multi-Band-SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  6. Ka Band Channelized Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Communications allocations reside in this band of the spectrum. This report defines a first-order system analysis of constructing an analog radio ......art in digital signal processing hardware and software algorithms. RF commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts are selected in order to develop a system

  7. Accuracy of band dendrometers

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the reliability of first-year growth measurements obtained from aluminum band dendrometers showed that growth was underestimated for black cherry trees growing less than 0.5 inch in diameter or accumulating less than 0.080 square foot of basal area. Prediction equations to correct for these errors are given.

  8. Multi-Band-SWIFT.

    PubMed

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  9. Extensive performance evaluations of RF MEMS single-pole-multi-throw (SP3T to SP14T) switches up to X-band frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.; Poddar, Ajay K.; Rohde, Ulrich L.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents wide range of compact and reliable single-pole-multi-throw (SPMT) radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches where the M (output) varies from 3 to 14 throws. The single dc-contact switch dimensions are 0.144 mm  ×  0.29 mm which are fabricated on 635 µm alumina substrate using a surface micromachining process. SPMT switching networks demonstrate a measured return loss of more than 14 dB, a worst case insertion loss of ~1.76 dB and isolation of ~14.5 dB up to 12 GHz. The maximum area of the fabricated SPMT switch is ~1.2 mm2. The SPMT switches are capable of handling 1 W of RF power up to  >1 billion cycles at 25 °C, and sustained even up to  >80 million cycles with 0.5 W at 85 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported wide range of MEMS SPMT switches and their respective performance evaluations in the literature that has undergone extensive measurement stages.

  10. Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

    1996-10-01

    Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

  11. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calbiration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate.

  12. TDRS Ku band gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Cynthia; Lecha, Javier; Principe, Caleb M.; Ross, Douglas

    The Wideband Transport Frame Formatter (WTFF) is the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) ku-band return link gateway. The WTFF system is a multiplexing device developed to process and downlink the high rate data generated by a wide variety of users. The WTFF is designed to frame and format high data rate user channels into transport frames and multiplex according to a predefined schedule into two bit streams that are compatible with TDRS Ku I and Q band service. The combined data rate will be 300 Mbps. The WTFF will service up to eight input channels generating data in the range of 10 to 150 Mbps. In addition to these input channels, audio data will be accepted by the WTFF system and inserted in the downlink. A second function of the WTFF is to provide telecommunication coding as assigned to each virtual channel to ensure a given quality of service.

  13. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  14. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  15. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  16. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  17. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  18. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  19. Band crossing in a shears band of {sup 108}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Santosh; Datta, Pradip; Pal, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Madhavan, N.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana

    2010-05-15

    The level lifetimes have been measured for a shears band of {sup 108}Cd that exhibits band crossing. The observed level energies and B(M1) rates have been successfully described by a semiclassical geometric model based on shear mechanism. In this geometric model, the band crossing in the shears band has been described as the reopening of the angle between the blades of a shear.

  20. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Computer modelled atmospheric transmittance and path radiance values were compared with empirical values derived from aircraft underflight data. Aircraft thermal infrared imagery and calibration data were available on two dates as were corresponding atmospheric radiosonde data. The radiosonde data were used as input to the LOWTRAN 5A code. The aircraft data were calibrated and utilized to generate analogous measurements. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a tendancy for the LOWTRAN model to underestimate atmospheric path radiance and overestimate atmospheric transmittance.

  1. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Multiple altitude TM thermal infrared images were analyzed and the observed radiance values were computed. The data obtained represent an experimental relation between preceived radiance and altitude. A LOWTRAB approach was tested which incorporates a modification to the path radiance model. This modification assumes that the scattering out of the optical path is equal in magnitude and direction to the scattering into the path. The radiance observed at altitude by an aircraft sensor was used as input to the model. Expected radiance as a function of altitude was then computed down to the ground. The results were not very satisfactory because of somewhat large errors in temperature and because of the difference in the shape of the modeled and experimental curves.

  2. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  3. Dead Band Controls Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    n o m i z e r c on t ro l , damper repair may re quire c onsideration. 2. No tubin g costs are included in the above estima tes . Typically 150 to...guidelines include techniques for estimating construction and maintenance cost , and performing economic analysis for each system . N \\ 0~c...43 Cost Estimate 43 Payback Anal ysis 43 PART I V A P P E N D I C E S A EXAMPLE - COST ESTIMATE OF DEAD BAND RETROFIT 52 B E X A M P L E - P A Y B A

  4. Gravitational Analysis of the In-Band Wormhole Phenomenon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    1 GRAVITATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE IN-BAND WORMHOLE PHENOMENON Richard Gopaul1, Peter Kruus2, Dan Sterne2, Brian Rivera1 1U.S. Army Research...Laboratory Adelphi, MD, 20783 USA 2SPARTA, Inc. Columbia, MD, 21046 USA ABSTRACT In-band wormhole attacks undermine routing by attracting...technique, first presented in [KSG06], for evaluating the effects of in-band wormhole attacks on OLSR routing. The gravitational analysis technique

  5. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  6. Calcific band keratopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Pucket, Jonathan D; Boileau, Melanie J; Sula, Mee Ja M

    2014-07-01

    A 4-year-old female Suri alpaca was presented for evaluation of acute onset weakness, lethargy, and recent development of opacities in both eyes. On ophthalmic examination, bilaterally symmetrical corneal opacities were noted along the interpalpebral fissures with a few corneal blood vessels intermingled. A presumed diagnosis of calcific band keratopathy was made based on location and appearance. The patient was euthanized a short while after diagnosis due to reasons unrelated to the eyes and histologic examination of the corneas revealed subepithelial calcium and vascularization, consistent with calcific band keratopathy. This case report is the first to document this ocular condition in an alpaca.

  7. The Oxygen a Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun; Hodges, Joseph; Long, David A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Okumura, Mitchio; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Rupasinghe, Priyanka

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen A band is used for numerous atmospheric experiments, but spectral line parameters that sufficiently describe the spectrum to the level required by OCO2 and other high precision/accuracy experiments are lacking. Fourier transform spectra from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and cavity ring down spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were fitted simultaneously using the William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique into a single solution including the entire band. In addition, photoacoustic spectra already available from the California Institute of Technology will be added to the solution. The three types of spectrometers are complementary allowing the strengths of each to fill in the weaknesses of the others. With this technique line positions, intensities, widths, shifts, line mixing, Dicke narrowing, temperature dependences and collision induced absorption have been obtained in a single physically consistent fit. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at The College of William and Mary, the, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology was provided by the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program and a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) award.

  8. The demodulated band transform

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Christopher K.; Gander, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Windowed Fourier decompositions (WFD) are widely used in measuring stationary and non-stationary spectral phenomena and in describing pairwise relationships among multiple signals. Although a variety of WFDs see frequent application in electrophysiological research, including the short-time Fourier transform, continuous wavelets, band-pass filtering and multitaper-based approaches, each carries certain drawbacks related to computational efficiency and spectral leakage. This work surveys the advantages of a WFD not previously applied in electrophysiological settings. New Methods A computationally efficient form of complex demodulation, the demodulated band transform (DBT), is described. Results DBT is shown to provide an efficient approach to spectral estimation with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. In addition, it lends itself well to adaptive filtering of non-stationary narrowband noise. Comparison with existing methods A detailed comparison with alternative WFDs is offered, with an emphasis on the relationship between DBT and Thomson's multitaper. DBT is shown to perform favorably in combining computational efficiency with minimal introduction of spectral leakage. Conclusion DBT is ideally suited to efficient estimation of both stationary and non-stationary spectral and cross-spectral statistics with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. These qualities are broadly desirable in many settings. PMID:26711370

  9. The meaning of DAPI bands observed after C-banding and FISH procedures.

    PubMed

    Barros e Silva, A E; Guerra, M

    2010-04-01

    Under specific technical conditions chromosome staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) permits characterization of heterochromatic regions as AT-rich (DAPI(+)) or AT-poor (DAPI(-)), especially when the chromosomes are counterstained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA), which preferentially binds to GC-rich DNA. DAPI(+) bands also often have been observed after C-banding or FISH. In these cases, however, it is not clear whether only AT-rich regions stain positively with DAPI or other heterochromatins with different base compositions also are stained. We evaluated the meaning of DAPI bands observed after C-banding and FISH using three plant species bearing different types of heterochromatin: DAPI(+)/CMA(-), DAP(-)/CMA(+) and DAPI(0)/CMA(0) (neutral bands). Additional tests were performed using propidium iodide, a fluorochrome without preferential affinity for AT or GC. Our results indicate that AT-rich heterochromatin stains as DAPI(+) bands after C-banding or FISH, but other kinds of heterochromatin also may be stained by DAPI.

  10. MODIS correction algorithm for out-of-band response in the short-wave IR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Adimi, Farida; Li, Weiwei; Yatagai, Hiroshi; Barnes, William L.

    2004-02-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 micrometers. The 36 spectral bands, with a total of 490 detectors, are distributed on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs): visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR), short- mid-wave infrared (SMIR), and long wave infrared (LWIR). Nearly identical copies of the MODIS are currently operating onboard the NASA EOS Terra (launched on December 18,1999) and Aqua spacecraft (launched on May 4, 2002). Prelaunch and on-orbit characterizations of both Terra and Aqua MODIS have shown small but non-negligible out-of-band (OOB) response in the sensor's short-wave infrared bands (SWIR): bands 5-7, and band 26. To minimize the impact due to OOB response on the MODIS SWIR bands calibration and the Earth scene product retrieval, an algorithm has been developed and implemented in the Level 1B (L1B) software for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. In this paper, we describe the algorithm and its applications to the MODIS L1B calibration algorithms. We illustrate how the correction coefficients are derived from on-orbit observations and discuss the test procedures involved before the final implementation in the L1B code. Performance is evaluated for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and the two results are compared.

  11. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  12. Musical Collaboration outside School: Processes of Negotiation in Band Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miell, Dorothy; Littleton, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a series of band rehearsals run by five young people as they practised for a gig together: preparing new songs as well as developing their existing sets. The analysis specifically explores the ways in which the band members collectively develop and evaluate their musical "works in progress." Their interactions were…

  13. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  14. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  16. ``Superdeformed'' Bands in ^80Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, M.; Lafosse, D. R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D. G.; Baktash, C.; Jin, H.-Q.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Birriel, I.; Saladin, J. X.; Winchell, D. F.; Wood, V. Q.; Sylvan, G. N.; Tabor, S. L.

    1996-05-01

    We report the observation of four high-spin collective bands in ^80Sr, populated by the reaction ^58Ni(^28Si,α 2p) at 130 MeV. The data were taken with the GAMMASPHERE and MICROBALL detector arrays, the latter of which was used to select charged-particle exit channels. The characteristics of these bands will be discussed, including deduced spin assignments, measured lifetimes and Qt values. These bands are less deformed than SD bands in other Sr isotopes( D.R. LaFosse, et al., Phys. Lett. B 354) (1995) 34; C. Baktash, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 1946; F. Cristancho, et al., Phys. Lett. B 357 (1995) 281; A.G. Smith, et al., Phys. Lett. B 355 (1995) 32., and a comparison of the deformations of known SD bands in Sr isotopes will be presented. The configurations of these bands will be discussed.

  17. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of the shuttle orbiter S-band network communication system, the S-band payload communication system, and the Ku-band communication system are considered. A method is proposed for obtaining more accurate S-band antenna patterns of the actual shuttle orbiter vehicle during flight because the preliminary antenna patterns using mock-ups are not realistic that they do not include the effects of additional appendages such as wings and tail structures. The Ku-band communication system is discussed especially the TDRS antenna pointing accuracy with respect to the orbiter and the modifications required and resulting performance characteristics of the convolutionally encoded high data rate return link to maintain bit synchronizer lock on the ground. The TDRS user constraints on data bit clock jitter and data asymmetry on unbalanced QPSK with noisy phase references are included. The S-band payload communication system study is outlined including the advantages and experimental results of a peak regulator design built and evaluated by Axiomatrix for the bent-pipe link versus the existing RMS-type regulator. The nominal sweep rate for the deep-space transponder of 250 Hz/s, and effects of phase noise on the performance of a communication system are analyzed.

  18. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1980-05-01

    Various aspects of the shuttle orbiter S-band network communication system, the S-band payload communication system, and the Ku-band communication system are considered. A method is proposed for obtaining more accurate S-band antenna patterns of the actual shuttle orbiter vehicle during flight because the preliminary antenna patterns using mock-ups are not realistic that they do not include the effects of additional appendages such as wings and tail structures. The Ku-band communication system is discussed especially the TDRS antenna pointing accuracy with respect to the orbiter and the modifications required and resulting performance characteristics of the convolutionally encoded high data rate return link to maintain bit synchronizer lock on the ground. The TDRS user constraints on data bit clock jitter and data asymmetry on unbalanced QPSK with noisy phase references are included. The S-band payload communication system study is outlined including the advantages and experimental results of a peak regulator design built and evaluated by Axiomatrix for the bent-pipe link versus the existing RMS-type regulator. The nominal sweep rate for the deep-space transponder of 250 Hz/s, and effects of phase noise on the performance of a communication system are analyzed.

  19. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  20. The demodulated band transform.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Christopher K; Gander, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Windowed Fourier decompositions (WFD) are widely used in measuring stationary and non-stationary spectral phenomena and in describing pairwise relationships among multiple signals. Although a variety of WFDs see frequent application in electrophysiological research, including the short-time Fourier transform, continuous wavelets, bandpass filtering and multitaper-based approaches, each carries certain drawbacks related to computational efficiency and spectral leakage. This work surveys the advantages of a WFD not previously applied in electrophysiological settings. A computationally efficient form of complex demodulation, the demodulated band transform (DBT), is described. DBT is shown to provide an efficient approach to spectral estimation with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. In addition, it lends itself well to adaptive filtering of non-stationary narrowband noise. A detailed comparison with alternative WFDs is offered, with an emphasis on the relationship between DBT and Thomson's multitaper. DBT is shown to perform favorably in combining computational efficiency with minimal introduction of spectral leakage. DBT is ideally suited to efficient estimation of both stationary and non-stationary spectral and cross-spectral statistics with minimal susceptibility to spectral leakage. These qualities are broadly desirable in many settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photonic band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1993-05-01

    We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces {open_quotes}donor{close_quotes} modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces {open_quotes}acceptor{close_quotes} modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume {approx_lt}1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths.

  2. To Beat the Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed in the north polar region of Mars. The north polar cap is underlain by a thick sequence of layered material. The layers are most commonly exposed on the slopes of troughs that are believed to have formed by wind erosion. The layers give a banded appearance. In this example, some of the layers are cut off (truncated) by other layers. This truncation is a classic, textbook example of an erosional unconformity, a term commonly used by geologists. The unconformity occurs when deposition of new layered material stops for a while, and erosion occurs. Then, new layers form on top of the eroded surface and the older layers, at some point in time when the erosion stops and deposition of layered material resumes.

    Location near: 78.6oN, 342.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower right Season: Northern Spring

  3. Intersecting kink bands quantified by laser scanning and differential geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, R. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Microtopography derived from laser scanning is expressed by DEMs that can be analyzed using differential geometry. We apply this technique to rock hand samples containing intersecting kink bands in order to quantitatively describe the shape of a folded surface and understand the localization of strain in deformed rocks. This study is the first to apply laser scanning and geometric curvature analysis to intersecting kink bands in order to better describe the variation of kink band geometries and intersections in plan view and to evaluate relationships between different kink band parameters. A complex set of monoclinal contractional kink bands is well exposed in outcrops of the Darrington Phyllite on Samish Island, northwestern Washington, which provide a three-dimensional view of kink band geometries. Kink bands in cross section have straight, parallel boundaries that deform a well-defined foliation; in plan view, however, kink band hinges curve and anastomose across the foliation surface, and adjacent bands commonly intersect. Three types of intersections are common: crossing (X), bifurcating (Y), and obliquely truncating (λ); many kink bands also taper out along strike. Geometric curvature analyses were performed on millimeter-resolution DEMs of hand samples containing intersecting kink bands. Maps of different curvature parameters (e.g. mean curvature, geologic curvature) clearly outline kink bands in the samples and illuminate the behavior of kink band hinges in each type of intersection. In X-type intersections, curvature increases where two hinges of similar kink sense cross (i.e. anticlinal/anticlinal hinges), increasing strain; where two hinges of opposing sense cross (anticlinal/synclinal), curvature decreases and the surface is effectively unfolded. In Y-type intersections, a single parent band widens and splits into two equally narrow daughter bands, and new inner hinges are nucleated below the bifurcation point. The two daughter bands accommodate

  4. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  5. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  6. Assessments of SENTINEL-2 Vegetation Red-Edge Spectral Bands for Improving Land Cover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; He, B.; Yin, C.; Liao, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) onboard Sentinel-2 can record the information in Vegetation Red-Edge (VRE) spectral domains. In this study, the performance of the VRE bands on improving land cover classification was evaluated based on a Sentinel-2A MSI image in East Texas, USA. Two classification scenarios were designed by excluding and including the VRE bands. A Random Forest (RF) classifier was used to generate land cover maps and evaluate the contributions of different spectral bands. The combination of VRE bands increased the overall classification accuracy by 1.40 %, which was statistically significant. Both confusion matrices and land cover maps indicated that the most beneficial increase was from vegetation-related land cover types, especially agriculture. Comparison of the relative importance of each band showed that the most beneficial VRE bands were Band 5 and Band 6. These results demonstrated the value of VRE bands for land cover classification.

  7. Neck-band retention for Canada geese in the Mississippi (USA) flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Weiss, N.T.; Rusch, D.H.; Craven, S.R.; Trost, R.E.; Caswell, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    We used capture, harvest, and observation histories of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in the Mississippi flyway, 1974-88, to examine the problem of neck-band retention. Methods for the analysis of survival data were used to estimate rates of neck-band retention and to evaluate factors associated with neck-band loss. Sex, age of bird at banding, rivet use, and neck-band type significantly influenced neck-band retention. For most of the resulting cohorts (e.g., sex, age, rivet, and neck-band type categories), neck-band retention rates decreased through time. We caution against using small samples or data collected during short-term studies to determine retention rates. We suggest that observation data be used in neck-band retention studies to increase the efficiency of estimating retention time.

