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Sample records for barfin flounder verasper

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of opsins in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Kanta; Murakami, Naoto; Andoh, Tadashi; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kawamura, Shoji; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-02-10

    Green light irradiation facilitates the somatic growth of barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). However, the V. moseri visual system, which may be associated with somatic growth by acting on the endocrine system upon exposure to this particular wavelength, remains largely unexplored. Herein, we characterized the visual opsin repertoire of V. moseri to understand the molecular basis underlying this effect. The five types of visual opsins that are found in vertebrates were cloned from RNA that was extracted from the eyes of V. moseri. Notably, V. moseri possessed one pseudogene (RH2-A) and two intact (RH2-B and RH2-C) copies of "green-sensitive" opsin genes. The wavelengths of maximum absorption spectra (λmax) for each of the reconstituted photopigments were 552nm for "red-sensitive" LWS, 506nm for RH2-B, 490nm for RH2-C, 482nm and 416nm for "blue-sensitive" SWS2A and SWS2B, respectively, 367nm for "ultraviolet-sensitive" SWS1, and 494nm for "dim-light sensitive rhodopsin" RH1. The λmax of SWS2A was longer than that of any other reported vertebrate SWS2 opsin. By measuring the expression level of these opsin genes with quantitative RT-PCR in 3-, 15-, and 27-month-old fish, we found that RH2-B and SWS2A were expressed at a constant level, whereas the expression of LWS, RH2-C, SWS2B, and SWS1 opsin genes decreased, and that of RH1 increased with age. Barfin flounders inhabit inshore waters at a young age and expand their habitat to deep sea areas as they age, and green light is relatively abundant in deep water compared to the lights of other wavelengths in shallow water. Our results indicate that gene repertoire and expression profile of the opsin genes of barfin flounder are adaptive to their habitat shift that occurs during development, with some opsins acquiring a distinct λmax.

  2. Involvement of melanin-concentrating hormone 2 in background color adaptation of barfin flounder Verasper moseri.

    PubMed

    Mizusawa, Kanta; Kawashima, Yusuke; Sunuma, Toshikazu; Hamamoto, Akie; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kodera, Yoshio; Saito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-04-01

    In teleosts, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays a key role in skin color changes. MCH is released into general circulation from the neurohypophysis, which causes pigment aggregation in the skin chromatophores. Recently, a novel MCH (MCH2) precursor gene, which is orthologous to the mammalian MCH precursor gene, has been identified in some teleosts using genomic data mining. The physiological function of MCH2 remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA for MCH2 from barfin flounder, Verasper moseri. The putative prepro-MCH2 contains 25 amino acids of MCH2 peptide region. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a high resolution mass analyzer were used for confirming the amino acid sequences of MCH1 and MCH2 peptides from the pituitary extract. In vitro synthesized MCH1 and MCH2 induced pigment aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. A mammalian cell-based assay indicated that both MCH1 and MCH2 functionally interacted with both the MCH receptor types 1 and 2. Mch1 and mch2 are exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The levels of brain mch2 transcript were three times higher in the fish that were chronically acclimated to a white background than those acclimated to a black background. These results suggest that in V. moseri, MCH1 and MCH2 are involved in the response to changes in background colors, during the process of chromatophore control.

  3. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  4. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right

  5. Developmental changes in melanophores and their asymmetrical responsiveness to melanin-concentrating hormone during metamorphosis in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Matsuda, Taihei; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Tagawa, Masatomo

    2013-12-01

    Barfin flounder larvae exhibit unique black coloration, as well as left-right asymmetry in juvenile stage as in other flatfish. In this study, we first assessed the changes in melanophores with development and then investigated their responsiveness to melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) during metamorphosis. Larval-type melanophores appeared on both sides of the body before metamorphosis, whereas adult-type melanophores appeared only on the ocular side after metamorphosis. Even in the individuals of this species displaying black coloration, the density of larval-type melanophores was similar to that in transparent larvae of other species. However, unlike in transparent larvae, larval-type melanophores completely dispersed in the black larvae of this species. Therefore, the black coloration during larval stages was mainly due to dispersion, and not the density, of larval-type melanophores. In vitro MCH treatment revealed, for the first time, the responsiveness of melanophores in larval stages. On the ocular side, larval-type melanophores aggregated against MCH during larval stages, while, in the larvae at later metamorphic stages and in juveniles, larval-type melanophores did not aggregate, although aggregation of adult-type melanophores was noted. In contrast, on the blind side, the responsiveness of larval-type melanophores to MCH was consistently present from larval to juvenile stages. The metamorphic transition of MCH responsiveness from larval- to adult-type melanophores only on the ocular side suggests the larval (therefore, immature) nature of the blind side skin. We propose that the inhibited development, and thus the retention of the larval-type skin leads to the formation of the blind side characteristics and is the central mechanism for the flatfish asymmetry.

