Science.gov

Sample records for bar code scanner

  1. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  2. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  3. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  4. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  5. Handheld laser scanner automatic registration based on random coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Yu, Chun-ping; Wang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Current research on Laser Scanner often focuses mainly on the static measurement. Little use has been made of dynamic measurement, that are appropriate for more problems and situations. In particular, traditional Laser Scanner must Keep stable to scan and measure coordinate transformation parameters between different station. In order to make the scanning measurement intelligently and rapidly, in this paper ,we developed a new registration algorithm for handleheld laser scanner based on the positon of target, which realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner without any more complex work. the double camera on laser scanner can take photograph of the artificial target points to get the three-dimensional coordinates, this points is designed by random coding. And then, a set of matched points is found from control points to realize the orientation of scanner by the least-square common points transformation. After that the double camera can directly measure the laser point cloud in the surface of object and get the point cloud data in an unified coordinate system. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, a laser scanner based on binocular vision is designed with double camera and one laser head. By those, the real-time orientation of laser scanner is realized and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, the coding marker is introduced to solve the data matching, a random coding method is proposed. Compared with other coding methods,the marker with this method is simple to match and can avoid the shading for the object. Finally, a recognition method of coding maker is proposed, with the use of the distance recognition, it is more efficient. The method present here can be used widely in any measurement from small to huge obiect, such as vehicle, airplane which strengthen its intelligence and efficiency. The results of experiments and theory analzing demonstrate that proposed method could realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser

  6. Superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2004-05-01

    A superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner is presented that has the potential to provide 4 pi-sr coverage. As a proof-of-concept experiment, an angular scan range of 288 degrees for six randomly distributed beams is demonstrated. The proposed scanner achieves its superwide coverage by exploiting a combination of phase-encoded transmission and reflection holography within an in-line hologram recording-retrieval geometry. The basic scanner unit consists of one phase-only digital mode spatial light modulator for code entry (i.e., beam scan control) and a holographic material from which we obtained what we believe is the first-of-a-kind extremely wide coverage, low component count, high speed (e.g., microsecond domain), and large aperture (e.g., > 1-cm diameter) scanner.

  7. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  8. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  9. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  10. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  11. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act are subject to these bar code... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) What drugs are subject to these bar code requirements?...

  12. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the...

  13. 21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section 201.25...: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers, repackers, relabelers, and private label distributors of...

  14. System Design Considerations In Bar-Code Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1984-08-01

    The unified transfer function approach to the design of laser barcode scanner signal acquisition hardware is considered. The treatment of seemingly disparate system areas such as the optical train, the scanning spot, the electrical filter circuits, the effects of noise, and printing errors is presented using linear systems theory. Such important issues as determination of depth of modulation, filter specification, tolerancing of optical components, and optimi-zation of system performance in the presence of noise are discussed. The concept of effective spot size to allow for impact of optical system and analog processing circuitry upon depth of modulation is introduced. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles, but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic bar-code symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  15. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  16. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  17. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  18. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  19. An Innovative Class Registration Method Based on Bar Code Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Raoul J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes system of computerized class registration utilizing bar code input which is part of the Student Data System, developed by Management Information Division of the Los Angeles Unified School District. An explanation of the system notes the hardware used, printing of bar code labels, registration procedures, and operational aspects. (EJS)

  20. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label...

  1. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  2. Using bar codes for material control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1997-04-01

    Modern computers have become an important part of almost all business operations, including nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). However the effectiveness of any computer hardware/software system is a function of the input data provided to it. To maximize the benefit from a computer, timely (ideally, real-time) and accurate data are required. This paper presents the benefits of using automatic data collection, and more specifically bar code technology. Bar coding is a simple and cost effective keyless data entry solution that has been widely adopted in world commerce and government agencies. Since its introduction to the first MINATOM facility in 1995, bar code activities at other facilities have increased. Tasks to integrate bar code technology with computerized MC&A, equipment, and training workshops have been an important part of the USDOE/MINATOM collaboration.

  3. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  4. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; Vidhya, J; Anuradha, R; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R; Senthileagappan, A R

    2015-08-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure.

  5. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Venkateshwaran, Rajendran; Vidhya, J.; Anuradha, R.; Mary, Gold Pealin; Pradeep, R.; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure. PMID:26538876

  6. 76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements... Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers'' dated August 2011. The guidance announced in... alternative coding technologies to the linear bar code requirement. The guidance announced in this...

  7. Applications of Bar Code Technology in the Construction Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    per week. This is an indication that we have much better control of our inventory " ( Ryan 87 ). Producto Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut... marketing and patenting advanced technologies to encourage firms to take on the risks involved. Our country, however, has no such policy. Until it does...assistance in marketing and patenting their achievements. 2) The Department of Defense, who already requires bar codes on all supplies accepted into

  8. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management.

  9. 76 FR 12847 - Change of Address; Requests for Exemption From the Bar Code Label Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Bar Code Label Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... the address for submitting bar code exemption requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research... update the address for submitting bar code exemption requests to CDER. The new address for...

  10. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies.

  11. The case for bar coding: better information, better care--and better business.

    PubMed

    May, Ellen Lanser

    2003-01-01

    Bar coding, pervasive in almost all other industries, has been slow to infiltrate the healthcare setting. for years, disparate systems, a lack of standardization, and an absence of significant market incentives have hindered healthcare providers, IT vendors, and drug manufacturers alike in adopting bar coding technology. But thanks to a proposed FDA rule issued last Spring, bar coding is is edging its way to the top of many IT priority lists. By mid-2004, the final rule should be passed, which will require all drugmakers to bar code prescription drug products at the unit dose level. The bar code will identify the drug, manufacture, strength of the medication, and dosage.

  12. Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which

  13. Bar Code Technology, A Means to Improve Operational Efficiency and Internal Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    will not deal in detail with the variety of support equipment, e.g., bar code label printers, battery chargers , field recorders, display terminals and...transmission to CPU, and battery charger . b. Stationary, desk top readers - $1 000 per unit. Price includes preprogramme unction buttons to suit user’s...343 of 9" Bar Code (or Code 39) 11111111 iii1 II lii lIliiiI The 3 of 9 bar code is of variable-length, bidirectional , discrete, self-checking, and

  14. Field depth extension of 2D barcode scanner based on wavefront coding and projection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingyu; Ye, Zi; Zhang, Wenzi; Huang, Weiwei; Yu, Feihong

    2008-03-01

    Wavefront coding (WFC) used in 2D barcode scanners can extend the depth of field into a great extent with simpler structure compared to the autofocus microscope system. With a cubic phase mask (CPM) employed in the STOP, blurred images will be obtained in charge coupled device (CCD), which can be restored by digital filters. Direct methods are used widely in real-time restoration with good computational efficiency but with details smoothed. Here, the results of direct method are firstly filtered by hard-threshold function. The positions of the steps can be detected by simple differential operators. With the positions corrected by projection algorithm, the exact barcode information is restored. A wavefront coding system with 7mm effective focal length and 6 F-number is designed as an example. Although with the different magnification, images of different object distances can be restored by one point spread function (PSF) with 200mm object distance. A QR code (Quickly Response Code) of 31mm X 27mm is used as a target object. The simulation results showed that the sharp imaging objective distance is from 80mm to 355mm. The 2D barcode scanner with wavefront coding extends field depth with simple structure, low cost and large manufacture tolerance. This combination of the direct filter and projection algorithm proposed here could get the exact 2D barcode information with good computational efficiency.

  15. Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

    1988-02-01

    The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system.

  16. Multiplexed Detection of Cytokines Based on Dual Bar-Code Strategy and Single-Molecule Counting.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Dai, Shuang; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-02

    Cytokines play important roles in the immune system and have been regarded as biomarkers. While single cytokine is not specific and accurate enough to meet the strict diagnosis in practice, in this work, we constructed a multiplexed detection method for cytokines based on dual bar-code strategy and single-molecule counting. Taking interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as model analytes, first, the magnetic nanobead was functionalized with the second antibody and primary bar-code strands, forming a magnetic nanoprobe. Then, through the specific reaction of the second antibody and the antigen that fixed by the primary antibody, sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed on the substrate. Next, the primary bar-code strands as amplification units triggered multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR), producing nicked double-stranded polymers with multiple branched arms, which were served as secondary bar-code strands. Finally, the secondary bar-code strands hybridized with the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, generating enhanced fluorescence signals. The numbers of fluorescence dots were counted one by one for quantification with epi-fluorescence microscope. By integrating the primary and secondary bar-code-based amplification strategy and the multimolecule labeled fluorescence probes, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits were both 5 fM. Unlike the typical bar-code assay that the bar-code strands should be released and identified on a microarray, this method is more direct. Moreover, because of the selective immune reaction and the dual bar-code mechanism, the resulting method could detect the two targets simultaneously. Multiple analysis in human serum was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in early clinical diagnosis.

  17. 75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements--Questions and Answers (Question 12... advice concerning compliance with the bar code label requirements. In this guidance, FDA is proposing...

  18. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

  19. 77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  20. Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code

    PubMed Central

    Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Against the odds of membrane resistance, members of the BIN/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily shape membranes and their activity is indispensable for a plethora of life functions. While crystal structures of different BAR dimers advanced our understanding of membrane shaping by scaffolding and hydrophobic insertion mechanisms considerably, especially life-imaging techniques and loss-of-function studies of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with its gradually increasing curvature show that the initial idea that solely BAR domain curvatures determine their functions is oversimplified. Diagonal placing, lateral lipid-binding modes, additional lipid-binding modules, tilde shapes and formation of macromolecular lattices with different modes of organisation and arrangement increase versatility. A picture emerges, in which BAR domain proteins create macromolecular platforms, that recruit and connect different binding partners and ensure the connection and coordination of the different events during the endocytic process, such as membrane invagination, coat formation, actin nucleation, vesicle size control, fission, detachment and uncoating, in time and space, and may thereby offer mechanistic explanations for how coordination, directionality and effectiveness of a complex process with several steps and key players can be achieved. PMID:21878992

  1. Nurses' attitudes toward the use of the bar-coding medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sana Daya; Hasman, Arie; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Dimassi, Hani

    2010-01-01

    This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the United States had the chance to respond to the e-questionnaire posted on the CARING list server for the months of June and July 2007. Participants rated their satisfaction with bar-coding medication administration system use based on system functionality, usability, and its positive/negative impact on the nursing practice. Results showed, to some extent, positive attitude, but the image profile draws attention to nurses' concerns for improving certain system characteristics. The high bar-coding medication administration system skills revealed a more negative perception of the system by the nursing staff. The reasons underlying dissatisfaction with bar-coding medication administration use by skillful users are an important source of knowledge that can be helpful for system development as well as system deployment. As a result, strengthening bar-coding medication administration system usability by magnifying its ability to eliminate medication errors and the contributing factors, maximizing system functionality by ascertaining its power as an extra eye in the medication administration process, and impacting the clinical nursing practice positively by being helpful to nurses, speeding up the medication administration process, and being user-friendly can offer a congenial settings for establishing positive attitude toward system use, which in turn leads to successful bar-coding medication administration system use.

  2. High-beamforming power-code-multiplexed optical scanner for three-dimensional displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Muzammil A.; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2003-11-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) displays play an important role in the field of entertainment. Today, research is being conducted to produce 3-D displays to meet the complex needs of high-functionality full motion 3D displays at reasonable cost, but without glasses, complicated viewing arrangements or restricted fields of view. Other applications for 3-D displays include but are not limited to CAD/Design simulation, advanced data representation, displaying complex 3-D information for automotive design, medical imaging, advanced navigation displays, scientific visualization, and advertising. The key element in all these applications is an optical beam scanner that can display 3-D images for large viewing angles. Our proposed Code Multiplexed Optical Scanner (C-MOS) can fulfill all these requirements with its high beamforming power capabilities. Our proposed experiment demonstrates three dimensional (3-D) beam scanning with large angles (e.g., > 160°), large centimeter size aperture, and scanning speed of <300 μsec. The robust construction and simple operation of the C-MOS makes it very useful and attractive for deployment in the field of entertainment, defense and medical imaging. Here we report the application of the C-MOS for three dimensional (3-D) displays.

  3. Laser identification system based on acousto-optical barcode scanner principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansuvarov, Ruslan A.; Korol, Georgy I.; Preslenev, Leonid N.; Bestugin, Aleksandr R.; Paraskun, Arthur S.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the bar code in the modern world is the unique identification of the product, service, or any of their features, so personal and stationary barcode scanners so widely used. One of the important parameters of bar code scanners is their reliability, accuracy of the barcode recognition, response time and performance. Nowadays, the most popular personal barcode scanners contain a mechanical part, which extremely impairs the reliability indices. Group of SUAI engineers has proposed bar code scanner based on laser beam acoustic deflection effect in crystals [RU patent No 156009 issued 4/16/2015] Through the use of an acousto-optic deflector element in barcode scanner described by a group of engineers SUAI, it can be implemented in the manual form factor, and the stationary form factor of a barcode scanner. Being a wave electronic device, an acousto-optic element in the composition of the acousto-optic barcode scanner allows you to clearly establish a mathematical link between the encoded function of the bar code with the accepted input photodetector intensities function that allows you to speak about the great probability of a bar code clear definition. This paper provides a description of the issued patent, the description of the principles of operation based on the mathematical analysis, a description of the layout of the implemented scanner.

  4. Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Brantley

    2016-01-01

    A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.

  5. 76 FR 66235 - Bar Code Technologies for Drugs and Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 610 Bar Code Technologies for Drugs and Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  6. The Efficacy of Patients’ Wristband Bar-code on Prevention of Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Khammarnia, M.; Kassani, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Patient misidentification, as a major patient safety issue, occurs in any healthcare setting and leads to inappropriate medical procedures, diagnosis or treatment, with serious outcomes. Objectives The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of wristband bar-code medication scanning to reduce medical errors (ME). Methods A meta-analysis study was conducted. The relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus from 1990 to March 2015. Thereafter, the studies retrieved were screened based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted, and the quality of the included studies was evaluated using the STROBE checklist. Results In total, 14 articles involving 483 cases were included. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of wristband bar-code medication scanning can reduce the ME around 57.5% (OR=0.425, 95% CI: 0.28-0.65, P<0.001). The study results showed a marked heterogeneity in the subgroup analysis (I-squared=98%). This was I2=70.35, P-value=0.018 for the type of samples and I2=99%, P-value<0.001 for years and countries. Conclusion Wristband bar-code medication scanning can decrease the ME in hospital setting. Since the patient’s safety is the main goal of the World Health Organization, it is recommended that a unique patient identification barcode should be used with name, medical record number, and bar-coded financial number. PMID:26767066

  7. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes

  8. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    DOE PAGES

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; ...

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with anymore » transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes. However, the current strategies for TnSeq are

  9. Challenges implementing bar-coded medication administration in the emergency room in comparison to medical surgical units.

    PubMed

    Glover, Nancy

    2013-03-01

    Bar-coded medication administration has been successfully implemented and utilized to decrease medication errors at a number of hospitals in recent years. The purpose of this article was to discuss the varying success in utilization of bar-coded medication administration on medical-surgical units and in the emergency department. Utilization reports were analyzed to better understand the challenges between the units. Many factors negatively impacted utilization in the emergency department, including the inability to use bar-coded medication administration for verbal orders or to document medications distributed by the prescribing providers, unique aspects of emergency department nursing workflow, additional steps to chart when using bar-coded medication administration, and alert fatigue. Hardware problems affected all users. Bar-coded medication administration in its current form is more suitable for use on medical-surgical floors than in the emergency department. New solutions should be developed for bar-coded medication administration in the emergency department, keeping in mind requirements to chart medications when there is no order in the system, document medications distributed by prescribing providers, adapt to unpredictable nursing workflow, minimize steps to chart with bar-coded medication administration, limit alerts to those that are clinically meaningful, and choose reliable hardware with adequate bar-code scanning capability.

  10. Patient safety with blood products administration using wireless and bar-code technology.

    PubMed

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a 'big bang,' hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Preliminary results from pilot data indicate that the new barcode process captures errors 3 to 10 times better than the old manual process.

  11. Laser Scanner For Automatic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A.; Rebordao, Jose M.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    The automated magazines are beeing used at industry more and more. One of the problems related with the automation of a Store House is the identification of the products envolved. Already used for stock management, the Bar Codes allows an easy way to identify one product. Applied to automated magazines, the bar codes allows a great variety of items in a small code. In order to be used by the national producers of automated magazines, a devoted laser scanner has been develloped. The Prototype uses an He-Ne laser whose beam scans a field angle of 75 degrees at 16 Hz. The scene reflectivity is transduced by a photodiode into an electrical signal, which is then binarized. This digital signal is the input of the decodifying program. The machine is able to see barcodes and to decode the information. A parallel interface allows the comunication with the central unit, which is responsible for the management of automated magazine.

  12. Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining hospital nurses' behavioral intentions toward the use of bar code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Lunar; Park, Byeonghwa; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-04-01

    Serious medication errors continue to exist in hospitals, even though there is technology that could potentially eliminate them such as bar code medication administration. Little is known about the degree to which the culture of patient safety is associated with behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study evaluated the relationships among patient safety culture and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration technology among nurses in hospitals. Cross-sectional surveys with a convenience sample of 163 nurses using bar code medication administration were conducted. Feedback and communication about errors had a positive impact in predicting perceived usefulness (β=.26, P<.01) and perceived ease of use (β=.22, P<.05). In a multiple regression model predicting for behavioral intention, age had a negative impact (β=-.17, P<.05); however, teamwork within hospital units (β=.20, P<.05) and perceived usefulness (β=.35, P<.01) both had a positive impact on behavioral intention. The overall bar code medication administration behavioral intention model explained 24% (P<.001) of the variance. Identified factors influencing bar code medication administration behavioral intention can help inform hospitals to develop tailored interventions for RNs to reduce medication administration errors and increase patient safety by using this technology.

  13. Use of bar code labels on collection tubes for specimen management in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tilzer, L L; Jones, R W

    1988-12-01

    A new generation in specimen handling has arrived with the introduction of bar code readers on medical laboratory equipment. The incorporation of this technology into laboratory information systems offers a streamlining of specimen workflow never before achievable in a laboratory environment. The use of evacuated collection tubes as the primary sampling container on a random-access chemistry analyzer interfaced to a laboratory information system creates a very simplified sampling/analysis system with tremendous advantages. There are significant labor savings, superior service to clinicians, and reduced chances for clerical error.

  14. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  15. Evaluation of the personalized bar-code identification card to verify high-risk, high-alert medications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria

    2013-09-01

    An effective intervention to decrease medication errors related to high-risk, high-alert medications is to implement double checks and second verification using the five rights of medication administration. To evaluate the effectiveness and use of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification card in verifying high-risk, high-alert medications, the High-Risk, High-Alert Medication Verification Audit Tool was used to collect data from the medical records of patients who received high-risk, high-alert medications in four ICUs. Data were collected for administered high-risk, high-alert medication, primary registered nurses who administered the high-risk, high-alert medication, and secondary registered nurses who verified the medication. The percentage of medications that were "not verified," "Personalized Bar-Code Identification verified," and "verified" using a method other than the Personalized Bar-Code Identification was calculated and compared using Z tests for two proportions. The percentage of Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications (83.5%) was significantly higher than the percentage of medications that were not verified (10.9%) (Z = 38.43, P < .05). Also, the difference between the proportion of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications and those that were verified using another method (5.6%) was significant (Z = 41.42, P < .05). The results show that nurses generally tend to follow the standardized procedure for verifying high-risk, high-alert medications in the four ICUs.