  8. Structurally Integrated X-Band Array Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    work in progress towards the development of a very large structural x-band electronically scanned array (ESA). A building block approach that...significant structural testing from coupon through large scale structural validation have been complete and is reported. The active array testing will...mechanical performance, so trades could be used to develop the most promising configuration. This involved evaluating coupons to understand the

  9. Broad-band UHF dipole array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A 6X6 array of fan-dipoles was designed to operate in the 510 to 660 MHz frequency range for aircraft flight test and evaluation of a UHF radiometer system. A broad-band dipole design operating near the first resonance is detailed. Measured VSWR and radiation patterns for the dipole array demonstrate achievable bandwidths in the 35 percent to 40 percent range.

  10. Shuttle orbiter C-band beacon antenna location study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    A recommendation for the location of the Space Shuttle C-Band Beacon Antenna(s) to be used during Approach and Landing Tests was made. The study has included an Orbiter-to-ground radar look angle evaluation, a vehicle shadowing evaluation and extensive 1/10-scale antenna pattern measurements. Locations were limited to the cutouts for the S-Band Quads and Hemis to minimize skin perturbation. The results show that a single C-Band Antenna located in the lower Hemi cutout will provide optimum coverage and eliminate the need for switching and the undesirable interferometer effects of two antennas.

  11. Band of Rubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation illustrates a massive asteroid belt in orbit around a star the same age and size as our Sun. Evidence for this possible belt was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope when it spotted warm dust around the star, presumably from asteroids smashing together.

    The view starts from outside the belt, where planets like the one shown here might possibly reside, then moves into to the dusty belt itself. A collision between two asteroids is depicted near the end of the movie. Collisions like this replenish the dust in the asteroid belt, making it detectable to Spitzer.

    The alien belt circles a faint, nearby star called HD 69830 located 41 light-years away in the constellation Puppis. Compared to our own solar system's asteroid belt, this one is larger and closer to its star - it is 25 times as massive, and lies just inside an orbit equivalent to that of Venus. Our asteroid belt circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    Because Jupiter acts as an outer wall to our asteroid belt, shepherding its debris into a series of bands, it is possible that an unseen planet is likewise marshalling this belt's rubble. Previous observations using the radial velocity technique did not locate any large gas giant planets, indicating that any planets present in this system would have to be the size of Saturn or smaller.

    Asteroids are chunks of rock from 'failed' planets, which never managed to coalesce into full-sized planets. Asteroid belts can be thought of as construction sites that accompany the building of rocky planets.

  12. Band of Rubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation illustrates a massive asteroid belt in orbit around a star the same age and size as our Sun. Evidence for this possible belt was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope when it spotted warm dust around the star, presumably from asteroids smashing together.

    The view starts from outside the belt, where planets like the one shown here might possibly reside, then moves into to the dusty belt itself. A collision between two asteroids is depicted near the end of the movie. Collisions like this replenish the dust in the asteroid belt, making it detectable to Spitzer.

    The alien belt circles a faint, nearby star called HD 69830 located 41 light-years away in the constellation Puppis. Compared to our own solar system's asteroid belt, this one is larger and closer to its star - it is 25 times as massive, and lies just inside an orbit equivalent to that of Venus. Our asteroid belt circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    Because Jupiter acts as an outer wall to our asteroid belt, shepherding its debris into a series of bands, it is possible that an unseen planet is likewise marshalling this belt's rubble. Previous observations using the radial velocity technique did not locate any large gas giant planets, indicating that any planets present in this system would have to be the size of Saturn or smaller.

    Asteroids are chunks of rock from 'failed' planets, which never managed to coalesce into full-sized planets. Asteroid belts can be thought of as construction sites that accompany the building of rocky planets.

  13. Improved Band-to-Band Registration Characterization for VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Based on Lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrumentaboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite are spatially co-registered.The accuracy of the band-to-band registration (BBR) is one of the key spatial parameters that must becharacterized. Unlike its predecessor, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), VIIRS has no on-board calibrator specifically designed to perform on-orbit BBR characterization.To circumvent this problem, a BBR characterization method for VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) based on regularly-acquired lunar images has been developed. While its results can satisfactorily demonstrate that the long-term stability of the BBR is well within +/- 0.1 moderate resolution bandpixels, undesired seasonal oscillations have been observed in the trending. The oscillations are most obvious between the visiblenear-infrared bands and short-middle wave infrared bands. This paper investigates the oscillations and identifies their cause as the band spectral dependence of the centroid position and the seasonal rotation of the lunar images over calibration events. Accordingly, an improved algorithm is proposed to quantify the rotation and compensate for its impact. After the correction, the seasonal oscillation in the resulting BBR is reduced from up to 0.05 moderate resolution band pixels to around 0.01 moderate resolution band pixels. After removing this spurious seasonal oscillation, the BBR, as well as its long-term drift are well determined.

  14. The Moral Ends of Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical framework through which to reimagine and revitalize contemporary music education practices, using the large ensemble paradigm called "band" as the primary unit of analysis. Literature suggests that band places too much emphasis on teacher control and external measures of validation. Critics propose replacing…

  15. Orbiter KU-band transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halterman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The design, build, and test of an engineering breadboard Ku band quadraphase shift keyed and wideband frequency modulated transmitter are described. This orbiter Ku band transmitter drawer is to simulate the orbiter transmitter and meet the functional requirements of the orbiter communication link.

  16. Creativity and the Marching Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stephen G.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the difference between average marching band performance and the truly memorable performances is a result of creative charting. Discusses four stages of creative thought that can be applied to marching band strategy: (1) preparation; (2) incubation; (3) illumination; and (4) verification. (CFR)

  17. The Moral Ends of Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical framework through which to reimagine and revitalize contemporary music education practices, using the large ensemble paradigm called "band" as the primary unit of analysis. Literature suggests that band places too much emphasis on teacher control and external measures of validation. Critics propose replacing…

  18. Curriculum Guide for Advanced Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazar, W. Gayre

    The advanced band of the Vermilion Parish School System is a selective organization comprised of school instrumental students who have successfully completed all phases of the beginning and intermediate band programs. It functions largely as a performing group for varied school and community activities. This guide describes the advanced band…

  19. Report from the banding lab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Tautin reported on the seemingly everchanging structure of biological science units within the Interior Department. Current Congressional proposals would either change the name of the Bird Banding Lab's parent agency or make it part of the Geological Survey. The current Congress has not looked favorably on science budgets within the Interior Department, and the Banding Lab's budget is being squeezed ever tighter.

  20. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  1. Quantification of Myofascial Taut Bands

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Hua-jun; Gay, Ralph E.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Manduca, Armando; An, Kai-Nan; Ehman, Richard E.; Basford, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlation of clinician identified myofascial taut bands with their presence and characteristics on Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) imaging. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting An MRI research laboratory. Participants A convenience sample of 65 adults (45 women, 20 men) identified by skilled musculoskeletal physicians as having upper trapezius myofascial pain associated taut bands. Interventions Subjects had their taut bands outlined and were positioned within a 1.5T MRI machine. Shear waves were induced with a pneumatic transducer located over the belly of the involved muscle. Wave propagation was visualized with MRE images across a vibration-cycle. Imaging data was assessed independently by two skilled MRE interpreters. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure was the determination of the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of MRE taut band identification and their correlation with clinician identification of band presence. Secondary outcomes consisted of the elucidation of the physical characteristics of taut bands and their surrounding muscle tissue. Results MRE intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent with Kappa's and 95% Confidence intervals (CI) of 0.86, [0.68, 1.00]; and 0.93, [0.79, 1.00], respectively. Stiffness in MRE identified taut bands was elevated at a mean of 11.5 KPa (±2.4 KPa) and fell to a mean of 5.8 KPa (± 0.9 KPa) in surrounding muscle tissue (p<0.001); muscular tone in trapezius muscles without a taut band was relatively uniform at a mean of 6.6 KPa (±2.1 KPa). Agreement between the physicians and the MRE raters, however, was relatively poor (63.1%, 95% CI [50.2%, 74.7%]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that while clinicians may overestimate, and current MRE techniques may underestimate, the presence of taut bands, that these bands exist, can be assessed quantitatively, and do represent localized areas of increased muscle stiffness. PMID:26461163

  2. Utilite des images de radar aeroporte en bande C pour l'evaluation du stade de croissance de la canne a sucre et des cultures maraicheres en milieu tropical, dans une optique de conservation des sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Nathalie Lucie

    1998-12-01

    This study aims at determining how images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System, in C-band and with two polarisation configurations, can help evaluate the degree of protection offered to soils by vegetation against erosion in tropical areas. With the objective of supplying information to improve the planning of images from the RADARSAT satellite for soil conservation projects, the study aims at establishing which incident angles and which climatic conditions improve contrasts between bare and protected soils. The study encompasses three sites in Costa Rica. Two of them are located in the central cordillera, in mountainous terrain: the Tierra Blanca site where root crops dominate, and the Juan Vinas site where sugar cane is cultivated. The images have been prepared to allow the quantitative analysis of radar backscattering. The first stage of the analysis compares the discriminating capacities of images acquired on each site with different incident angles and polarisations. In general, the backscattering coefficient of crops has shown a lower tendency to diminish in function of local incident angle than that of bare soil. Results suggest that for sugar cane in relatively dry conditions, it is possible to distinguish plots of bare soil from vegetated ones on the basis of their average backscattering coefficient, except for very high incident angles (higher than 73°). The second part of the analysis treats of the complementarity of the HH and VV polarisations and of images acquired with different incident angles. From the results of this study, we can draw recommendations for the acquisition of RADARSAT images even if the images studied here present a higher spatial resolution and higher incident angles, in many cases. Higher incident angles are recommended because they enhance contrasts between bare soil plots and vegetated ones. The very high incident angles at which we observed the opposite effect are not attainable with satellite radars. Relief causes

  3. Return rates of banded granivores in relation to band color and number of bands worn

    Treesearch

    Jared Verner; Dawn Breese; Kathryn L. Purcell

    1998-01-01

    We tested the null hypotheses of (1) no effect of band color and (2) no effect of number of bands worn on annual recapture rates of birds on their winter range. Results are reported from four species of granivores-Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus), Goldencrowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) , White-crowned Sparrow (2. leucophrys) , and Darkeyed Junco (Junco...

  4. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  5. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  6. Modeling of Band-to-Band Tunneling Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Bergner; Roland, Kircher

    1990-12-01

    Measurements and simulations are presented, which allow a better understanding of leakage mechanisms in reverse biased gated diodes. The model for the device simulation describes two mechanisms. In the high field regime the leakage current is identified as direct band-to-band tunneling. In the low field regime it is described as surface-state enhanced tunneling, which combines thermal activation of an electron to a surface-state with tunneling.

  7. Coffee ring deposition in bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandre, Shreyas; Wu, Ning; Aizenberg, Joanna; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic particles suspended in a liquid are transported and deposited at a contact line, as the contact line recedes due to evaporation. A particle layer of uniform thickness is deposited if the particle concentration is above a threshold; below this threshold the deposit forms periodic bands oriented parallel to the contact line. We present a model for the formation of these bands based on evaporation leading to the breakup of the thin liquid film near the contact line. The threshold results from a competition between evaporation speed and deposition speed. Using this model, we predict the thickness and length of the bands, making the control of patterned deposition possible.

  8. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 86Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    Two parameter expressions for rotational spectra viz. variable moment of inertia (VMI), ab formula and three parameter Harris ω 2 expansion are used to assign the band head spins (I 0) of four rotational superdeformed bands in 86Zr. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the band head spins of these four bands in the A ∼ 80 mass region. Model parameters are extracted by fitting of intraband γ-ray energies, so as to obtain a minimum root-mean-square (rms) deviation between the calculated and the observed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the assigned spins. Whenever an accurate band head spin is assigned, the calculated transition energies are in agreement with the experimental transition energies. The dynamic moment of inertia is also extracted and its variation with rotational frequency is investigated. Since a better agreement of band head spin with experimental results is found using the VMI model, it is a more powerful tool than the ab formula and Harris ω 2 expansion.

  9. Precipitation estimation using L-band and C-band soil moisture retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Brocca, Luca; Crow, Wade T.; Burgin, Mariko S.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2016-09-01

    An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) mission. The precipitation estimates so obtained are evaluated against in situ (gauge-based) precipitation observations from across the globe. The precipitation estimation skill achieved using the L-band SMAP and SMOS data sets is higher than that obtained with the C-band product, as might be expected given that L-band is sensitive to a thicker layer of soil and thereby provides more information on the response of soil moisture to precipitation. The square of the correlation coefficient between the SMAP-based precipitation estimates and the observations (for aggregations to ˜100 km and 5 days) is on average about 0.6 in areas of high rain gauge density. Satellite missions specifically designed to monitor soil moisture thus do provide significant information on precipitation variability, information that could contribute to efforts in global precipitation estimation.

  10. X-Band Photoinjector Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Feng; Adolphsen, Chris; Ding, Yuantao; Li, Zenghai; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC is studying the feasibility of using an X-band RF photocathode gun to produce low emittance bunches for applications such as a mono-energetic MeV {gamma} ray source (in collaboration with LLNL) and a photoinjector for a compact FEL. Beam dynamics studies are being done for a configuration consisting of a 5.5-cell X-band gun followed by several 53-cell high-gradient X-band accelerator structures. A fully 3D program, ImpactT, is used to track particles taking into account space charge forces, short-range longitudinal and transverse wakefields, and the 3D rf fields in the structures, including the quadrupole component of the couplers. The effect of misalignments of the various elements, including the drive-laser, gun, solenoid and accelerator structures, are evaluated. This paper presents these results and estimates of the expected bunch emittance vs cathode gradient, and the effects of mixing between the fundamental and off-frequency longitudinal modes. An X-band gun at SLAC has been shown to operate reliably with a 200 MV/m acceleration gradient at the cathode, which is nearly twice the 115 MV/m acceleration gradient in the LCLS gun. The higher gradient should roughly balance the space charge related transverse emittance growth for the same bunch charge but provide a 3-4 times shorter bunch length. The shorter length would make the subsequent bunch compression easier and allow for a more effective use of emittance exchange. Such a gun can also be used with an X-band linac to produce a compact FEL or g ray source that would require rf sources of only one frequency for beam generation and acceleration. The feasibility of using an X-band rf photocathode gun and accelerator structures to generate high quality electron beams for compact FELs and g ray sources is being studied at SLAC. Results from the X-band photoinjector beam dynamics studies are reported in this paper.

  11. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  12. Effects of Conductor Expressivity on Secondary School Band Members' Performance and Attitudes toward Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Koerner, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of expressive and unexpressive conducting on secondary school band members' and experts' audio evaluations of band performance expressivity. A conductor, who demonstrated either expressive or unexpressive conducting techniques, led both an eighth-grade and a high school band in four separate "run-throughs" of…

  13. Intensity formulas for triplet bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budo, A.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work in this area is surveyed and the mathematics involved in determining the quantitative intensity measurements in triplet bands is presented. Explicit expressions for the intensity distribution in the branches of the 3 Sigma-3 Pi and 1 Sigma-3Pi bands valid for all values of the coupling constant Y of the 3 Pi terms are given. The intensity distribution calculated according to the formulas given is compared with measurements of PH, 3 Pi-3 Sigma. Good quantitative agreement is obtained.

  14. "No One Answer" to Band Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey of problems facing school band programs. Respondents were band and non-band students, their parents, band masters, and retail school music dealers. Among the primary problems were inadequate funding, scheduling conflicts, band members not taking private lessons, and lack of parental encouragement. (AM)

  15. Improved target detection by IR dual-band image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, U.; Ebert, R.

    2009-09-01

    Dual-band thermal imagers acquire information simultaneously in both the 8-12 μm (long-wave infrared, LWIR) and the 3-5 μm (mid-wave infrared, MWIR) spectral range. Compared to single-band thermal imagers they are expected to have several advantages in military applications. These advantages include the opportunity to use the best band for given atmospheric conditions (e. g. cold climate: LWIR, hot and humid climate: MWIR), the potential to better detect camouflaged targets and an improved discrimination between targets and decoys. Most of these advantages have not yet been verified and/or quantified. It is expected that image fusion allows better exploitation of the information content available with dual-band imagers especially with respect to detection of targets. We have developed a method for dual-band image fusion based on the apparent temperature differences in the two bands. This method showed promising results in laboratory tests. In order to evaluate its performance under operational conditions we conducted a field trial in an area with high thermal clutter. In such areas, targets are hardly to detect in single-band images because they vanish in the clutter structure. The image data collected in this field trial was used for a perception experiment. This perception experiment showed an enhanced target detection range and reduced false alarm rate for the fused images compared to the single-band images.

  16. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  17. Evaluation of the band alignment and valence plasmonic features of a DIBS grown Ga-doped Mg0.05Zn0.95O/CIGSe heterojunction by photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Vishnu; Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, Mukul; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2015-12-01

    The bandgap alignment of a Ga-doped MgZnO (GMZO)/CIGSe heterojunction exposed to short duration Ar+  ion beam sputtering has been investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The offset values at the valence and conduction band of the GMZO/CIGSe hetrojunction are calculated to be 2.69 and  -0.63 eV, respectively. Moreover, the valence band onsets of GMZO and CIGSe thin films before and after few minutes Ar+ ion sputtering have been investigated. The presented study demonstrates the photoelectron-induced generation of resonant valence bulk and surface plasmonic features of various metal and metal oxide nanoclusters embedded within a GMZO matrix. The presence of such nanoclusters is proven to be beneficial in realizing cost-effective, ultra-thin, and high-performance photovoltaics based on the heterojunction.

  18. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788-805 MHz public safety bands. (a) Base and mobile use. The 763-775 MHz band may be used for base, mobile or fixed (repeater) transmissions. The 793-805 MHz band may be used only for mobile or fixed...

  19. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793-805 MHz public safety bands. (a) Base and mobile use. The 763-775 MHz band may be used for base, mobile or fixed (repeater) transmissions. The 793-805 MHz band may be used only for mobile or fixed...