  6. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species. PMID:17646149

  7. Induction of ambicoloration by exogenous cortisol during metamorphosis of spotted halibut Verasper variegatus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Donai, Hayato; Okauchi, Masanori; Tagawa, Masatomo; Araki, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in fish, increases during flatfish metamorphosis and peaks before the surge of thyroxine. A large body of evidence indicates the essential role of thyroxine in flatfish metamorphosis, whereas information on cortisol is limited. We administered cortisol to spotted halibut Verasper variegatus larvae in order to examine the effect on pigmentation during metamorphosis. Administration of 10 μg cortisol per mL of water from before the onset of metamorphosis (stage E) to metamorphic climax (stage G) induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side of the metamorphosed juveniles and increased the occurrence of ambicolored juveniles. When 10 μg/mL cortisol was administered during stage D, stages E-F, stage G or stage H, only the administration during stages E-F induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side. In addition, the expression of the gene dopachrome tautomerase (dct), a marker of melanoblasts, was enhanced at Stage E by cortisol administration. These results clearly indicated, for the first time, the enhancement of pigmentation by exogenous high-dose cortisol. Since endogenous cortisol is secreted in response to various kinds of stress in rearing conditions, these results indicate a possible influence of stress conditions in the occurrence of ambicoloration in flatfish.

  8. An Early Warning System for Flounder Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Bin; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Jianqin; Duan, Qingling; Wen, Jiwen

    With the constant expansion of the scale and mismanagement in aquaculture,the diseases of flounder occur more and more frequently than before, which has brought great economic losses to fish farmers. For the sake of the problem described above, based on a great number of surveys, the early warning theory of flounder disease, the analysis of the outbreak and development of diseases and the relationship between disease and factors, the logic process of the early warning for flounder disease was confirmed. It consists of five parts: specifying the target, searching for the source, distinguishing the sign, predicting the degree and eliminating the menace. Using the expert survey method the early warning indexes which affect the normal life of the flounder and calculated the range of the water environment factors were also confirmed. Finally, an early warning system was implemented, which can reduce the damage from the flounder disease.

  9. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  10. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  11. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  12. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., recreational landing limits, research set-asides, and other specification measures. The Summer Flounder... to be considered by the Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee are: (1) Research quota set from a range... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder specifications....

  13. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., recreational landing limits, research set-asides, and other specification measures. The Summer Flounder... to be considered by the Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee are: (1) Research quota set from a range... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder specifications....

  14. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  15. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  16. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Summer flounder accountability measures. (a... subsequent single fishing year recreational sector ACT. (d) Non-landing accountability measures, by...

  17. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Summer flounder accountability measures. (a... subsequent single fishing year recreational sector ACT. (d) Non-landing accountability measures, by...

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Southern and gulf flounders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enge, Kevin M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    Both the southern and gulf flounders (paralichthrS lethostigma, f. albi~utta) are important commercial and recreationa species. Catch statlstics for flounder do not differentiate between species; however, southern flounders are more common than gulf flounders except on the gulf coast of Florida (Topp and Hoff 1972). The commercial fishery consists of incidental catches by shrimp trawlers. A total of 853,162 kg (1,880,900 lb) of unclassified flounder worth $572,142 was caught from the Gulf of Mexico in 1976 (U.S. Dep. Commerce 1980). The sport fishery consists of both hook-and-line fishing and gigging.

  19. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  20. 77 FR 64239 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New York for the...

  1. 78 FR 51096 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder... commercial Federal fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder...

  2. 78 FR 70890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial... fisheries permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in New Jersey for...

  3. 78 FR 72585 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder... Federal fisheries ] permit for the summer flounder fishery may not land summer flounder in Virginia...

  4. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  5. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  6. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  7. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  8. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC recommendation. After developing management actions...

  9. Windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) responses to cold temperature extremes in a Northwest Atlantic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine M.; Gallo, Jenine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on flatfish includes not only the effects of warming on sensitive life history stages, but also impacts from more frequent or unseasonal extreme cold temperatures. Cold weather events can affect the overwintering capabilities of flatfish near their low temperature range limits. We examined the responses of two flatfish species, the thin-bodied windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) and cold-tolerant winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), to variable winter temperatures in a Northwest Atlantic estuary using abundance and size data collected during a monitoring study, the Aquatic Biological Survey, conducted from 2002 to 2010. Winter and spring abundances of small (50 to 120 mm total length) juvenile windowpane were positively correlated with adult densities (spawning stock) and fall temperatures (thermal conditions experienced during post-settlement development for the fall-spawned cohort) of the previous year. Windowpane abundances in the estuary were significantly reduced and the smallest size class was nearly absent after several consecutive years with cold (minimum temperatures < 1 °C) winters. Interannual variation in winter flounder abundances was unrelated to the severity of winter temperatures. A Paulik diagram illustrates strong positive correlations between annual abundances of sequential winter flounder life history stages (egg, larval, Age-1 juvenile, and adult male) within the estuary, reflecting residency within the estuary through their first year of life. Temperature variables representing conditions during winter flounder larval and post-settlement development were not significant factors in multiple regression models exploring factors that affect juvenile abundances. Likewise, densities of predators known to consume winter flounder eggs and/or post-settlement juveniles were not significantly related to interannual variation in winter flounder juvenile abundances. Colder estuarine temperatures through the

  10. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  11. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  12. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  13. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  16. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  20. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  3. Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2002-12-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 μg protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  4. Pilot attempt to grow winter flounders commercially. Completion report 15 Feb 77-30 Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, P.J.; Hoornbeek, F.K.