  16. A Cost-Benefit Between Pyxis and Bar Coding for the Brooke Army Medical Center Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-29

    22630 - Lumbar Fusion (single interspace, posterior interbody technique), to 10.1%, CPT code 33405, Prosthetic Heart Valve (Aortic). Table 5. Manual...Calculations vs. Pyxis CPT Code Title Manual E Variance 22612 Lumbar Fusion (posterior or $1,048.59 $1059.30 $10.71 posterolateral technique)(single (1...interspace) 22558 Anterior Lumbar Interbody $1054.72 $1090.18 $35.46 Fusion Pyxis vs. Bar Coding 30 (3.2%) 22630 Lumber Fusion (single $4819.88

  17. The evolution of Sex-linked barring alleles in chickens involves both regulatory and coding changes in CDKN2A.

    PubMed

    Schwochow Thalmann, Doreen; Ring, Henrik; Sundström, Elisabeth; Cao, Xiaofang; Larsson, Mårten; Kerje, Susanne; Höglund, Andrey; Fogelholm, Jesper; Wright, Dominic; Jemth, Per; Hallböök, Finn; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Dorshorst, Ben; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Andersson, Leif

    2017-04-01

    Sex-linked barring is a fascinating plumage pattern in chickens recently shown to be associated with two non-coding and two missense mutations affecting the ARF transcript at the CDKN2A tumor suppressor locus. It however remained a mystery whether all four mutations are indeed causative and how they contribute to the barring phenotype. Here, we show that Sex-linked barring is genetically heterogeneous, and that the mutations form three functionally different variant alleles. The B0 allele carries only the two non-coding changes and is associated with the most dilute barring pattern, whereas the B1 and B2 alleles carry both the two non-coding changes and one each of the two missense mutations causing the Sex-linked barring and Sex-linked dilution phenotypes, respectively. The data are consistent with evolution of alleles where the non-coding changes occurred first followed by the two missense mutations that resulted in a phenotype more appealing to humans. We show that one or both of the non-coding changes are cis-regulatory mutations causing a higher CDKN2A expression, whereas the missense mutations reduce the ability of ARF to interact with MDM2. Caspase assays for all genotypes revealed no apoptotic events and our results are consistent with a recent study indicating that the loss of melanocyte progenitors in Sex-linked barring in chicken is caused by premature differentiation and not apoptosis. Our results show that CDKN2A is a major locus driving the differentiation of avian melanocytes in a temporal and spatial manner.

  18. A bio-inspired sensor coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction for Hg(2+) assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifeng; Zhu, Xi; Ye, Hongzhi; Yu, Lishuang; Chen, Guonan; Chi, Yuwu; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-10-18

    In this article, a bio-inspired DNA sensor is developed, which is coupled with a bio-bar code and hybridization chain reaction. This bio-inspired sensor has a high sensitivity toward Hg(2+), and has been used to assay Hg(2+) in the extraction of Bauhinia championi with good satisfaction.

  19. Nanoparticle-Based Bio-Bar Codes for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Shad Thaxton, C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2003-09-01

    An ultrasensitive method for detecting protein analytes has been developed. The system relies on magnetic microparticle probes with antibodies that specifically bind a target of interest [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in this case] and nanoparticle probes that are encoded with DNA that is unique to the protein target of interest and antibodies that can sandwich the target captured by the microparticle probes. Magnetic separation of the complexed probes and target followed by dehybridization of the oligonucleotides on the nanoparticle probe surface allows the determination of the presence of the target protein by identifying the oligonucleotide sequence released from the nanoparticle probe. Because the nanoparticle probe carries with it a large number of oligonucleotides per protein binding event, there is substantial amplification and PSA can be detected at 30 attomolar concentration. Alternatively, a polymerase chain reaction on the oligonucleotide bar codes can boost the sensitivity to 3 attomolar. Comparable clinically accepted conventional assays for detecting the same target have sensitivity limits of ~3 picomdar, six orders of magnitude less sensitive than what is observed with this method.

  20. Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

  1. Enhancing transfusion safety with an innovative bar-code-based tracking system.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Ryan W; McGrane, Steve P; Reifert, Dan R; Kemp, John D

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to reduce transfusion errors, a novel, comprehensive, computerized wireless bar-code-based tracking system for matching patients, blood samples and blood products was created and deployed at a major academic medical centre. With a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, software was developed to track scans at the times of sample collection, sample arrival in the blood bank, blood product dispensation from the blood bank and blood product administration. The system was deployed in February 2005. The system was well accepted from the outset, and the sample rejection rate due to clerical errors fell from 1.82 to 0.17%; incident reports fell by 83%. At the final blood administration step, the accumulated data as of November 2008 indicated that identification errors were being detected and prevented every 42.4 days and that the scan completion rate was stable at about 99%. Process analysis suggested that these were independent events and, thus, would be expected to coincide (and potentially produce a mis-transfusion) every 4,240 days (11.6 years) on average. We estimate that the system is 10 times safer than the manual system previously employed at our institution and may be 15-20 times safer than most systems employed in the United States.

  2. Chandra Reads the Cosmic Bar Code of Gas Around a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    An international team of astronomers has used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make an energy bar code of hot gas in the vicinity of a giant black hole. These measurements, the most precise of their kind ever made with an X-ray telescope, demonstrate the existence of a blanket of warm gas that is expanding rapidly away from the black hole. The team consists of Jelle Kaastra, Rolf Mewe and Albert Brinkman of Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON) in Utrecht, Duane Liedahl of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., and Stefanie Komossa of Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany. A report of their findings will be published in the March issue of the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Kaastra and colleagues used the Low Energy Transmission Grating in conjunction with the High Resolution Camera to measure the number of X rays present at each energy. With this information they constructed an X-ray spectrum of the source. Their target was the central region, or nucleus of the galaxy NGC 5548, which they observed for 24 hours. This galaxy is one of a class of galaxies known to have unusually bright nuclei that are associated with gas flowing around and into giant black holes. This inflow produces an enormous outpouring of energy that blows some of the matter away from the black hole. Astronomers have used optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray telescopes in an effort to disentangle the complex nature of inflowing and outflowing gas at different distances from the black hole in NGC 5548. X-ray observations provide a ringside seat to the action around the black hole. By using the Low Energy Transmission Grating, the Dutch-US-German team concentrated on gas that forms a warm blanket that partially covers the innermost region where the highest energy X-rays are produced. As the high-energy X rays stream away from the vicinity of the black hole, they heat the blanketing gas to temperatures of a few million degrees, and the blanket absorbs some

  3. Modeling nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration technology at a pediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Roger L; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Design Cross-sectional survey of registered nurses (N=83) at an academic pediatric hospital that recently implemented BCMA. Methods Surveys assessed seven BCMA-related perceptions: ease of use; usefulness for the job; social influence from non-specific others to use BCMA; training; technical support; usefulness for patient care; and social influence from patients/families. An all possible subset regression procedure with five goodness-of-fit indicators was used to identify which set of perceptions best predicted BCMA acceptance (intention to use, satisfaction). Results Nurses reported a moderate perceived ease of use and low perceived usefulness of BCMA. Nurses perceived moderate-or-higher social influence to use BCMA and had moderately positive perceptions of BCMA-related training and technical support. Behavioral intention to use BCMA was high, but satisfaction was low. Behavioral intention to use was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived social influence from non-specific others, and perceived usefulness for patient care (56% of variance explained). Satisfaction was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness for patient care, and perceived social influence from patients/families (76% of variance explained). Discussion Variation in and low scores on ease of use and usefulness are concerning, especially as these variables often correlate with acceptance, as found in this study. Predicting acceptance benefited from using a broad set of perceptions and adapting variables to the healthcare context. Conclusion Success with BCMA and other technologies can benefit from assessing end-user acceptance and elucidating the factors promoting acceptance and use. PMID:22661559

  4. Non-Logistics Bar Code Uses for the Department of Defense: Illustrative Applications for the Naval Postgraduate School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    late 1960’s through about 1976, engineers in many different companies developed their own symbology. Figure D. 1 shows selections from this...application by Bruce Dobras dated March 29, 1972 (resulting in U.S. Patent 3784792 reissued as RE. 28198). A variation of Codabar was among the original...McDonald, R.A., "Bar Code Systems Enhance Productivity of Computer Systems with Real-time Mode," Industrial Engineering , Vol. 17, No. 11, November

  5. Development of enzyme-based bar code-style lateral-flow assay for hydrogen peroxide determination.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ka-Kei; Chan, Cangel Pui-Yee; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2009-02-16

    A unique approach of developing a bar code version of lateral-flow enzymatic-based assay for the semi-quantification of hydrogen peroxide is described. The proposed assay system is mainly composed of a goat anti-mouse IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (Gt anti-M IgG-HRP)-coated nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and a peroxidase substrate pad. Unlike the bar code immunochromatographic assay which depends on the stepwise capture of analyte, the principle of enzyme-based bar code lateral-flow assay is based on the different reaction time on successive lines due to the delay in 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) release. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) acts as a limiting factor which controls the rate of the enzymatic conversion of TMB to blue color complex. The system expresses the concentration of H(2)O(2) in micromole range as three distinct ladder bars in 9 min therefore without the need of any reading device. The major advantages of this assay are its easily readable result, and also its simplicity and low-cost in production offers a cheaper alternative for testing those expensive biosensors might not be available to the third world countries. By incorporating with H(2)O(2)-generating oxidoreductases, the assay can be further extended to detect a variety of analytes with clinical and environmental importance. Glucose was chosen to be the model analyte where the proposed system gave signal response at between 5 microM and 100 microM.

  6. An evaluation process for an electronic bar code medication administration information system in an acute care unit.

    PubMed

    Bargren, Michelle; Lu, Der-Fa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present an evaluation process and recommendations for addressing the gaps found with the implementation of a new bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology in a busy acute care hospital unit. The case study analyzes workflow procedures associated with administration of medications in an inpatient labor and delivery care unit before and one year after implementation of BCMA technology. The comparison reveals a twofold increase in workflow procedures for nursing staff because of the new technology. System gaps are identified from a nursing user's perspective, and recommendations are offered to close those gaps.

  7. Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Wiedemann, Jens; Schwille, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal.

  8. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  9. Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA as signal amplifier for cancerous cells assay using ruthenium nanoparticle-based ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Hao, Shuangyuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

    2010-09-07

    Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA (bbc-DL-DNA) is employed as a label for the amplification assay of cancer cells in combination with the newly explored chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol-H(2)O(2)-Ru(3+) and specificity of structure-switching aptamers selected by cell-based SELEX.

  10. Fluorescence Lectin Bar-Coding of Glycoconjugates in the Extracellular Matrix of Biofilm and Bioaggregate Forming Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofilm systems are defined as interface-associated microorganisms embedded into a self-produced matrix. The extracellular matrix represents a continuous challenge in terms of characterization and analysis. The tools applied in more detailed studies comprise extraction/chemical analysis, molecular characterization, and visualisation using various techniques. Imaging by laser microscopy became a standard tool for biofilm analysis, and, in combination with fluorescently labelled lectins, the glycoconjugates of the matrix can be assessed. By employing this approach a wide range of pure culture biofilms from different habitats were examined using the commercially available lectins. From the results, a binary barcode pattern of lectin binding can be generated. Furthermore, the results can be fine-tuned and transferred into a heat map according to signal intensity. The lectin barcode approach is suggested as a useful tool for investigating the biofilm matrix characteristics and dynamics at various levels, e.g. bacterial cell surfaces, adhesive footprints, individual microcolonies, and the gross biofilm or bio-aggregate. Hence fluorescence lectin bar-coding (FLBC) serves as a basis for a subsequent tailor-made fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) of a particular biofilm. So far, the lectin approach represents the only tool for in situ characterization of the glycoconjugate makeup in biofilm systems.  Furthermore, lectin staining lends itself to other fluorescence techniques in order to correlate it with cellular biofilm constituents in general and glycoconjugate producers in particular. PMID:28208623

  11. Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. PMID:23860384

  12. Automation and adaptation: Nurses' problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2013-08-01

    The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses' operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA's impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians' work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign.

  13. Automation and adaptation: Nurses’ problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2012-01-01

    The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses’ operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA’s impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians’ work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign. PMID:24443642

  14. Cylindrical Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Thomas E.

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to send data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.

  15. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  16. DNA sequence-based "bar codes" for tracking the origins of expressed sequence tags from a maize cDNA library constructed using multiple mRNA sources.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fang; Guo, Ling; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Liu, Feng; Ashlock, Daniel A; Schnable, Patrick S

    2003-10-01

    To enhance gene discovery, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects often make use of cDNA libraries produced using diverse mixtures of mRNAs. As such, expression data are lost because the origins of the resulting ESTs cannot be determined. Alternatively, multiple libraries can be prepared, each from a more restricted source of mRNAs. Although this approach allows the origins of ESTs to be determined, it requires the production of multiple libraries. A hybrid approach is reported here. A cDNA library was prepared using 21 different pools of maize (Zea mays) mRNAs. DNA sequence "bar codes" were added during first-strand cDNA synthesis to uniquely identify the mRNA source pool from which individual cDNAs were derived. Using a decoding algorithm that included error correction, it was possible to identify the source mRNA pool of more than 97% of the ESTs. The frequency at which a bar code is represented in an EST contig should be proportional to the abundance of the corresponding mRNA in the source pool. Consistent with this, all ESTs derived from several genes (zein and adh1) that are known to be exclusively expressed in kernels or preferentially expressed under anaerobic conditions, respectively, were exclusively tagged with bar codes associated with mRNA pools prepared from kernel and anaerobically treated seedlings, respectively. Hence, by allowing for the retention of expression data, the bar coding of cDNA libraries can enhance the value of EST projects.

  17. A dual-amplified electrochemical detection of mRNA based on duplex-specific nuclease and bio-bar-code conjugates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Wang, Lin-Lin; Luo, Jie; Wei, Qing-Li

    2015-03-15

    On the basis of strong preference for cleaving double-stranded DNA or DNA in DNA:RNA heteroduplexes of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN), a dual-amplified electrochemical detection of mRNA was developed in this article, by coupling the enhancement of DSN and bio-bar-code conjugates. Capture probe was linked with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at its 5' end and bio-bar-code at its 3' end. In the presence of target surviving mRNA, all hybridized S1 strands were cleaved off the biosensor by the DSN, and the bio-bar-code probe with CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) was released into the solution. The metal sulfide nanoparticles were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) subsequently. This assay exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity with a detection limit of 0.48fM. In addition, we proved that this simple and cost-effective strategy is capable of detecting the target in complicated biological samples and holds great potential application in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  18. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  19. Optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, Mitchell W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for imaging lines in an object plane onto a linear array in a focal plane either continuously or discretely is described. The scanner consists of a set of four mutually perpendicularly oriented plane corner mirrors which provide a reflecting path that describes a parallelogram. In addition, there is a plane parallel scanning mirror with a front and back reflecting surface located midway between the first and fourth corner mirrors. It is oriented so that in the mid-scan position it is parallel to the first corner mirror, and therefore perpendicular to the fourth corner mirror. As the scan mirror rotates, rays incident from a plurality of lines in the object plane are selectively directed through the optical system arriving at a common intersection on the back surface of the scanning mirror where the rays are colinearly directed toward a lens and then imaged onto the linear array in the focal plane. A set of compensating mirrors may be introduced just before the imaging lens to compensate for a small and generally negligible path difference delta sub l between the axial and marginal rays.

  20. A character string scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enison, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program called Character String Scanner (CSS), is presented. It is designed to search a data set for any specified group of characters and then to flag this group. The output of the CSS program is a listing of the data set being searched with the specified group of characters being flagged by asterisks. Therefore, one may readily identify specific keywords, groups of keywords or specified lines of code internal to a computer program, in a program output, or in any other specific data set. Possible applications of this program include the automatic scan of an output data set for pertinent keyword data, the editing of a program to change the appearance of a certain word or group of words, and the conversion of a set of code to a different set of code.

  1. Temporal and spatial trends in prey composition of wahoo Acanthocybium solandri: a diet analysis from the central North Pacific Ocean using visual and DNA bar-coding techniques.

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Z S; Toonen, R J; Franklin, E C

    2016-04-01

    A diet analysis was conducted on 444 wahoo Acanthocybium solandri caught in the central North Pacific Ocean longline fishery and a nearshore troll fishery surrounding the Hawaiian Islands from June to December 2014. In addition to traditional observational methods of stomach contents, a DNA bar-coding approach was integrated into the analysis by sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region of the mtDNA genome to taxonomically identify individual prey items that could not be classified visually to species. For nearshore-caught A. solandri, juvenile pre-settlement reef fish species from various families dominated the prey composition during the summer months, followed primarily by Carangidae in autumn months. Gempylidae, Echeneidae and Scombridae were dominant prey taxa from the offshore fishery. Molidae was a common prey family found in stomachs collected north-east of the Hawaiian Archipelago while tetraodontiform reef fishes, known to have extended pelagic stages, were prominent prey items south-west of the Hawaiian Islands. The diet composition of A. solandri was indicative of an adaptive feeder and thus revealed dominant geographic and seasonal abundances of certain taxa from various ecosystems in the marine environment. The addition of molecular bar-coding to the traditional visual method of prey identifications allowed for a more comprehensive range of the prey field of A. solandri to be identified and should be used as a standard component in future diet studies.

  2. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system.

  3. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  4. Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2007-01-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-β-d-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all

  5. That's nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Brown, Roger L; Alper, Samuel J; Scanlon, Matthew C; Patel, Neal R; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-07-01

    Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses' perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses' perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations.

  6. That’s nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Brown, Roger L.; Alper, Samuel J.; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Patel, Neal R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses’ perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses’ perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations. PMID:21686318

  7. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s).

  8. Polygon scanners revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael N.

    1997-07-01

    The demands for increased throughput, pixel density, and format size in the laser beam imaging field continue to challenge opto-mechanical scanning products and the electronics that drive them. The polygon line scanner has superior scan rate and scan efficiency among candidate mechanical scanners but, historically, has had inferior cross- scan and in-scan accuracy. To date, due to cost considerations, these limitations have excluded the polygon scanner from practical use in high resolution, flat field, large format commercial applications. This paper illustrates the tradeoffs among the three most common mechanical scanners; single reflection rotary scanner, resonant galvanometric scanner, and polygon scanner. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the polygon scanner holds the best promise of advancing the state-of-art in reasonable cost, large format, high resolution, flat field imaging once the problems of cross-scan and in-scan errors are reconciled in the design of the system. Also introduced is a polygon scanning system that fulfills the requirements of an advanced flat field, large format line imaging platform.

  9. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  10. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  11. Biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Belgovskiy, Alexander I.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  12. Portable biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Sharonov, Alexei; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  13. Optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1983-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

  14. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  15. Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

  16. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  17. Investigation on Laser Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2004-09-30

    The study and purchase of a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of diverse metrology tasks at SLAC will be covered. Specifications including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution, field of view and more are discussed and the results of field tests and demonstrations by four potential vendors is covered. This will include details on the scanning of accelerator components in a now defunct ring on site and how the instruments compare.

  18. High throughput optical scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Basiji, David A.; van den Engh, Gerrit J.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  19. A Novel Transmission Scanner Framework for Real-Time Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Therefore, a feature, which is able to distinguish specific modulation types, might fail in applications where a signal with different modula- tion... Modulation Classification Methods for QAM Signals,” Tech. rep., Com- mand and Control Systems, 2005. [8] Dobre, O., Abdi, A., Bar-Ness, Y., and Su, W., “A...A Novel Transmission Scanner Framework for Real-Time Applications Dirk Kolb1,2, Ulla Uebler1, Elmar Nöth2 1 - MEDAV GmbH, Gräfenberger Str. 32-34

  20. Scanner focus metrology for advanced node scanner monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jimyung; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Taehwa; Kim, Suhyun; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il; Levinski, Vladimir; Kandel, Daniel; Feler, Yoel; Gutman, Nadav; Island-Ashwal, Eltsafon; Cooper, Moshe; Choi, DongSub; Herzel, Eitan; David, Tien; Kim, JungWook

    2015-03-01

    Scanner Focus window of the lithographic process becomes much smaller due to the shrink of the device node and multipatterning approach. Consequently, the required performance of scanner focus becomes tighter and more complicated. Focus control/monitoring methods such as "field-by-field focus control" or "intra-field focus control" is a necessity. Moreover, tight scanner focus performance requirement starts to raise another fundamental question: accuracy of the reported scanner focus. The insufficient accuracy of the reported scanner focus using the existing methods originates from: a) Focus measurement quality, which is due to low sensitivity of measured targets, especially around the nominal production focus. b) The scanner focus is estimated using special targets, e.g. large pitch target and not using the device-like structures (irremovable aberration impact). Both of these factors are eliminated using KLA-Tencor proprietary "Focus Offset" technology.

  1. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  3. What Scanner products are available?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... and longwave estimate. ERBS covers all 24-hour local time, but only for regions between 60N and 60S. Scanner and Nonscanner ... algorithm. Because of these differences, it is best to work with these two data sets separately. ERBE/ERBS scanner operated ...