  20. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788-805 MHz public safety bands. (a) Base and mobile use. The 763-775 MHz band may be used for base, mobile or fixed (repeater) transmissions. The 793-805 MHz band may be used only for mobile or fixed...

  1. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  2. Impurity bands and band tails in accumulation and inversion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, A.; Gold, A.; Serre, J.

    The electronic density of states of silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor systems with charged impurities at the interface is calculated. We used Klauder's best multiple scattering approach and found a transition from an impurity band to a band tail at certain impurity concentration N i = Ñi. We studied the dependence of Ñi and of the binding energy EB (for Ni → 0 on the depletion density and found that Ñi and EB decrease by a factor of ten if the depletion density decreases from 10 12to 10 9 cm -2.

  3. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  4. An automated nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolsbjerg, Esben L.; Groves, Michael N.; Hammer, Bjørk

    2016-09-01

    A robust, efficient, dynamic, and automated nudged elastic band (AutoNEB) algorithm to effectively locate transition states is presented. The strength of the algorithm is its ability to use fewer resources than the nudged elastic band (NEB) method by focusing first on converging a rough path before improving upon the resolution around the transition state. To demonstrate its efficiency, it has been benchmarked using a simple diffusion problem and a dehydrogenation reaction. In both cases, the total number of force evaluations used by the AutoNEB method is significantly less than the NEB method. Furthermore, it is shown that for a fast and robust relaxation to the transition state, a climbing image elastic band method where the full spring force, rather than only the component parallel to the local tangent to the path, is preferred especially for pathways through energy landscapes with multiple local minima. The resulting corner cutting does not affect the accuracy of the transition state as long as this is located with the climbing image method. Finally, a number of pitfalls often encountered while locating the true transition state of a reaction are discussed in terms of systematically exploring the multidimensional energy landscape of a given process.

  5. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Marine study using C-band radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    One of the secondary objectives of the GEOS-2 C-band Systems Project is to study the feasibility of using geodetic satellites to both evaluate shipborne instrumentation and to determine ship positions in broad ocean areas. The purpose of this task is to determine whether shipborne C-band radar tracking, in conjunction with ground based tracking, is sufficiently accurate to provide instrumentation evaluation and ship position estimates. Data from several Apollo tracking ships, in particular the USNS Vanguard, was made available for this effort. A series of tests, using the USNS Vanguard, were carried out in the Port Canaveral and Bahama Acoustic Transponder Array Areas. The major portion of the analyses reported are the result of preliminary investigations using the data from these tests.

  6. Ka-band study: 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Clauss, R. C.; Wilcher, J. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ka-band study team was chartered in late 1987 to bring together all the planning elements for establishing 32 GHz (Ka-band) as the primary downlink frequency for deep-space operation, and to provide a stable baseline from which to pursue that development. This article summarizes the results of that study at its conclusion in mid-1988, and corresponds to material presented to NASA's Office of Space Operations on July 14, 1988. For a variety of reasons, Ka-band is the right next major step in deep-space communications. It offers improved radio metric accuracy through reduced plasma sensitivity and increased bandwidth. Because of these improvements, it offers the opportunity to reduce costs in the flight radio system or in the DSN by allocating part of the overall benefits of Ka-band to this cost reduction. A mission scenario is being planned that can drive at least two and possibly all three of the DSN subnets to provide a Ka-band downlink capability by the turn of the century. The implementation scenario devised by the study team is believed to be feasible within reasonable resource expectations, and capable of providing the needed upgrade as a natural follow-on to the technology development which is already underway.

  7. Correlations in a Band Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentef, Michael; Kunes, Jan; Kampf, Arno P.; Werner, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Using DMFT we find a discontinuous band-to-Mott insulator transition upon an increase in the local Coulomb repulsion in a covalent band insulator [1,2], defined as a band insulator with partially filled local orbitals. The corresponding band gap is a hybridization gap arising from a particular pattern of hopping integrals. Similar characteristics apply to materials such as FeSi, FeSb2 or CoTiSb [3], some of which exhibit temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties reminiscent of Kondo insulators. Both charge and spin gaps in the covalent band insulator shrink with increasing Coulomb repulsion. At moderate interaction strengths the gap renormalization is well described by a renormalization factor analogous to the quasiparticle weight in a Fermi liquid. [4pt] [1] M. Sentef, J. Kunes, P. Werner, and A.P. Kampf, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155116 (2009) [0pt] [2] A.P. Kampf, M. Kollar, J. Kunes, M. Sentef, and D. Vollhardt, arXiv:0910.5126

  8. William Band at Yenching University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2008-04-01

    William Band (1906-1993) has been widely remembered by his American colleagues and students as ``a fine physicist and teacher,'' who taught at Washington State University in Pullman between 1949 and 1971 and authored Introduction to Quantum Statistics (1954) and Introduction to Mathematical Physics (1959). Not many, however, knew much about Band's early career, which was very ``uncommon and eventful.'' Born in England, Band graduated from University of Liverpool in 1927 with an MsSc degree in physics. Instead of pursuing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he chose to teach physics at Yenching University, a prestigious Christian university in Beijing, China. Arriving in 1929, Band established his career at Yenching, where he taught and researched the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, pioneered the study on low-temperature superconductivity in China, founded the country's first graduate program in physics, and chaired the Physics Department for 10 years until he fled from Yenching upon hearing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It took him two years to cross Japanese occupied areas under the escort of the Communist force; he left China in early 1945. This presentation will explore Band's motivation to work in China and his contributions to the Chinese physics research and education.

  9. Band structures in 101Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, S.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Palit, R.; Malik, S. S.; Singh, N.; Garg, U.; Mehta, D.

    2017-06-01

    Excited states in the 101Pd nucleus were investigated through the 75As(31P,2 p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=125 MeV by using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme is considerably extended for medium spin values. New positive-parity band structures in 101Pd have been studied within the framework of the projected shell model and are found to undergo transition from single quasiparticle to high-K three quasiparticle configuration after band crossing, i.e., from principal-axis rotation to tilted-axis rotation. The negative-parity band structures are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking shell model calculations. The observed alignment gain in the lowest excited ν h11 /2 negative-parity band results from successive (νg7 /2) 2 and (πg9 /2) 2 pair alignments. The higher excited negative-parity bands are reproduced for the ν [h11 /2(g7/2/d5 /2) 2] and (πg9 /2) -2⊗ν h11 /2 configurations.

  10. Shuttle Ku-band signal design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Carrier synchronization and data demodulation of Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keyed (UQPSK) Shuttle communications' signals by optimum and suboptimum methods are discussed. The problem of analyzing carrier reconstruction techniques for unbalanced QPSK signal formats is addressed. An evaluation of the demodulation approach of the Ku-Band Shuttle return link for UQPSK when the I-Q channel power ratio is large is carried out. The effects that Shuttle rocket motor plumes have on the RF communications are determined also. The effect of data asymmetry on bit error probability is discussed.

  11. New Band Systems of the YBr Molecule

    PubMed

    Gopal

    1997-11-01

    The thermal emission spectrum of the YBr molecule has been photographed in the region 4130-4750 A at a temperature about 2300degreesC using Saha's vacuum furnace at a dispersion of 3.5 A/mm on the C. Z. Ebert plane grating spectrograph. A total of 123 red-degraded bands have been recorded and assigned to two new systems, namely F-X and G-X, and one previously reported system, viz. E-X. The vibrational constants have been evaluated for these systems. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  12. GEOS-3 C-Band radar investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute accuracy of instrumentation radar systems, refined methods of calibrating these systems, and the techniques employed in processing the associated data. A world-wide network of C-Band instrumentation radars augmented by lasers and other tracking instrumentation systems were used. The NASA WFC AN/FPQ-6 instrumentation radar and the AN/FPS-16 instrumentation radar also located at NASA WFC were the primary instruments used in the accuracy and calibration evaluations. The results achieved at WFC were then disseminated to other Ranges where they were verified, augmented and used as part of routine operations.

  13. Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-03-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.

  14. Direct band gap silicon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Sun, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; Fan, Changzeng; He, Julong

    2014-07-16

    Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in solar cell industry. The great demand of society for new clean energy and the shortcomings of the current silicon solar cells are calling for new materials that can make full use of the solar power. In this paper, six metastable allotropes of silicon with direct or quasidirect band gaps of 0.39-1.25 eV are predicted by ab initio calculations at ambient pressure. Five of them possess band gaps within the optimal range for high converting efficiency from solar energy to electric power and also have better optical properties than the Si-I phase. These Si structures with different band gaps could be applied to multiple p-n junction photovoltaic modules.

  15. Troposcatter at the KU band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Robert K.; Wennemyr, Magnus

    1994-06-01

    Troposcatter data were collected with a wideband measurement system for a period of five months spanning parts of the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1991. The system provided multipath delay measurements with a 2.5 nsec resolution. Measurements of received signal level, Doppler frequency shift and multipath delay spread were obtained on the 161 km troposcatter path from Prospect Hill in Waltham, MA. to Mt. Tug in Lebanon, NH. These observations are the latest in a longer measurement program to characterize the propagation channel for tropospheric scatter communications systems operating at frequencies near 16 GHz (Ku band). Simultaneous observations at 5 GHz (C band) were made during the last month of the observing program to provide calibration and a statistical comparison with earlier observations made using a different Ku band transmission system.

  16. Diffuse bands versus extinction parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Walter; Snow, Theodore P.; Sneden, C.; Krelowski, Jacek

    1994-01-01

    All recent available, high quality measurements of the strong diffuse bands 5780 A and 5797 A have been collected. This includes those measurement derived from the authors's recent observations (February, May, and November 1993, taken with a echelle spectrograph) as well as those from a coude spectrograph and from literature. Equivalent widths of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIB's) at 5780 A and 5797 A have been measured on spectrograms. The measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) on their own spectrograms ranged from 250 to 500. The Johnson UBV data were used to estimate the color excesses of our targets.

  17. Rotational bands in99Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, B.; Monnand, E.; Pinston, J. A.; Münzel, J.; Möller, P.; Krumlinde, J.; Ziegert, W.; Kratz, K.-L.

    1984-02-01

    The β-decay of 59 ms99Rb has been studied at OSTIS. As is confirmed by RPA calculations with Nilsson model wave functions, the lowest energy levels in99Sr are consistent with rotational bands built on the [411 3/2], [413 5/2] and [422 3/2] Nilsson neutron configurations at 0, 423 and 1071 keV, respectively. All three bands have similar values of the inertial parameter ħ2/2θ indicating a nearly rigid rotor.

  18. Initial Japanese experience with the LAP-BAND system.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masayuki; Kitano, Seigo; Kai, Seiichiro; Shiromizu, Akio; Iwashita, Yukio; Endo, Yuichi; Kawano, Yuichiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-02-01

    Laparoscopic bariatric surgery has gradually spread in Japan since it was introduced in 2000. In 2005, we introduced laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with the LAP-BAND system into Japan. Here, we evaluate our intermediate-term results with the LAP-BAND system. Between August 2005 and June 2010, 27 Japanese patients with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) ) underwent LAGB with the LAP-BAND system in our institution. Our patients' average weight was 111 kg and BMI was 41 kg/m(2) . All LAGB procedures were performed through the pars flaccida pathway with band fixation using gastric-to-gastric sutures. The average follow-up period was 48 months. All procedures were completed laparoscopically. One early complication (sudden cardiac arrest due to postoperative bleeding) and three late complications (port trouble, megaesophagus, and band slippage) were experienced, and reoperations were performed in three of the patients. Weight loss and percentage of excess weight loss on average were 26 kg and 53% after 3 years and 22 kg and 53% after 6 years, respectively. In line with this good weight loss, comorbidities, especially those of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were frequently resolved or improved. LAGB with the LAP-BAND system appears to be beneficial in obese Japanese patients. © 2012 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  20. Band importance for sentences and words reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Eric W.; Yoho, Sarah E.; Apoux, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Band-importance functions were created using the “compound” technique [Apoux and Healy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1078–1087 (2012)] that accounts for the multitude of synergistic and redundant interactions that take place among speech bands. Functions were created for standard recordings of the speech perception in noise (SPIN) sentences and the Central Institute for the Deaf (CID) W-22 words using 21 critical-band divisions and steep filtering to eliminate the influence of filter slopes. On a given trial, a band of interest was presented along with four other bands having spectral locations determined randomly on each trial. In corresponding trials, the band of interest was absent and only the four other bands were present. The importance of the band of interest was determined by the difference between paired band-present and band-absent trials. Because the locations of the other bands changed randomly from trial to trial, various interactions occurred between the band of interest and other speech bands which provided a general estimate of band importance. Obtained band-importance functions differed substantially from those currently available for identical speech recordings. In addition to differences in the overall shape of the functions, especially for the W-22 words, a complex microstructure was observed in which the importance of adjacent frequency bands often varied considerably. This microstructure may result in better predictive power of the current functions. PMID:23297918

  1. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  2. Get Your Band up and Marching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The rewards of band membership may be clear, but in tough economic times, with schools, teachers, and students facing new obligations around every corner, it is not always easy to keep a band on track. And so a question arises, one that has relevance both for teachers who want to start a band program from scratch and for veteran band directors…

  3. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  4. Resistive band for turbomachine blade

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Herbert Chidsey; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-08-25

    A turbomachine system includes a rotor that defines a longitudinal axis of the turbomachine system. A first blade is coupled to the rotor, and the first blade has first and second laminated plies. A first band is coupled to the first blade and is configured to resist separation of the first and second laminated plies.

  5. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  6. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David A.; Flood, William S.; Arthur, Allan A.; Voelker, Ferdinand

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  7. ALMA Band 5 Science Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, L.; Biggs, A.; Immer, K.; Laing, R.; Liu, H. B.; Marconi, G.; Mroczkowski, T.; Testi, L.; Yagoubov, P.

    2017-03-01

    ALMA Band 5 (163–211 GHz) was recently commissioned and Science Verification (SV) observations were obtained in the latter half of 2016. A primary scientific focus of this band is the H2O line at 183.3 GHz, which can be observed around 15% of the time when the precipitable water vapour is sufficiently low (< 0.5 mm). Many more lines are covered in Band 5 and can be observed for over 70% of the time on Chajnantor, requiring similar restrictions to those for ALMA Bands 4 and 6. Examples include the H218O line at 203 GHz, some of the bright (3–2) lines of singly and doubly deuterated forms of formaldehyde, the (2–1) lines of HCO+, HCN, HNC, N2H+ and several of their isotopologues. A young star-forming region near the centre of the Milky Way, an evolved star also in our Galaxy, and a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) were observed as part of the SV process and the data are briefly described. The reduced data, along with imaged data products, are now public and demonstrate the power of ALMA for high-resolution studies of H2O and other molecules in a variety of astronomical targets.

  8. Band structure in 113Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of collective bands in 113Sn, populated in the reaction 100Mo(19F,p 5 n ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV, has been studied. A new positive-parity sequence of eight states extending up to 7764.9 keV and spin (39 /2+) has been observed. The band is explained as arising from the coupling of the odd valence neutron in the g7 /2 or the d5 /2 orbital to the deformed 2p-2h proton configuration of the neighboring even-A Sn isotope. Lifetimes of six states up to an excitation energy of 9934.9 keV and spin 47 /2-belonging to a Δ I =2 intruder band have been measured for the first time, including an upper limit for the last state, from Doppler-shift-attenuation data. A moderate average quadrupole deformation β2=0.22 ±0.02 is deduced from these results for the five states up to spin 43 /2- . The transition quadrupole moments decrease with increase in rotational frequency, indicating a reduction of collectivity with spin, a feature common for terminating bands. The behavior of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia as a function of rotational frequency has been studied and total Routhian surface calculations have been performed in an attempt to obtain an insight into the nature of the states near termination.

  9. K-band latching switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-05-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  10. Curriculum Guide for Beginners Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazar, W. Gayre

    This curriculum guide for beginners band is the product of a team of teachers, administrators, and supervisory personnel. The prime objectives in the beginning instrument class is the development of correct playing habits, with emphasis on posture, holding position, embouchure, breathing, tonguing, good tone production and intonation. Subjects…

  11. Airborne X-band SAR tomography for forest volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Fiona; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Mulgrew, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    We evaluate the usefulness of X-band, airborne (helicopter) data for tomography over forestry regions and discuss the use of compressive sensing algorithms to aid X-band airborne tomography. This work examines if there is any information that can be gained from forest volumes when analysing forestry sites using X-band data. To do so, different forest scenarios were simulated and a fast SAR simulator was used to model airborne multipass SAR data, at X-band, with parameters based on Leonardo's PicoSAR instrument. Model simulations considered varying factors that affect the height determination when using tomography. The main parameters that are considered here are: motion errors of the platform, the spacing of the flight paths, the resolution of the SAR images and plant life being present under the canopy (an understory). It was found that residual motion errors from the airborne platform cause the largest error in the tomographic profile.

  12. Identical high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study of high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands in odd- A nuclei indicates the similarity in γ -ray energies and dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} . The extent of the identicality between the rotational bands is evaluated by using the energy factor method. For nuclei pairs exhibiting identical bands, the average relative change in the dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} is also determined. The identical behaviour shown by these bands is attributed to the interplay of nuclear structure parameters: deformation and the pairing correlations. Also, experimental trend of the I(hbar) vs. hbar ω (MeV) plot for these nuclei pairs is shown to be in agreement with Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model calculations.