    1980-09-01

    The first part of this report contains the details and results of laboratory efforts to raise flounders through the early developmental stages including metamorphosis. The second part reports the efforts to grow out newly metamorphosed flounders to commercial size. In order to produce marketable sized winter flounders in heated water, it will be necessary to assure availability of brood stock and an abundance of live food both prior and subsequent to metamorphosis.

  5. Ontogeny of the lymphoid organs of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Jiang, Guoliang; Zhang, Shicui

    2004-10-01

    Histological study on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs, kidney, thymus and spleen of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from hatching to 40 d was carried out. The pronephric kidney duct appeared early in hatching although the primordial haemopoietic stem cells were observed within a week after hatching. The spleen was first seen after 8d of hatching. The thymus appeared after 15d, situated near the pronephric kidney. Small lymphoid cells appeared during the later phase of the post-larval stage in the sequence of thymus, kidney and spleen. During the 40d of observations, there were no distinct inner or outer zones in thymus and no red or white pulp in spleen. These results suggest that the nonspecific defense immune system plays a very important role in the early larval stage of Japanese flounder.

  6. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black..., and black sea bass fisheries and provides notice of three projects that may be requesting Exempted...-Aside (RSA) program. The implementing regulations for the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea...

  7. Transcriptional Responses of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  8. 77 FR 52262 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... quota for summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer...

  9. 77 FR 74390 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New York To... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer...

  10. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  11. 77 FR 75569 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011... advise New Jersey that the quota has been harvested and to advise vessel permit holders and dealer permit holders that no Federal commercial quota is available for landing summer flounder in New Jersey....

  12. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (<3 km upriver from the mouth) and stone flounder were most abundant near the mouth. Recently settled starry flounder were first detected further upstream in areas characterized by low salinity <10 and by the absence of the predatory sand shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  13. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  14. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2015-09-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  15. Liver lesions in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Jamaica Bay, New York: Indications of environmental degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Herman, R.L.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Liver sections of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from Jamaica Bay and Shinnecock Bay, New York, in 1989, were examined microscopically to determine the pervasiveness of liver lesions observed previously in Jamaica Bay winter flounder. Neoplastic lesions were not detected in fish from Jamaica Bay or the Shinnecock Bay reference site. Twenty-two percent of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined (n = 103) had unusual vacuolization of hepatocytes and biliary pre-ductal and ductal cells (referred to hereafter as the vacuolated cell lesion). The lesion, identical to that found in 25% of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined in 1988, has previously been identified in fishes taken from highly polluted regions of the Atlantic coast (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, and Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut). Prevalence of the vacuolated cell lesion in winter flounder from Jamaica Bay was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than in 102 specimens collected from Shinnecock Bay. Current scientific literature indicates vacuolated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are chronically injured and that the extent of their deformity is consistent with the action of a hepatotoxicant. The high prevalence of vacuolated hepatocytes in Jamaica Bay winter flounder and absence of the lesion in flounder from reference sites strongly supports the hypothesis that this impairment is a manifestation of a toxic condition in at least some portions of Jamaica Bay.

  16. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat.

  17. Ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism in a flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Mitsuharu; Oikawa, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Size-scaling metabolism is widely considered to be of significant importance in biology and ecology. Thus, allometric relationships between metabolic rate () and body mass (M), , have long been a topic of interest and speculation. It has been proposed that intraspecifically metabolic rate scales isometrically or near isometrically with body mass during the early life history in fishes, invertebrates, birds and mammals. We developed a new perspective on intraspecific size-scaling metabolism through determination of metabolic rate in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, during their early life stages spanning approximately four orders of magnitude in body mass. With the increase of body mass, the Japanese flounder had four distinct negative allometric phases in which three stepwise increases in scaling constants (ai, i = 1–4), i.e. ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism, occurred with growth during its early life stages at around 0.002, 0.01 and 0.2 g, maintaining each scaling exponent constant in each phase (b = 0.831). These shifts in metabolism during the early life stages are similar to the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes. Our results indicate that ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism are key to understanding intraspecific size-scaling metabolism in fishes. PMID:25412451

  18. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  19. Primary structure of insulin and glucagon from the flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Thim, L