  4. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  5. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  6. Laser Scanner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2005-09-06

    In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

  7. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  9. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  10. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  11. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  12. Microlithographically fabricated bar-coded microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena P.; Pham, Duy K.; Alekseeva, Yulia V.; Filipponi, Luisa; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2004-06-01

    The adsorption of five proteins with very different molecular characteristics, i.e. α-chymotrypsin, human serum albumin, human immunoglobulin, lysozyme, and myoglobin, has been characterized using quantitative fluorescence measurements and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the 'combinatorial' nature of the micro/nano-channels surface allows for the increased adsorption of molecularly different proteins, comparing with the adsorption on flat surfaces. This amplification increases for proteins with lower molecular surface that can capitalize better on the newly created surface and nano-environments. Importantly, the adsorption on micro/nano-fabricated structures appears to be less dependent on the local molecular descriptors, i.e. hydrophobicity and charges, due to the combinatorialization of the nano-areas presented to the proteins. The amplification of adsorption is important, ranging from 3- to 10-fold, with a higher amplification for smaller, globular proteins.

  13. Modeling scanner signatures in the context of OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaolin; Tyminski, Jacek K.; Lucas, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The requirement for OPC modeling accuracy becomes increasingly stringent as the semiconductor industry enters sub- 0.1um regime. Targeting at capturing the IC pattern printing characteristics through the lithography process, an OPC model is usually in the form of the first principle optical imaging component, refined by some phenomenological components such as resist and etch. The phenomenological components can be adjusted appropriately in order to fit the OPC model to the silicon measurement data. The optical imaging component is the backbone for the OPC model, and it is the key to a stable and physics-centric OPC model. Scanner systematic signatures such as illuminator pupil-fill, illuminator polarization, lens aberration, lens apodization, flare, etc., previously ignored without significant accuracy sacrifice at previous technology nodes, but are playing non-negligible roles at 45nm node and beyond. In order to ensure that the OPC modeling tool can accurately model these important scanner systematic signatures, the core engine (i.e. the optical imaging simulator) of OPC simulator must be able to model these signatures with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we study the impact on optical proximity effect (OPE) of the aforementioned scanner systematic signatures on several 1D (simple line space, doublet line and doublet space) and 2D (dense line end pullback, isolated line end pullback and T-bar line end pullback) OPC test patterns. We demonstrate that the scanner systematic signatures have significant OPE impact on the level of several nanometers. The predicted OPEs and impact from our OPC simulator matches well with results from an industry standard lithography simulator, and this has laid the foundation of accurate and physics-centric OPC model with the systematic scanner signatures incorporated.

  14. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  15. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  16. Choosing a Scanner: Points To Consider before Buying a Scanner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Outlines ten factors to consider before buying a scanner: size of document; type of document; color; speed and volume; resolution; image enhancement; image compression; optical character recognition; scanning subsystem; and the option to use a commercial bureau service. The importance of careful analysis of requirements is emphasized. (AEF)

  17. A case study in scanner optimisation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, N J; Gibson, N M

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound scanner preset programmes are factory set or tailored to user requirements. Scanners may, therefore, have different settings for the same application, even on similar equipment in a single department. The aims of this study were: (1) to attempt to match the performance of two scanners, where one was preferred and (2) to assess differences between six scanners used for breast ultrasound within our organisation. The Nottingham Ultrasound Quality Assurance software was used to compare imaging performance. Images of a Gammex RMI 404GS test object were collected from six scanners, using default presets, factory presets and settings matched to a preferred scanner. Resolution, low contrast performance and high contrast performance were measured. The performance of two scanners was successfully matched, where one had been preferred. Default presets varied across the six scanners, three different presets being used. The most used preset differed in settings across the scanners, most notably in the use of different frequency modes. The factory preset was more consistent across the scanners, the main variation being in dynamic range (55-70 dB). Image comparisons showed significant differences, which were reduced or eliminated by adjustment of settings to match a reference scanner. It is possible to match scanner performance using the Nottingham Ultrasound Quality Assurance software as a verification tool. Ultrasound users should be aware that scanners may not behave in a similar fashion, even with apparently equivalent presets. It should be possible to harmonise presets by consensus amongst users.

  18. Ultrasonic scanner for footprint identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Scanner includes transducer, acoustical drive, acoustical receiver, X and Y position indicators, and cathode-ray tube. Transducer sends ultrasonic pulses into shoe sole or shoeprint. Reflected signals are picked up by acoustic receiver and fed to cathode-ray tube. Resulting display intensity is directly proportional to reflected signal magnitude.

  19. Scanner as a Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

  20. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughan, Michael D.; Tiefenback, Michael G.; Turner, Dennis L.

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  1. Non-uniform impact excitation of a cylindrical bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Baruch; Dorogoy, Avraham; Wang, Zonggang

    2009-06-01

    An experimental and numerical study of a non-uniform impact excitation of a circular bar is reported. In experiments, nine strikers with different contact area were accelerated against a circular bar. Axial surface strain of the impacted bar was measured at several distances from the impinged end to include the near and the far fields. The same experimental conditions were solved numerically using a commercial finite element code. It was demonstrated that the far-field response is insensitive to both the size and the form of the striker's colliding end. The distance at which such insensitivity is set is estimated to be approximately one and a half bar diameters.

  2. IR line scanner on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-chao; Qin, Jie-xin; Qi, Hong-xing; Xiao, Gong-hai

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces the designing principle and method of the IR line scanner on UAV in three aspects of optical-mechanical system, electronics system and processing software. It makes the system achieve good results in practical application that there are many features in the system such as light weight, small size, low power assumption, wide field of view, high instantaneous field of view, high noise equivalent temperature difference, wirelessly controlled and so on. The entire system is designed as follows: Multi-element scanner is put into use for reducing the electrical noise bandwidth, and then improving SNR; Square split aperture scanner is put into use for solving the image ratation distortion, besides fit for large velocity to height ratio; DSP is put into use for non-uniformity correction and background nosie subtraction, and then improving the imagery quality; SD card is put into use as image data storage media instead of the hard disk; The image data is stored in SD card in FAT32 file system, easily playbacked by processing software on Windows and Linux operating system; wireless transceiver module is put into use for wirelessly controlled.

  3. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  4. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  5. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  6. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  7. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  8. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    sediment model was used to simulate hydraulic conditions at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of...1 Figure 2. November 2003 dredge cut at Jackson Bar, with RM shown in black ...at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of Jackson, AL. Jackson Bar, a sand bar, is located on the

  9. Academic and Career Advising of Scanners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arvid J.; Tripp, Philip R.; Shaffer, Leigh S.

    2011-01-01

    "Scanners" has become a common term for a recently identified category of people who find choosing just one interest or career path difficult (Sher, 2006). Academic and career advisors who work with scanners will likely find that these students have difficulty selecting an academic major or career path and that they seem to suffer anxiety and a…

  10. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  15. Discriminant analyses of Bendix scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Torline, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Flights over Weslaco, Texas are discussed, using the 9-channel Bendix scanner, providing calibrated data in the 380 to 1000 nm wavelength interval. These flights were at 2000 ft. These data gave seasonal coverage from the time signals, representing mainly the soil background. The ground truth data are provided; signature processing studies relating scanner data to ground truth were also carried out.

  16. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  17. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  18. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  19. Spaceborne scanner imaging system errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, A.

    1982-01-01

    The individual sensor system design elements which are the priori components in the registration and rectification process, and the potential impact of error budgets on multitemporal registration and side-lap registration are analyzed. The properties of scanner, MLA, and SAR imaging systems are reviewed. Each sensor displays internal distortion properties which to varying degrees make it difficult to generate on orthophoto projection of the data acceptable for multiple pass registration or meeting national map accuracy standards and is also affected to varying degrees by relief displacements in moderate to hilly terrain. Nonsensor related distortions, associated with the accuracy of ephemeris determination and platform stability, have a major impact on local geometric distortions. Platform stability improvements expected from the new multi mission spacecraft series and improved ephemeris and ground control point determination from the NAVSTAR/global positioning satellite systems are reviewed.

  20. Design study for MOX fuel rod scanner for ATR fuel fabrication. Phase I: Design of active neutron scanner. Phase II: Design of passive neutron scanner. Phase III: Design of passive gamma-ray scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1997-09-01

    An active neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A {sup 252}Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through-hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. The authors used the Monte Carlo neutron-photon (MCNP) code to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. A passive neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of the plutonium in mixed oxide fuel rods. The {sup 240}Pu-effective is measured by counting the spontaneous fission neutrons using a high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector. This passive neutron detector would be combined with a high-resolution gamma-ray system (HRGS) measurement to obtain the total plutonium from the plutonium isotopic ratios. A passive gamma-ray scanner has been designed for the measurement of the {sup 241}Am and plutonium uniformity in mixed oxide fuel rods. The passive gamma-ray emissions from {sup 241}Am (60 keV) and plutonium (150-400 keV) are used to verify the unformity of the fuel enrichment zones and to check for any pellets that are out of specification. The fuel rod is moved through the interior of an NaI(Tl) or a bismuth germanate detector to measure the passive gamma-ray emissions. A tungsten sleeve collimator is used in the through-hole to improve the pellet-to-pellet spatial resolution. The same detector is used to verify the plutonium uniformity in the pellets with a 13-mm tungsten collimator. The low-resolution passive gamma system would be used in the unattended mode.

  1. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  2. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  3. Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disc height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Valenzuela, Octavio; Colín, Pedro; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We study dynamics of bars in models of disc galaxies embedded in realistic dark matter haloes. We find that disc thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick discs typically used in this type of modelling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd = 0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin discs with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd ~ 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar ~ Rd, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 per cent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the thin-disc models, which result in the formation of a dense central bulge. Special attention is paid to numerical effects, such as the accuracy of orbital integration, force and mass resolution. Using three N-body codes - GADGET, adaptive refinement tree (ART) and PKDGRAV - we find that numerical effects are very important and, if not carefully treated, may produce incorrect and misleading results. Once the simulations are performed with sufficiently small time-steps and with adequate force and mass resolution, all the codes produce nearly the same results: we do not find any systematic deviations between the results obtained with TREE codes (GADGET and PKDGRAV) and with the adaptive mesh refinement (ART) code.

  4. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Jan T. M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.

    2016-07-01

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990’s. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10’s of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  5. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan T M; Shrimpton, Paul C

    2016-07-21

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990's. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10's of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  6. Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

    1997-05-01

    Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

  7. Eddy current X-Y scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Branch of the Materials and Processes Laboratory became aware of a need for a miniature, portable X-Y scanner capable of performing eddy current or other nondestructive testing scanning operations such as ultrasonic, or small areas of flat plate. The technical description and operational theory of the X-Y scanner system designed and built to fulfill this need are covered. The scanner was given limited testing and performs according to its design intent, which is to scan flat plate areas of approximately 412 sq cm (64 sq in) during each complete cycle of scanning.

  8. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  9. Miniaturized micro-optical scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Andrews, Angus P.; Gunning, William J.; Khoshnevisan, Moshen

    1994-11-01

    Optical beam scanners are critical components for airborne and space-based laser radar, on- machine-inspection systems, factory automation systems, and optical communication systems. We describe here a laser beam steering system based on dithering two complementary (positive and negative) microlens arrays. When the two microlens arrays are translated relative to one another in the plane parallel to their surfaces, the transmitted light beam is scanned in two directions. We have demonstrated scanning speeds up to 300 Hz with a pair of 6-mm- aperture microlens arrays designed for input from a HeNe laser. The output beam covers a discrete 16 X 16 spot scan pattern with about 3.6 mrad separation and only 400 (mu) rad of beam divergence, in close agreement with design predictions. This demo system is relatively compact; less than 2 in. on a side. We also describe several near-term applications, some critical design trade-offs, and important fabrication and design issues.

  10. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  11. Dark matter trapping by stellar bars: the shadow bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of 3 over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  12. Implementation of a Low Cost Structured Light Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaei, M.; Mousavi, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a practical 3D scanner based on coded structured light principle is reported. The system integrates the technology of close range photogrammetry and Gray code structured light together with multi-line shift processing methodology. This 3D acquisition device allows bulding highly dense and accurate models of real world in a cost- and time-effective manner. The configuration consists of a digital multimedia projector and two digital cameras. One advantage of this configuration is, that the projection device can, but is not required to be stable over time nor it does have to be calibrated. Given a point on left image, the correspondent point on right image is the intersection of coded light stripes with the same code and epipolar line. Then, the depth is estimated by triangulation. The experimental restults have showen that, the proposed solution for essential matrix derivation and applying it to find correspondent points throughout Grey coded multi-line data sets yields high accuracy and density surface reconstruction with the lowest percentage of mismatch or blunder even for semi-complex objects. Some other advantages of this system lie in its design simplicity, low cost and the potential for fast and robust implementation.

  13. Strained graphene Hall bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, S. P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of strain, induced by a Gaussian bump, on the magnetic field dependent transport properties of a graphene Hall bar are investigated. The numerical simulations are performed using both classical and quantum mechanical transport theory and we found that both approaches exhibit similar characteristic features. The effects of the Gaussian bump are manifested by a decrease of the bend resistance, R B, around zero-magnetic field and the occurrence of side-peaks in R B. These features are explained as a consequence of bump-assisted scattering of electrons towards different terminals of the Hall bar. Using these features we are able to give an estimate of the size of the bump. Additional oscillations in R B are found in the quantum description that are due to the population/depopulation of Landau levels. The bump has a minor influence on the Hall resistance even for very high values of the pseudo-magnetic field. When the bump is placed outside the center of the Hall bar valley polarized electrons can be collected in the leads.

  14. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  15. High voltage battery cell scanner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

  16. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  17. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  18. Measuring CT scanner variability of radiomics features

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Dennis; Fave, Xenia; Zhang, Lifei; Fried, David; Yang, Jinzhong; Taylor, Brian; Rodriguez-Rivera, Edgardo; Dodge, Cristina; Jones, A. Kyle; Court, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of inter-scanner variability in CT image radiomics studies. Materials and Methods We compared the radiomics features calculated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors from 20 patients with those calculated for 17 scans of a specially designed radiomics phantom. The phantom comprised 10 cartridges, each filled with different materials to produce a wide range of radiomics feature values. The scans were acquired using General Electric, Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba scanners from four medical centers using their routine thoracic imaging protocol. The radiomics feature studied included the mean and standard deviations of the CT numbers as well as textures derived from the neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix. To quantify the significance of the inter-scanner variability, we introduced the metric feature noise. To look for patterns in the scans, we performed hierarchical clustering for each cartridge. Results The mean CT numbers for the 17 CT scans of the phantom cartridges spanned from -864 to 652 Hounsfield units compared with a span of -186 to 35 Hounsfield units for the CT scans of the NSCLC tumors, showing that the phantom’s dynamic range includes that of the tumors. The inter-scanner variability of the feature values depended on both the cartridge material and the feature, and the variability was large relative to the inter-patient variability in the NSCLC tumors for some features. The feature inter-scanner noise was greatest for busyness and least for texture strength. Hierarchical clustering produced different clusters of the phantom scans for each cartridge, although there was some consistent clustering by scanner manufacturer. Conclusions The variability in the values of radiomics features calculated on CT images from different CT scanners can be comparable to the variability in these features found in CT images of NSCLC tumors. These inter-scanner differences should be

  19. Wave Dissipation on a Barred Beach: A Method for Determining Sand Bar Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Studies Work Unit 31665 Monitored by Coastal Engineering Research Center US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station 3909 Halls Ferry Road...College of Oceanography (If applicable) USAEWES, Coastal Engineering Research Oregon State University Center 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b...to provide coastal engineers with a technique to remotely measure natural sand bar scale and morphology change. The work was prepared and published

  20. Uncertainty Propagation for Terrestrial Mobile Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezian, c.; Vallet, Bruno; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that takes into account all the sources of uncertainties and allows to compute a covariance matrix per 3D point. The sources of uncertainties are laser scanner, calibration of the scanner in relation to the vehicle and direct georeferencing system. We suppose that all the uncertainties follow the Gaussian law. The variances of the laser scanner measurements (two angles and one distance) are usually evaluated by the constructors. This is also the case for integrated direct georeferencing devices. Residuals of the calibration process were used to estimate the covariance matrix of the 6D transformation between scanner laser and the vehicle system. Knowing the variances of all sources of uncertainties, we applied uncertainty propagation technique to compute the variance-covariance matrix of every obtained 3D point. Such an uncertainty analysis enables to estimate the impact of different laser scanners and georeferencing devices on the quality of obtained 3D points. The obtained uncertainty values were illustrated using error ellipsoids on different datasets.

  1. Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

  2. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  3. Physeal bar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Hamlet A; Shaughnessy, William J; Stans, Anthony A

    2016-09-29

    Premature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar - physeal bar equivalent (PBE) - is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.

  4. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  5. Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

  6. CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A flexible and wearable terahertz scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, D.; Oda, S.; Kawano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging technologies based on terahertz (THz) waves have great potential for use in powerful non-invasive inspection methods. However, most real objects have various three-dimensional curvatures and existing THz technologies often encounter difficulties in imaging such configurations, which limits the useful range of THz imaging applications. Here, we report the development of a flexible and wearable THz scanner based on carbon nanotubes. We achieved room-temperature THz detection over a broad frequency band ranging from 0.14 to 39 THz and developed a portable THz scanner. Using this scanner, we performed THz imaging of samples concealed behind opaque objects, breakages and metal impurities of a bent film and multi-view scans of a syringe. We demonstrated a passive biometric THz scan of a human hand. Our results are expected to have considerable implications for non-destructive and non-contact inspections, such as medical examinations for the continuous monitoring of health conditions.

  8. Scanner identification with extension to forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Chiu, George T. C.; Allebach, Jan P.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Digital images can be obtained through a variety of sources including digital cameras and scanners. With rapidly increasing functionality and ease of use of image editing software, determining authenticity and identifying forged regions, if any, is becoming crucial for many applications. This paper presents methods for authenticating and identifying forged regions in images that have been acquired using flatbed scanners. The methods are based on using statistical features of imaging sensor pattern noise as a fingerprint for the scanner. An anisotropic local polynomial estimator is used for obtaining the noise patterns. A SVM classifier is trained for using statistical features of pattern noise for classifying smaller blocks of an image. This feature vector based approach is shown to identify the forged regions with high accuracy.

  9. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  10. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  11. The conical scanner evaluation system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

  12. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  13. LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James D

    2012-04-11

    On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

  14. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  15. Modeling of estuarne chlorophyll a from an airborne scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khorram, Siamak; Catts, Glenn P.; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Near simultaneous collection of 34 surface water samples and airborne multispectral scanner data provided input for regression models developed to predict surface concentrations of estuarine chlorophyll a. Two wavelength ratios were employed in model development. The ratios werechosen to capitalize on the spectral characteristics of chlorophyll a, while minimizing atmospheric influences. Models were then applied to data previously acquired over the study area thre years earlier. Results are in the form of color-coded displays of predicted chlorophyll a concentrations and comparisons of the agreement among measured surface samples and predictions basedon coincident remotely sensed data. The influence of large variations in fresh-water inflow to the estuary are clearly apparent in the results. The synoptic view provided by remote sensing is another method of examining important estuarine dynamics difficult to observe from in situ sampling alone.

  16. An operational multispectral scanner for bathymetric surveys - The ABS NORDA scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimbach, Stephen P.; Joy, Richard T.; Hickman, G. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is developing the Airborne Bathymetric Survey (ABS) system, which will take shallow water depth soundings from a Navy P-3 aircraft. The system combines active and passive sensors to obtain optical measurements of water depth. The ABS NORDA Scanner is the systems passive multispectral scanner whose design goal is to provide 100 percent coverage of the seafloor, to depths of 20 m in average coastal waters. The ABS NORDA Scanner hardware and operational environment is discussed in detail. The optical model providing the basis for depth extraction is reviewed and the proposed data processing routine discussed.

  17. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  18. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  19. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  20. Bottled liquid explosive scanner by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A bottled liquid explosive scanner has been developed using near infrared technology for glass or PET bottles and ultrasound technology for metal cans. It has database of near infrared absorbance spectra and sound velocities of various liquids. Scanned liquids can be identified by using this database. This device has been certified by ECAC and installed at Japanese international airport.

  1. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Vaska

    2011-03-09

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  2. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  3. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  4. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  5. Biomedical imaging and sensing using flatbed scanners.