  13. Gamma-band abnormalities as markers of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Donald C.; Wilson, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autism is a behaviorally diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder with no current biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. Gamma-band abnormalities have been reported in many studies of autism spectrum disorders. Gamma-band activity is associated with perceptual and cognitive functions that are compromised in autism. Some gamma-band deficits have also been seen in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting heritability of these findings. This review covers the published literature on gamma abnormalities in autism, the proposed mechanisms underlying the deficits, and the potential for translation into new treatments. Although the utility of gamma-band metrics as diagnostic biomarkers is currently limited, such changes in autism are also useful as endophenotypes, for evaluating potential neural mechanisms, and for use as surrogate markers of treatment response to interventions. PMID:24712425

  14. Chest Pain Associated with Moderator Band Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Kaszala, Karoly; Osman, Mohammed N.; Lucke, John; Carrillo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man was evaluated for chronic chest pain that had been present for 8 years after placement of a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to treat inducible ventricular tachycardia. Previous coronary angiography had revealed nonobstructive coronary artery disease and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.45 to 0.50, consistent with mild idiopathic nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Evaluation with chest radiography and transthoracic echocardiography showed the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead to be embedded within the right ventricle at the moderator band, which had mild calcification. Treatment included extraction of the dual-coil lead and placement of a new single-coil right ventricular lead at the mid septum. The patient had complete relief of symptoms after the procedure. This case shows that chest pain can be associated with the placement of a right ventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in the moderator band and that symptomatic relief can occur after percutaneous lead extraction and the implantation of a new right ventricular lead to the mid septal region. PMID:25425994

  15. Occurrence of auroral omega bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Partamies, N.; Juusola, L.

    2016-12-01

    Omega band aurora has been described as a wave form of the boundary of diffuse aurora which resembles a Greek omega letter. These forms are generally related to auroral activity in the morning sector and during substorm recovery phases. A number of detailed multi-instrument case studies have been reported on omega bands but very few thorough statistical studies are available, suggesting that omega forms are not very common in auroral displays.MIRACLE all-sky camera data from five Lapland stations over 1996-2007 have been searched for omega structures. The diffuse aurora boundary undulations can be identified in the ASC keograms but only a fraction of them qualifies as omegas. We required a clear structure which was traceable for longer than a minute. We also required a structure being taller than wider and we required an eastward propagation for it. We found 458 omega-like structures in total, most of them at the southern part of the auroral oval, in the field-of-view of Sodankylä camera. All omegas occurred after a substorm onset and most of them during a recovery phase. Peak years in the omega occurrence were 2002-2004 in the declining phase of the solar cycle. The substorms with omega bands were found to be more intense than average substorms within the Lapland region. Wave-like undulation was observed not only in the optical data but also in the equivalent current distribution. Omega forms occurred in between the Region 1 and 2 currents, and within a westward electrojet current which appeared stronger than that of average substorms in the same region.We show evidence of auroral omega bands being conjugate features and related to fast Earthward flows in the magnetotail. We discuss a possible scenario of omega formation and the relative occurrence of the omega bands.

  16. The sonographic "bright band sign" of splenic infarction.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Michael E; Jeffrey, R Brooke; DiMaio, Michael A; Olcott, Eric W

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the frequency of the "bright band sign" in patients with splenic infarcts as well as control patients and to thereby assess whether the bright band sign has potential utility as a sonographic sign of splenic infarction. Using an electronic search engine and image review, 37 patients were retrospectively identified with noncystic parenchymal splenic infarcts on sonography. Nineteen abnormal control patients with noninfarcted splenic lesions on sonography and 100 normal control patients with sonographically normal spleens were also identified. The sonographic appearance of each splenic lesion was evaluated by 2 reviewers and assessed for the bright band sign, defined as thin specular reflectors perpendicular to the sound beam within hypoechoic parenchymal lesions, and for the presence or absence of the classic sonographic appearance of splenic infarction. Possible histologic counterparts of the bright band sign were assessed in archival infarct specimens. The bright band sign was present in 34 (91.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78.1%-98.3%) of 37 patients with splenic infarcts on sonography, including 12 (85.7%; 95% CI, 57.2%-98.2%) of 14 with classic and 22 (95.7%; 95% CI, 78.1%-99.9%) of 23 with nonclassic infarct appearances. No normal or abnormal control patients had the bright band sign. Histologic sections suggested that preserved splenic trabeculae within infarcts may generate the bright band sign. The bright band sign is a potentially useful sonographic sign of splenic infarction, which may confer additional sensitivity and specificity and may be particularly helpful with infarcts having nonclassic appearances. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Statistical Distribution Analysis of Lineated Bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Phillips, C. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    Tina Chen, Cynthia B. Phillips, Robert T. Pappalardo Europa's surface is covered with intriguing linear and disrupted features, including lineated bands that range in scale and size. Previous studies have shown the possibility of an icy shell at the surface that may be concealing a liquid ocean with the potential to harboring life (Pappalardo et al., 1999). Utilizing the high-resolution imaging data from the Galileo spacecraft, we examined bands through a morphometric and morphologic approach. Greeley et al. (2000) and Procktor et al. (2002) have defined bands as wide, hummocky to lineated features that have distinctive surface texture and albedo compared to its surrounding terrain. We took morphometric measurements of lineated bands to find correlations in properties such as size, location, and orientation, and to shed light on formation models. We will present our measurements of over 100 bands on Europa that was mapped on the USGS Europa Global Mosaic Base Map (2002). We also conducted a statistical analysis to understand the distribution of lineated bands globally, and whether the widths of the bands differ by location. Our preliminary analysis from our statistical distribution evaluation, combined with the morphometric measurements, supports a uniform ice shell thickness for Europa rather than one that varies geographically. References: Greeley, Ronald, et al. "Geologic mapping of Europa." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 105.E9 (2000): 22559-22578.; Pappalardo, R. T., et al. "Does Europa have a subsurface ocean? Evaluation of the geological evidence." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 104.E10 (1999): 24015-24055.; Prockter, Louise M., et al. "Morphology of Europan bands at high resolution: A mid-ocean ridge-type rift mechanism." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 107.E5 (2002).; U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, Controlled photomosaic map of Europa, Je 15M CMN: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2757, available at http

  18. Making Linked, Wound-Filament Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Stephens, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Chains produced by use of rotating mandrel. Mandrel and locating and driving disks assembled around first band. Mandrel and band then mounted in respective positions on filament-winding machine. Second band linked to first by winding filament around first band on rotating mandrel. Short chains made this way have variety of uses; example, thermal isolators, each consisting of two linked bands of insulating material, used to support two separated insulating sheilds surrounding container of liquid helium.

  19. Making Linked, Wound-Filament Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Stephens, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Chains produced by use of rotating mandrel. Mandrel and locating and driving disks assembled around first band. Mandrel and band then mounted in respective positions on filament-winding machine. Second band linked to first by winding filament around first band on rotating mandrel. Short chains made this way have variety of uses; example, thermal isolators, each consisting of two linked bands of insulating material, used to support two separated insulating sheilds surrounding container of liquid helium.

  20. Photonic band gap enhancement in frequency-dependent dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Toader, Ovidiu; John, Sajeev

    2004-10-01

    We illustrate a general technique for evaluating photonic band structures in periodic d -dimensional microstructures in which the dielectric constant epsilon (omega) exhibits rapid variations with frequency omega . This technique involves the evaluation of generalized electromagnetic dispersion surfaces omega ( k--> ,epsilon) in a (d+1) -dimensional space consisting of the physical d -dimensional space of wave vectors k--> and an additional dimension defined by the continuous, independent, variable epsilon . The physical band structure for the photonic crystal is obtained by evaluating the intersection of the generalized dispersion surfaces with the "cutting surface" defined by the function epsilon (omega) . We apply this method to evaluate the band structure of both two- and three-dimensional (3D) periodic microstructures. We consider metallic photonic crystals with free carriers described by a simple Drude conductivity and verify the occurrence of electromagnetic pass bands below the plasma frequency of the bulk metal. We also evaluate the shift of the photonic band structure caused by free carrier injection into semiconductor-based photonic crystals. We apply our method to two models in which epsilon (omega) describes a resonant radiation-matter interaction. In the first model, we consider the addition of independent, resonant oscillators to a photonic crystal with an otherwise frequency-independent dielectric constant. We demonstrate that for an inhomogeneously broadened distribution of resonators impregnated within an inverse opal structure, the full 3D photonic band gap (PBG) can be considerably enhanced. In the second model, we consider a coupled resonant oscillator mode in a photonic crystal. When this mode is an optical phonon, there can be a synergetic interplay between the polaritonic resonance and the geometrical scattering resonances of the structured dielectric, leading to PBG enhancement. A similar effect may arise when resonant atoms that are

  1. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  2. Diffuse Interstellar Bands in Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Sarre, P.; Marshall, C. C. M.; Spekkens, K.; de Naray, R. Kuzio

    Recent Fabry-Pérot observations towards the galaxy NGC 1325 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) led to the serendipitous discovery of an emission feature centered at 661.3 nm arising from material in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy; this emission feature lies at the wavelength of one of the sharper and stronger diffuse bands normally seen in absorption. The flux of the feature is 4.2 +/- 0.5 × 10-18 es-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. It appears that this is the first observation of emission from a diffuse band carrier in the ISM, excited in this case by the interstellar radiation field. We present the discovery spectra and describe follow-up measurements proposed for SALT.

  3. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands.

    PubMed

    Taubes, G

    2000-06-23

    Radio astronomers have been in danger of losing a precious band of the electromagnetic spectrum--the millimeter wavelengths, which promise insight into subjects as diverse as the origins of life and the birth of stars--to the burgeoning telecommunications industry, as millimeter wavelengths also look promising for transmitting high-bandwidth wireless information over relatively short distances. Earlier this month, however, astronomers won an international agreement that guarantees critical wavelengths safe for research.

  4. Ka-Band Mobile Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Jedrey, T. C.; Agan, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been involved in the development of mobile satcom technologies for more that ten years. The initial work was performed at L-band (1.5-1.6 GHz), and included system studies and analysis, subsystem and full terminal development, and culminated in numerous field experiments and demonstrations under the Mobile Satellite Experiments (MSAT-X) program.

  5. Flat bands in topological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, T. T.; Kopnin, N. B.; Volovik, G. E.

    2011-10-01

    Topological media are systems whose properties are protected by topology and thus are robust to deformations of the system. In topological insulators and superconductors the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence gives rise to the gapless Weyl, Dirac or Majorana fermions on the surface of the system and inside vortex cores. Here we show that in gapless topological media, the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence is more effective: it produces topologically protected gapless fermions without dispersion—the fiat band. Fermion zero modes forming the flat band are localized on the surface of topological media with protected nodal lines [A. P. Schnyder and S. Ryu, Phys. Rev. B 84, 060504(R) (2011); T. T. Heikkil G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 59 (2011)] and in the vortex core in systems with topologically protected Fermi points (Weyl points) [G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 66 (2011)]. Flat band has an extremely singular density of states, and we show that this property may give rise in particular to surface superconductivity which could exist even at room temperature.

  6. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    PubMed

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  7. AGN variability in the radio band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter

    2016-08-01

    Variability is an important and defining characteristic of AGN, that along with their broadband spectral energy distribution make their study interesting and challenging. A complete understanding of the physics of these objects requires monitoring observations over the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and includes studying their properties at a given band and also the relationship between multiple wavelengths. Here we present the main results obtained so far with the ongoing OVRO 40m blazar monitoring program at 15 GHz with twice a week cadence. This program started in mid-2007 and is currently monitoring about 1800 blazars, including most of the bright blazars north of declination -20 degrees. These results include: characterization of the variability in the radio band; its relationship with optical and gamma-ray properties; and its relationship to gamma-ray emission as observed with Fermi-LAT, which can provide constrains on the location of the gamma-ray emission region. We will also discuss our ongoing work on the characterization of radio variability using the power spectral density. For this, we are using 8 years of OVRO 40m data for ~1200 sources, and also F-GAMMA monitoring data taken with the Effelsberg 100m telescope for 60 sources with about monthly cadence monitoring data at 8 frequencies between 2.6 and 43.0 GHz. These studies will provide an improved understanding of blazar variability, a better basis to evaluate the statistics of correlated variability between different emission bands, and a long and consistent record of radio observations to be used in gamma-ray and multi-wavelength investigations.

  8. Effect of circumferential bands on cortical vascularity and viability.

    PubMed

    Kirby, B M; Wilson, J W

    1991-03-01

    Wire cerclage devices do not restrict cortical vascularity; however, bands, because they are flat and wide, have been implicated as the cause of fracture nonunion by disruption of cortical vascularity. This experiment evaluated the effect of cerclage bands on the cortical vascularity of bones that had not been fractured. Stainless-steel bands of four sizes (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mm wide) and nylon bands of five sizes (2.5, 3.6, 4.8, 7.6, and 9.0 mm wide) were applied 1 cm apart to both femoral diaphyses of four mature dogs. In two additional dogs, 18-gauge cerclage wires were applied 5 mm apart on one femur and nylon bands were applied immediately adjacent to one another on the other femur to cover 3 cm of the length of each femoral diaphysis. These six dogs were euthanatized and perfused 7 days postoperatively and specimens were studied by microangiography and correlated histology. Two additional dogs were studied 4 and 15 weeks after application of nylon and metal bands. There was no evidence of complete cortical devascularization under any size or type of cerclage appliance at any time interval. Numerous examples of vessels traversing the cortex directly beneath all the cerclage appliances were observed. Cerclage devices, even when flat and wide, do not restrict cortical vascularity when applied to intact bones.

  9. Reflectivity and Emissivity of Sea Foam at L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, M. D.; Burrage, D. M.; Bettenhausen, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation is well known. GPS operates at L-band frequencies of 1-2 GHz. Because these low microwave frequencies penetrate clouds and rain, GPS signals can detect the specular reflection and diffuse scattering from flat and rough surfaces. This makes the GPS signals useful for geophysical measurements in all weather conditions. Aircraft and satellite-borne GPS reflectometers have been shown to successfully sense ocean surface wind. L-band reflectometry measures changes in ocean surface reflectivity due to changes of ocean surface roughness as wind increases. The use of GPS, together with other Global Navigation Satellite Systems, will soon provide hundreds of L-band transmitters in space and thus high temporal resolution for geophysical measurements. With its all weather capability and high temporal resolution, GPS reflectometry can provide wind speed data in hurricane conditions. Such capabilities enable the new Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) project which aims to improve the skill of hurricane intensity forecasts. However, wave breaking under high winds produces sea foam (whitecaps) and sea spray, which complicate processes acting at the air-sea interface. Whitecaps and sea spray have high emissivity at L-band and will thus reduce the ocean reflectivity needed for wind speed retrieval. A combination of L-band reflectometry and L-band radiometry can thus help to better understand and model the physical mechanisms governing the L-band sensor responses. We use a radiative transfer model formulated in terms of foam layer thickness and void fraction to evaluate both the reflectivity and emissivity of a foam-covered sea surface. We report on the attenuation of L-band radiation in foam layers, and the corresponding foam reflectivity, for layers with varying thicknesses and void fractions. The reflected GPS signal sensitivity to wind speed variations in the presence of foam is assessed.

  10. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-09-01

    A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development.

  11. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  12. Optical band gaps of organic semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, José C. S.; Taveira, Ricardo J. S.; Lima, Carlos F. R. A. C.; Mendes, Adélio; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2016-08-01

    UV-Vis can be used as an easy and forthright technique to accurately estimate the band gap energy of organic π-conjugated materials, widely used as thin films/composites in organic and hybrid electronic devices such as OLEDs, OPVs and OFETs. The electronic and optical properties, including HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of π-conjugated systems were evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy in CHCl3 solution for a large number of relevant π-conjugated systems: tris-8-hydroxyquinolinatos (Alq3, Gaq3, Inq3, Al(qNO2)3, Al(qCl)3, Al(qBr)3, In(qNO2)3, In(qCl)3 and In(qBr)3); triphenylamine derivatives (DDP, p-TTP, TPB, TPD, TDAB, m-MTDAB, NPB, α-NPD); oligoacenes (naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and rubrene); oligothiophenes (α-2T, β-2T, α-3T, β-3T, α-4T and α-5T). Additionally, some electronic properties were also explored by quantum chemical calculations. The experimental UV-Vis data are in accordance with the DFT predictions and indicate that the band gap energies of the OSCs dissolved in CHCl3 solution are consistent with the values presented for thin films.