    1987-05-01

    Insulin and glucagon have been isolated from the Brockmann bodies of the flounder, a teleostean fish, and their primary structures established by automated Edman degradation. The A-chain of flounder insulin shows strong homology to the A-chains from the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch; 100%) and the anglerfish (Lophius americanus; 95%) but homologies in the B-chain region are weaker (salmon 79%, anglerfish 83%). Flounder insulin B-chain contains the novel sequence Val-Val-Pro-Pro at the NH2 terminus and the highly conserved seryl residue at position 10 (B 9 in mammals) is replaced by an alanyl residue. Flounder glucagon is identical to anglerfish glucagon II but shows four amino acid substitutions compared with salmon glucagon. PMID:3556313

  20. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  1. Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat by liquid freezing.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods:liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at -30℃ for 5 h, and -80℃ for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4℃, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality.

  2. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  3. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed proteins of brain tissue in response to methamidophos in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui-Fang; Bao, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Huang, He-Qing

    2015-06-01

    Methamidophos (MAP), an organophosphorus pesticide used around the world, has been associated with a wide spectrum of toxic effects on organisms in the environment. In this study, the flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was subjected to 10 mg/L MAP for 72 h and 144 h, and the morphological and proteomic changes in the brain were observed, analyzed and compared with those in the non-exposed control group. Under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope, MAP had evidently induced changes in or damage to the flounder tissues. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the MAP residues were significantly accumulated in the flounder brain tissues. Proteomic changes in the brain tissue were revealed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 27 protein spots were observed to be significantly changed by MAP exposure. The results indicated that the regulated proteins were involved in immune and stress responses, protein biosynthesis and modification, signal transduction, organismal development, and 50% of them are protease. qRT-PCR was used to further detect the corresponding change of transcription. These data may be beneficial to understand the molecular mechanism of MAP toxicity in flounder, be very useful for MAP-resistance screening in flounder culture. According to our results and analyzing, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and granzyme K (GzmK) had taken important part in immune response to MAP-stress and could be biomarkers for MAP-stress in flounder.

  5. Expression Analysis of Visual Arrestin gene during Ocular Development of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Young Mee; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the commercial important flatfish species in Korea. The ocular signal transduction pathway is important in newly hatched flounders because it is closely involved in the initial feeding phase thus essential for survival during the juvenile period. However, the study of gene expression during ocular development is incomplete in olive flounder. Therefore we examined the expression analysis of specifically induced genes during the development of the visual system in newly hatched flounders. We searched ocular development-involved gene in the database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from olive flounder eye and this gene similar to arrestin with a partial sequence homology. Microscopic observation of retinal formation corresponded with the time of expression of the arrestin gene in the developmental stage. These results suggest that arrestin plays a vital role in the visual signal transduction pathway of the retina during ocular development. The expression of arrestin was strong in the ocular system during the entirety of the development stages. Our findings regarding arrestin have important implications with respect to its biological role and evolution of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in olive flounder. Further studies are required on the GPCR-mediated signaling pathway and to decipher the functional role of arrestin. PMID:25949138

  6. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  7. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jilun; Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  8. Cortisol is involved in temperature-dependent sex determination in the Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toshiya; Yoshinaga, Norifumi; Yazawa, Takashi; Gen, Koichiro; Kitano, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    In vertebrates, sex is normally determined by genotype. However, in poikilothermal vertebrates, including reptiles, amphibians, and fishes, sex determination is greatly influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental sex determination in these species. The Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a teleost fish with an XX/XY sex determination system. However, XX flounder can be induced to develop into predominantly either phenotypic females or males, by rearing at 18 or 27 C, respectively, during the sex differentiation period. Therefore, the flounder provides an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying temperature-dependent sex determination. We previously showed that an aromatase inhibitor, an antiestrogen, and 27 C treatments cause masculinization of XX flounder, as well as suppression of mRNA expression of ovary-type aromatase (cyp19a1), a steroidogenic enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the gonads. Furthermore, estrogen administration completely inhibits masculinization by these treatments, suggesting suppression of cyp19a1 mRNA expression, and the resultant estrogen biosynthesis may trigger masculinization of the XX flounder induced by high water temperature. Here, we demonstrated that cortisol causes female-to-male sex reversal by directly suppressing cyp19a1 mRNA expression via interference with cAMP-mediated activation and that metyrapone (an inhibitor of cortisol synthesis) inhibits 27 C-induced masculinization of XX flounder. Moreover, cortisol concentrations in 27 C-reared juveniles were significantly higher than in 18 C-reared fishes during sexual differentiation. These results strongly suggest that masculinization by high water temperature is ascribable to elevation of cortisol concentration during gonadal sex differentiation in the flounder.

  9. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... limit. Following publication, an error was identified in the commercial summer flounder quota and recreational harvest limit. This rule corrects that error. DATES: Effective December 26, 2012, through December... an error in the commercial summer flounder quota and recreational harvest limit, which...