    PubMed

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-09-07

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600-700 cm(2)) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features of flatbed scanners also highlighting the key parameters for designing scientific experiments using these devices, followed by a discussion of some of the significant examples, where scanner-based systems were constructed to conduct various biomedical imaging and/or sensing experiments. Along with mobile phones and other emerging consumer electronics devices, flatbed scanners and their use in advanced imaging and sensing experiments might help us transform current practices of medicine, engineering and sciences through democratization of measurement science and empowerment of citizen scientists, science educators and researchers in resource limited settings.

  6. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.

    2016-11-01

    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  7. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  8. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  9. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  11. 24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. 28. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT INTERIOR OF LEVEL 5, FACE A - SHOWS ANTENNA RECEIVERS, EMITTERS/RECEIVERS, IN GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. 22. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL ROOM. RECEIVER EQUIPMENT ON RIGHT WITH RF RADIATION MONITOR CABINET. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  17. Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision*

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2014-01-01

    Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

  18. Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K

    2014-07-01

    Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth.

  19. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  9. Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

  10. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  11. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  12. Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassoula, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.

  13. Dynamical Evolution: Spirals and Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Non-axisymmetric modes like spirals and bars are the main driver of the evolution of disks, in transferring angular momentum, and allowing mass accretion. This evolution proceeds through self-regulation and feedback mechanisms, such as bar destruction or weakening by a central mass concentration, decoupling of a nuclear bar taking over the gas radial flows and mass accretion, etc.. These internal mechanisms can also be triggered by interaction with the environment. Recent problems are discussed, like the influence of counter-rotation in the m=1 and m=2 patterns development and on mass accretion by a central AGN.

  14. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  15. Mathematical modelling of scanner-specific bowtie filters for Monte Carlo CT dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Andrade, M E A; de Araújo, M W C; Brenner, D J; Khoury, H J

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of bowtie filters in CT scanners is to homogenize the x-ray intensity measured by the detectors in order to improve the image quality and at the same time to reduce the dose to the patient because of the preferential filtering near the periphery of the fan beam. For CT dosimetry, especially for Monte Carlo calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses to patients, it is important to take the effect of bowtie filters into account. However, material composition and dimensions of these filters are proprietary. Consequently, a method for bowtie filter simulation independent of access to proprietary data and/or to a specific scanner would be of interest to many researchers involved in CT dosimetry. This study presents such a method based on the weighted computer tomography dose index, CTDIw, defined in two cylindrical PMMA phantoms of 16 cm and 32 cm diameter. With an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) code, ratios CTDIw/CTDI100,a were calculated for a specific CT scanner using PMMA bowtie filter models based on sigmoid Boltzmann functions combined with a scanner filter factor (SFF) which is modified during calculations until the calculated MC CTDIw/CTDI100,a matches ratios CTDIw/CTDI100,a, determined by measurements or found in publications for that specific scanner. Once the scanner-specific value for an SFF has been found, the bowtie filter algorithm can be used in any MC code to perform CT dosimetry for that specific scanner. The bowtie filter model proposed here was validated for CTDIw/CTDI100,a considering 11 different CT scanners and for CTDI100,c, CTDI100,p and their ratio considering 4 different CT scanners. Additionally, comparisons were made for lateral dose profiles free in air and using computational anthropomorphic phantoms. CTDIw/CTDI100,a determined with this new method agreed on average within 0.89% (max. 3.4%) and 1.64% (max. 4.5%) with corresponding data published by CTDosimetry (www.impactscan.org) for the CTDI HEAD and BODY phantoms

  16. Mathematical modelling of scanner-specific bowtie filters for Monte Carlo CT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Andrade, M. E. A.; de Araújo, M. W. C.; Brenner, D. J.; Khoury, H. J.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of bowtie filters in CT scanners is to homogenize the x-ray intensity measured by the detectors in order to improve the image quality and at the same time to reduce the dose to the patient because of the preferential filtering near the periphery of the fan beam. For CT dosimetry, especially for Monte Carlo calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses to patients, it is important to take the effect of bowtie filters into account. However, material composition and dimensions of these filters are proprietary. Consequently, a method for bowtie filter simulation independent of access to proprietary data and/or to a specific scanner would be of interest to many researchers involved in CT dosimetry. This study presents such a method based on the weighted computer tomography dose index, CTDIw, defined in two cylindrical PMMA phantoms of 16 cm and 32 cm diameter. With an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) code, ratios CTDIw/CTDI100,a were calculated for a specific CT scanner using PMMA bowtie filter models based on sigmoid Boltzmann functions combined with a scanner filter factor (SFF) which is modified during calculations until the calculated MC CTDIw/CTDI100,a matches ratios CTDIw/CTDI100,a, determined by measurements or found in publications for that specific scanner. Once the scanner-specific value for an SFF has been found, the bowtie filter algorithm can be used in any MC code to perform CT dosimetry for that specific scanner. The bowtie filter model proposed here was validated for CTDIw/CTDI100,a considering 11 different CT scanners and for CTDI100,c, CTDI100,p and their ratio considering 4 different CT scanners. Additionally, comparisons were made for lateral dose profiles free in air and using computational anthropomorphic phantoms. CTDIw/CTDI100,a determined with this new method agreed on average within 0.89% (max. 3.4%) and 1.64% (max. 4.5%) with corresponding data published by CTDosimetry (www.impactscan.org) for the CTDI HEAD and BODY phantoms

  17. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  18. Color influence on accuracy of 3D scanners based on structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, Sophie; Page, David L.; Foufou, Sebti; Truchetet, Frédéric; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2006-02-01

    The characterization of commercial 3D scanners allows acquiring precise and useful data. The accuracy of range and, more recently, color for 3D scanners is usually studied separately, but when the 3D scanner is based on structured light with a color coding pattern, color influence on range accuracy should be investigated. The commercial product that we have tested has the particularity that it can acquire data under ambient light instead of a controlled environment as it is with most available scanners. Therefore, based on related work in the literature and on experiments we have done on a variety of standard illuminants, we have designed an interesting setup to control illuminant interference. Basically, the setup consists of acquiring the well-known Macbeth ColorChecker under a controlled environment and also ambient daylight. The results have shown variations with respect to the color. We have performed several statistical studies to show how the range results evolve with respect to the RGB and the HSV channels. In addition, a systematic noise error has also been identified. This noise depends on the object color. A subset of colors shows strong noise errors while other colors have minimal or even no systematic error under the same illuminant.

  19. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  20. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    is the torsional wave speed . Also, one can relate the torque with the yield stress of the material, as seen in equation 2; where r is the radius of...be equal to the mechanical impedance of the bars. In other words, the product of density, speed of wave and polar moment of inertia must remain...pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt-lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter

  1. Monte Carlo simulation and scatter correction of the GE Advance PET scanner with SimSET and Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, Olivier; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Clark, John C.; Ansorge, Richard E.; Fryer, Tim D.

    2005-10-01

    For Monte Carlo simulations to be used as an alternative solution to perform scatter correction, accurate modelling of the scanner as well as speed is paramount. General-purpose Monte Carlo packages (Geant4, EGS, MCNP) allow a detailed description of the scanner but are not efficient at simulating voxel-based geometries (patient images). On the other hand, dedicated codes (SimSET, PETSIM) will perform well for voxel-based objects but will be poor in their capacity of simulating complex geometries such as a PET scanner. The approach adopted in this work was to couple a dedicated code (SimSET) with a general-purpose package (Geant4) to have the efficiency of the former and the capabilities of the latter. The combined SimSET+Geant4 code (SimG4) was assessed on the GE Advance PET scanner and compared to the use of SimSET only. A better description of the resolution and sensitivity of the scanner and of the scatter fraction was obtained with SimG4. The accuracy of scatter correction performed with SimG4 and SimSET was also assessed from data acquired with the 20 cm NEMA phantom. SimG4 was found to outperform SimSET and to give slightly better results than the GE scatter correction methods installed on the Advance scanner (curve fitting and scatter modelling for the 300-650 keV and 375-650 keV energy windows, respectively). In the presence of a hot source close to the edge of the field of view (as found in oxygen scans), the GE curve-fitting method was found to fail whereas SimG4 maintained its performance.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation and scatter correction of the GE advance PET scanner with SimSET and Geant4.

    PubMed

    Barret, Olivier; Carpenter, T Adrian; Clark, John C; Ansorge, Richard E; Fryer, Tim D

    2005-10-21

    For Monte Carlo simulations to be used as an alternative solution to perform scatter correction, accurate modelling of the scanner as well as speed is paramount. General-purpose Monte Carlo packages (Geant4, EGS, MCNP) allow a detailed description of the scanner but are not efficient at simulating voxel-based geometries (patient images). On the other hand, dedicated codes (SimSET, PETSIM) will perform well for voxel-based objects but will be poor in their capacity of simulating complex geometries such as a PET scanner. The approach adopted in this work was to couple a dedicated code (SimSET) with a general-purpose package (Geant4) to have the efficiency of the former and the capabilities of the latter. The combined SimSET+Geant4 code (SimG4) was assessed on the GE Advance PET scanner and compared to the use of SimSET only. A better description of the resolution and sensitivity of the scanner and of the scatter fraction was obtained with SimG4. The accuracy of scatter correction performed with SimG4 and SimSET was also assessed from data acquired with the 20 cm NEMA phantom. SimG4 was found to outperform SimSET and to give slightly better results than the GE scatter correction methods installed on the Advance scanner (curve fitting and scatter modelling for the 300-650 keV and 375-650 keV energy windows, respectively). In the presence of a hot source close to the edge of the field of view (as found in oxygen scans), the GE curve-fitting method was found to fail whereas SimG4 maintained its performance.

  3. Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyungmin; Park, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-02-22

    We report a novel MEMS fiber scanner with an electrothermal silicon microactuator and a directly mounted optical fiber. The microactuator comprises double hot arm and cold arm structures with a linking bridge and an optical fiber is aligned along a silicon fiber groove. The unique feature induces separation of resonant scanning frequencies of a single optical fiber in lateral and vertical directions, which realizes Lissajous scanning during the resonant motion. The footprint dimension of microactuator is 1.28 x 7 x 0.44 mm3. The resonant scanning frequencies of a 20 mm long optical fiber are 239.4 Hz and 218.4 Hz in lateral and vertical directions, respectively. The full scanned area indicates 451 μm x 558 μm under a 16 Vpp pulse train. This novel laser scanner can provide many opportunities for laser scanning endomicroscopic applications.

  4. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  5. The Galileo star scanner observations at Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieseler, Paul D.; Adams, Olen W.; Vandermey, Nancy; Theilig, E. E.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lewis, George D.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Alexander, Claudia J.

    2004-06-01

    In November of 2002, the Galileo spacecraft passed within 250 km of Jupiter's moon Amalthea. An onboard telescope, the star scanner, observed a series of bright flashes near the moon. It is believed that these flashes represent sunlight reflected from 7 to 9 small moonlets located within about 3000 km of Amalthea. From star scanner geometry considerations and other arguments, we can constrain the diameter of the observed bodies to be between 0.5 m to several tens of kilometers. In September of 2003, while crossing Amalthea's orbit just prior to Galileo's destruction in the jovian atmosphere, a single additional body seems to have been observed. It is suspected that these bodies are part of a discrete rocky ring embedded within Jupiter's Gossamer ring system.

  6. Oblique fluorescence in a MARS scanner with a CdTe-Medipix3RX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Broeke, L.; Atharifard, A.; Goulter, B. P.; Healy, J. L.; Ramyar, M.; Panta, R. K.; Anjomrouz, M.; Shamshad, M.; Largeau, A.; Mueller, K.; Walsh, M. F.; Aamir, R.; Smithies, D. J.; Doesburg, R.; Rajendran, K.; de Ruiter, N. J. A.; Knight, D.; Chernoglazov, A.; Mandalika, H.; Bateman, C. J.; Bell, S. T.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    The latest version of the MARS small bore scanner makes use of the Medipix3RX ASIC, bonded to a CdTe or CZT semi-conductor layer, to count x-ray photons and create a spectroscopic CT data set. The MARS imaging chain uses the energy-resolved 2D transmission images to construct quantitative 3D spectral and material images. To improve the spectral performance of the imaging system it is important that the energy response of the detector is well calibrated. A common methodology for energy calibration is to use x-ray fluorescence (XRF), due to its effective monochromatic nature. Oblique (off-axis) XRF can be measured in situ in the MARS small bore scanner. A monoatomic foil is placed in front of the x-ray source and off-axis XRF is measured. A key issue is identifying near optimal measurement positions that maximize the XRF signal while minimizing transmitted and scattered x-rays from the primary beam. This work shows the development of a theoretical model that is able to identify where in the detector plane XRF is maximum. We present: (1) a theoretical model that calculates the XRF photon distribution across the detector plane produced from illuminated foils attached to the scanner's filter bar; (2) preliminary experimental measurements of the XRF distribution outside of the main beam taken with a CdTe-Medipix3RX detector; and (3) a comparison between the model and experiment. The main motivation behind creating this model is to identify the region in the detector plane outside of the main beam where XRF is at a maximum. This provides the optimum detector location for measuring a monochromatic XRF source with minimal polychromatic contamination for its use in per-pixel energy calibration of Medipix3RX detectors in MARS scanners.

  7. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  8. Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

  9. Flow-Based Detection of Bar Coded Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-06-24

    We have developed methods for flow control, electric field alignment, and readout of colloidal Nanobarcodes{copyright}. Our flow-based detection scheme leverages microfluidics and alternate current (AC) electric fields to align and image particles in a well-defined image plane. Using analytical models of the particle rotation in electric fields we can optimize the field strength and frequency necessary to align the particles. This detection platform alleviates loss of information in solution-based assays due to particle clumping during detection.

  10. Implementing a bar-coded bedside medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Yates, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals across the nation are struggling with implementing electronic medication administration and reporting (eMAR) systems as part of patient safety programs. St Luke's Hospital in Chesterfield, Mo, initiated their eMAR initiative in June 2003, initiating program start-up in September 2004. This case study documents how the project was approached, its overall success, and what was learned along the way. Also included is a recent update highlighting the expansion of St Luke's patient safety initiative, adapting eMAR to two specialty units: dialysis and laboratory processes.

  11. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Low energy {bar p} physics at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The charmonium formation experiment is the only low energy {bar p} experiment at FNAL. This paper describes the performance of the Fermilab {bar p} Accumulator during fixed target run for the experiment and the planned upgrades. We also discuss the proposal for the direct CP violation search in {bar p} + p {yields} {bar {Lambda}} + {Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +} + p{pi}{sup {minus}}.

  13. Design and control of a nanoprecision XYΘ scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Man; Kim, Jung Jae; Kim, Jinwoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the design and control of a nanoprecision XYΘ scanner consisting of voice coil motors and air bearing guides. The proposed scanner can be installed on a conventional XY stage with long strokes to improve the positioning accuracy and settling performance. Major design considerations in developing a high precision scanner are sensor accuracy, actuator properties, structural stability, guide friction, and thermal expansion. Considering these factors, the proposed scanner is made of invar, which has a small thermal expansion coefficient and good structural stiffness. Four voice coil motors drive the scanner, which is suspended by four air bearing pads, in the x, y, and θ directions. The scanner's position is measured by three laser interferometers which decouple the scanner from the conventional stage. The mirror blocks reflecting the laser beams are fixed using viscoelastic sheets, ensuring that the scanner has a well-damped structural mode. A time delay control algorithm is implemented on the real-time controller to control the scanner. The effectiveness of the proposed scanner is verified experimentally.

  14. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (www.ugct.ugent.be) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kVmax) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  15. The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. ); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. . Optical Sciences Center)

    1991-01-01

    A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  17. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  18. A volume scanner for diffuse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafa, Elham; Roberts, Nicolas; Sharafutdinova, Galiya; Holdsworth, John

    2016-11-01

    Non-invasive optical screening mammography has a significant barrier in the extreme scatter of human tissue at optical wavelengths. A volume scanner suited for high numerical aperture capture of scattered light from diffuse media has been designed, modelled using Trace Pro software and experimentally constructed. Modelling results indicate the presence of an embedded volume with different scatter properties from the bulk yields a measurable difference in the overall scatter pattern and intensity recorded. Work towards a full tomographic reconstruction from scattered light recorded on the two dimensional array detector is currently underway.

  19. A laser scanner for 35mm film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a laser scanning system is described. The scanner was designed to deliver a scanned beam over a 2.54 cm by 2.54 cm or a 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm format. In order to achieve a scan resolution and rate comparable to that of standard television, an acousto-optic deflector was used for one axis of the scan, and a light deflecting galvanometer for deflection along the other axis. The acoustic optic deflector has the capability of random access scan controlled by a digital computer.

  20. LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

    1980-01-01

    A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

  1. The Lick Observatory image-dissector scanner.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, L. B.; Wampler, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A scanner that uses an image dissector to scan the output screen of an image tube has proven to be a sensitive and linear detector for faint astronomical spectra. The image-tube phosphor screen acts as a short-term storage element and allows the system to approach the performance of an ideal multichannel photon counter. Pulses resulting from individual photons, emitted from the output phosphor and detected by the image dissector, trigger an amplifier-discriminator and are counted in a 24-bit, 4096-word circulating memory. Aspects of system performance are discussed, giving attention to linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, stability, and scattered light properties.

  2. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  3. Basic Business and Economics: Understanding the Uses of the Universal Product Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blockhus, Wanda

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Universal Product Code (UPC), the two-part food labeling and packaging code which is both human- and electronic scanner-readable. Discusses how it affects both consumer and business, and suggests how to teach the UPC code to business education students. (HD)

  4. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boord, Warren T.

    1990-01-01

    Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

  6. The use of mobile 3D scanners in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Peters, Florian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Ayoub, Nassim; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Ghassemi, Alireza; Lethaus, Bernd; Hölzle, Frank; Modabber, Ali

    There are many possibilities for the use of three-dimensional (3D) scanners in maxillofacial surgery. This study aimed to investigate whether the bundling and syncing of two 3D scanners has advantages over single-scanner acquisition in terms of scan quality and the time required to scan an object. Therefore, the speed and precision of 3D data acquisition with one scanner versus two synced scanners was measured in 30 subjects. This was done by analyzing the results obtained by scanning test objects attached to the forehead and cheeks of the subjects. Statistical methods included the Student t test for paired samples. Single-scanner recording resulted in significantly lower mean error of measurement than synced recording with two scanners for length (P < 0.001), all frontal/lateral plane angles (P = 0.034, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.003), and side/side plane angles (P = 0.014, P < 0.001, P = 0.015, P = 0.011) of the test object on the cheek. Likewise, the single-scanner method resulted in a significantly lowermean error of measurement than the two-scanner method for frontal/lower plane angles (P < 0.001), right/lower plane angles (P < 0.001), and left/lower plane angles (P = 0.002). Conversely, synced recording of data with two scanners resulted in a significant reduction of scanning time (P < 0.001). Compared to data acquisition with a single 3D scanner, the bundling of two 3D scanners resulted in faster scanning times but lower scan quality.

  7. Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

  8. An empirical study of scanner system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

    1976-01-01

    The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

  9. Quest for an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Bertora, Franco; Borceto, Alice; Viale, Andrea; Sandini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A study of the motor cortex during the programming, execution and mental representation of voluntary movement is of great relevance; its evaluation in conditions close to reality is necessary, given the close integration of the visuomotor, sensory feedback and proprioceptive systems, as of yet, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner allowing a human subject to maintain erect stance, observe the surroundings and conserve limb freedom is still a dream. The need for high field suggests a solenoid magnet geometry that forces an unnatural posture that affects the results, particularly when the motor cortex is investigated. In contrast in a motor functional study, the scanner should allow the subject to sit or stand, with unobstructed sight and unimpeded movement. Two approaches are presented here to solve this problem. In the first approach, an increased field intensity in an open magnet is obtained lining the "back wall" of the cavity with a sheet of current: this boosts the field intensity at the cost of the introduction of a gradient, which has to be canceled by the introduction of an opposite gradient; The second approach is an adaptation of the "double doughnut" architecture, in which the cavity widens at the center to provide additional room for the subject. The detailed design of this kind of structure has proven the feasibility of the solution.

  10. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  11. Scanner OPC signatures: automatic vendor-to-vendor OPE matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, Stephen P.