  13. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  14. Band Instrument Selection and Assignment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millican, J. Si

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the process of matching students with band instruments as presented in academic research journals and practitioner publications. While some directors may evaluate the potential impact of students' physical characteristics such as lip size and shape, teeth and jaw structure, body build, and so forth, other…

  15. Band Instrument Selection and Assignment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millican, J. Si

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the process of matching students with band instruments as presented in academic research journals and practitioner publications. While some directors may evaluate the potential impact of students' physical characteristics such as lip size and shape, teeth and jaw structure, body build, and so forth, other…

  16. Laparoscopic revision from LAP-BAND to gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Hadar; Beltran, Oscar R; Slavchev, Plamen; Wilson, Erik B

    2007-08-01

    While the majority of patients achieve good outcomes with the LAP-BAND, there is a subset of patients who experience complications or fail to lose sufficient weight after the banding procedure. This study examines the feasibility and outcome of performing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) as a single-step revision surgery after a failed LAP-BAND procedure. In the past five years we have performed more than 1400 LAP-BAND procedures. We laparoscopically converted 33 (30 females) of these patients (mean age = 43.8 years) from LAP-BAND to RYGBP because of inadequate weight loss and/or complications. Key steps in the revision procedures were (1) identification and release of the band capsule; (2) careful dissection of the gastrogastric sutures; (3) creation of a small gastric pouch; and (4) Roux-en-Y anterior colic anterior gastric pouch-jejunum anastomosis. Revisions took place at a mean 28.2 months (range = 11-46; SD = 11.3) after the original gastric banding. Change in body mass index (BMI) between pre- and postrevision was evaluated with paired t tests. Among the 33 patients who would undergo revision surgery, the mean BMI before the LAP-BAND procedure was 45.7 kg/m2 (range = 39.9-53.0; SD = 3.4) and the mean weight was 126 kg (range = 99-155; SD = 17). The lowest BMI achieved by this group with the LAP-BAND before revision was 39.7 kg/m2 (range = 30-49.2; SD = 4.9); however, the mean BMI at the time of revision was 42.8 kg/m2 (range = 33.1-50; SD = 4.8). The mean revision operative time was 105 min (range = 85-175), and the mean hospital stay was 2.8 days (range = 1-10). Complications included one patient who underwent open reoperation and splenectomy for a bleeding spleen and one patient who required repair of an internal hernia. After conversion to RYGBP, mean BMI decreased to 33.9 kg/m2 at 6 months (p < 0.001) and 30.7 kg/m2 (range = 22-39.6; SD = 5.3) at 12 months or more of followup (average = 15.7 months; p < 0.0001). Laparoscopic conversion from

  17. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  18. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  19. Improved 20mm Plastic Rotating Bands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    flow into the band and minimize the possibility of weld lines. However, ring gates require a post-molding secondary operation to re- move them, whereas a...however, would tend to produce weld lines on the band surface opposite from the gate entry, a condition potentially deleterious to band and projectile...including ex- cessive flash at the bourrelet and parting line, contamination, mold drag, and band seat voids. The latter was deemed to be a major

  20. Troposcatter at the KU Band

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Band by Magnus Wennemyr 1 Introduction Appendix Page no. 1 1.1 Introduction I 1.2 Transhorizonal Microwave Propagation n the Troposphere I 1.3 The...1.7.1 Diurnal and Seasonal variations 4 1.7.2 Modes of Propagation 5 1.8 Conclusions 5 2 Effect of the Troposphere on Microwave Propagation 6 2.1...allowing for transhorizonal communication in the microwave ranges. This study tests the viability of using the higher frequency ranges (the test

  1. Bands of Clouds and Lace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-05-13

    As Cassini nears its rendezvous with Saturn, new detail in the banded clouds of the planet's atmosphere are becoming visible. Cassini began the journey to the ringed world of Saturn nearly seven years ago and is now less than two months away from orbit insertion on June 30. Cassini’s narrow-angle camera took this image on April 16, 2004, when the spacecraft was 38.5 million kilometers (23.9 million miles) from Saturn. Dark regions are generally areas free of high clouds, and bright areas are places with high, thick clouds which shield the view of the darker areas below. A dark spot is visible at the south pole, which is remarkable to scientists because it is so small and centered. The spot could be affected by Saturn's magnetic field, which is nearly aligned with the planet's rotation axis, unlike the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Earth. From south to north, other notable features are the two white spots just above the dark spot toward the right, and the large dark oblong-shaped feature that extends across the middle. The darker band beneath the oblong-shaped feature has begun to show a lacy pattern of lighter-colored, high altitude clouds, indicative of turbulent atmospheric conditions. The cloud bands move at different speeds, and their irregularities may be due to either the different motions between them or to disturbances below the visible cloud layer. Such disturbances might be powered by the planet's internal heat; Saturn radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun. The moon Mimas (396 kilometers, 245 miles across) is visible to the left of the south pole. Saturn currently has 31 known moons. Since launch, 13 new moons have been discovered by ground-based telescopes. Cassini will get a closer look and may discover new moons, perhaps embedded within the planet’s magnificent rings. This image was taken using a filter sensitive to light near 727 nanometers, one of the near-infrared absorption bands of methane gas, which is one of the ingredients in

  2. Exploiting the Terahertz Band for Radionavigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John Scott; Mickelson, Pascal; Yeak, Jeremy; Kremeyer, Kevin; Rife, Jason

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of GPS-like ranging at terahertz (THz) frequencies. It is well established that GPS carrier signals are vulnerable to jamming via radio-frequency interference (RFI). As a result, there is a need for alternative radionavigation systems. THz signals offer a compelling option. Because of their high frequency (roughly ×100 higher than GPS), THz signals can be used to make highly precise range measurements. In addition, the large separation between the GPS and THz frequencies means that interference at GPS frequencies is very unlikely to impact the THz band. This paper lays the groundwork for a GPS-like ranging capability at THz frequencies. To this end, we identify key differences between THz hardware and GPS (radio frequency) hardware; we experimentally evaluate performance of a 0.30-THz system on a compact outdoor test range, and we introduce a measurement error model that highlights the distinctive role that multipath interference plays at THz frequencies.

  3. Closed platysmotomy: a new procedure for the treatment of platysma bands without skin dissection.

    PubMed

    Daher, Jose Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Platysma muscular bands are present during the aging period, generally starting in the second half of the fourth decade of life in both sexes. One or two bands along the anterior segment of the neck are the most frequent, with varied extensions and appearances. The literature records different techniques for solving the problem of platysma bands. All the methods involve submental incision, cutaneous dissection, and various tactics for eliminating the action of the platysma bands. This report aims to describe a procedure for deactivating these bands using a percutaneous approach that eliminates the need for submental, cutaneous incision and dissection. This technique involves the use of a steel wire loop that encircles the platysma band and is connected to a device known as the platysmotome through two puncture holes in the skin. Three to six sections along each band eliminate the platysma band, leaving no visible marks on the skin. This method is indicated as an isolated procedure for patients with visible platysma bands and no skin flaccidity, patients with recurring bands after face-lifting and no cervical skin flaccidity, patients who have bands with little cervical skin flaccidity but do not care to undergo face-lifting, and patients who undergo face-lifts for platysma bands that include closed platysmotomy and tightening of the platysma by lateral suture. The described technique is a method specifically designed for deactivation of the platysma bands that can be used both in isolation and in conjunction with face-lifting. Because this method avoids submental, cervical incision and dissection, it is a less invasive technique for "deleting" the bands, whether applied alone or in association with face-lifting. From May 2008 to November 2009 (19 months), 61 patients underwent surgery for the correction of platysma bands via percutaneous myotomy. Among them, the first 11 patients received postoperative follow-up evaluation ranging from 8 to 17 months.

  4. Ku-band system design study and TDRSS interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Mckenzie, T. M.; Choi, H. J.; Tsang, C. S.; An, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Shuttle/TDRSS link simulation program (LinCsim) were expanded to account for radio frequency interference (RFI) effects on the Shuttle S-band links, the channel models were updated to reflect the RFI related hardware changes, the ESTL hardware modeling of the TDRS communication payload was reviewed and evaluated, in LinCsim the Shuttle/TDRSS signal acquisition was modeled, LinCsim was upgraded, and possible Shuttle on-orbit navigation techniques was evaluated.

  5. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  6. Why Not Start a Steel Band?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    1995-01-01

    Suggests expanding the eclectic nature of a band program by creating a steel band, a Caribbean-based percussion ensemble. The steel band complements multicultural education and attracts students to the music program. Discusses maintenance, repertoire, and performance. Includes classification of pans and a list of schools with established programs.…

  7. Conditions for compaction bands in porous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issen, K. A.; Rudnicki, J. W.

    2000-09-01

    Reexamination of the results of Rudnicki and Rice for shear localization reveals that solutions for compaction bands are possible in a range of parameters typical of porous rock. Compaction bands are narrow planar zones of localized compressive deformation perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress, which have been observed in high-porosity rocks in the laboratory and field. Solutions for compaction bands, as an alternative to homogenous deformation, are possible when the inelastic volume deformation is compactive and is associated with stress states on a yield surface "cap." The cap implies that the shear stress required for further inelastic deformation decreases with increasing compressive mean stress. While the expressions for the critical hardening modulus for compaction and shear bands differ, in both cases, deviations from normality promote band formation. Inelastic compaction deformation associated with mean stress (suggested by Aydin and Johnson) promotes localization by decreasing the magnitude of the critical hardening modulus. Axisymmetric compression is the most favorable deviatoric stress state for formation of compaction bands. Predictions for compaction bands suggest that they could form on the "shelf" typically observed in axisymmetric compression stress strain curves of porous rock at high confining stress. Either shear or compaction bands may occur depending on the stress path and confining stress. If the increase in local density and decrease in grain size associated with compaction band formation result in strengthening rather than weakening of the band material, formation of a compaction band may not preclude later formation of a shear band.

  8. Senior Adult Bands: Music's New Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don D.; Levy, Katherine M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the success of Iowa City's (Iowa) New Horizons Band that consists of 55 senior adult beginners and former instrumentalists. Describes the organization of the band program, the senior's performance skills and commitment, and the ongoing challenges. Gives a selected listing of the music the band plays at concerts and other events. (CMK)

  9. Senior Adult Bands: Music's New Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don D.; Levy, Katherine M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the success of Iowa City's (Iowa) New Horizons Band that consists of 55 senior adult beginners and former instrumentalists. Describes the organization of the band program, the senior's performance skills and commitment, and the ongoing challenges. Gives a selected listing of the music the band plays at concerts and other events. (CMK)

  10. On sampling band-pass signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Shahshahani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four techniques for uniform sampling of band-bass signals are examined. The in-phase and quadrature components of the band-pass signal are computed in terms of the samples of the original band-pass signal. The relative implementation merits of these techniques are discussed with reference to the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  11. Determining the dimensionality of hyperspectral imagery for unsupervised band selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umana-Diaz, Alejandra; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2003-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the dimension of a hyperspectral image. Spanning and intrinsic dimension concepts are studied as ways to determine the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent a Hyperspectral Image. Algorithms for the estimation of spanning and intrinsic dimension are reviewed and applied to hyperspectral images. Estimators are evaluated and compared using simulated and AVIRIS data. The final objective of this work is to develop an algorithm to determine the number of bands to select in a band subset selection algorithm.

  12. Joint skewness and its application in unsupervised band selection for small target detection.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-04-15

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection.

  13. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection. PMID:25873018

  14. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  15. V-band IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Ying, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band transmitter for communication application was developed that has 30 dB gain and consists of six stages of IMPATT amplifiers. The low and medium power stages are stable amplifiers while the two high power stages are triggered oscillators. Hybrid couplers in the form of Magic Tees were used for power combining two single diode IMPATT modules in the high driver stage and for a single diode IMPATT modules at the output stage. Output power of 4 watts CW across a 2.5 GHz band centered at 60 GHz was achieved with an input power of 4 mW. Dynamic range of the amplifier chain is in excess of 7 dB. A single diode one watt stable amplifier over a bandwidth greater than 2.5 GHz, a high power ( 1 watt) stable amplifier capable of operating in either the constant current or constant voltage mode and verification of the advantages of the latter mode of operation; and a 10 channel modulator with built in test equipment (specifically protective circuitry, failure monitoring, and mode of failure indicated) were also developed. The performance requirements of circulators/isolators for reflection amplifiers were also defined and verified.

  16. Minimum cut and shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Cramer, Andrew; Walker, David M.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the efficacy of network optimisation theory for minimum cut to quantify the evolution of granular fabric and its functionality as a transmission medium in deforming dense granular media. Our focus here is on force transmission in a sheared assembly of polydisperse particles, in a biaxial compression test under constant confining pressure. The granular fabric is examined with respect to the material's force-bearing contact network over that regime when the material has reached its residual strength, and is deforming under a near constant volume in the presence of a fully developed shear band. The structural evolution of the fabric is quantitatively characterized using a representative weighted-directed network that is similarly evolving as the sample deforms. The edges or links, representing the interparticle contacts, are each weighted by the capacity of the contact to transmit force: a scalar that depends solely on the relative motion of the contacting grains. In the large strain failure regime, the minimum cut which represents the bottleneck in force transmission is found to lie in the persistent shear band. This study paves the way for the future analysis of flows and force transmission through an evolving contact network and, in turn, the characterisation of the relationship between the material's contact topology and its capacity to transmit forces through its contact network.

  17. Narrow-band Imaging In Ihe Cn Band Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uitenbroek, Han; Tritschler, A.

    2006-06-01

    We report on results of an observing campaign intended to revive an old CN Lyot filter originally built by Bernhard Lyot himself, but modified at Sacramento Peak. The filter has two band-width settings of 0.025 nm and 0.05 nm which can be fine tuned thermally. We characterise the passband of the Lyot filter and the employed prefilter based on osbervations performed with a spectrograph. We also performed an imaging experiment in an attempt to obtain data visualizing the imaging capability of the filter. Our results show that the CN filter is in a surprisingly good condition and is most suited for observations to verify theoretical predictions about the brightness of magnetic elements in the CN bandhead at 388.3\\,nm.

  18. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations. PMID:25992076

  19. WIDE BAND REGENERATIVE FREQUENCY DIVIDER AND MULTIPLIER

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1959-11-17

    A regenerative frequency divider and multiplier having wide band input characteristics is presented. The circuit produces output oscillations having frequencies related by a fixed ratio to input oscillations over a wide band of frequencies. In accomplishing this end, the divider-multiplier includes a wide band input circuit coupled by mixer means to a wide band output circuit having a pass band related by a fixed ratio to that of the input circuit. A regenerative feedback circuit derives a fixed frequency ratio feedback signal from the output circuit and applies same to the mixer means in proper phase relation to sustain fixed frequency ratio oscillations in the output circuit.

  20. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  1. Non-Hermiticity-induced flat band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Hamidreza

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the emergence of an entire flat band with no complex component embedded in dispersive bands at the exceptional point of a PT -symmetric photonic lattice. For this to occur, the gain and loss parameter effectively alters the size of the partial flat band windows and band gap of the photonic lattice simultaneously. The mode associated with the entire flat band is robust against changes in the system size and survives even at the edge of the lattice. Our proposal offers a route for controllable localization of light in non-Hermitian systems and a technique for measuring non-Hermiticity via localization.

  2. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  3. Flexible band versus rigid ring annuloplasty for functional tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Izutani, Hironori; Nakamura, Teruya; Kawachi, Kanji

    2010-12-31

    We review and compare our experience with tricuspid ring annuloplasty between usage of the Cosgrove-Edwards flexible band and the MC(3) rigid ring for repair of functional tricuspid regurgitation to determine the efficacy and mid-term durability of tricuspid annuloplasty. 117 patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation undergoing open heart surgery and tricuspid valve repair from May 2005 to December 2007 were reviewed. The flexible bands were used in thirty five patients before October 2006. Since then, the rigid rings were used in the next consecutive eighty two cases. Echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in follow-up schedule. The degree of tricuspid regurgitation was reduced from 2.80±0.67 to 0.71±1.0 (regurgitation severity grade: 0 to 4) in the patients with flexible bands at discharge. It was from 2.68±0.70 to 0.22±0.60 in the patients with rigid rings. At thirty six months postoperative period, tricuspid regurgitation grades in patients with flexible bands and rigid rings were 0.80±0.95 and 0.36±0.77, respectively. Freedom from recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (grade 2 or 3) in patients with flexible bands and rigid rings were 68.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Recurrent tricuspid regurgitation was significantly lower in the patients with rigid rings. Although both flexible band and rigid ring annuloplasty provide low rate of recurrent tricuspid regurgitation, rigid ring annuloplasty might be more effective than flexible band annuloplasty for decreasing functional tricuspid regurgitation in immediate and mid-term postoperative periods.

  4. [Rubber band ligation in treatment of hemorrhoids: our experience].

    PubMed

    Gaj, F; Biviano, I; Sportelli, G; Candeloro, L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are a very common condition. The treatment depends upon persistence and severity of symptoms. For hemorrhoids of II and III grade the rubber band ligation may be therapeutic. Our aim is to report the outcomes of rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids, with a follow up of 6 months. A total of 50 patients underwent rubber band ligation for symptomatic hemorrhoids (grade II and III) without prolapse, between June 2012 and June 2014. All patients underwent plug test to rule out presence of rectal mucosal prolapse and were classified according to PATE classification (1). Each hemorrhoid was ligated with one rubber band through a ligator. All patients were evaluated immediately at the end of the procedure, after ten days and six months after the treatment. Patient's demographic and operative data were collected and analyzed. The mean patients age was 47.6±12.3 years (range 24-72). All procedures were performed without complications. Before rubber band ligation, 42 patients had rectal bleeding, 38 had perineal discomfort and 27 had itching. Ten days after the treatment, 12 patients presented self-limited rectal bleeding, but 10 of these had more hemorrhoids and underwent a second rubber band ligation. No patients complained perineal discomfort, and 8 patients had itching; 78% and 16% of patients respectively, experienced feeling of a foreign body inside the canal anal and anal pain. After 6 months, only 13 patients were occasionally symptomatic: 4 patients had rectal bleeding, 2 had perineal discomfort and 4 had itching. Three more patients presented both perineal discomfort and hitching. None had the feeling of a foreign body in anal canal or anal pain. Rubber band ligation is an efficacious, cost-effective and simple treatment for the second and third degree hemorrhoids without rectal mucosal prolapsed. In our hands, no severe complications developed and minor complications could be handled with ease.

  5. Effects of band selection on the hyperspectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia; Diamantopoulou, Gerorgia

    2013-09-01

    In the hyperspectral theory, data reduction techniques play an important role in the classification processing as hyperspectral imagery contains an immense amount of data posing many challenging problems such as data storage, computational efficiency, and the curse of dimensionality. Hyperspectral band selection technique is a well-known dimensionality reduction approach which retains the physical meaning of the data. It selects a set of bands from the input hyperspectral dataset which comprises the information needed for subsequent hyperspectral image spectroscopy. The majority of the existing state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction methods set criteria to the spectral information which is derived by the whole wavelength in order to define the optimum spectral subspace. These criteria are not associated with the particular classification task but with the data statistics, such as correlation and entropy values. However, each spectral signature of a particular material has spectral characteristics which contribute to distinguish it from other spectral signatures at specific sequential wavelengths. This paper focuses on investigating the effects of band selection on the classification by exploiting the information of sequential bands. More precisely, it is explored 1) whether classification can be optimized when a different set of initial bands is selected per category; 2) whether there is an optimum subset of sequential bands which lead to more accurate classification results. Experiments comprise application of a well-known classification method, the support vector machine (SVM), on real hyperspectral dataset using all the possible subsets of p sequential bands, where p is equal to the dimensionality of the signal subspace. Evaluation of the classification accuracy leads to remarkable conclusions.

  6. Spectral Band Selection for Urban Material Classification Using Hyperspectral Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, A.; Chehata, N.; Briottet, X.; Paparoditis, N.