  10. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  11. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: On December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82189), NMFS published interim specifications for the summer flounder... revised quota setting procedures for the FMP (67 FR 6877, February 14, 2002), summer flounder overages are... following Federal Register documents: 77 FR 14481 (March 12, 2012); and 77 FR 19951 (April 3, 2012). Table...

  12. Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert

    2000-08-23

    Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

  13. Differential Expression Patterns of Crystallin Genes during Ocular Development of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Young Mee; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul Ji; Park, Jong Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most widely cultured fish species in Korea. Although olive flounder receive attention from aquaculture and fisheries and extensive research has been conducted eye morphological change in metamorphosis, but little information was known to molecular mechanism and gene expression of eye development- related genes during the early part of eye formation period. For the reason of eyesight is the most important sense in flounder larvae to search prey, the screening and identification of expressed genes in the eye will provide useful insight into the molecular regulation mechanism of eye development in olive flounder. Through the search of an olive flounder DNA database of expressed sequence tags (EST), we found a partial sequence that was similar to crystallin beta A1 and gamma S. Microscopic observation of retinal formation correspond with the time of expression of the crystallin beta A1 and gamma S gene in the developmental stage, these result suggesting that beta A1 and gamma S play a vital role in the remodeling of the retina during eye development. The expression of crystallin beta A1 and gamma S were obviously strong in eye at all tested developing stage, it is also hypothesized that crystallin acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein aggregation during maturation and aging in the eye. PMID:25949104

  14. N-Terminal region is responsible for chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Osamu; Wada, Shinpei; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sakai, Takamitsu; Takano, Tomokazu

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to locate the functional region responsible for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder interleukin 8 (IL-8), which lacks the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif essential for the induction of neutrophil migration by mammalian IL-8. Using a human cell line, we produced a secretory recombinant protein of flounder IL-8, and analyzed its chemotaxis-inducing activity on leukocytes collected from the flounder kidney. The recombinant IL-8 induced significant migration in neutrophils, which were morphologically and functionally characterized. Using the Edman degradation method, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of rIL-8 was identified as VSLRSLGV. To examine the significance of the N-terminal region for the bioactivity of flounder IL-8, we prepared several recombinant proteins that containing mutations at the N-terminus. Modification of three residues (residues 9-11: serine-leucine-histidine) corresponding in position to the ELR motif in mammalian IL-8 did not reduce its chemotaxis-inducing activity. However, deletion of the first six or more residues significantly reduced its chemotaxis-inducing activity. We propose that residue 6 (leucine) at the N-terminus is important for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

  15. Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners.

    PubMed

    Florin, A-B; Höglund, J

    2008-07-01

    We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of Sweden. Among demersal spawners we found neither genetic differentiation nor any isolation by distance among sampling sites. We speculate that demersal flounder are descendants of a population that colonized the Baltic previous to pelagic spawners. The demersal flounder may thus have had longer time to adapt to the low salinity in the Baltic, and accordingly display egg characteristics that make it possible to reproduce at the low salinity levels in the northern Baltic. Among pelagic spawners significant isolation by distance was detected. Pelagic spawners have previously been shown to display clinal variation in egg size, which allows them to float also at the moderate salinity levels up to the region north of the island Bornholm. Management units for harvesting should ideally be based on true biological populations, and for the commercially important flounder up to 15 different management stocks in the Baltic have been suggested. We could not find a population genetic foundation for such a high number of management units, and our data suggest three management units: the northern Baltic (demersal populations), southern Baltic with the Oresund straits and the most northwestern sampling sites (Skagerrak, Kattegat and North Sea).

  16. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  17. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( P<0.05). Food deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( P<0.05) and a 91.7% decrease in the 48 h fasted group ( P<0.05). Therefore, our study demonstrates that NPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  18. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  19. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  20. Comparisons of liver proteomes in the European flounder Platichthys flesus from three contrasted estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Claire; Dupuy, Célie; Capitaine, Carole; Auffret, Michel; Quiniou, Louis; Laroche, Jean; Pichereau, Vianney

    2013-01-01

    Estuaries are important areas highly susceptible to anthropogenic degradations like pollution. Estuarine species have thus to cope with many types of constraints depending on the estuaries' characteristics. The European flounder Platichthys flesus is considered as a sentinel species for the monitoring of estuarine water quality. In this study, juvenile flounders (0+ group) were sampled from three contrasted Channel estuaries, i.e. the Seine, the Canche and the Tamar, and we characterized their liver proteomes by using a two-dimensional electrophoresis based proteomic approach. We showed that 27 protein spots differentially accumulated between the 3 populations. Six of these proteins were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Flounders from the Seine and from the Tamar, two highly polluted estuaries, displayed common differences, i.e. an increase of the energetic- and the glutathione-metabolism. The most accumulated protein in the Seine's samples (6.7-fold) was a Vitelline Membrane Outer layer protein 1 homolog, suggesting oogenesis deregulation in these juvenile (sexually immature) flounders. Future works applying this kind of proteomic approach on flounders experimentally exposed to conditions that mimic environmental constraints will help to better understand the significance of these environmental proteomic signatures.