    2009-03-01

    As 193nm lithography continues to be stretched and the k1 factor decreases, optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a vital part of the lithographer's tool kit. Unfortunately, as is now well known, the design variations of lithographic scanners from different vendors cause them to have slightly different optical-proximity effect (OPE) behavior, meaning that they print features through pitch in distinct ways. This in turn means that their response to OPC is not the same, and that an OPC solution designed for a scanner from Company 1 may or may not work properly on a scanner from Company 2. Since OPC is not inexpensive, that causes trouble for chipmakers using more than one brand of scanner. Clearly a scanner-matching procedure is needed to meet this challenge. Previously, automatic matching has only been reported for scanners of different tool generations from the same manufacturer. In contrast, scanners from different companies have been matched using expert tuning and adjustment techniques, frequently requiring laborious test exposures. Automatic matching between scanners from Company 1 and Company 2 has remained an unsettled problem. We have recently solved this problem and introduce a novel method to perform the automatic matching. The success in meeting this challenge required three enabling factors. First, we recognized the strongest drivers of OPE mismatch and are thereby able to reduce the information needed about a tool from another supplier to that information readily available from all modern scanners. Second, we developed a means of reliably identifying the scanners' optical signatures, minimizing dependence on process parameters that can cloud the issue. Third, we carefully employed standard statistical techniques, checking for robustness of the algorithms used and maximizing efficiency. The result is an automatic software system that can predict an OPC matching solution for scanners from different suppliers without requiring expert intervention.

  12. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  13. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  14. Observations of gravel beach dynamics during high energy wave conditions using a laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. P.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P. E.; Davidson, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A 2D laser-scanner was deployed at the high tide runup limit of a pure gravel beach (Loe Bar, Cornwall, England) to measure high-frequency (2.5 Hz) swash hydrodynamics and topographic changes during an energetic wave event. Measurements performed with the laser-scanner were corrected to compensate for levelling and orientation errors, and a variance threshold was applied to separate the beach topography from the water motions. Laser measurements were used to characterise the swash hydrodynamics and morphological changes during one tidal cycle through the calculation of several parameters, such as the 2% exceedence of the runup maxima (R2%), swash flow velocity skewness (< u3>), runup spectra and cumulative topographic changes. Results indicate that despite the small net morphological changes over the tide cycle, significant sediment mobilization occurs. A clear asymmetrical morphological response was found during the different tidal phases: the rising tide is dominated by accretion whilst the falling tide is dominated by erosion. The main factor controlling this asymmetrical morphological response is the step migration that, depending on the tide phase, controls the wave breaking point and consequently the dominant sediment transport direction. During the rising tide, step development decreases the shoreface slope and reduces the runup energy, whilst during the falling tide the step remobilization increases the shoreface slope and energy on the runup.

  15. 27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

    1992-02-25

    A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

  2. 10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 5. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 90MM STANDARD LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 6. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 65MM WIDE ANGLE LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 9. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT "C" FACE RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 30° EAST (NOTE: "C" FACE NOT IN USE AT FACILITY). - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

  7. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (≥36 cm) and using thin crystals (≤10 mm of LSO and ≤20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion

  9. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    PubMed Central

    Surti, S; Werner, M E; Karp, J S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20–25 mm thick crystals and 16–22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with > 22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and NEC, as well image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 liters of LSO and 17.1 liters of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC/cm in a 35 cm diameter×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC/cm is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (≥ 36 cm) and using thin crystals (≤ 10 mm of LSO and ≤ 20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion contrast relative to LSO based scanners

  10. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  11. Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

    1994-10-01

    Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

  12. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  13. On the spectral quality of scanner illumination with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    Document scanner illumination has evolved along with general illumination technologies. LEDs have become more and more popular as the illumination sources for document scanning. LED technologies provide a wide range of choices both in terms of structural design and spectral compositions. In this report, we examine some popular LED technologies used for document scanner. We evaluate the color rendering performance of scanner models with different illumination technologies by examining their rendering of the Macbeth ColorChecker™ in sRGB. We found that more phosphors in phosphor conversion types of white LEDs may not be necessarily advantageous in terms of scanner color rendering performance. Also CIS type of scanner may be sensitive to the peak wavelength shift and can be particularly problematic when the peaks are out of certain range.

  14. Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urey, Hakan; Wine, David W.; Osborn, Thor D.

    2000-08-01

    High-resolution and high frame rate dynamic microdisplays can be implemented by scanning a photon beam in a raster format across the viewer's retina. Microvision is developing biaxial MEMS scanners for such video display applications. This paper discusses the optical performance requirements for scanning display systems. The display resolution directly translates into a scan-angle-mirror-size product and the frame rate translates into vertical and horizontal scanner frequencies. (theta) -product and fh are both very important figures of merit for scanner performance comparison. In addition, the static and dynamic flatness of the scanners, off-axis motion and scan repeatability, scanner position sensor accuracy all have a direct impact on display image quality.

  15. Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

  16. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  17. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  18. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  19. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

  20. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  1. Framework for Automated GD&T Inspection Using 3D Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vimal Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Sivadasan, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a typical dialect that helps designers, production faculty and quality monitors to convey design specifications in an effective and efficient manner. GD&T has been practiced since the start of machine component assembly but without overly naming it. However, in recent times industries have started increasingly emphasizing on it. One prominent area where most of the industries struggle with is quality inspection. Complete inspection process is mostly human intensive. Also, the use of conventional gauges and templates for inspection purpose highly depends on skill of workers and quality inspectors. In industries, the concept of 3D scanning is not new but is used only for creating 3D drawings or modelling of physical parts. However, the potential of 3D scanning as a powerful inspection tool is hardly explored. This study is centred on designing a procedure for automated inspection using 3D scanner. Linear, geometric and dimensional inspection of the most popular test bar-stepped bar, as a simple example was also carried out as per the new framework. The new generation engineering industries would definitely welcome this automated inspection procedure being quick and reliable with reduced human intervention.

  2. [Testing an ultrasonic scanner for determination of urinary bladder volume].

    PubMed

    Rohde, T; Jensen, K M; Colstrup, H

    1992-11-30

    Bladderscan BVI 2000 is a portable ultrasound scanner, specially constructed for determination of bladder volume. We have tested this scanner for accuracy, systematic errors and the training required to use it. The bladder volumes measured by ultrasound scanning were compared with the true volumes. Fifty-six measurements were made. We found the accuracy of BVI 2000 sufficient to determine bladder volumes as either small or large. We found no systematic errors. No special training is required to use the scanner. The device is thus useful in most clinical situations when greater accuracy than indicated here is not necessary.

  3. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  4. A general solution for the registration of optical multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper documents a general theory for registration (mapping) of data sets gathered by optical scanners such as the ERTS satellite MSS and the Skylab S-192 MSS. This solution is generally applicable to scanners which have rotating optics. Navigation data and ground control points are used in a statistically weighted adjustment based on a mathematical model of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the scanner system. This adjustment is very similar to the well known photogrammetric adjustments used in aerial mapping. Actual tests have been completed on NASA aircraft 24 channel MSS data, and the results are very encouraging.

  5. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  6. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  7. A secularly evolved model for the Milky Way bar and bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-03-01

    Bars are strong drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges. Our Milky Way is an example of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. We present a self-consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy which matches remarkably well the structure of the inner Milky Way deduced from star counts. In particular, features taken as signatures of a second ``long bar`` can be explained by the interaction between the bar and the spiral arms of the galaxy (Martinez-Valpuesta & Gerhard 2011). Furthermore the structural change in the bulge inside l = 4° measured recently from VVV data can be explained by the high-density near-axisymmetric part of the inner boxy bulge (Gerhard & Martinez-Valpuesta 2012). We also compare this model with kinematic data from recent spectroscopic surveys. We use a modified version of the NMAGIC code (de Lorenzi et al. 2007) to study the properties of the Milky Way bar, obtaining an upper limit for the pattern speed of ~ 42 km/sec/kpc. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of one of our best models with BRAVA data (Kunder et al. 2012).

  8. Data integration using scanners with SQL output--the bioscanners project at sourceforge.

    PubMed

    Groth, Detlef; Hartmann, Stefanie; Friemel, Martin; Hill, Natascha; Müller, Stefan; Poustka, Albert J; Panopoulou, Georgia

    2010-03-25

    There is currently no standardized approach for parsing output that the numerous bioinformatical tools generate. Because the framework approach of the Bio-toolkits has some shortcomings, we searched for alternative approaches. To this end, we evaluated scanner generators for various programming languages with respect to their potential of standalone, small and fast applications that can easily delivered on any modern and many ancient operating system. We developed sample applications that generate standard SQL database code and thereby greatly simplify the parsing work of data integration and data analysis. At the sourceforge project page the source code and some binaries for a selection of our applications are freely available at http://bioscanners.sourceforge.net.

  9. [Innovation and Future Technologies for PET Scanners].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays important roles in cancer diagnosis, neuroimaging and molecular imaging research; but potential points remain for which big improvements could be made, including spatial resolution, sensitivity and manufacturing costs. Higher spatial resolution is essential to enable earlier diagnosis, and improved sensitivity results in reduced radiation exposure and shortened measurement time. Therefore, research on next generation PET technologies remains a hot topic worldwide. In this paper, innovation and future technologies for the next generation PET scanners, such as time-of-flight measurement and simultaneous PET/MRI measurement, are described. Among them, depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement in the radiation sensor will be a key technology to get any significant improvement in sensitivity while maintaining high spatial resolution. DOI measurement also has a potential to expand PET application fields because it allows for more flexible detector arrangement. As an example, the world's first, open-type PET geometry "OpenPET", which is expected to lead to PET imaging during treatment, is under development. The DOI detector itself continues to evolve with the help of recently developed semiconductor photodetectors, often referred to as silicon photomultipliers.

  10. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

  11. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  12. From Beamline to Scanner with 225Ac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Kunz, Peter; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Schaffer, Paul; Sossi, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Due to the high linear energy transfer and short range of alpha-radiation, targeted radiation therapy using alpha-emitting pharmaceuticals that successfully target small disease clusters will kill target cells with limited harm to healthy tissue, potentially treating the most aggressive forms of cancer. As the parent of a decay chain with four alpha- and two beta-decays, 225Ac is a promising candidate for such a treatment. However, this requires retention of the entire decay chain at the target site, preventing the creation of freely circulating alpha-emitters that reduce therapeutic effect and increase toxicity to non-target tissues. Two major challenges to 225Ac pharmaceutical development exist: insufficient global supply, and the difficulty of preventing toxicity by retaining the entire decay chain at the target site. While TRIUMF works towards large-scale (C i amounts) production of 225Ac, we already use our Isotope Separation On-Line facility to provide small (< 1 mCi) quantities for in-house chemistry and imaging research that aims to improve and assess 225Ac radiopharmaceutical targeting. This presentation provides an overview of this research program and the journey of 225Ac from the beamline to the scanner. This research is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  13. Different Properties of the \\varvec{bar{K}NN} and \\varvec{bar{K}bar{K}N} Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    A series of exact or accurate three-body calculations of different properties of the bar{K}NN and bar{K}bar{K}N systems is described. In particular, binding energies and widths of the quasi-bound states in the systems were calculated. Near-threshold elastic K^- d amplitudes were also found together with the 1 s level shift and width of kaonic deuterium. Different dependences of the three-body results on two-body inputs are discussed.

  14. Analysis of image sharpness reproducibility on a novel engineered micro-CT scanner with variable geometry and embedded recalibration software.

    PubMed

    Panetta, D; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Bartolomei, A; Salvadori, P A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the reproducibility of the reconstructed image sharpness, after modifications of the geometry setup, for a variable magnification micro-CT (μCT) scanner. All the measurements were performed on a novel engineered μCT scanner for in vivo imaging of small animals (Xalt), which has been recently built at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Research Council (IFC-CNR, Pisa, Italy), in partnership with the University of Pisa. The Xalt scanner is equipped with an integrated software for on-line geometric recalibration, which will be used throughout the experiments. In order to evaluate the losses of image quality due to modifications of the geometry setup, we have made 22 consecutive acquisitions by changing alternatively the system geometry between two different setups (Large FoV - LF, and High Resolution - HR). For each acquisition, the tomographic images have been reconstructed before and after the on-line geometric recalibration. For each reconstruction, the image sharpness was evaluated using two different figures of merit: (i) the percentage contrast on a small bar pattern of fixed frequency (f = 5.5 lp/mm for the LF setup and f = 10 lp/mm for the HR setup) and (ii) the image entropy. We have found that, due to the small-scale mechanical uncertainty (in the order of the voxel size), a recalibration is necessary for each geometric setup after repositioning of the system's components; the resolution losses due to the lack of recalibration are worse for the HR setup (voxel size = 18.4 μm). The integrated on-line recalibration algorithm of the Xalt scanner allowed to perform the recalibration quickly, by restoring the spatial resolution of the system to the reference resolution obtained after the initial (off-line) calibration.

  15. Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.

    PubMed

    Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    2000-05-01

    Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators.

  16. Determination of noise equivalent reflectance for a multispectral scanner: A scanner sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Richard, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    The methods used to calculate the sensitivity parameter noise equivalent reflectance of a remote-sensing scanner are explored, and the results are compared with values measured over calibrated test sites. Data were acquired on four occasions covering a span of 4 years and providing various atmospheric conditions. One of the calculated values was based on assumed atmospheric conditions, whereas two others were based on atmospheric models. Results indicate that the assumed atmospheric conditions provide useful answers adequate for many purposes. A nomograph was developed to indicate sensitivity variations due to geographic location, time of day, and season.

  17. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  18. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  19. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  20. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    PubMed

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  1. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  2. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  3. Dosimetric and image quality assessment of different acquisition protocols of a novel 64-slice CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vite, Cristina; Mangini, Monica; Strocchi, Sabina; Novario, Raffaele; Tanzi, Fabio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Conte, Leopoldo; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Dose and image quality assessment in computed tomography (CT) are almost affected by the vast variety of CT scanners (axial CT, spiral CT, low-multislice CT (2-16), high-multislice CT (32-64)) and imaging protocols in use. Very poor information is at the moment available on 64 slices CT scanners. Aim of this work is to assess image quality related to patient dose indexes and to investigate the achievable dose reduction for a commercially available 64 slices CT scanner. CT dose indexes (weighted computed tomography dose index, CTDI w and Dose Length Product, DLP) were measured with a standard CT phantom for the main protocols in use (head, chest, abdomen and pelvis) and compared with the values displayed by the scanner itself. The differences were always below 7%. All the indexes were below the Diagnostic Reference Levels defined by the European Council Directive 97/42. Effective doses were measured for each protocol with thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom and compared with the same values computed by the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator software code and corrected by a factor taking in account the number of slices (from 16 to 64). The differences were always below 25%. The effective doses range from 1.5 mSv (head) to 21.8 mSv (abdomen). The dose reduction system of the scanner was assessed comparing the effective dose measured for a standard phantom-man (a cylinder phantom, 32 cm in diameter) to the mean dose evaluated on 46 patients. The standard phantom was considered as no dose reduction reference. The dose reduction factor range from 16% to 78% (mean of 46%) for all protocols, from 29% to 78% (mean of 55%) for chest protocol, from 16% to 76% (mean of 42%) for abdomen protocol. The possibility of a further dose reduction was investigated measuring image quality (spatial resolution, contrast and noise) as a function of CTDI w. This curve shows a quite flat trend decreasing the dose approximately to 90% and a

  4. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  5. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  6. 47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, Ronald J.; Knapen, Johan H.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Puerari, Ivanio; Block, David L. E-mail: jhk@iac.es E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

    2009-05-15

    We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

  8. Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, B. H.

    2001-07-01

    The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

  9. New design of high performance ionizing bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ronggang; Sun, Yurong

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new design of DC-pulse ionizing bar to solve the problem of imbalance offset voltage for the AC ionizing bar, which is easily affected by the environment, as well as indicate the final tests. The new design mainly includes five parts: power supply circuit, main control unit, logic circuit, high frequency transformer unit, and feedback unit. The ionizing bar can automatically adjust the discharge voltage, pulse frequency and pulse width to balance the positive and negative ions. The final test results indicate that the DC ionizing bar owns good effect in electrostatic elimination.

  10. Properties of Bars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi

    2009-12-01

    Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

  11. MFP scanner motion characterization using self-printed target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry K.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional printers (MFP) are products that combine the functions of a printer, scanner, and copier. Our goal is to help customers to be able to easily diagnose scanner or print quality issues with their products by developing an automated diagnostic system embedded in the product. We specifically focus on the characterization of scanner motions, which may be defective due to irregular movements of the scan-head. The novel design of our test page and two-stage diagnostic algorithm are described in this paper. The most challenging issue is to evaluate the scanner performance properly when both printer and scanner units contribute to the motion errors. In the first stage called the uncorrected-print-error-stage, aperiodic and periodic motion behaviors are characterized in both the spatial and frequency domains. Since it is not clear how much of the error is contributed by each unit, the scanned input is statistically analyzed in the second stage called the corrected-print-error-stage. Finally, the described diagnostic algorithms output the estimated scan error and print error separately as RMS values of the displacement of the scan and print lines, respectively, from their nominal positions in the scanner or printer motion direction. We validate our test page design and approaches by ground truth obtained from a high-precision, chrome-on-glass reticle manufactured using semiconductor chip fabrication technologies.

  12. On the offset of barred galaxies from the black hole M {sub BH}-σ relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P. E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu

    2013-12-01

    We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion σ (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average ≲ 10%, whereas the increase is only ≲ 4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors: (1) orientation and inclination effects; (2) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; and (3) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast, the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. The increase in σ following the growth of the SMBH is insensitive to a variation of a factor of 10 in the final mass of the SMBH, showing that it is the growth process rather than the actual SMBH mass that alters bar evolution in a way that increases σ. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M {sub BH}, especially if a constant M/L ratio is assumed. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an increase in σ that is roughly 4%-8% larger than the increase that occurs in an axisymmetric system. While the increase in σ due to SMBH growth in a barred galaxy might partially account for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo bulges from the M {sub BH}-σ relation obtained for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges in unbarred galaxies, it is inadequate to account for all of the offset.

  13. PREDICTIONS FOR $B \\to \\tau \\bar{\\mu} + \\mu \\bar{\\tau}$

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubaa, Dris; Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2013-12-01

    The observation of B -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ } at present experiments would be a clear sign of new physics. In this paper, we calculate this process in an extended Higgs sector framework where the decay is mediated by the exchange of spin zero particle with flavor changing neutral current couplings. If we identify the scalar with the newly discovered state at LHC with a mass 125 GeV then we find that, after imposing all experimental constraints, the BR(Bs -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-6 and BR (Bd -> τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) can be as high as 10-7. We also calculate this process in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and find the BR(Bs ->τ \\bar {μ } + μ \\bar {τ }) is typically of the order 10-8.

  14. Comparative evaluation of two commercial PET scanners, ECAT EXACT HR+ and Biograph 2, using GATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, N.; Sakellios, N.; Tsantilas, N. X.; Dikaios, N.; Tsoumpas, C.; Lazaro, D.; Loudos, G.; Schmidtlein, C. R.; Louizi, K.; Valais, J.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Malamitsi, J.; Kandarakis, J.; Nikita, K.

    2006-12-01

    Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) is a generic Monte Carlo simulation platform based on a general-purpose code GEANT4 and designed to simulate positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography systems. Monte Carlo simulations are used in nuclear medicine to model imaging systems and develop and assess tomographic reconstruction algorithms and correction methods for improved image quantification. The purpose of this study is to validate two GATE models of the commercial available PET scanner HR+ and the PET/CT Biograph 2. The geometry of the system components has been described in GATE, including detector ring, crystal blocks, PMTs etc. The energy and spatial resolution of the scanners as given by the manufacturers have been taken into account. The GATE simulated results are compared directly to experimental data obtained using a number of NEMA NU-2-2001 performance protocols, including spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction. All the respective phantoms are precisely modeled. Furthermore, an approximate dead-time model both at the level of single and coincidence events was developed so that the simulated count rate curve can satisfactorily match the experimental count rate performance curve for each scanner In addition a software tool was developed to build the sinograms from the simulated data and import them into the software for tomographic image reconstruction where the reconstruction algorithm of FBP3DRP was applied. An agreement of less than 0.8 mm was obtained between the spatial resolution of the simulated system and the experimental results. Also the simulated scatter fraction for the NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom matched the experimental results to within 3% of measured values. Finally the ratio of the simulated sensitivities with sources radially offset 0 and 10 cm from the central axis of each of the two scanners reaches an agreement of less than 1% between the simulated and experimental values. This

  15. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  16. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  17. Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Rouhier, Kerry A.; Symonsbergen, David J.; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.