    2016-06-01

    In urban areas, information concerning very high resolution land cover and especially material maps are necessary for several city modelling or monitoring applications. That is to say, knowledge concerning the roofing materials or the different kinds of ground areas is required. Airborne remote sensing techniques appear to be convenient for providing such information at a large scale. However, results obtained using most traditional processing methods based on usual red-green-blue-near infrared multispectral images remain limited for such applications. A possible way to improve classification results is to enhance the imagery spectral resolution using superspectral or hyperspectral sensors. In this study, it is intended to design a superspectral sensor dedicated to urban materials classification and this work particularly focused on the selection of the optimal spectral band subsets for such sensor. First, reflectance spectral signatures of urban materials were collected from 7 spectral libraires. Then, spectral optimization was performed using this data set. The band selection workflow included two steps, optimising first the number of spectral bands using an incremental method and then examining several possible optimised band subsets using a stochastic algorithm. The same wrapper relevance criterion relying on a confidence measure of Random Forests classifier was used at both steps. To cope with the limited number of available spectra for several classes, additional synthetic spectra were generated from the collection of reference spectra: intra-class variability was simulated by multiplying reference spectra by a random coefficient. At the end, selected band subsets were evaluated considering the classification quality reached using a rbf svm classifier. It was confirmed that a limited band subset was sufficient to classify common urban materials. The important contribution of bands from the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) spectral domain (1000-2400 nm) to material

  7. The Effects of Band Director Leadership Style and Student Leadership Ability on Band Festival Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, P. Dru

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between band director leadership styles and the strength of student leadership within the bands. This study also examined the differences between leadership styles, student leadership strength, and band festival ratings (marching and concert). Subjects (N = 42) were band directors from Texas and Arkansas who…

  8. A Survey of Beginning Band Methods for Elementary, Middle and High School Band Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Donald R.

    A survey explored the various band method books available for use with public school beginning band programs. The selection of a beginning band method has an affect on the curriculum and future musical growth and development of public school music education students. The first section surveys band methods for the concepts they cover, the choice of…

  9. Discrete energy bands in bulk semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Maohua; Shi, Hongliang

    2015-03-01

    Bulk semiconductors typically have continuous valence and conduction bands. Discrete energy levels and bands have been sought after for various applications. For instance, discrete energy levels existing in semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum does (QDs) have been proposed as a mechanism to suppress hot carrier thermalization and to enhance carrier multiplication in QD solar cells. Impurity bands in the band gap have been introduced for intermediate-band solar cells and for efficient visible light absorption and photocatalysis. In this talk, we show by first principles calculations that, in a multinary compound, a combination of large electronegativity difference between different cations (anions) and large nearest-neighbor distances in cation (anion) sublattices can lead to the splitting of the conduction (valence) band, resulting in several discrete and narrow energy bands separated by large energy gaps. We also discuss applications that may benefit from such electronic structure.

  10. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  11. Band models and correlations for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of infrared radiation by various line and band models are briefly reviewed. Narrow band model relations for absorptance are used to develop 'exact' formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Application of a wide band model to a particular gas largely depends upon the spectroscopic characteristic of the absorbing-emitting molecule. Seven continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model are presented and each one of these is compared with the exact (numerical) solutions of the wide band models. Comparison of these results indicate the validity of a correlation for a particular radiative transfer application. In radiative transfer analyses, use of continuous correlations for total band absorptance provides flexibilities in various mathematical operations.

  12. Knot strength of nylon-band cerclage.

    PubMed

    Kirby, B M; Wilson, J W

    1989-12-01

    Nylon bands of five sizes were tested to failure using a splint circular jaw mounted on a tensile testing machine. Four treatment groups of each of the five sizes were tested: as supplied by the manufacturer, ethylene oxide sterilized, autoclave sterilized, and saline-soaked. Comparisons were made between groups and to previously reported results of similar testing of stainless steel wire of three sizes. All the bands failed at the lock mechanism. Knot strength increased with increased size of nylon band. There was no difference between untreated and ethylene oxide sterilized bands, whereas bands subjected to autoclaving or saline soaking failed at less force. The knot strength of all the treatment groups in the three smaller sizes of bands was less than twist-knotted 0.8-mm wire cerclage; and when soaked in saline for 24 hours, the knot strength of the two largest size bands dropped to less than 1.2-mm twist-knotted wire.

  13. Comparability of Spot Versus Band Electrodes for Impedance Cardiography

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.; O’Brien, William H.; Hassinger, Hilary J.; Shah, Purvi

    2016-01-01

    Although band and spot electrodes have been compared in prior research, they have not been evaluated (a) at identical anatomical locations, (b) during a single laboratory session, (c) with measures taken in close temporal proximity, (d) using a single impedance cardiograph unit, or (e) using sufficiently powerful statistical tests. Thirty-one healthy young adults completed a psychophysiological assessment which consisted of baseline, mental arithmetic stressor, and recovery conditions. Data from spot and band electrodes were collected by alternating between electrode types every minute of the experiment. Correlations between spot and band electrodes at absolute levels of all cardiovascular measures (cardiac output, impedance derivative, basal impedance level, Heather index, heart rate, left ventricular ejection time, pre-ejection period, stroke volume) were of high magnitude (ravg = .78), while the correlations for difference scores were lower (ravg = .50). Analyses of mean levels indicated spot electrodes yielded significantly lower values for the impedance derivative, Heather index, and basal impedance, and higher values for cardiac output and stroke volume, than band electrodes. The advantages and disadvantages associated with spot and band electrode configurations, as well as their use in ambulatory recording, are discussed. PMID:27867248

  14. The Red Edge Problem in asteroid band parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Dunn, Tasha L.; Emery, Joshua P.; Bowles, Neil E.

    2016-04-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids contain two absorptions at 1 and 2 μm (band I and II) that are diagnostic of mineralogy. A parameterization of these two bands is frequently employed to determine the mineralogy of S(IV) asteroids through the use of ordinary chondrite calibration equations that link the mineralogy to band parameters. The most widely used calibration study uses a Band II terminal wavelength point (red edge) at 2.50 μm. However, due to the limitations of the NIR detectors on prominent telescopes used in asteroid research, spectral data for asteroids are typically only reliable out to 2.45 μm. We refer to this discrepancy as "The Red Edge Problem." In this report, we evaluate the associated errors for measured band area ratios (BAR = Area BII/BI) and calculated relative abundance measurements. We find that the Red Edge Problem is often not the dominant source of error for the observationally limited red edge set at 2.45 μm, but it frequently is for a red edge set at 2.40 μm. The error, however, is one sided and therefore systematic. As such, we provide equations to adjust measured BARs to values with a different red edge definition. We also provide new ol/(ol+px) calibration equations for red edges set at 2.40 and 2.45 μm.

  15. Phonovoltaic. II. Tuning band gap to optical phonon in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-03-01

    An efficient phonovoltaic (pV) material requires a highly energetic optical phonon (Ep ,O≫kBT ) with linewidth dominated by the electron-phonon (e-p) coupling and resonant with its electronic band gap (Δ Ee ,g ), as discussed in Paper I [C. Melnick and M. Kaviany, Phys. Rev. B 93, 094302 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.094302]. No current material combines these properties. While graphite (graphene) has the former two, it lacks a band gap. Opening and tuning the band gap in graphite is challenging due to the stability of the Dirac point, e.g., under a uniaxial strain <0.25 . We tune its band gap through partial hydrogenation using extensive ab initio calculations and find a stable graphame structure with Δ Ee ,g≃Ep ,O≃200 meV, C128H1 ×24 . We calculate the e-p coupling in tuned C128H1 ×24 and graphene and show that the transition from π -π* (graphene) to σ -σ* (graphane) bands suppresses the electron-phonon coupling, such that optical phonons in C128H1 ×24 primarily downconvert, and it does not achieve a high figure of merit (ZpV<0.1 ). Ab initio phonon-phonon couplings are calculated for graphane and graphene to support this result. Overall, we develop a material with Ep ,O≃Δ Ee ,g≫kBT and a method for tuning and evaluating pV materials.

  16. The Band Played On: Predicting Students' Intentions to Continue Studying Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corenblum, Barry; Marshall, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Develops and tests a model for predicting student intentions to continue in a high school band program. Structural equation modeling indicates that socioeconomic level and teacher evaluations predict intentions both directly and indirectly through students' outside musical activities and support for the program by parents, band teachers, and…

  17. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  18. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper-band

  19. Analysis of variations in band positions for normalization in across-gel denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuko; Yamamura, Kohji; Morimoto, Sho; Bao, Zhihua; Kurose, Daisuke; Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsushima, Seiya

    2015-05-01

    Variation in band position between gels is a well-known problem in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). However, few reports have evaluated the degree of variation in detail. In this study, we investigated the variation in band positions of DNA samples extracted from soil, normalized using reference positions within marker lanes for DGGE in three organismal (bacterial, fungal, and nematode) conditions. For sample lanes, marker DNA (as a control) and sample DNA were used. The test for normality of distribution showed that the position data of a large percentage of bands were normally distributed but not for certain bands. For the normally-distributed data, their variations [standard deviation of marker bands (SDM) and standard deviation of sample bands (SDS), respectively] were assessed. For all organismal conditions, the degree of within-gel variation were similar between SDMs and SDSs, while between-gel variations in SDSs were larger than those in SDMs. Due to the large effect of between-gel variations, the total variations in SDSs were more varied between sample bands, and the mean variations of all sample bands were higher than those in the markers. We found that the total variation in the fungal and nematode SDSs decreased when the intervals between marker bands were narrowed, suggesting that band interval is important for reducing total variation in normalized band positions. For the non-normally distributed data, the distribution was examined in detail. This study provided detailed information on the variation of band positions, which could help to optimize markers for reducing band position variation, and could aid in the accurate identification of bands in across-gel DGGE analyses.

  20. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  1. GEOS-2 C-band system project. C-band radars and their use on the GEOS-2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The material presented covers the general topic of C-band radars and their use throughout the GEOS-2 C-band Radar System Project and has direct application to the general problem of gathering accurate radar tracking data. The material is hardware oriented and all analyses and evaluations described pertain to the gathering of accurate data rather than to the application of the gathered data. The radar oriented investigations formed a basic and necessary part of the overall C-band experiment. The successful completion of these efforts led to the definition of how the radars were to be operated and calibrated. These hardware decisions directly affected the quality of the radar data and therefore played a large part in the successful application of these data to geodetic research.

  2. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array band-1 receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yau De (Ted); Morata, Oscar; Koch, Patrick Michel; Kemper, Ciska; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Chiong, Chau-Ching; Ho, Paul; Chu, You-Hua; Huang, Chi-Den; Liu, Ching-Tang; Hsieh, Fang-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Weng, Shou-Hsien; Ho, Chin-Ting; Chiang, Po-Han; Wu, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Jian, Shou-Ting; Lee, Chien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Wei; Iguchi, Satoru; Asayama, Shin'ichiro; Iono, Daisuke; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Effland, John; Saini, Kamaljeet; Pospieszalski, Marian; Henke, Doug; Yeung, Keith; Finger, Ricardo; Tapia, Valeria; Reyes, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(ALMA) Band 1 receiver covers the 35-50 GHz frequency band. Development of prototype receivers, including the key components and subsystems has been completed and two sets of prototype receivers were fully tested. We will provide an overview of the ALMA Band 1 science goals, and its requirements and design for use on the ALMA. The receiver development status will also be discussed and the infrastructure, integration, evaluation of fully-assembled band 1 receiver system will be covered. Finally, a discussion of the technical and management challenges encountered will be presented.

  3. Effect of Microstructural Banding on the Fatigue Behavior of Induction-Hardened 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, M. L.; Anderson, P. I.; Findley, K. O.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2013-08-01

    The fatigue behavior of induction-hardened calcium-treated 4140 steel with three different case depths was evaluated using rotating bending fatigue tests. The as-received microstructure of the steel was banded and the orientation of microstructural banding with respect to the fatigue specimen was varied. Due to the inclusion shape control resulting from the calcium additions, inclusions in the steel were not elongated in the direction of the banding. It was found that microstructure banding does not have a significant influence on the fatigue properties of the steel tested. Furthermore, the fatigue limit increase with case depth is primarily related to the bending stress near the location of crack nucleation.

  4. Landsat TM and ETM+ thermal band calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Helder, D.L.; Hook, S.J.; Markham, B.L.; Chander, G.; O'Donnell, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-5 has been imaging the Earth since March 1984, and Landsat-7 was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The Landsat Project Science Office and the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System have been monitoring the on-board calibration of Landsat-7 since launch. Additionally, two separate university teams have been evaluating the on-board thermal calibration of Landsat-7 through ground-based measurements since launch. Although not monitored as closely over its lifetime, a new effort is currently being made to validate the calibration of Landsat-5. Two university teams are beginning to collect ground truth under Landsat-5, along with using other vicarious calibration methods to go back into the archive to validate the history of the calibration of Landsat-5. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments. Though stable since launch, Landsat-7 had an initial calibration error of about 3 K, and changes were made to correct for this beginning 1 October 2000 for data processed with the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) and beginning 20 December 2000 for data processed with the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS). Recent results from Landsat-5 vicarious calibration efforts show an offset of –0.7 K over the lifetime of the instrument. This suggests that historical calibration efforts may have been detecting errors in processing systems rather than changes in the instrument. A correction to the Landsat-5 processing has not yet been implemented but will be in the near future.

  5. The HubBLe Trial: haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) versus rubber band ligation (RBL) for symptomatic second- and third-degree haemorrhoids: a multicentre randomised controlled trial and health-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Tiernan, Jim; Biggs, Katie; Hind, Daniel; Shephard, Neil; Bradburn, Mike; Wailoo, Allan; Alshreef, Abualbishr; Swaby, Lizzie; Watson, Angus; Radley, Simon; Jones, Oliver; Skaife, Paul; Agarwal, Anil; Giordano, Pasquale; Lamah, Marc; Cartmell, Mark; Davies, Justin; Faiz, Omar; Nugent, Karen; Clarke, Andrew; MacDonald, Angus; Conaghan, Phillip; Ziprin, Paul; Makhija, Rohit

    2016-11-01

    Optimal surgical intervention for low-grade haemorrhoids is unknown. Rubber band ligation (RBL) is probably the most common intervention. Haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) is a novel alternative that may be more efficacious. The comparison of HAL with RBL for the treatment of grade II/III haemorrhoids. A multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. UK NHS and Personal Social Services. 17 NHS Trusts. Patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting with grade II/III (second- and third-degree) haemorrhoids, including those who have undergone previous RBL. HAL with Doppler probe compared with RBL. Primary outcome - recurrence at 1 year post procedure; secondary outcomes - recurrence at 6 weeks; haemorrhoid severity score; European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, 5-level version (EQ-5D-5L); Vaizey incontinence score; pain assessment; complications; and cost-effectiveness. A total of 370 participants entered the trial. At 1 year post procedure, 30% of the HAL group had evidence of recurrence compared with 49% after RBL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 3.51; p = 0.0005]. The main reason for the difference was the number of extra procedures required to achieve improvement/cure. If a single HAL is compared with multiple RBLs then only 37.5% recurred in the RBL arm (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.15; p = 0.20). Persistence of significant symptoms at 6 weeks was lower in both arms than at 1 year (9% HAL and 29% RBL), suggesting significant deterioration in both groups over the year. Symptom score, EQ-5D-5L and Vaizey score improved in both groups compared with baseline, but there was no difference between interventions. Pain was less severe and of shorter duration in the RBL group; most of the HAL group who had pain had mild to moderate pain, resolving by 3 weeks. Complications were low frequency and not significantly different between groups. It appeared that HAL was not cost-effective compared with RBL. In the base

  6. The HubBLe Trial: haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) versus rubber band ligation (RBL) for symptomatic second- and third-degree haemorrhoids: a multicentre randomised controlled trial and health-economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven; Tiernan, Jim; Biggs, Katie; Hind, Daniel; Shephard, Neil; Bradburn, Mike; Wailoo, Allan; Alshreef, Abualbishr; Swaby, Lizzie; Watson, Angus; Radley, Simon; Jones, Oliver; Skaife, Paul; Agarwal, Anil; Giordano, Pasquale; Lamah, Marc; Cartmell, Mark; Davies, Justin; Faiz, Omar; Nugent, Karen; Clarke, Andrew; MacDonald, Angus; Conaghan, Phillip; Ziprin, Paul; Makhija, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optimal surgical intervention for low-grade haemorrhoids is unknown. Rubber band ligation (RBL) is probably the most common intervention. Haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) is a novel alternative that may be more efficacious. OBJECTIVE The comparison of HAL with RBL for the treatment of grade II/III haemorrhoids. DESIGN A multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. PERSPECTIVE UK NHS and Personal Social Services. SETTING 17 NHS Trusts. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting with grade II/III (second- and third-degree) haemorrhoids, including those who have undergone previous RBL. INTERVENTIONS HAL with Doppler probe compared with RBL. OUTCOMES Primary outcome - recurrence at 1 year post procedure; secondary outcomes - recurrence at 6 weeks; haemorrhoid severity score; European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, 5-level version (EQ-5D-5L); Vaizey incontinence score; pain assessment; complications; and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS A total of 370 participants entered the trial. At 1 year post procedure, 30% of the HAL group had evidence of recurrence compared with 49% after RBL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 3.51; p = 0.0005]. The main reason for the difference was the number of extra procedures required to achieve improvement/cure. If a single HAL is compared with multiple RBLs then only 37.5% recurred in the RBL arm (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.15; p = 0.20). Persistence of significant symptoms at 6 weeks was lower in both arms than at 1 year (9% HAL and 29% RBL), suggesting significant deterioration in both groups over the year. Symptom score, EQ-5D-5L and Vaizey score improved in both groups compared with baseline, but there was no difference between interventions. Pain was less severe and of shorter duration in the RBL group; most of the HAL group who had pain had mild to moderate pain, resolving by 3 weeks. Complications were low frequency and not significantly different

  7. Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2014-10-16

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy's lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel.

  8. Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy’s lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. CONCLUSION: EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel. PMID:25324920

  9. Z-plasty lengthening for iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Boothby, Michael H; Troop, Randal L

    2007-10-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome presents with lateral knee pain usually in runners. When conservative treatment fails, surgical lengthening, or Z-plasty, can provide symptomatic relief. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term results of iliotibial band Z-plasty for chronic iliotibial band friction syndrome in a consecutive series of patients. Inclusion criteria were failed nonoperative treatment for symptomatic iliotibial band friction syndrome for at least 3 months, minimum age of 17 years, and closed growth plates. Exclusion criteria were history of significant trauma, prior knee surgery, lateral compartment pathology, and anterior or posterior cruciate ligament instability. Postoperative evaluation included annual physical examination consisting of Tegner, Lysholm, Cincinnati, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) activity scores. Of an initial group of 11 patients, 8 were evaluated an average of 75.6 months postoperatively (range: 59-97 months). Average length of preoperative symptoms was 15.6 months (range: 3-36 months), and average length of nonoperative management was 6.9 months (range: 3-24 months). Postoperatively, mean Cincinnati score was 82.9 (range: 55-95), Tegner score was 4.4 (range: 2-7), Lysholm score was 88.6 (range: 57-100), and IKDC activity score was 2.6 (range: 1-4). No adverse events occurred during surgery. All patients reported complete resolution of lateral knee pain and a full return to preoperative activity levels. Iliotibial Z-plasty was successful for refractory iliotibial band friction syndrome. This improvement was maintained out to 8 years after surgery.