  1. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  2. Biomarkers of exposure and effect in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus (Teleostei: Paralichthyidae) from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Amado, Lílian Lund; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Geracitano, Laura; Monserrat, José M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2006-02-01

    Biomarkers of exposure (liver metallothionein-like proteins content and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities) and effect (liver lipoperoxidation and blood cell DNA damage) of contaminants were analyzed in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Flounders were collected for a year in two sites: "Coroa do Boi" (polluted site) and "Saco do Justino" (non-polluted site). Results indicated that micronucleated cells frequency was the best biomarker to distinguish flounders from the two sites. Taken together, data from DNA damage analyses (micronucleus test and comet assay) indicated that flounders from the non-polluted site efficiently repaired the DNA breaks, contrary to those from the polluted site, which probably had their DNA repair system inhibited or exhausted. Furthermore, data from enzyme activities (catalase and GST) and lipid peroxidation indicated that flounders from the polluted site were under oxidative stress in summer and autumn.

  3. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology, thus providing a perfect "host/guest" interaction that simultaneously satisfies both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The results also show the relation among binding energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the activity. The activity is correlated to the binding energy, and in the case of the mutants we have studied the number of hydrogen bonds. The greater the number of the hydrogen bonds the greater the antifreeze activity. The roles van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic

  4. Expression of Vimentin Intermediate Filament for Vascular Development in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Jang-Wook; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular system is the primary organ to develop and reach a functional state, which underscores the essential role of the vasculature in the developing embryo. The vasculature is a highly specialized organ that functions in a number of key physiological works including the carrying of oxygen and nutrients to tissues. It is closely involved in the formation of heart, and hence it is essential for survival during the hatching period. The expression of genes involved during vascular development in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the days after hatching is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of genes activated during the development of flounder. Microscopic observations showed that formation of blood vessels is related to the expression of the vimentin gene. Also, the temporal expression patterns of this vimentin-like gene in the developmental stages and in the normal tissues of olive flounder. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression patterns of vimentin in normal tissues of the olive flounder and during the development of the vascular system in newly hatched olive flounders and HIF-1 plays a vital role in the formation of blood vessels during development. Vimentin expression was strong at the beginning of the development of blood vessels, and was present throughout all developmental stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to the roles of vimentin and HIF-1 in the development and evolution of the first blood vessels in olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the vimentin-mediated hypoxic response signal transduction and to decipher the functional role of vimentin in developmental stages. PMID:25949178

  5. High doses of corticosteroid suppress resistance to Ichthyophonus in starry flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, J.A.; Kocan, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Application of pharmacological doses of the corticosteroid dexamethasone phosphate to starry flounder Platichthys stellatus resulted in a predisposition to clinical ichthyophoniasis and a progression from latent Ichthyophonus infections to patent, histologically identifiable infections. Among Ichthyophonus-challenged starry flounder, the prevalences of clinical infections and histologically identifiable infections were significantly greater in two groups that received dexamethasone (100% and 31%, respectively) than in the respective control groups (8% and 0%). Proliferation of Ichthyophonus infections in corticosteroid-treated groups may have resulted from suppression of the cellular immune response that typically follows corticosteroid application; however, further studies are needed to determine whether these effects occur at lower, physiological concentrations of corticosteroids.

  6. miR-17 is involved in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development by targeting the Cdc42 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Su, Yanfang; Zhang, Junling

    2016-01-01

    The expression patterns of 197 miRNAs during Japanese flounder metamorphic development were recently analyzed. miR-17 was differentially expressed during the metamorphic period of the Japanese flounder; however, the role of miR-17 in Japanese flounder development has remained elusive to date. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Cdc42 was a putative target of miR-17. Cdc42 is a gene related to cell adhesion, migration, polarity, cytokinesis, growth, actin cytoskeleton, microtubule dynamics and transcription factor activity; thus, Cdc42 may contribute to metamorphic development. In our study, overexpression of miR-17 in FEC cells suppressed Cdc42 expression. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Cdc42 was the target of miR-17. The Cdc42 cDNA from the Japanese flounder was cloned and characterized for the first time. The expression of miR-17 was found to be negatively correlated with Cdc42 mRNA expression during temporal development and in the tissues of adult Japanese flounders. These results indicated that the decrease in miR-17 contributed to the up-regulation of Cdc42 during Japanese flounder metamorphosis. Cdc42 gene expression was down-regulated by thyroid hormone during Japanese flounder metamorphosis, whereas miR-17 was significantly up-regulated by thyroid hormone during these stages. These results indicated that miR-17 was a negative regulator of Cdc42. PMID:26546744

  7. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  8. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES AND STABLE ISOTOPES TO ASSESS HABITAT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used winter flounder growth rates and stable isotopes to assess habitat quality across an anthropogenic gradient in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Cages (1 m2) were placed in the Providence River which had the highest nutrient concentrations and greatest development, Prudence...