    2013-01-01

    DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods. PMID:25267940

  18. Scanner qualification with IntenCD based reticle error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elblinger, Yair; Finders, Jo; Demarteau, Marcel; Wismans, Onno; Minnaert Janssen, Ingrid; Duray, Frank; Ben Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik; Cohen, Yaron; Parizat, Ziv; Attal, Shay; Polonsky, Netanel; Englard, Ilan

    2010-03-01

    Scanner introduction into the fab production environment is a challenging task. An efficient evaluation of scanner performance matrices during factory acceptance test (FAT) and later on during site acceptance test (SAT) is crucial for minimizing the cycle time for pre and post production-start activities. If done effectively, the matrices of base line performance established during the SAT are used as a reference for scanner performance and fleet matching monitoring and maintenance in the fab environment. Key elements which can influence the cycle time of the SAT, FAT and maintenance cycles are the imaging, process and mask characterizations involved with those cycles. Discrete mask measurement techniques are currently in use to create across-mask CDU maps. By subtracting these maps from their final wafer measurement CDU map counterparts, it is possible to assess the real scanner induced printed errors within certain limitations. The current discrete measurement methods are time consuming and some techniques also overlook mask based effects other than line width variations, such as transmission and phase variations, all of which influence the final printed CD variability. Applied Materials Aera2TM mask inspection tool with IntenCDTM technology can scan the mask at high speed, offer full mask coverage and accurate assessment of all masks induced source of errors simultaneously, making it beneficial for scanner qualifications and performance monitoring. In this paper we report on a study that was done to improve a scanner introduction and qualification process using the IntenCD application to map the mask induced CD non uniformity. We will present the results of six scanners in production and discuss the benefits of the new method.

  19. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  20. Improved spatial resolution in PET scanners using sampling techniques

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Ryan; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Increased focus towards improved detector spatial resolution in PET has led to the use of smaller crystals in some form of light sharing detector design. In this work we evaluate two sampling techniques that can be applied during calibrations for pixelated detector designs in order to improve the reconstructed spatial resolution. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. We performed Monte Carlo simulations followed by measurements on two whole-body scanners for point source data. The simulations and measurements were performed for scanners using scintillators with Zeff ranging from 46.9 to 63 for LaBr3 and LYSO, respectively. Our results show that near the center of the scanner, inter-crystal positioning technique leads to a gain of about 0.5-mm in reconstructed spatial resolution (FWHM) for both scanner designs. In a small animal LYSO scanner the resolution improves from 1.9-mm to 1.6-mm with the inter-crystal technique. The Compton scatter rejection technique shows higher gains in spatial resolution but at the cost of reduction in scanner sensitivity. The inter-crystal positioning technique represents a modest acquisition software modification for an improvement in spatial resolution, but at a cost of potentially longer data correction and reconstruction times. The Compton scatter rejection technique, while also requiring a modest acquisition software change with no increased data correction and reconstruction times, will be useful in applications where the scanner sensitivity is very high and larger improvements in spatial resolution are desirable. PMID:19779586

  1. Conservative Groups Threaten to Sue Bar Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A proposed revision in the American Bar Association's accrediting standards for law schools is coming under fire from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, which says the proposal seems to require the schools to use racial preferences in hiring and admissions despite federal and state laws limiting such policies. Although a bar-association official…

  2. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  3. Bars as seen by Herschel and Sloan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We present an observational study of the effect of bars on the gas component and on the star formation properties of their host galaxies in a statistically significant sample of resolved objects, the Herschel Reference Sample. The analysis of optical and far-infrared images allows us to identify a clear spatial correlation between stellar bars and the cold-gas distribution mapped by the warm dust emission. We find that the infrared counterparts of optically identified bars are either bar-like structures or dead central regions in which star formation is strongly suppressed. Similar morphologies are found in the distribution of star formation directly traced by Hα maps. The sizes of such optical and infrared structures correlate remarkably well, hinting at a causal connection. In the light of previous observations and of theoretical investigations in the literature, we interpret our findings as further evidence of the scenario in which bars drive strong inflows toward their host nuclei: young bars are still in the process of perturbing the gas and star formation clearly delineates the shape of the bars; old bars on the contrary already removed any gas within their extents, carving a dead region of negligible star formation.

  4. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  5. Flexible scaffolding made of rigid BARs.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2008-03-07

    Crescent-shaped BAR domains are generic actors in the creation of membrane curvature. In this issue, Frost et al. (2008) reveal how collective twisting of rigid F-BAR domains on a soft membrane surface may lead to different membrane curvatures.

  6. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  7. Exploring the binding dynamics of BAR proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabaso, Doron; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Van Rienen, Ursula; Zorec, Robert; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-09-01

    We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature. According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged amino acids at the binding interface of BAR proteins, contributing a negative binding energy to the system free energy. In addition, the cone-like shape of negatively charged lipids on the inner side of a cell membrane might contribute a positive intrinsic curvature, facilitating the initial bending towards the crescent-like shape of the BAR domain. In the present study, we hypothesize that in the limit of a rigid BAR domain shape, the negative binding energy and the coupling between the intrinsic curvature of negatively charged lipids and the membrane curvature drive the bending of the membrane. To estimate the binding energy, the electric potential at the charged surface of a BAR domain was calculated using the Langevin-Bikerman equation. Results of numerical simulations reveal that the binding energy is important for the initial instability (i.e. bending of a membrane), while the coupling between the intrinsic shapes of lipids and membrane curvature could be crucial for the curvature-dependent aggregation of negatively charged lipids near the surface of the BAR domain. In the discussion, we suggest novel experiments using patch clamp techniques to analyze the binding dynamics of BAR proteins, as well as the possible role of BAR proteins in the fusion pore stability of exovesicles.

  8. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average

  9. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on

  10. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  11. Design of a new type spectacle frames scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Guan, Dong; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    The spectacle frames scanner is an important part in the non-modeling lens-edger system, for its function to measure the profile of the spectacle frames and elicit its 3D data for lens-edging. We propose a new spectacle frames scanner based on multi-linear structured light which is a non-contact type. The experiment devices of the proposed system include a portable projector, a 12mm prime lens and an area array CCD camera. The technology of binary stripes and single-camera image collection are used in the new scanner. The original stripes are modulated by the spectacle frames, so we can collect the images and demodulate the 3D data of the spectacle frames based on trigonometry theory. The factors that influence the measurement accuracy of the scanner system are analyzed and the relationship between structure parameters and measurement error of the system has been determined. According to the result of the simulation, we determine the optimal structure parameters of the spectacle frames scanner system. Experiment result for resin frames with high reflectivity is given.

  12. Regulation of X-Ray Security Scanners in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Parry, Donald E

    2016-02-01

    In January of 2013 the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) ordered the removal of x-ray security scanners from airports by June of 2013. Since that time several of these scanners have been purchased at a reduced cost by various state and county governments for use in screening individuals entering or leaving their facilities. To address this issue the Radiation Safety Section of the State of Michigan drafted a set of registration conditions for facilities to follow when using these security scanners. Inspection procedures and measurement protocols were developed to estimate the dose to screened individuals. Inspections were performed on nine of the 16 registered backscatter scanners in the state and the one transmission scanner. The average estimated effective dose to screened individuals was ∼11 nSv for a two view scan from a backscatter system. The effective dose was 0.446 μSv, 0.330 μSv, and 0.150 μSv for a transmission system operated in the high, medium, and low dose modes, respectively. The limit suggested in the new registration condition is 0.25 μSv for a general use system and 10 μSv for a limited use system.

  13. Effects of sitting versus standing and scanner type on cashiers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, K R; Psihogios, J P; Meulenbroek, R G

    2001-06-10

    In the retail supermarket industry where cashiers perform repetitive, light manual material-handling tasks when scanning and handling products, reports of musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort are high. Ergonomics tradeoffs exist between sitting and standing postures, which are further confounded by the checkstand design and point-of-sale technology, such as the scanner. A laboratory experiment study was conducted to understand the effects of working position (sitting versus standing) and scanner type (bi-optic versus single window) on muscle activity, upper limb and spinal posture, and subjective preference of cashiers. Ten cashiers from a Dutch retailer participated in the study. Cashiers exhibited lower muscle activity in the neck and shoulders when standing and using a bi-optic scanner. Shoulder abduction was also less for standing conditions. In addition, all cashiers preferred using the bi-optic scanner with mixed preferences for sitting (n = 6) and standing (n = 4). Static loading of the muscles was relatively high compared with benchmarks, suggesting that during the task of scanning, cashiers may not have adequate recovery time to prevent fatigue. It is recommended that retailers integrate bi-optic scanners into standing checkstands to minimize postural stress, fatigue and discomfort in cashiers.

  14. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  15. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  18. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  19. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  1. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  2. Terrain Extraction by Integrating Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data and Spectral Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, C. L.; Halim, S.; Zulkepli, M.; Azwan, A. M.; Tang, W. L.; Chong, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of true terrain points from unstructured laser point cloud data is an important process in order to produce an accurate digital terrain model (DTM). However, most of these spatial filtering methods just utilizing the geometrical data to discriminate the terrain points from nonterrain points. The point cloud filtering method also can be improved by using the spectral information available with some scanners. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of using the three-channel (red, green and blue) of the colour image captured from built-in digital camera which is available in some Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) for terrain extraction. In this study, the data acquisition was conducted at a mini replica landscape in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai campus using Leica ScanStation C10. The spectral information of the coloured point clouds from selected sample classes are extracted for spectral analysis. The coloured point clouds which within the corresponding preset spectral threshold are identified as that specific feature point from the dataset. This process of terrain extraction is done through using developed Matlab coding. Result demonstrates that a higher spectral resolution passive image is required in order to improve the output. This is because low quality of the colour images captured by the sensor contributes to the low separability in spectral reflectance. In conclusion, this study shows that, spectral information is capable to be used as a parameter for terrain extraction.

  3. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  4. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. PMID:25483303

  5. Calibration procedure for a laser triangulation scanner with uncertainty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Gianfranco; Minetola, Paolo; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    Most of low cost 3D scanning devices that are nowadays available on the market are sold without a user calibration procedure to correct measurement errors related to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, there is no specific international standard defining a procedure to check the performance of a 3D scanner along time. This paper aims at detailing a thorough methodology to calibrate a 3D scanner and assess its measurement uncertainty. The proposed procedure is based on the use of a reference ball plate and applied to a triangulation laser scanner. Experimental results show that the metrological performance of the instrument can be greatly improved by the application of the calibration procedure that corrects systematic errors and reduces the device's measurement uncertainty.

  6. Spectral reflectance estimation using a six-color scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Kohno, Satoshi; Kakinuma, Hirokazu; Nohara, Fuminori; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the spectral reflectance function of an object surface by using a six-color scanner. The scanner is regarded as a six-band spectral imaging system, since it captures six color channels in total from two separate scans using two difference lamps. First, we describe the basic characteristics of the imaging systems for a HP color scanner and a multiband camera used for comparison. Second, we describe a computational method for recovering surface-spectral reflectances from the noisy sensor outputs. A LMMSE estimator is presented as an optimal estimator. We discuss the reflectance estimation for non-flat surfaces with shading effect. A solution method is presented for the reliable reflectance estimation. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is examined in detail on experiments using the Macbeth Color Checker and non-flat objects.

  7. Electro-optic and Acousto-optic Laser Beam Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, G. R. B. E.; Bechtold, P.

    Optical solid state deflectors rely on the electro-optical or acousto-optic effect. These Electro-Optical Deflectors (EODs) and Acousto-Optical Deflectors (AODs) do not contain moving parts and therefore exhibit high deflection velocities and are free of drawbacks associated with mechanical scanners. A description of the principles of operation of EODs and AODs is presented. In addition, characteristics, properties and the (dis)advantages of EODs and AODs, when compared to mirror based mechanical deflectors, is discussed. Deflection angles, speed and accuracy are discussed in terms of resolvable spots and related quantities. Also, response time, damage threshold, efficiency and the type and magnitude of beam distortions is addressed. Optical deflectors are characterized by high angular deflection velocities, but small deflection angles. Whereas mechanical mechanical scanners are characterized by relatively small deflection velocities, but large deflection angles. Arranging an optical deflector and a mechanical scanner in series allows to take advantage of the best of both worlds.

  8. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  9. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    SciTech Connect

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  10. Infragravity waves over a natural barred profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Holman, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of cross-shore flow were made across the surf zone during a storm as a nearshore bar became better developed and migrated offshore. Measured infragravity band spectra were compared to synthetic spectra calculated numerically over the natural barred profile assuming a white run-up spectrum of leaky mode or high-mode edge waves. The dominant wave observed early in the storm was consistent with Symond and Bowen's (1984) theoretical prediction of resonant amplification of discrete frequencies over a barred profile. -from Authors

  11. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

  12. Localization of a mobile laser scanner via dimensional reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtola, Ville V.; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Vaaja, Matti T.; Hyyppä, Hannu; Nüchter, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We extend the concept of intrinsic localization from a theoretical one-dimensional (1D) solution onto a 2D manifold that is embedded in a 3D space, and then recover the full six degrees of freedom for a mobile laser scanner with a simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm (SLAM). By intrinsic localization, we mean that no reference coordinate system, such as global navigation satellite system (GNSS), nor inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used. Experiments are conducted with a 2D laser scanner mounted on a rolling prototype platform, VILMA. The concept offers potential in being extendable to other wheeled platforms.

  13. 30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-02-15

    We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed

  15. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  16. Cyclone: A laser scanner for mobile robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjiv; West, Jay

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at Carnegie Mellon's Field Robotics Center have designed and implemented a scanning laser rangefinder. The device uses a commercially available time-of-flight ranging instrument that is capable of making up to 7200 measurements per second. The laser beam is reflected by a rotating mirror, producing up to a 360 degree view. Mounted on a robot vehicle, the scanner can be used to detect obstacles in the vehicle's path or to locate the robot on a map. This report discusses the motivation, design, and some applications of the scanner.

  17. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  18. Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

  19. Impact resistance of bar glasses.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P; Huggett, R H; Kidner, G

    1993-12-01

    Bar glasses are often used as weapons in interpersonal violence. Violence often erupts spontaneously and assailants use objects close to hand as weapons. After an initial national Accident and Emergency Department study to identify glass designs most often implicated in interpersonal violence, the impact resistance of 1-pint beer glasses was tested in a materials laboratory with a Zwick 5102 pendulum impact tester. Both straight-sided (nonik) glasses (annealed and tempered) and handled tankards (annealed) were tested to destruction. The impact resistance of new glasses was compared with that of glasses subjected to wear. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks did not differ significantly although new glasses were significantly more resistant than worn glasses (p < 0.01). It was not possible to break any of the tempered glasses with the pendulum used (maximum impact energy, 4 J). When noniks had been scratched at the rim to mimic wear, tempered glasses also had the highest impact resistance (p < 0.01) whereas the mean resistance of the annealed noniks was not significantly different. When tempered glasses failed during testing, they all disintegrated into relatively harmless cubes of glass, particularly the thicker bases of glasses. In contrast, annealed designs fractured leaving sharp shards although the thicker bases remained intact. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks was 0.5 J, of worn annealed noniks 0.08 J, of tempered new noniks > 4 J, of worn tempered noniks 0.18 J, and of tankards, 1.7 J.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  1. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  2. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, Cheung-Ryong; Melnitchouk, Wally; Wang, P.

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  3. BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Brian J.; Kent, Helen M.; Mills, Ian G.; Vallis, Yvonne; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Evans, Philip R.; McMahon, Harvey T.

    2004-01-01

    The BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane curvature in vitro and in vivo. The structure is similar to that of arfaptin2, which we find also binds and tubulates membranes. From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.

  4. FORMING DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES FROM DYNAMICALLY COOL INNER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

    2015-05-10

    About one-third of early-type barred galaxies host small-scale secondary bars. The formation and evolution of such double-barred (S2B) galaxies remain far from being well understood. In order to understand the formation of such systems, we explore a large parameter space of isolated pure-disk simulations. We show that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady secondary bar while the outer disk forms a large-scale primary bar. The independent bar instabilities of inner and outer disks result in long-lived double-barred structures whose dynamical properties are comparable to those in observations. This formation scenario indicates that the secondary bar might form from the general bar instability, the same as the primary bar. Under some circumstances, the interaction of the bars and the disk leads to the two bars aligning or single, nuclear, bars only. Simulations that are cool enough of the center to experience clump instabilities may also generate steady S2B galaxies. In this case, the secondary bars are “fast,” i.e., the bar length is close to the co-rotation radius. This is the first time that S2B galaxies containing a fast secondary bar are reported. Previous orbit-based studies had suggested that fast secondary bars were not dynamically possible.

  5. Frequency-narrowed diode array bar.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Earl; Chann, Bien; Nelson, Ian A; Walker, Thad G

    2005-05-20

    We describe a method to frequency narrow multielement high-power diode bars. Using a commercial 60-W, 49-element, 1-cm-long diode array bar at 795 nm running at 45 W, we narrow the linewidth from 1000 to 64 GHz with only a loss of 33% in output power. The resulting laser light is well suited for spin-exchange optical pumping of noble gas nuclei.

  6. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  7. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  8. Delamination stresses in semicircular laminated composite bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Using anisotropic elasticity theory, delamination stresses in a semicircular laminated composite curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments were calculated, and their radial locations determined. A family of design curves was presented, showing variation of the intensity of delamination stresses and their radial locations with different geometry and different degrees of anisotropy of the curved bar. The effect of anisotropy on the location of peak delamination stress was found to be small.

  9. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Amorin, A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kalinova, V.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Backsmann, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; del Olmo, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. Aims: We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of Ωb on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. Methods: We measured Ωb using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problems that long-slit data present when applying the TW method, resulting in the determination of more accurate Ωb. In addition, we have also derived the ratio ℛ of the corotation radius to the bar length of the galaxies. According to this parameter, bars can be classified as fast (ℛ < 1.4) and slow (ℛ > 1.4). Results: For all the galaxies, ℛ is compatible within the errors with fast bars. We cannot rule out (at 95% level) the fast bar solution for any galaxy. We have not observed any significant trend between ℛ and the galaxy morphological type. Conclusions: Our results indicate that independent of the Hubble type, bars have been formed and then evolve as fast rotators. This observational result will constrain the scenarios of formation and evolution of bars proposed by numerical simulations.

  10. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    PubMed Central

    Nochera, Carmen L.; Ragone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. PMID:28231132

  11. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    PubMed

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  12. Prototype active scanner for nighttime oil spill mapping and classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandness, G. A.; Ailes, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype, active, aerial scanner system was constructed for nighttime water pollution detection and nighttime multispectral imaging of the ground. An arc lamp was used to produce the transmitted light and four detector channels provided a multispectral measurement capability. The feasibility of the design concept was demonstrated by laboratory and flight tests of the prototype system.

  13. Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Jermey N. A.

    2010-07-15

    Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

  14. Testing PEPT Algorithm on a Medical PET Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrmomtaz, Alireza

    The basis of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the detection of the photons produced, when a positron annihilates with an electron. Conservation of energy and momentum then require that two 511 keV gamma rays are emitted almost back to back (180° apart). This method is used to determine the spatial distribution of a positron emitting fluid. Verifying the position of a single emitting particle in an object instead of determining the distribution of a positron emitting fluid is the basis of another technique, which has been named positron emitting particle tracking PEPT and has been developed in Birmingham University. Birmingham University has recently obtained the PET scanner from Hammersmith Hospital which was installed there in 1987. This scanner consists of 32 detector buckets, each includes 128 bismuth germanate detection elements, which are configured in 8 rings. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry and will be used for PEPT studies. Testing the PEPT algorithm on ECAT scanner gives a high data rate, can track approximately accurate at high speed and also has the possibility of making measurements on large vessels.

  15. Aerial thermal scanner data for monitoring rooftop temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkland, J.; Schmer, F. A.; Isakson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Four Nebraska communities and one South Dakota community were surveyed. Thermal scanner data were converted to a film format and the resultant imagery was successfully employed to monitor rooftop temperatures. The program places emphasis on heat losses resulting from inadequate home insulation, offers CENGAS customers the opportunity to observe a thermogram of their rooftop, and assists homeowners in evaluating insulation needs.