  10. Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathai, C. V.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.

    1977-01-01

    An acoustic excitation technique is used to determine the adiabatic pressure derivative of the spectral absorptance of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands, and the 3.5 micron HCl band. The dependence of this derivative on thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, concentration, and pressure is evaluated. A cross-flow water vapor system is used to measure spectral absorptance. Taking F as the ratio of nonrigid to rotor line strengths, it is found that an F factor correction is needed for the 2.7 micron band. The F factor for the 1.9 micron band is also determined. In the wings of each band a wavelength can be found where the concentration dependence is predominant. Farther out in the wings a local maximum occurs for the temperature derivative. It is suggested that the pressure derivative is significant in the core of the band.

  11. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    DOE PAGES

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less

  12. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  13. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  14. Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  15. Effective band structure of random alloys.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-06-11

    Random substitutional A(x)B(1-x) alloys lack formal translational symmetry and thus cannot be described by the language of band-structure dispersion E(k(→)). Yet, many alloy experiments are interpreted phenomenologically precisely by constructs derived from wave vector k(→), e.g., effective masses or van Hove singularities. Here we use large supercells with randomly distributed A and B atoms, whereby many different local environments are allowed to coexist, and transform the eigenstates into an effective band structure (EBS) in the primitive cell using a spectral decomposition. The resulting EBS reveals the extent to which band characteristics are preserved or lost at different compositions, band indices, and k(→) points, showing in (In,Ga)N the rapid disintegration of the valence band Bloch character and in Ga(N,P) the appearance of a pinned impurity band.

  16. Multi-band slow light metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wu, Qun; Hua, Jun

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, a multi-band slow light metamaterial is presented and investigated. The metamaterial unit cell is composed of three cut wires of different sizes and parallel to each other. Two transparency windows induced by two-two overlaps of absorption bands of three cut wires are observed. The multi-band transmission characteristics and the slow light properties of metamaterial are verified by numerical simulation, which is in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The impacts of structure parameters on transparency windows are also investigated. Simulation results show the spectral properties can be tuned by adjusting structure parameters of metamaterial. The equivalent circuit model and the synthesis method of the multi-band slow light metamaterial are presented. It is seen from simulation results that the synthesis method accurately predicts the center frequency of the multi-band metamaterial, which opens a door to a quick and accurate construction for multi-band slow light metamaterial.

  17. Proposed Chiral Doublet Bands in 98Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huai-Bo; Zhu, Sheng-Jiang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Gu, Long; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Yeoha, Eing-Yee; Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Li-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Ying; He, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Lie-Lin; Pan, Bo; Li, Guang-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    High spin states in odd-odd98 Tc nuclei are studied by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy with the 96Zr(6Li, 4n) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 35 MeV. The previous level scheme is updated. A band based on 1090.7 keV is expanded, and another band based on 1920.6 keV is newly identified. The observed two negative parity bands in 98Tc are proposed to be a pair of chiral doublet bands with the configuration πg9/2 otimes νh11/2. The evidence supporting the assignment of the chiral doublet bands is discussed. Signature splitting and signature inversion are observed in the πg9/2 otimes νh11/2 band in 98Tc.

  18. Topology of two-band superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Iyo, A.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Crisan, A.; Sundaresan, A.; Terada, N.

    2010-12-01

    Two-band superconductivity has a topology different from that in single-band superconductivity. The topology is not always stabilized in an infinitely homogeneous sample. The morphology, grain shape, and pattern of the device (topology of the superconducting materials) is effective in stabilizing the topology. In this report, we discuss a vortex having a small magnetic flux but a large winding number as one plausible topology in a two-band superconductor.

  19. Iliotibial Band Lengthening: An Arthroscopic Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Mease, Samuel J; Issa, Kimona; Festa, Anthony; McInerney, Vincent K; Scillia, Anthony J

    2017-06-01

    Iliotibial (IT) band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in runners and cyclists. Many can be treated nonoperatively; however, some may require surgical lengthening of their IT band to achieve optimal pain relief and a return to preinjury level of activity. Several studies have been published detailing surgical lengthening procedures and satisfactory outcomes after these procedures. However, it is important to continue to improve on and optimize outcomes. We present our arthroscopic IT band-lengthening procedure.

  20. Artificial Oxide Heterostructures with Tunable Band Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-21

    exchange interaction is crucially dependent on the hybridization between the magnetic cation and its surrounding oxygen cage. The above is an...distortion through the metal- oxygen bonding angles and lengths. By using the coupling between magnetic and the ferroelectric orderings, the band structure...magnetic cation and its surrounding oxygen cage. The above is an electronic band structure property including both the valence and conduction bands, as

  1. Shadow bands recorded at February 26 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strach, E. H.

    1998-06-01

    Shadow bands are a curious phenomenon occurring a few minutes before and after a total eclipse of the Sun. They have been seen at many eclipses in the past to a varying intensity but they are notoriously difficult to photograph. These ripples of light and dark bands move very fast and attempts have been made to capture them on cine or video. Shadow bands were captured on video at the eclipse of 1998 February 26.

  2. Dust Bands in the Asteroid Belt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-08

    Infrared cirrus: new components of the extended infrared emission. Astroph. J. (Letters) 278, L19-L22. Melosh , H.J. (1989) Impact Cratering . Oxford...most dust bands lids a significant impact on the number of bands which are possible to observe. So, from the original three bands reported by Low et al...velocities ( Melosh 1989), which yields a greater dispersion in orbital elements for small particles than large particles. Moreover, in a plausible

  3. X-BAND KLYSTRON DEVELOPMENT AT SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, Arnold E.; /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    The development of X-band klystrons at SLAC originated with the idea of building an X-band Linear Collider in the late 1980's. Since then much effort has been expended in developing a reliable X-band Power source capable of delivering >50 MW RF power in pulse widths >1.5 {micro}s. I will report on some of the technical issues and design strategies which have led to the current SLAC klystron designs.

  4. The formation of multiple adiabatic shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, F.; Wright, T. W.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2006-07-01

    In a previous paper, Zhou et al. [2006. A numerical methodology for investigating adiabatic shear band formation. J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54, 904-926] developed a numerical method for analyzing one-dimensional deformation of thermoviscoplastic materials. The method uses a second order algorithm for integration along characteristic lines, and computes the plastic flow after complete localization with high resolution and efficiency. We apply this numerical scheme to analyze localization in a thermoviscoplastic material where multiple shear bands are allowed to form at random locations in a large specimen. As a shear band develops, it unloads neighboring regions and interacts with other bands. Beginning with a random distribution of imperfections, which might be imagined as arising qualitatively from the microstructure, we obtain the average spacing of shear bands through calculations and compare our results with previously existing theoretical estimates. It is found that the spacing between nucleating shear bands follows the perturbation theory due to Wright and Ockendon [1996. A scaling law for the effect of inertia on the formation of adiabatic shear bands. Int. J. Plasticity 12, 927-934], whereas the spacing between mature shear bands is closer to that predicted by the momentum diffusion theory of Grady and Kipp [1987. The growth of unstable thermoplastic shear with application to steady-wave shock compression in solids. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 35, 95-119]. Scaling laws for the dependence of band spacing on material parameters differ in many respects from either theory.

  5. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  6. Superdeformed bands in {sup 189}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Ellis, D.E.; Riedinger, L.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.; Fallon, P.

    1998-11-01

    Two superdeformed bands of 10 transitions each have been found in {sup 189}Tl extending the mass 190 region of superdeformation down to neutron number N=108. The new bands can be interpreted as signature partners and are proposed to be based on a proton i{sub 13/2} ({Omega}=5/2) configuration, in analogy with the yrast superdeformed band structures in the heavier odd-mass Tl isotopes. The dynamic moments of inertia of all these bands show no noticeable differences as function of N, consistent with an essentially constant quadrupole deformation from the center of the island to its edges. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Localization of weakly disordered flat band states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykam, Daniel; Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Flach, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Certain tight binding lattices host macroscopically degenerate flat spectral bands. Their origin is rooted in local symmetries of the lattice, with destructive interference leading to the existence of compact localized eigenstates. We study the robustness of this localization to disorder in different classes of flat band lattices in one and two dimensions. Depending on the flat band class, the flat band states can either be robust, preserving their strong localization for weak disorder W, or they are destroyed and acquire large localization lengths ξ that diverge with a variety of unconventional exponents ν, ξ 1 / W ν .

  8. Simultaneous dual-band radar development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskow, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to design and construct an airborne imaging radar operating simultaneously at L band and X band with an all-inertial navigation system in order to form a dual-band radar system are described. The areas of development include duplex transmitters, receivers, and recorders, a control module, motion compensation for both bands, and adaptation of a commercial inertial navigation system. Installation of the system in the aircraft and flight tests are described. Circuit diagrams, performance figures, and some radar images are presented.

  9. Diffuse interstellar bands in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, O.; Henning, Thomas; Pfau, Werner; Stognienko, R.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code for radiation transport calculations is used to compare the profiles of the lambda lambda 5780 and 6613 Angstrom diffuse interstellar bands in the transmitted and the reflected light of a star embedded within an optically thin dust cloud. In addition, the behavior of polarization across the bands were calculated. The wavelength dependent complex indices of refraction across the bands were derived from the embedded cavity model. In view of the existence of different families of diffuse interstellar bands the question of other parameters of influence is addressed in short.

  10. Energy band alignment at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuermeier, Jonas; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Klein, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The energy band alignments at interfaces often determine the electrical functionality of a device. Along with the size reduction into the nanoscale, functional coatings become thinner than a nanometer. With the traditional analysis of the energy band alignment by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy, a critical film thickness is needed to determine the valence band offset. By making use of the Auger parameter, it becomes possible to determine the energy band alignment to coatings, which are only a few Ångström thin. This is demonstrated with experimental data of Cu2O on different kinds of substrate materials.

  11. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands.

    PubMed

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L; Fornari, Marco

    2016-02-24

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, "band warping" is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band "corrugation" as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest.

  12. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-01-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  13. Cloud Bands Streak Across Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured this view of bands of bright, feathery methane clouds drifting across Saturn's moon Titan on May 7, 2017. The view was obtained during a distant (non-targeted) flyby, during which Cassini passed 303,000 miles (488,000 kilometers) above the moon's surface. Although Cassini will have no further close, targeted flybys of Titan, the spacecraft continues to observe the giant moon and its atmosphere from a distance. The dark regions at top are Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and seas. The image was taken on May 7, 2017, at a distance of 316,000 miles (508,000 kilometers). The view is an orthographic projection centered on 57 degrees north latitude, 48 degrees west longitude. An orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer. Image scale is about 2 miles (3 kilometers) per pixel. The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agen https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21450

  14. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  15. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  16. Band engineering of thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanzhong; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G J

    2012-12-04

    Lead chalcogenides have long been used for space-based and thermoelectric remote power generation applications, but recent discoveries have revealed a much greater potential for these materials. This renaissance of interest combined with the need for increased energy efficiency has led to active consideration of thermoelectrics for practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. The simple high symmetry NaCl-type cubic structure, leads to several properties desirable for thermoelectricity, such as high valley degeneracy for high electrical conductivity and phonon anharmonicity for low thermal conductivity. The rich capabilities for both band structure and microstructure engineering enable a variety of approaches for achieving high thermoelectric performance in lead chalcogenides. This Review focuses on manipulation of the electronic and atomic structural features which makes up the thermoelectric quality factor. While these strategies are well demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, the principles used are equally applicable to most good thermoelectric materials that could enable improvement of thermoelectric devices from niche applications into the mainstream of energy technologies.

  17. Glycophorin A: Band 3 aid.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Rosalind C; Toye, Ashley M

    2008-01-01

    Band 3 (B3) is a major site of cytoskeletal attachment to the erythrocyte membrane and is important for gas exchange. A truncated isoform of B3 (kB3) is expressed in the alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney and its functional activity and basolateral localization are essential for acid secretion. B3 mutations generally lead to red blood cell (RBC) specific disease (hereditary spherocytosis (HS), Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis or hereditary stomatocytosis) or kidney disease (distal Renal Tubular Acidosis--dRTA). It is rare for both the RBC and kidney disease phenotypes to co-exist, but this does occur in knockout mice, and also in humans (B3 Coimbra and B3 Courcouronne) or cattle with homozygous HS mutations. This is because RBCs express a B3 chaperone-like molecule in the form of Glycophorin A that can rescue the majority of B3 mutations that cause dRTA but probably not the majority of HS mutations. The study of naturally occurring B3 variant blood and expression of B3 or kB3 mutants in heterologous expression systems has provided valuable information concerning B3 trafficking and interactions in the RBC and kidney. This article will review these studies and comment on our current understanding of the interaction between GPA with B3 and also on the proposed B3 centred macrocomplex.

  18. Band head spin assignment of Tl isotopes of superdeformed rotational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Alpana; Nair, Uma V. Sasidharan; Yadav, Archana

    2014-09-01

    The Variable Moment of Inertia (VMI) model is proposed for the assignment of band head spin of super deformed (SD) rotational bands, which in turn is helpful in the spin prediction of SD bands. The moment of inertia and stiffness parameter (C), were calculated by fitting the proposed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are highly dependent on the prescribed spins. The calculated and observed transition energies agree well when an accurate band head spin ( I 0) is assigned. The results are in good agreement with other theoretical results reported in literature. In this paper, we have reported the band head spin value 16 rotational band of super deformed Tl isotopes.

  19. Band head spin assignment of Tl isotopes of superdeformed rotational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Alpana; Nair, Uma; Yadav, Archana

    2014-09-01

    The Variable Moment of Inertia (VMI) model is proposed for the assignment of band head spin of super deformed (SD) rotational bands, which in turn is helpful in the spin prediction of SD bands. The moment of inertia and stiffness parameter (C), were calculated by fitting the proposed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are highly dependent on the prescribed spins. The calculated and observed transition energies agree well when an accurate band head spin (I 0) is assigned. The results are in good agreement with other theoretical results reported in literature. In this paper, we have reported the band head spin value 16 rotational band of super deformed Tl isotopes.

  20. The "Birmingham stitch"--avoiding slippage in laparoscopic gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rishi; Kitchen, Mark; Ndirika, Sandra; Hunt, Kathryn; Bridgwater, Sue; Super, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Slippage rates of 1.4-24 % are frequently quoted after adjustable gastric banding. This complication can be extremely serious and has contributed to many units offering more invasive interventions in the surgical management of morbid obesity. We present results of the first 1,140 Laparoscopic Bands performed in our unit. Between April 2003 and June 2007, 1140 consecutive patients, mean weight 121.5 kg (range 73-268 kg), mean body mass index (BMI) 44.3 kg/m(2) (range 35-88) underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). An identical surgical technique of one gastropexy suture in addition to the two routine gastro-gastro tunnel sutures was used in all cases. Fluoroscopy-guided adjustments were performed at 3 and 6 months and fluoroscopic evaluations were performed later if clinically indicated. There was no mortality and only one major septic complication of gastric perforation 1 week postoperatively which was managed conservatively. The mean stay was 1.02 days (range 0-30 days). Excess percent BMI loss in these patients at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months were 25.4%, 34.7%, 38.3%, 41.1%, 43.7%, 44.4%, and 58.9%, respectively. Slippage with urgent readmission occurred in one patient (0.08%) at 5 months. Two partial slippages were noticed at 12 and 18 months, respectively. One patient had the band removed and the other was treated by band deflation and repositioning 6 months later. These results demonstrate that in our unit, laparoscopic gastric band insertion is successful in producing weight loss and at the same time has a very low slippage and pouch dilatation rate. This difference is most probably secondary to operative technique.

  1. Tracker implementation for the orbiter Ku-band communications antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnicki, J. F.; Lindsey, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Possible implementations and recommendations for the Space Shuttle Ku-Band integrated communications/radar antenna tracking system were evaluated. Communication aspects involving the Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)/Orbiter Ku-Band link are emphasized. Detailed analysis of antenna sizes, gains and signal-to-noise ratios shows the desirability of using maximum size 36-inch diameter dish and a triple channel monopulse. The use of the original baselined 20 inch dish is found to result in excessive acquisition time since the despread signal would be used in the tracking loop. An evaluation of scan procedures which includes vehicle dynamics, designation error, time for acquisition and probability of acquisition shows that the conical scan is preferred since the time for lock-on for relatively slow look angle rates will be significantly shorter than the raster scan. Significant improvement in spherical coverage may be obtained by reorienting the antenna gimbal to obtain maximum blockage overlap.

  2. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  3. L-band maritime experiments. [using ATS 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandel, D. L.; Kaminsky, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for the technical experiments conducted by the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) using the ATS-6 satellite operating in the L-band fan beam mode. The MARAD experiments were conducted with satellite terminals placed on two commercial ships for evaluation of the communication service similar to that which will be available with a maritime commercial satellite system. Evaluation of position determination with a satellite was also made. Three modems having voice and digital data and a stabilized shipboard L-band antenna system were assessed. The ship antenna demonstrated successful tracking of the satellites for test period intervals of 4 to 6 hr without the need for operator adjustment. The ship position determination tests showed good measurement repeatability. The data analyzed supported the ability of future commercial satellite systems to achieve a probability of bit error of better than 0.00001.