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  10. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF 17B-ESTRADIOL IN SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol has been shown to cause increased vitellogenin (VtG) concentrations in male fish. The intent of this study was to evaluate the pathobiology associated with exposure to 17 -estradiol (E2) on liver, gonad, and kidney tissues of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Juve...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  13. 75 FR 52890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... for the 2010 calendar ] year was set equal to 13,278,001 lb (6,023 mt) (74 FR 67978, December 22, 2009... to advise Massachusetts that the quota has been harvested and to advise vessel permit holders and dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing summer flounder in...

  14. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-02-16

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high k(cat), while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low k(cat), as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  16. Stabel Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths from Juvenile and Adult Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to determine if stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important nursery areas for winter flounder along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. In recent years the populations ...

  17. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  18. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (kcat) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high kcat, while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low kcat, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  19. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for...

  20. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for...

  1. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for...

  2. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures...

  3. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures...

  4. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  5. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE...

  6. 78 FR 78786 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2014 Commercial Summer Flounder Quota Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... result of a recent stock assessment and a recommendation by the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council..., 2012; 77 FR 76942). These specifications included the initial state allocations, as well as the state... overages from fishing year 2013, through October 31, 2013. As a result, the 2014 summer flounder...

  7. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  8. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  9. Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Do, Jung Wan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2016-09-25

    A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV. PMID:27599933

  10. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  11. 76 FR 29670 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... (76 FR 23206). The difference is 590 lb (268 kg) less of summer flounder to be transferred; therefore... North Carolina quota. Additionally, a vessel experiencing mechanical problems was authorized to land...

  12. Expression Pattern of Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is a widely reported zinc finger protein and a well known transcription factor encoded by the Egr-1 gene, which plays key roles in many aspects of vertebrate embryogenesis and in adult vertebrates. The Egr-1 expression is important in the formation of the gill vascular system in flounders, which develops during the post-hatching phase and is essential for survival during the juvenile period. However, the complete details of Egr-1 expression during embryo development in olive flounder are not available. We assessed the expression patterns of Egr-1 during the early development of olive flounders by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Microscopic observations showed that gill filament formation corresponded with the Egr-1 expression. Thus, we showed that Egr-1 plays a vital role in angiogenesis in the gill filaments during embryogenesis. Further, Egr-1 expression was found to be strong at 5 days after hatching (DAH), in the development of the gill vascular system, and this strong expression level was maintained throughout all the development stages. Our findings have important implications with respect to the biological role of Egr-1 and evolution of the first respiratory blood vessels in the gills of olive flounder. Further studies are required to elucidate the Egr-1-mediated stress response and to decipher the functional role of Egr-1 in developmental stages. PMID:25949193

  13. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jung-Ha; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, GunDo; Chung, Jongkyeong; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish. PMID:18578892

  15. Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung Hwa; Park, Mi Seon; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2015-09-01

    Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise were investigated to establish the influence of ambient temperature on this species. The physiological indicators of stress were plasma cortisol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, chloride, osmolality and triiodothyronine (T3). No significant difference in plasma parameters were observed among the experimental groups of 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Level of plasma cortisol (49.0-95.0 ng ml(-1)) and glucose (56.1-58.1 mg dl(-1)) of starry flounders kept at 24 degrees C-27 degrees C were significantly higher than those (cortisol: 20.4-23.6 ng ml(-1), glucose: 40.6-47.1 mg dl(-1)) observed in the 15 degrees C-21 degrees C groups. Changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase following water temperature rise showed a similar pattern to plasma cortisol and glucose. Starry flounders exposed to 27 degrees C exhibited higher plasma sodium (164.7 mmol l(-1)), chloride (147.6 mmol l(-1)), and osmolality (450.7 mOsm kg(-1)) than those (sodium: 154.0-158.7 mmol l(-1), chloride: 139.1-140.4 mmol l(-1), osmolality: 375.1-383.8 mOsm kg(-1)) fish exposed to 15-21 degrees C. Though plasma T3 (29.4 ng ml(-1)) of starry flounder increased at 24 degrees C, this hormone was significantly lower (19.3 ng ml(-1)) in fish kept at 27 degrees C than those (24.6 ng ml(-1)) the fish at 15 degrees C. This phenomenon seems to be directly associated with long-term fasting. Accordingly, the results suggested that starry flounders got stressed with osmoregulatory disturbances above 24 degrees C. PMID:26521544

  16. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  17. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  18. Use of imaging analysis for modeling growth and development of hatchery-reared southern flounder and Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, and Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, are prime candidates for aquaculture. Hatchery methods have been developed for each species, but rearing larvae through metamorphosis is difficult. We investigated the early life history of these fishes using ...