  16. Magnetic actuation for MEMS scanners for retinal scanning displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Luanava, Selso; Casasanta, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    We discuss magnetic actuation for Microvision"s bi-axial scanners for retinal scanning displays. Compared to the common side-magnet and moving-coil approach, we have designed, assembled and tested a novel magnet configuration, with magnets above and below the moving coil. This design reduces the magnet sizes significantly without sacrificing performance, and opens further improvement paths as well.

  17. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Peck, Konan

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

  18. OCR Scanners Facilitate WP Training in Business Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition Scanners (OCR) scan typed text and feed it directly into word processing systems, saving input time. OCRs are valuable in word processing training programs because they allow more students access to classes and more time for skill training. (MD)

  19. 10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing passageway links to other building to east and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. 9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 106 showing passageway links to other buildings east and west, and DR 3 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Mike; Chacon, Phillip; Gilpatrick, John D; Martinez, Derwin; Power, John F; Smith, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

  2. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices §...

  5. fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

  6. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  7. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  8. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  9. Free-Space Wavelength-Multiplexed Optical Scanner Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2002-09-01

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92° as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  10. Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

  11. A microarray scanner for the real-time quantitative detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanjun; Zhuang, Ying; Wu, Lingwei; Wu, Zhongwei; Hu, Song; Lu, Zuhong

    2007-05-01

    The real-time and quantitative detection assay is important for the gene detection. With the TaqMan probes for the detection based polymerase chain reaction (PCR), four targets could be checked in a single process in solution assay. A new method is developed to immobilize the TaqMan probes on a microarray, which could be used to the multi-target gene fragment quantitative detection with PCR. A new type microarray scanner is designed for the assay. A thermocycler system was built into the scanner platform. A new type of the vessel sealed with the gene amplification solution which could perform the thermo-cycling and scanning. To decrease the background intensity a confocal system was used as the fluorescent intensity detection in the scanner. To calculate the gene quantity, a standard liner graph was draw with the fluorescent intensity versus the cycles. From the standard liner, the quantity of the original gene fragment could be calculated in time with the cycles. This scanner offers the great advantage of real-time quantitative detection of DNA targets in a microarray.

  12. 20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building 104 showing two waveguide termination faces (fiberglass light bands on left of photograph). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. 21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

  15. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  16. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects Jeffrey Chou Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkely, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...in partial satisfaction of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering – Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

  17. Bar Evolution and Bar Properties from Disc Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Bars in disc galaxies indicate a large collection of stars in a specific configuration of orbits that give the galaxy center a rectangular looking feature. Astronomers have discovered that these bars affect the distribution of matter in galaxies, and are also related to galaxy stellar mass and star formation history. Little is known about the specifics of how bars evolve and drive the evolution of their host galaxies because only a handful of bars have been studied in detail so far. I have examined a sample of 8,221 barred galaxies from the early universe to identify and examine correlations with galaxy properties. The data comes from Galaxy Zoo, an online citizen science project that allows anyone to classify and measure detailed properties of galaxies. I present results including the fraction of galaxies in the sample that have bars, and the variation of galaxy properties with bar length, including galaxy color and stellar mass. I also compare these results to barred galaxies in the local universe. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of galaxy evolution overall, including the effect of dark matter on bars and galaxy evolution.

  18. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Yusupujiang; Ji, Chueng -Ryong; Melnitchouk, W.; Wang, P.

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  19. Dynamical Calculations of bar K and MULTI-bar K Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    We report on our recent calculations of bar K and multi-bar K nuclei. Calculations were performed fully self-consistently across the periodic table using the relativistic mean-field approach. We aimed at detailed analysis of dynamical processes and various thresholds that determine the K- absorption width. Further, we studied the behavior of the nuclear medium under the influence of increasing strangeness in order to search for bar K condensation precursor phenomena. Last, we explored possibly self-bound strange hadronic configurations consisting of neutrons and bar K0 mesons and studied their properties.

  20. Design and experimental investigations of a two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Sihai; Luo, Dong

    2015-02-01

    A compact two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators is presented. The scanner consists of two single-axis laser scanners placed perpendicular to each other, which exhibit the advantages of small size, large angle, high scanning speed, and high linearity. The mechanical structure and principle of the scanner are introduced and the performance of the scanner is experimentally investigated. The result shows that the maximum angle of the scanner is approximately 9.315 deg with a main resonant frequency of 1242 Hz. An open-loop controller based on a hysteresis compensation algorithm and analog notch filter is proposed. Its nonlinearity is reduced to ±0.5% after compensation. High frequency scanning and the step response of the scanner are also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the scanner.

  1. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  2. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors.

    PubMed

    Shukla, R A; Dugad, S R; Garde, C S; Gopal, A V; Gupta, S K; Prabhu, S S

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 - σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  3. Reducing between scanner differences in multi-center PET studies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aniket; Koeppe, Robert A; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2009-05-15

    This work is part of the multi-center Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a large multi-site study of dementia, including patients having mild cognitive impairment (MCI), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as healthy elderly controls. A major portion of ADNI involves the use of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of this paper is the reduction of inter-scanner differences in the FDG-PET scans obtained from the 50 participating PET centers having fifteen different scanner models. In spite of a standardized imaging protocol, systematic inter-scanner variability in PET images from various sites is observed primarily due to differences in scanner resolution, reconstruction techniques, and different implementations of scatter and attenuation corrections. Two correction steps were developed by comparison of 3-D Hoffman brain phantom scans with the 'gold standard' digital 3-D Hoffman brain phantom: i) high frequency correction; where a smoothing kernel for each scanner model was estimated to smooth all images to a common resolution and ii) low frequency correction; where smooth affine correction factors were obtained to reduce the attenuation and scatter correction errors. For the phantom data, the high frequency correction reduced the variability by 20%-50% and the low frequency correction further reduced the differences by another 20%-25%. Correction factors obtained from phantom studies were applied to 95 scans from normal control subjects obtained from the participating sites. The high frequency correction reduced differences similar to the phantom studies. However, the low frequency correction did not further reduce differences; hence further refinement of the procedure is necessary.

  4. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  5. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  8. On the morphology of dust lanes in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Pérez, I.; Zurita, A.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Comerón, S.; Díaz-García, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study is to use dynamical simulations to explore the influence of two important dynamical bar parameters, bar strength and bar pattern speed on the shape of the bar dust lanes. To quantify the shape of the dust lanes we have developed a new systematic method to measure the dust lane curvature. Previous numerical simulations have compared the curvature of bar dust lanes with the bar strength, predicting a relation between both parameters which has been supported by observational studies but with a large spread. We take into account the bar pattern speed to explore, simultaneously, the effect of both parameters on the dust lane shape. To that end, we separate our galactic bars in fast bars (1 < {R} < 1.4 ) and slow bars ({R} > 1.4 ), obtaining, as previous simulations, an inverse relation between the dust lane curvature and the bar strength for fast bars. For the first time, we extend the study to slow bars, finding a constant curvature as a function of the bar strength. As a result, we conclude that weak bars with straight dust lanes are candidates for slow bars. Finally, we have analysed a pilot sample of 10 S4G galaxies, obtaining dust lane curvatures lying within the range covered by the simulations.

  9. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  10. Automated bar detection in local disk galaxies from the SDSS. The colors of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of either the images or the ellipticity/position-angle radial profiles, to extract a fairly pure sample of barred late-type galaxies (LTGs) among thousands of optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The procedure relies on previous methods to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their position angle and ellipticity profiles. This procedure was run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local superclusters. The procedure extracted a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes for each galaxy. Examining the profiles of 922 face-on LTGs (B/A > 0.7) automatically, the procedure found that 36% are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to construct a set of template radial color profiles to test the impact of the barred galaxy population on the average color profiles as previously shown in the literature and to test the bar-quenching scenario. The radial color profile of barred galaxy shows that bars are on average redder than their surrounding disk producing an outside-in gradient toward red in correspondence with their corotation radius. The distribution of the extension of the deprojected length of the bar suggests that bars have strong impact on the gradients of averaged color profiles. The dependence of the profiles on the mass is consistent with the bar-quenching scenario, i.e. more massive barred galaxies have redder colors (hence older stellar population and suppressed star formation) inside their corotation radius with respect to their lower mass counterparts. Tables of the barred and non-barred galaxies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  11. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  12. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

  13. Improved Coating System for High Strength Torsion Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    SwW IMPROVED COATING SYSTEM FOR HIGH S- TYPE Of REPORT & PEROo CovERED STRENGTH TORSION BAR Final Report Plastisol Coating System Provides a Cost...8217 mumber) Torsion Bar Plastisol Coating Inorganic Coating Protective Coating Polyvinyl Chloride Coating Polyurethane Coating Corrosion Protection Tape...Bars E. Endurance Test Results for One-third Length Torsion E-1 Bar F. Specification for Application of Plastisol to High F-1 Strength Torsion Bar

  14. bar H and bar H+ production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comini, P.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2013-06-01

    The production and cooling of the bar H+ ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure bar g, the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. bar H+ ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of bar H+ ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave - Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the bar H excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the bar H production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest bar H+ production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of bar H+ could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  15. Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-10

    The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

  16. Arthroscopically assisted central physeal bar resection.

    PubMed

    Marsh, James S; Polzhofer, Gert K

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-seven central physeal bars were removed with an arthroscopically assisted technique. Thirty children (32 cases) have been followed to maturity or physeal closure. There were 19 boys and 11 girls, aged 4-14 years (mean, 9.5 years). Site of arrest was distal femur (15), proximal tibia (9), distal tibia (6), and distal radius (2). Mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2-12 years). Adequate longitudinal growth was realized in 21 patients (70%) just after bar resection. Five patients (17%) required osteotomy, lengthening, or epiphysiodesis in addition to bar resection. In 4 patients (13%), bar resection failed. Failures occurred in those patients whose source of growth arrest was infection (3) or degree of physeal trauma approached 50% (1 case). This is the first series that studies and documents the efficacy of the arthroscope in central physeal bar resection. It provides the best visualization with minimal morbidity. The technique is described, including a discussion of technical tips and pitfalls.

  17. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  18. Warp evidence in precessing galactic bar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, P.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Masdemont, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Most galaxies have a warped shape when they are seen edge-on. The reason for this curious form is not completely known so far, so in this work we apply dynamical system tools to contribute to its explanation. Starting from a simple, but realistic model formed by a bar and a disc, we study the effect of a small misalignment between the angular momentum of the system and its angular velocity. To this end, a precession model was developed and considered, assuming that the bar behaves like a rigid body. After checking that the periodic orbits inside the bar continue to be the skeleton of the inner system even after inflicting a precession to the potential, we computed the invariant manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits departing from the equilibrium points at the ends of the bar to find evidence of their warped shapes. As is well known, the invariant manifolds associated with these periodic orbits drive the arms and rings of barred galaxies and constitute the skeleton of these building blocks. Looking at them from a side-on viewpoint, we find that these manifolds present warped shapes like those recognised in observations. Lastly, test particle simulations have been performed to determine how the stars are affected by the applied precession, this way confirming the theoretical results.

  19. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  20. Measuring the Fraction of Bars and Offset Bars Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5μm, I have measured a preliminary bar fraction and offset bar fraction in the local universe by visually identifying bar structure within a sample of 2,140 local galaxies. A sample this large has not been used since 1963, when Gerard de Vaucouleurs found the bar fraction to be roughly fbar ˜ 0.6 in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Since then, there has been much debate over the true value of the bar fraction. The purpose of finding a bar fraction using S4G is to provide a final say in this debate. I have found that the bar fraction in the local universe is fbar = 0.69 when including both definite bars (SB) and candidate bars (SAB). I have also measured a preliminary value for the fraction of offset bars using the same sample. Offset bars are a very rare phenomenon. Of the sample used, 91 galaxies are found to be definite offset bars while an additional 39 are found to be candidate offset bars. When including both definite offset bars and candidate offset bars, the offset bar fraction in the local universe becomes fob = 0.12. I also measure the fraction of offset bars as a function of Hubble type and stellar mass. We find that 54% of offset bars are found in disks having a stellar mass of M ≤ 108 M⊙. Late-type disks possess significantly more offset bars than early-type with 60% of offset bars being found in disks having a Hubble type t ≥ 6.

  1. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  2. Modification of a medical PET scanner for PEPT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrmomtaz, Alireza; Parker, D. J.; Byars, L. G.

    2007-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has developed as the most powerful functional imaging modality in medicine. Over the same period the University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has applied PET to study engineering processes and developed the alternative technique of positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) in which a single radioactively labelled tracer particle is tracked by detecting simultaneously the pairs of back-to-back photons arising from positron/electron annihilation. Originally PEPT was performed using a pair of multiwire detectors, and more recently using a pair of digital gamma camera heads. In 2002 the Positron Imaging Centre acquired a medical PET scanner, an ECAT 931/08, previously used at Hammersmith Hospital. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry for use in PEPT studies. This paper presents initial results from this system. Fast moving tracer particles can be rapidly and accurately located.

  3. Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, David V.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wooten, Albert D., Jr.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a Holographic Optical Telescope and Scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection Holographic Optical Element. This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter, while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42deg cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite earth observing scanning lidar telescopes.

  4. Prototype holographic atmospheric scanner for environmental remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, David V.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a holographic optical telescope and scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection holographic optical element (HOE). This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42° cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite Earth-observing scanning lidar telescopes.

  5. Photoacoustic imaging using an 8-beam Fabry-Perot scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Nam; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward; Cox, Ben; Beard, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The planar Fabry Perot (FP) photoacoustic scanner has been shown to provide exquisite high resolution 3D images of soft tissue structures in vivo to depths up to approximately 10mm. However a significant limitation of current embodiments of the concept is low image acquisition speed. To increase acquisition speed, a novel multi-beam scanner architecture has been developed. This enables a line of equally spaced 8 interrogation beams to be scanned simultaneously across the FP sensor and the photoacoustic signals detected in parallel. In addition, an excitation laser operating at 200Hz was used. The combination of parallelising the detection and the high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the excitation laser has enabled dramatic reductions in image acquisition time to be achieved. A 3D image can now be acquired in 10 seconds and 2D images at video rates are now possible.

  6. Robust object segmentation using a multi-layer laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-10-29

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations.

  7. Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

  8. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  9. Lensless image scanner using multilayered aperture array for noncontact imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    We propose a new imaging system of a simple structure that uses a set of layered aperture arrays above a linear image sensor instead of an imaging lens. The image scanner transfers the image information by detecting the scattering rays from the object directly without any collecting power, as if it were an optical stamp. Since the aperture arrays shield the stray rays propagating obliquely, the image information can be read with high resolution even if the object floats within a few millimeters. The aperture arrays with staggered alignment in two lines widen the space with the adjacent pixel without decimating information. We manufactured a prototype model of 300-dpi resolution, whose height is as little as 5 mm. The experimental result shows that ghost images can be restricted sufficiently, and our scanner can clearly read an object within a space of <3.5 mm, meaning that it has a large depth of field of 3.5 mm.

  10. Waveform calibration strategies for a small-footprint laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncat, Andreas; Wagner, Wolfgang; Melzer, Thomas; Ullrich, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Waveform calibration is a crucial task in the processing of full-waveform laser scanner data. In most cases, there is a non-linear relationship between the "raw" waveform data stored by the sensor system and the actual input power. However, to establish standardized methods for the post processing of waveform data, input data related linearly to the power input are required. For some commercially available systems, this problem is handled by using a look-up table (LUT) as a transfer function from the "raw" amplitude (stored by the sensor system) of the peaks of the waveforms to their actual amplitude. Since the transformation is only valid for the peaks of the waveform, the question arises how this transformation would perturbate the shape (i.e. position, width and amplitude) of a backscattered laser pulse if applied to the whole waveform. This paper discusses the effects of the use of such non-linear transfer functions on complex laser scanner waveforms.

  11. Quality of Plate Copies Digitized with a Commercially Available Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnitski, V.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Digitization of all the (ca. 8,000) 8"x10" plates of the Maria Mitchell Observatory's plate collection with the commercially available scanner AgfaScan T5000 took about 1.5 years. Scanning these plates with the same nominal resolution (10-20 microns) using one of the best astronomical digital microdensitometers would be about 8 times longer, and, correspondingly, 8 times more expensive. Such a fast job may raise doubts in the quality of the scans. We show, by comparison with the control scans obtained with the STScI's GAMMA laser microdensitometer, that the additional random errors for stellar photometry introduced by AgfaScan T5000 are, typically, less than 0.05 mag, and that this scanner does not produce any detectable additional astrometric errors. This project was supported by the NSF/REU grant AST-0354056 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  12. Information extraction techniques for multi-spectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data recognition and information extraction problems considered are: (1) signature extension for improved recognition processing over large areas; (2) choice of density functions for recognition decision rules; (3) channel selection for cost reduction; and (4) radiation balance mapping for interpretation of wide spectrum scanner data. The formulation of a simulation model and reprocessing of both aircraft and space data reduces scan angle variations and extends signatures from one altitude to another. Comparison of the usefulness of empirical density functions and that of Gaussian density functions for recognition processing establishes the advantages of normal assumption for individual fields in processing of multispectral scanner data. Also reported is a procedure for producing radiation balance maps from wide spectra by analyzing energy budgets of vegetation and other surface materials through partitioning net absorbed radiant energy and estimating incoming power density at both short and long wavelengths.

  13. Using a computed tomography scanner for nonmedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesareo, Roberto

    1989-02-01

    A very simple and inexpensive first-generation CT-miniscanner is described, which is characterized by: monoenergetic scanning radiation both from an X-ray tube with secondary targets and from radioactive sources; a single NaI(Tl) X-ray detector; and a PC-Apple II E with a reconstruction program working in Pascal. Monoenergetic radiation was employed, which offers the advantage of studying the performance of the CT-scanner (in particular the contrast resolution) versus incident energy, and of varying the energy as a function of sample dimensions and composition. The possibility of "amplifying" the presence of an element with respect to the matrix is then described, based on the principle of realizing two tomographs at two energy values which closely bracket the photoelectric discontinuity of the element to be analyzed. Various possible areas of applications of the CT-scanner are then described.

  14. Acoustic noise reduction in a 4 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Mechefske, Chris K; Geris, Ryan; Gati, Joseph S; Rutt, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    High-field, high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate high levels of noise. There is ongoing concern in the medical and imaging research communities regarding the detrimental effects of high acoustic levels on auditory function, patient anxiety, verbal communication between patients and health care workers and ultimately MR image quality. In order to effectively suppress the noise levels inside MRI scanners, the sound field needs to be accurately measured and characterized. This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound radiation from a gradient coil cylinder within a 4 T MRI scanner under a variety of conditions. These measurement results show: (1) that noise levels can be significantly reduced through the use of an appropriately designed passive acoustic liner; and (2) the true noise levels that are experienced by patients during echo planar imaging.

  15. Optical position feedback for electrostatically driven MOEMS scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Frank, A.; Wildenhain, M.; Sandner, T.; Schenk, H.; Kenda, A.

    2012-03-01

    For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. Measurement of timing signals using fast differential photodiodes can be used for resonant scanner mirrors performing sinusoidal motion with large amplitude. While this approach provides excellent accuracy it cannot be directly extended to arbitrary trajectories or static deflection angles. Another approach is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present position sensing devices based on either principle and compare both approaches showing first experimental results from the implemented devices

  16. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  17. SNS LINAC Wire Scanner System : Signal Levels and Accuracy.

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. A.; Christensen, W.; Myer, R. E.; Rose, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    The linac wire scanner system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, TN, USA, calls for 5 units in the medium energy beam transport (MEBT), 5 in the drift tube linac (DTL), and 10 in the coupled cavity linac (CCL). In this paper we present expected signal levels and an analysis of the error in the beam size measurement as functions of wire position and electrical signal errors.