  4. A narrow band pattern-matching model of vowel perception.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, James M; Houde, Robert A

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate a new model of vowel perception which assumes that vowel identity is recognized by a template-matching process involving the comparison of narrow band input spectra with a set of smoothed spectral-shape templates that are learned through ordinary exposure to speech. In the present simulation of this process, the input spectra are computed over a sufficiently long window to resolve individual harmonics of voiced speech. Prior to template creation and pattern matching, the narrow band spectra are amplitude equalized by a spectrum-level normalization process, and the information-bearing spectral peaks are enhanced by a "flooring" procedure that zeroes out spectral values below a threshold function consisting of a center-weighted running average of spectral amplitudes. Templates for each vowel category are created simply by averaging the narrow band spectra of like vowels spoken by a panel of talkers. In the present implementation, separate templates are used for men, women, and children. The pattern matching is implemented with a simple city-block distance measure given by the sum of the channel-by-channel differences between the narrow band input spectrum (level-equalized and floored) and each vowel template. Spectral movement is taken into account by computing the distance measure at several points throughout the course of the vowel. The input spectrum is assigned to the vowel template that results in the smallest difference accumulated over the sequence of spectral slices. The model was evaluated using a large database consisting of 12 vowels in /hVd/ context spoken by 45 men, 48 women, and 46 children. The narrow band model classified vowels in this database with a degree of accuracy (91.4%) approaching that of human listeners.

  5. A narrow band pattern-matching model of vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, James M.; Houde, Robert A.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate a new model of vowel perception which assumes that vowel identity is recognized by a template-matching process involving the comparison of narrow band input spectra with a set of smoothed spectral-shape templates that are learned through ordinary exposure to speech. In the present simulation of this process, the input spectra are computed over a sufficiently long window to resolve individual harmonics of voiced speech. Prior to template creation and pattern matching, the narrow band spectra are amplitude equalized by a spectrum-level normalization process, and the information-bearing spectral peaks are enhanced by a ``flooring'' procedure that zeroes out spectral values below a threshold function consisting of a center-weighted running average of spectral amplitudes. Templates for each vowel category are created simply by averaging the narrow band spectra of like vowels spoken by a panel of talkers. In the present implementation, separate templates are used for men, women, and children. The pattern matching is implemented with a simple city-block distance measure given by the sum of the channel-by-channel differences between the narrow band input spectrum (level-equalized and floored) and each vowel template. Spectral movement is taken into account by computing the distance measure at several points throughout the course of the vowel. The input spectrum is assigned to the vowel template that results in the smallest difference accumulated over the sequence of spectral slices. The model was evaluated using a large database consisting of 12 vowels in /hVd/ context spoken by 45 men, 48 women, and 46 children. The narrow band model classified vowels in this database with a degree of accuracy (91.4%) approaching that of human listeners.

  6. Photonic Band Gap resonators for high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, S.; Smith, D.R.; Kroll, N. |

    1993-12-31

    We have proposed that a new type of microwave resonator, based on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures, may be particularly useful for high energy accelerators. We provide an explanation of the PBG concept and present data which illustrate some of the special properties associated with such structures. Further evaluation of the utility of PBG resonators requires laboratory testing of model structures at cryogenic temperatures, and at high fields. We provide a brief discussion of our test program, which is currently in progress.

  7. Plasmon Nano-Optics: Designing Novel Nano-Tools for Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidant, Romain

    Light plays a growing role in health science especially with the recent developments of new optical techniques that enable imaging biological processes down to the molecular scale and monitor dynamically physiological mechanisms in patients. In parallel, recent groundbreaking advances in nanotechnologies have opened new perspectives in medicine, for instance in creating new therapies or designing novel compact and highly sensitive diagnostic platforms. In this chapter, the aim is to discuss recent research that sits at the convergence of photonics, nanotechnology, and health. This research is based on the extraordinary optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (MNP) supporting Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) (see Chap. 4 10.1007/978-3-642-28079-5_4".. We discuss how plasmonic MNP can be used as nano-sources of either light or heat for biological and medical applications.

  8. Nanotools for Megaproblems: Probing Protein Misfolding Diseases Using Nanomedicine Modus Operandi

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2007-01-01

    Misfolding and self-assembly of proteins in nanoaggregates of different sizes and morphologies (nanoensembles, primary nanofilaments, nanorings, filaments, protofibrils, fibrils, etc.) is a common theme unifying a number of human pathologies termed protein misfolding diseases. Recent studies highlight increasing recognition of the public health importance of protein misfolding diseases, including various neurodegenerative disorders and amyloidoses. It is understood now that the first essential elements in the vast majority of neurodegenerative processes are misfolded and aggregated proteins. Altogether, the accumulation of abnormal protein nanoensembles exerts toxicity by disrupting intracellular transport, overwhelming protein degradation pathways, and/or disturbing vital cell functions. In addition, the formation of inclusion bodies is known to represent a major problem in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Formulation of these therapeutic proteins into delivery systems and their in vivo delivery are often complicated by protein association. Thus, protein folding abnormalities and subsequent events underlie a multitude of human pathologies and difficulties with protein therapeutic applications. The field of medicine therefore can be greatly advanced by establishing a fundamental understanding of key factors leading to misfolding and self-assembly responsible for various protein folding pathologies. This article overviews protein misfolding diseases and outlines some novel and advanced nanotechnologies, including nanoimaging techniques, nanotoolboxes and nanocontainers, complemented by appropriate ensemble techniques, all focused on the ultimate goal to establish etiology and to diagnose, prevent, and cure these devastating disorders. PMID:17022621

  9. Nanotools and molecular techniques to rapidly identify and fight bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Dinarelli, S; Girasole, M; Kasas, S; Longo, G

    2016-01-20

    Reducing the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is one of the major healthcare issues of our century. In addition to the increased mortality, infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria drastically enhance the healthcare costs, mainly because of the longer duration of illness and treatment. While in the last 20years, bacterial identification has been revolutionized by the introduction of new molecular techniques, the current phenotypic techniques to determine the susceptibilities of common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require at least two days from collection of clinical samples. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to determine rapidly drug susceptibility in bacteria and to achieve faster diagnoses. These techniques would also lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the insurgence of the resistance, greatly helping the quest for new antibacterial systems and drugs. In this review, we describe some of the tools most currently used in clinical and microbiological research to study bacteria and to address the challenge of infections. We discuss the most interesting advancements in the molecular susceptibility testing systems, with a particular focus on the many applications of the MALDI-TOF MS system. In the field of the phenotypic characterization protocols, we detail some of the most promising semi-automated commercial systems and we focus on some emerging developments in the field of nanomechanical sensors, which constitute a step towards the development of rapid and affordable point-of-care testing devices and techniques. While there is still no innovative technique that is capable of completely substituting for the conventional protocols and clinical practices, many exciting new experimental setups and tools could constitute the basis of the standard testing package of future microbiological tests.

  10. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  11. [Clinical usefulness of oligoclonal bands].

    PubMed

    Falip, M; Tintoré, M; Jardí, R; Duran, I; Link, H; Montalbán, X

    The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is in our days the most useful finding in the study of the CSF for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The most sensitive method for the detection of OCB is the isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. The prevalence of OCB changes in different populations with a rank of results from 60 to 95 97%. We have determined the prevalence of OCB in our population and the sensitivity and the specificity of the technique used in our laboratory. We have included 391 patients in whom we analysed the presence of OCB, subdivided in; Group 0: Diagnosed of MS, group 1: First episode of demyelinating process, group 2: Neurological disorders considered noninflammatory or nonautoimmune (NINA),group 3: Neurological disorders considered inflammatory, infectious or autoimmune (IIA). The presence of OCB was searched in CSF and serum simultaneously using isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. In order to standardize the technique we achieved and internal and external validation. Internal validation: sensitivity and specificity (using as a control group first the group NINA and after the group IA). External validation: we choose 10 pairs of CSF/serum from patients with different diagnostics and sent to a reference laboratory ( Karolinska Institute Medical School) that was blind of our results and of the diagnostics. The prevalence of OCB in each group has been: group 0 (MS): 87.7%, group 1: 54.8%, group 2 (NINA): 17.5%, group 3(IIA): 52.7%. Sensitivity: 97.7%, specificity using group NINA as control 82.5% and using group IIA 45.7%. Concordance with the reference laboratory in 9/10 determinations. We conclude that in our population the prevalence of OCB, in patients with MS, is lower than in Northern Europe. The OCB appear in may inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, their specificity for the diagnostic of MS is low.

  12. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

  13. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

  14. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander

    2006-01-01

    . In addition, DSN performed well. However, there are concerns with the active pointing of the Ka-band antennas as well as delivery of the monitor data from the stations. The spacecraft also presented challenges not normally associated with planetary missions mostly because of its very high equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP). This caused problems in accurately evaluating the in-flight EIRP of the spacecraft which led to difficulties evaluating the quality of the HGA calibration data. These led to the development of additional measurement techniques that could be used for future high-power deep space missions.

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander

    2006-01-01

    . In addition, DSN performed well. However, there are concerns with the active pointing of the Ka-band antennas as well as delivery of the monitor data from the stations. The spacecraft also presented challenges not normally associated with planetary missions mostly because of its very high equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP). This caused problems in accurately evaluating the in-flight EIRP of the spacecraft which led to difficulties evaluating the quality of the HGA calibration data. These led to the development of additional measurement techniques that could be used for future high-power deep space missions.

  16. Nucleation of shear bands in amorphous alloys

    PubMed Central

    Perepezko, John H.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Chen, Ming-Wei; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of shear bands is an important mode of localized inhomogeneous deformation that occurs in a wide range of materials. In metallic glasses, shear band development is considered to center on a structural heterogeneity, a shear transformation zone that evolves into a rapidly propagating shear band under a shear stress above a threshold. Deformation by shear bands is a nucleation-controlled process, but the initiation process is unclear. Here we use nanoindentation to probe shear band nucleation during loading by measuring the first pop-in event in the load–depth curve which is demonstrated to be associated with shear band formation. We analyze a large number of independent measurements on four different bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys and reveal the operation of a bimodal distribution of the first pop-in loads that are associated with different shear band nucleation sites that operate at different stress levels below the glass transition temperature, Tg. The nucleation kinetics, the nucleation barriers, and the density for each site type have been determined. The discovery of multiple shear band nucleation sites challenges the current view of nucleation at a single type of site and offers opportunities for controlling the ductility of BMG alloys. PMID:24594599

  17. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.212 - Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or more bands within each occupational cluster. (b) Each occupational cluster may include, but is not... of non-supervisory duties of a position in an occupational cluster. (3) Senior Expert—work that... occupational cluster, occupational series, and/or band. DHS may use the qualification standards established...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.212 - Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or more bands within each occupational cluster. (b) Each occupational cluster may include, but is not... of non-supervisory duties of a position in an occupational cluster. (3) Senior Expert—work that... occupational cluster, occupational series, and/or band. DHS may use the qualification standards established...

  20. Dual band tuned radomes for radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, E. C.; Naor, M.; Smolski, A. P.

    Highly effective dual-band tuning methods have been developed for sandwich panel-structure radome joints, simultaneously reducing perturbations to the joints in both the PSR and SSR bands. The new methodology, which solves the logistic problems associated with the previously used zoned tuning method, allows greater flexibility in the use of the same radome with different radars.

  1. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  2. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  3. Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

  4. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated for...

  5. Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

  6. Convex Banding of the Covariance Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Jacob; Bunea, Florentina; Xiao, Luo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new sparse estimator of the covariance matrix for high-dimensional models in which the variables have a known ordering. Our estimator, which is the solution to a convex optimization problem, is equivalently expressed as an estimator which tapers the sample covariance matrix by a Toeplitz, sparsely-banded, data-adaptive matrix. As a result of this adaptivity, the convex banding estimator enjoys theoretical optimality properties not attained by previous banding or tapered estimators. In particular, our convex banding estimator is minimax rate adaptive in Frobenius and operator norms, up to log factors, over commonly-studied classes of covariance matrices, and over more general classes. Furthermore, it correctly recovers the bandwidth when the true covariance is exactly banded. Our convex formulation admits a simple and efficient algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate its practical effectiveness and illustrate that our exactly-banded estimator works well even when the true covariance matrix is only close to a banded matrix, confirming our theoretical results. Our method compares favorably with all existing methods, in terms of accuracy and speed. We illustrate the practical merits of the convex banding estimator by showing that it can be used to improve the performance of discriminant analysis for classifying sound recordings. PMID:28042189

  7. And the Band Played on--Almost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann

    2009-01-01

    High school band teacher, Mr. Alex Smith, received a request from the Republican presidential campaign for the marching band to perform at an upcoming local rally at which both the presidential and vice-presidential candidates would appear. With support from the principal and superintendent, Mr. Smith moved forward with plans for a Monday…

  8. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. (a) The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. (a) The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated...

  10. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. (a) The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated...

  11. Hazing in the College Marching Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Jason M.; Hudson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hazing in collegiate marching bands. Specifically, the researchers were interested in marching band students' experiences with hazing behaviors, to whom they were reported, attitudes toward hazing, and level of awareness of institutional hazing policies. Using a multistage cluster sampling approach, we…

  12. Shuttle S-band communications technical concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyl, J. W.; Seibert, W. W.; Porter, J. A.; Eggers, D. S.; Novosad, S. W.; Vang, H. A.; Lenett, S. D.; Lewton, W. A.; Pawlowski, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the S-band communications system, shuttle orbiter can communicate directly with the Earth via the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN) or via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The S-band frequencies provide the primary links for direct Earth and TDRSS communications during all launch and entry/landing phases of shuttle missions. On orbit, S-band links are used when TDRSS Ku-band is not available, when conditions require orbiter attitudes unfavorable to Ku-band communications, or when the payload bay doors are closed. the S-band communications functional requirements, the orbiter hardware configuration, and the NASA S-band communications network are described. The requirements and implementation concepts which resulted in techniques for shuttle S-band hardware development discussed include: (1) digital voice delta modulation; (2) convolutional coding/Viterbi decoding; (3) critical modulation index for phase modulation using a Costas loop (phase-shift keying) receiver; (4) optimum digital data modulation parameters for continuous-wave frequency modulation; (5) intermodulation effects of subcarrier ranging and time-division multiplexing data channels; (6) radiofrequency coverage; and (7) despreading techniques under poor signal-to-noise conditions. Channel performance is reviewed.

  13. Hazing in the College Marching Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Jason M.; Hudson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hazing in collegiate marching bands. Specifically, the researchers were interested in marching band students' experiences with hazing behaviors, to whom they were reported, attitudes toward hazing, and level of awareness of institutional hazing policies. Using a multistage cluster sampling approach, we…

  14. Shuttle S-band communications technical concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyl, J. W.; Seibert, W. W.; Porter, J. A.; Eggers, D. S.; Novosad, S. W.; Vang, H. A.; Lenett, S. D.; Lewton, W. A.; Pawlowski, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the S-band communications system, shuttle orbiter can communicate directly with the Earth via the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN) or via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The S-band frequencies provide the primary links for direct Earth and TDRSS communications during all launch and entry/landing phases of shuttle missions. On orbit, S-band links are used when TDRSS Ku-band is not available, when conditions require orbiter attitudes unfavorable to Ku-band communications, or when the payload bay doors are closed. the S-band communications functional requirements, the orbiter hardware configuration, and the NASA S-band communications network are described. The requirements and implementation concepts which resulted in techniques for shuttle S-band hardware development discussed include: (1) digital voice delta modulation; (2) convolutional coding/Viterbi decoding; (3) critical modulation index for phase modulation using a Costas loop (phase-shift keying) receiver; (4) optimum digital data modulation parameters for continuous-wave frequency modulation; (5) intermodulation effects of subcarrier ranging and time-division multiplexing data channels; (6) radiofrequency coverage; and (7) despreading techniques under poor signal-to-noise conditions. Channel performance is reviewed.

  15. Japanese Bands: What Makes Them So Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Many high school and junior high school concert bands in Japan are performing on a level equal to America's college bands. Reasons why include long hours in rehearsal; the prominent role students play in the organization, preparation, and administration of the ensemble; and the strong sense of fellowship and cooperation. (RM)

  16. Concert Band Instrumentation: Realities and Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests ways to solve problems resulting from imbalanced instrumentation in school concert bands. Identifies sources of imbalance. Encourages band directors to plan for correct instrumentation, to match students' characteristics and abilities to instruments, and to recruit students to play needed instruments. Discusses the benefits of balanced…

  17. Convex Banding of the Covariance Matrix.

    PubMed

    Bien, Jacob; Bunea, Florentina; Xiao, Luo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new sparse estimator of the covariance matrix for high-dimensional models in which the variables have a known ordering. Our estimator, which is the solution to a convex optimization problem, is equivalently expressed as an estimator which tapers the sample covariance matrix by a Toeplitz, sparsely-banded, data-adaptive matrix. As a result of this adaptivity, the convex banding estimator enjoys theoretical optimality properties not attained by previous banding or tapered estimators. In particular, our convex banding estimator is minimax rate adaptive in Frobenius and operator norms, up to log factors, over commonly-studied classes of covariance matrices, and over more general classes. Furthermore, it correctly recovers the bandwidth when the true covariance is exactly banded. Our convex formulation admits a simple and efficient algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate its practical effectiveness and illustrate that our exactly-banded estimator works well even when the true covariance matrix is only close to a banded matrix, confirming our theoretical results. Our method compares favorably with all existing methods, in terms of accuracy and speed. We illustrate the practical merits of the convex banding estimator by showing that it can be used to improve the performance of discriminant analysis for classifying sound recordings.

  18. A Band, A Community, An Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Edith Brill

    1981-01-01

    When the Cardozo High School band marched in the 1981 Rose Bowl parade, it became the first band from the District of Columbia to do so. The event sparked community spirit and support for the large school in an impoverished, troubled area of the district. (SK)

  19. And the Band Played on--Almost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann

    2009-01-01

    High school band teacher, Mr. Alex Smith, received a request from the Republican presidential campaign for the marching band to perform at an upcoming local rally at which both the presidential and vice-presidential candidates would appear. With support from the principal and superintendent, Mr. Smith moved forward with plans for a Monday…

  20. 5 CFR 9701.212 - Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or more bands within each occupational cluster. (b) Each occupational cluster may include, but is not... of non-supervisory duties of a position in an occupational cluster. (3) Senior Expert—work that... occupational cluster, occupational series, and/or band. DHS may use the qualification standards established...