  18. A Dedicated Microprocessor Controller for a Bound Document Scanner.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    release; distribution unlimited A thesis submitted to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts in partial fulfillment of the...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June, 1984 Q Edward Charles Shaffer, 1984 The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and tu. distribute ...OF THIS PAGE(WhaI’ Data Entered) ABSTRACT Research was carried out on an electro-optical bound document scanner which used a general purpose F-8

  19. 11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing personnel exit door at side building, showing DR 1 antenna from oblique angle on foundation berm with DR 2 and DR 3 antennae in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. 90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian

    Optical interconnects are the next evolutionary step for computer server systems, replacing traditional copper interconnects to increase communication bandwidth and reduce overall power consumption. A variety of implementation techniques to bring optics to the rack-to-rack, board-to-board, and chip-to-chip scale are heavily pursued in the research space. In this dissertation we present a micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) based free-space optical link for board-to-board interconnects. As with any free-space optical system, alignment is critical for the correction of undesired vibrations or offsets. Thus our optical system implements a variety of MEMS based lens scanners and opto-electronic feedback loops to maintain constant alignment despite both high frequency and low frequency misalignments. The full implementation of all of the MEMS devices is discussed, including the design, simulation, fabrication, characterization, and the demonstration of the full optical link. The first device discussed is an electrostatic lens scanner with an optoelectronic feedback loop capable of tracking high frequency mechanical vibrations expected in computer server systems. The second system discussed is an electrothermal lens scanner with mechanical brakes for long term, large displacement, and zero power off-state tracking. Both linear and rotational actuators are presented to correct for the major causes of misalignment measured in board-to-board systems. A finite state machine based controller is demonstrated to act as the feedback loop required to maintain alignment. A fully integrated packaging system is proposed for the correction of all misalignment degrees of freedom. Finally, an alternative application of MEMS lens scanners for light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for 3D imaging is explored, tested, and simulated.

  2. Building a 3D scanner system based on monocular vision.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyi; Yuan, Lin

    2012-04-10

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional scanner system, which is built by using an ingenious geometric construction method based on monocular vision. The system is simple, low cost, and easy to use, and the measurement results are very precise. To build it, one web camera, one handheld linear laser, and one background calibration board are required. The experimental results show that the system is robust and effective, and the scanning precision can be satisfied for normal users.

  3. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  4. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  5. Imaging of physeal bars in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, David C; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W; Shah, Amisha J

    2015-08-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone.

  6. Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

    2008-02-01

    A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

  7. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  8. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement. PMID:26682623

  9. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-12-21

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

  10. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-21

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  11. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-12-01

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

  12. Four Experiments on the Perception of Bar Charts.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Justin; Setlur, Vidya; Anand, Anushka

    2014-12-01

    Bar charts are one of the most common visualization types. In a classic graphical perception paper, Cleveland & McGill studied how different bar chart designs impact the accuracy with which viewers can complete simple perceptual tasks. They found that people perform substantially worse on stacked bar charts than on aligned bar charts, and that comparisons between adjacent bars are more accurate than between widely separated bars. However, the study did not explore why these differences occur. In this paper, we describe a series of follow-up experiments to further explore and explain their results. While our results generally confirm Cleveland & McGill's ranking of various bar chart configurations, we provide additional insight into the bar chart reading task and the sources of participants' errors. We use our results to propose new hypotheses on the perception of bar charts.

  13. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  14. Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J; Stewart, Charles N; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine.

  15. An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Christoph; Forster, Frank; Schick, Anton; Angelopoulou, Elli

    2012-07-01

    We present a new endoscopic 3D scanning system based on Single Shot Structured Light. The proposed design makes it possible to build an extremely small scanner. The sensor head contains a catadioptric camera and a pattern projection unit. The paper describes the working principle and calibration procedure of the sensor. The prototype sensor head has a diameter of only 3.6mm and a length of 14mm. It is mounted on a flexible shaft. The scanner is designed for tubular cavities and has a cylindrical working volume of about 30mm length and 30mm diameter. It acquires 3D video at 30 frames per second and typically generates approximately 5000 3D points per frame. By design, the resolution varies over the working volume, but is generally better than 200μm. A prototype scanner has been built and is evaluated in experiments with phantoms and biological samples. The recorded average error on a known test object was 92μm.

  16. Portable wide-field hand-held NIR scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Roman, Manuela; Carrasquilla, Jennifer; Erickson, Sarah J.; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging modality is one of the widely used medical imaging techniques for breast cancer imaging, functional brain mapping, and many other applications. However, conventional NIR imaging systems are bulky and expensive, thereby limiting their accelerated clinical translation. Herein a new compact (6 × 7 × 12 cm3), cost-effective, and wide-field NIR scanner has been developed towards contact as well as no-contact based real-time imaging in both reflectance and transmission mode. The scanner mainly consists of an NIR source light (between 700- 900 nm), an NIR sensitive CCD camera, and a custom-developed image acquisition and processing software to image an area of 12 cm2. Phantom experiments have been conducted to estimate the feasibility of diffuse optical imaging by using Indian-Ink as absorption-based contrast agents. As a result, the developed NIR system measured the light intensity change in absorption-contrasted target up to 4 cm depth under transillumination mode. Preliminary in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring of blood flow changes. Currently, extensive in-vivo studies are carried out using the ultra-portable NIR scanner in order to assess the potential of the imager towards breast imaging..

  17. Development of a high resolution module for PET scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Tavernier, S.; Niknejad, T.; Varela, J.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2017-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners require high performances in term of spatial resolution and sensitivity to allow early detection of cancer masses. In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners the Depth of Interaction (DOI) information has to be obtained to avoid parallax errors and to reconstruct high resolution images. In the whole body PET, the DOI information can be useful to correct for the time jitter of the optical photons along the main axis of the scintillator, improving the time performances. In this work we present the development of PET module designed to reach high performance as compared to the current scanners while keeping the complexity of the system reasonably low. The module presented is based on a 64 LYSO (Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate) crystals matrix and on a 4×4 MPPC (Multi Pixels Photon Counter) array as detector in a 4 to 1 coupling between the crystals and the detector and a single side readout. The lateral surfaces of the crystals are optically treated to be unpolished. The DOI and the energy resolution of the PET module are presented and a fast method to obtain the DOI calibration is discussed.

  18. Visual stimulus presentation using fiber optics in the MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Sereno, Martin I

    2008-03-30

    Imaging the neural basis of visuomotor actions using fMRI is a topic of increasing interest in the field of cognitive neuroscience. One challenge is to present realistic three-dimensional (3-D) stimuli in the subject's peripersonal space inside the MRI scanner. The stimulus generating apparatus must be compatible with strong magnetic fields and must not interfere with image acquisition. Virtual 3-D stimuli can be generated with a stereo image pair projected onto screens or via binocular goggles. Here, we describe designs and implementations for automatically presenting physical 3-D stimuli (point-light targets) in peripersonal and near-face space using fiber optics in the MRI scanner. The feasibility of fiber-optic based displays was demonstrated in two experiments. The first presented a point-light array along a slanted surface near the body, and the second presented multiple point-light targets around the face. Stimuli were presented using phase-encoded paradigms in both experiments. The results suggest that fiber-optic based displays can be a complementary approach for visual stimulus presentation in the MRI scanner.

  19. Parametric Study of Shear Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with FRP Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Job; Ramadass, S.

    2016-09-01

    Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are being widely used as internal reinforcement in structural elements in the last decade. The corrosion resistance of FRP bars qualifies its use in severe and marine exposure conditions in structures. A total of eight concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with FRP bars were cast and tested over shear span to depth ratio of 0.5 and 1.75. The shear strength test data of 188 beams published in various literatures were also used. The model originally proposed by Indian Standard Code of practice for the prediction of shear strength of concrete beams reinforced with steel bars IS:456 (Plain and reinforced concrete, code of practice, fourth revision. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000) is considered and a modification to account for the influence of the FRP bars is proposed based on regression analysis. Out of the 196 test data, 110 test data is used for the regression analysis and 86 test data is used for the validation of the model. In addition, the shear strength of 86 test data accounted for the validation is assessed using eleven models proposed by various researchers. The proposed model accounts for compressive strength of concrete ( f ck ), modulus of elasticity of FRP rebar ( E f ), longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( ρ f ), shear span to depth ratio ( a/ d) and size effect of beams. The predicted shear strength of beams using the proposed model and 11 models proposed by other researchers is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The mean of predicted shear strength to the experimental shear strength for the 86 beams accounted for the validation of the proposed model is found to be 0.93. The result of the statistical analysis indicates that the prediction based on the proposed model corroborates with the corresponding experimental data.

  20. Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

  1. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production in $p \\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we study $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, and $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\\Lambda$'s ($\\bar{\\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

  2. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  3. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

  4. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  5. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  6. Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2005-01-01

    One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

  7. Unitarity Triangles at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2011-11-23

    The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

  8. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  9. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  10. Internal meson dominance for pp-bar annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, G.; Genz, H.; Tatur, S.

    1989-04-01

    The previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model of pp-bar..-->..YY-bar, YY-bar /sup */, and Y/sup */Y-bar/sup */ (Y denotes hyperon) at low energies is modified and thereby extended to also include pp-bar..-->..nn-bar and ..delta../sup ++/Delta-bar/sup - -/. It is assumed that the same nonperturbative mechanism that mixes the different qq-bar pairs within the neutral, nonstrange mesons is also responsible for the scattering, annihilation, and creation of qq-bar pairs within the baryon-antibaryon system. More specifically, we assume that processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-bar within the baryon-antibaryon system with q = d or u and Q = d, u, or s quarks is mediated by fusion of the qq-bar to a pseudoscalar or vector meson that also within the system decays into QQ-bar. The /sup 1/S/sub 0/ pseudoscalar-meson model disagrees with experiment whereas the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ vector-meson fusion model is in reasonable agreement with it. As compared to the previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model the main change is an extension of the approximate agreement to the nonstrange final-state baryons. This is achieved since strange baryons in the model are only produced via the small ..omega..-phi mixing.

  11. Some Comments on the Branching Ratios for n-bar p Annihilation into pipi, KK-bar , and pieta Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A. E.

    2000-11-01

    We give some remarks on the $\\bar n p$-partial branching ratios in flight at low momenta of antineutron, measured by OBELIX collaboration. The comparison is made to the known branching ratios from the $p \\bar p$-atomic states. The branching ratio for the reaction $\\bar n p \\to \\pi^+\\pi^0$ is found to be suppressed in comparison to what follows from the $ p \\bar p$-data. It is also shown, that there is no so called dynamic I=0-amplitude suppression for the process $N\\bar N \\to K\\bar K$.

  12. Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

  13. Calculations of bar K-nuclear quasi-bound states using chiral bar KN amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.

    2014-03-01

    We review our recent calculations of K- quasi-bound states in nuclear systems using subthreshold energy dependent chiral bar KN amplitudes. Strong energy dependence of the scattering amplitudes requires self-consistent evaluation of the involved bar KN interactions. In view of sizable widths predicted by our calculations, an unambiguous identification of K--nuclear quasi-bound states in ongoing experimental searches would be difficult.

  14. Comparison of a Novel Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scanner Versus a Conventional Computed Tomography Scanner for Measuring Patellar Instability

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, John; Kluczynski, Melissa; Notino, Anthony; Bisson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional computed tomography (CT) images are routinely used for diagnosing patellofemoral instability and are obtained with the patient in a supine position, nonweightbearing, with the knee in full extension, and with leg muscles relaxed. A new portable extremity cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner has been developed that may allow for more accurate diagnosis, as imaging can be performed with the patient standing, the knee flexed, and with leg muscles active. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare CT measurements of patellar alignment on a prototype scanner versus conventional scanner in patients with known patellar instability. The hypothesis was that the measurements obtained with the knee flexed and the patient weightbearing would be less than those obtained from the conventional CT scan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty patients with a diagnosis of lateral patellar instability were imaged on both a conventional CT scanner and on a prototype CBCT scanner. Objective measures of patellofemoral alignment (tilt angle, congruence angle, tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove [TT-TG] offset) were assessed on images obtained from the prototype and conventional CT scans by 2 independent reviewers. Paired t tests were calculated to compare the mean measurement of patellofemoral alignment obtained from the prototype versus conventional CT. Interrater reliability was assessed using a 2-way mixed-effects model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for tilt angle, congruence angle, and TT-TG offset on the prototype and conventional CT scans. Results: Measurements of patellofemoral alignment were significantly less when acquired by the new prototype CBCT scanner while subjects were weightbearing on a flexed knee. On the images from the prototype CBCT scan, the tilt angle averaged 18.2° ± 11.6° compared with 28.1° ± 7.1° on the conventional CT scan (P < .0001). The congruence angle was 3.0° ± 30

  15. Modeling of concrete cracking due to corrosion process of reinforcement bars

    SciTech Connect

    Bossio, Antonio; Monetta, Tullio; Bellucci, Francesco; Lignola, Gian Piero; Prota, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    The reinforcement corrosion in Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a major reason of degradation for structures and infrastructures throughout the world leading to their premature deterioration before design life was attained. The effects of corrosion of reinforcement are: (i) the reduction of the cross section of the bars, and (ii) the development of corrosion products leading to the appearance of cracks in the concrete cover and subsequent cover spalling. Due to their intrinsic complex nature, these issues require an interdisciplinary approach involving both material science and structural design knowledge also in terms on International and National codes that implemented the concept of durability and service life of structures. In this paper preliminary FEM analyses were performed in order to simulate pitting corrosion or general corrosion aimed to demonstrate the possibility to extend the results obtained for a cylindrical specimen, reinforced by a single bar, to more complex RC members in terms of geometry and reinforcement. Furthermore, a mechanical analytical model to evaluate the stresses in the concrete surrounding the reinforcement bars is proposed. In addition, a sophisticated model is presented to evaluate the non-linear development of stresses inside concrete and crack propagation when reinforcement bars start to corrode. The relationships between the cracking development (mechanical) and the reduction of the steel section (electrochemical) are provided. Finally, numerical findings reported in this paper were compared to experimental results available in the literature and satisfactory agreement was found.

  16. New Photometric and Kinematic Evidence for a Bar in NGC 2841

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    We report finding a bar in the massive spiral NGC 2841 from both photometric and kinematic modeling. Visually, this galaxy possesses flocculent spiral structure and an inner hole devoid of dust and neutral HI gas, but no obvious indication of a stellar bar. While there has been some previous speculation of a bar based off of isophotal photometry of NGC 2841, there has been no recent follow-up work or confirmation, and this galaxy is considered unbarred in modern catalogues and surveys. We use the DiskFit code to model broadband B, V, R, I photometry from the ARCTIC imager on the APO 3.5m telescope and Halpha velocity field kinematics from data taken with the SparsePak IFU on the 3.5m WIYN telescope at KPNO. In both cases, we find that including a bar that is nearly aligned with the major axis of the galaxy significantly improves the fit of the DiskFit models. Here we report our results and discuss them in the context of previous work.

  17. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  18. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  19. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  20. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  1. Laboratory and Workplace Assessments of Rivet Bucking Bar Vibration Emissions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  2. Orthogonal Vertical Velocity Dispersion Distributions Produced by Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana

    2017-02-01

    In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions (σ) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct σ peaks on the minor axis of the inner bar, which we termed “σ-humps,” while two local σ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., “σ-hollows.” Analysis of numerical simulations shows that {σ }z-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed σ-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of {σ }z in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower {σ }z along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating {σ }z-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that {σ }z-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of stars in the presence of a sufficiently massive, vertically thin bar, even without an outer bar. Using self-consistent N-body simulations, we verify the existence of vertically thin bars in the nuclear-barred and S2B models that generate prominent σ-humps+hollows. Thus, the ubiquitous presence of σ-humps+hollows in S2Bs implies that inner bars are vertically thin. The addition of a bulge makes the {σ }z-humps more ambiguous and thus tends to somewhat hide the {σ }z-humps+hollows. We show that {σ }z may be used as a kinematic diagnostic of stellar components that have different thicknesses, providing a direct perspective on the morphology and thickness of nearly face-on bars and bulges with integral field unit spectroscopy.

  3. Comparison of three-dimensional scanner systems for craniomaxillofacial imaging.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Paul G M; Beaumont, Caroline A A; Borghi, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Breakey, Richard W F; Rodgers, William; Angullia, Freida; Jeelani, N U Owase; Schievano, Silvia; Dunaway, David J

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional photographs are the standard for assessing craniofacial surgery clinical outcomes despite lacking three-dimensional (3D) depth and shape. Therefore, 3D scanners have been gaining popularity in various fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Head shapes of eight adult volunteers were acquired using four 3D scanners: 1.5T Avanto MRI, Siemens; 3dMDface System, 3dMD Inc.; M4D Scan, Rodin4D; and Structure Sensor, Occipital Inc. Accuracy was evaluated as percentage of data within a range of 2 mm from the 3DMDface System reconstruction, by surface-to-surface root mean square (RMS) distances, and with facial distance maps. Precision was determined by RMS. Relative to the 3dMDface System, accuracy was the highest for M4D Scan (90% within 2 mm; RMS of 0.71 mm ± 0.28 mm), followed by Avanto MRI (86%; 1.11 mm ± 0.33 mm) and Structure Sensor (80%; 1.33 mm ± 0.46). M4D Scan and Structure Sensor precision were 0.50 ± 0.04 mm and 0.51 ± 0.03 mm, respectively. Clinical and technical requirements govern scanner choice; however, 3dMDface System and M4D Scan provide high-quality results. It is foreseeable that compact, handheld systems will become more popular in the near future.

  4. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  5. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  6. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  7. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  8. 10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications only if it is...

  9. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  13. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  14. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10... DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive more than one Gold Lifesaving Medal and...

  16. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  17. Multidecadal dynamics of alternate bars in the Alpine Rhine River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Luca; Bertoldi, Walter; Zolezzi, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We report on a multidecadal analysis of alternate bar dynamics in a 41.7 km reach of the Alpine Rhine River, which represents an almost unique example of a regulated river with fixed levees, straight reaches, and regular bends in which alternate gravel bars spontaneously formed and migrated for more than a century. The analysis is based on freely available Landsat imagery, which provided an accurate and frequent survey of the dynamics of the alternate bar configuration since 1984. Bars were characterized in terms of wavelength, migration, and height. Longitudinal and temporal patterns are investigated as a function of flood occurrence and magnitude and in relation to the presence of local planform discontinuities (bends and ramps) that may affect their dynamics. Bars in the upper part of the reach are mostly steady and relatively long (about 13 channel widths); bars in the lower part of the reach are migrating and shorter (about 9 channel widths). Bar height is rather uniform along the reach, ranging between 3 and 4 m. The temporally long hydrological data set allowed the investigation of bar migration during flood events, showing that bars migrate faster for intermediate floods. The observed relationship between bar migration and wavelength was consistent with linear theories for free migrating and steady forced bars in straight channels. The comparison of theories with observations highlights the key role of theories to support interpretation of observations, for a better understanding of the morphodynamic processes controlling bar formation and dynamics.

  18. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  19. Performance evaluation of an Inveon PET preclinical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated the performance of an Inveon preclinical PET scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions), the latest MicroPET system. Spatial resolution was measured with a glass capillary tube (0.26 mm inside diameter, 0.29 mm wall thickness) filled with 18F solution. Transaxial and axial resolutions were measured with the source placed parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the scanner. The sensitivity of the scanner was measured with a 22Na point source, placed on the animal bed and positioned at different offsets from the center of the field of view (FOV), as well as at different energy and coincidence windows. The noise equivalent count rates (NECR) and the system scatter fraction were measured using rat-like (Φ = 60, L = 150 mm) and mouse-like (Φ = 25 mm, L = 70 mm) cylindrical phantoms. Line sources filled with high activity 18F (>250 MBq) were inserted parallel to the axes of the phantoms (13.5 and 10 mm offset). For each phantom, list-mode data were collected over 24 h at 350-650 keV and 250-750 keV energy windows and 3.4 ns coincidence window. System scatter fraction was measured when the random event rates were below 1%. Performance phantoms consisting of cylinders with hot rod inserts filled with 18F were imaged. In addition, we performed imaging studies that show the suitability of the Inveon scanner for imaging small structures such as those in mice with a variety of tracers. The radial, tangential and axial resolutions at the center of FOV were 1.46 mm, 1.49 and 1.15 mm, respectively. At a radial offset of 2 cm, the FWHM values were 1.73, 2.20 and 1.47 mm, respectively. At a coincidence window of 3.4 ns, the sensitivity was 5.75% for EW = 350-650 keV and 7.4% for EW = 250-750 keV. For an energy window of 350-650 keV, the peak NECR was 538 kcps at 131.4 MBq for the rat-like phantom, and 1734 kcps at 147.4 MBq for the mouse-like phantom. The system scatter fraction values were 0.22 for the rat phantom and 0.06 for the mouse phantom. The Inveon system

  20. Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data: analysis for geological applications.

    PubMed

    Kahle, A B; Madura, D P; Soha, J M

    1980-07-15

    Multispectral middle IR (8-13-microm) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.