  19. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  20. Gene expression responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to 17-beta estradiol.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; George, Stephen G; Sabine, Victoria; Chipman, James K

    2007-02-01

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were intraperitoneally injected with 10mg/kg 17-beta estradiol and tissues taken from individuals over a timecourse of 16 days. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray was employed to detect hepatic gene expression differences between fish treated with estradiol and saline controls. Known biomarkers of estrogen exposure, choriogenin L and vitellogenins, showed sustained induction over the time-course. Among 175 identified clones showing sustained statistically significant induction or repression, those associated with the Gene Ontology terms mitochondria, amino acid synthesis, ubiquitination and apoptosis were included amongst those induced while those associated with immune function, electron transport, cell signalling and protein phosphorylation were repressed. Thus, we show the gene expression response of an environmentally relevant fish species to a high dose of an estrogenic endocrine disruptor and also report the sequencing of a further 2121 flounder ESTs.

  1. Does the chronic chemical contamination of a European flounder population decrease its thermal tolerance?

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Edouard; Pedron, Nicolas; Calves, Isabelle; Claireaux, Guy; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Cahu, Chantal; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    Juvenile flounders (Platichthys flesus), collected in two estuaries with similar temperature regimes (the heavily polluted Seine and the moderately contaminated Vilaine), were submitted to a common garden experiment. After an acclimation period, both populations were challenged by a thermal stress (9-24°C for 15days, then maintenance at 24°C for 19days). The condition factor of the Vilaine fish increased in both conditions, while it decreased for the heated Seine flounders after 34days. The expression of genes related to the energetic metabolism was measured in the liver. The expression levels for ATP-F0 and COII were significantly reduced for heated vs. standard fish from both estuaries, while a decrease of the 12S expression was detected only in heated vs. standard fish from the Seine estuary. Thus, it is suggested that highly contaminated fish from Seine could display a lower tolerance to thermal stress, compared to moderately contaminated fish from Vilaine.

  2. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  3. Dynamics of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, seasonal migrations based on ultrasonic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Able, Kenneth W.; Grothues, Thomas M.

    2007-08-01

    Migrations of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, to and from estuaries to the continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) occur seasonally but their dynamics are poorly understood. Ultrasonic telemetry, both passive and active, was used during 2003-2005 to determine timing and rate of juvenile and adult summer flounder (268-535 mm TL) migrating to and from the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary in southern New Jersey. Additionally, 7 years of inner continental shelf surveys off New Jersey were used to assess complementary seasonal movements. Most tagged fish emigrated from the estuary between July and September, though emigration lasted into December and appeared to be influenced by a number of factors. In July 2004, more tagged fish emigrated, at increased rates of movement, at low barometric pressure during a storm event. Trawl collections on the inner shelf demonstrated the same approximate immigration times as seen with telemetry. Later in the fall, increased numbers of tagged summer flounder emigrated from the estuary when dissolved oxygen was decreasing. Fall trawl surveys showed increased numbers of fish on the inner shelf when dissolved oxygen was decreasing in the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary, supporting the telemetry results. Fish emigrated from the estuary during the day and night but nighttime movements were in deeper water at slightly slower rates of movement. Exit and re-entry also occurred during the fall emigration. Ultrasonically tagged individuals demonstrated homing by returning to the same estuary, in March through June, in the second and third year of the study (39-6%, respectively). In summary, immigration may result from homing for a large proportion of summer flounder. Emigration may be associated with storms on an episodic scale, and dissolved oxygen and temperature on a seasonal scale.

  4. 78 FR 76766 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Fisheries, NOAA (AA), finds good cause pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B) to waive prior notice and the... Summer Flounder Fishery Management Plan. The AA further finds, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), good...

  5. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  6. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  7. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach.

    PubMed

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jing-Yun; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2014-08-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in mammals is known to be involved in antiviral response. In this study, we studied the structure, mRNA tissue distribution and regulation of IRF9 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The cDNA sequence of IRF9 is 3305 bp long, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1308 bp that encodes a peptide of 435 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence shares 33.7-72.0% identity to other fish IRF9s. Japanese flounder IRF9 possesses a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF association domain (IAD), two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and a proline-rich domain (PRD). The IRF9 transcripts were detectable in all examined tissues of healthy Japanese flounders, with higher levels in the head kidney, kidney, liver and spleen. The IRF9 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle when challenged with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). The up-regulations were stronger and arose earlier in the case of poly I:C treatment in most tested organs in a 7-day time course, with maximum increases ranging from 1.37- to 8.59-fold and peak time points from 3 h to 3 d post injection depending on different organs, relative to those in the case of LCDV treatment which ranged from 1.32- to 3.21-fold and from 18 h to 3 d post injection, respectively. The highest and earliest inductions were detected in the spleen in both challenge cases, while the inductions by LCDV in the muscle were quite faint. These results demonstrate a role of Japanese flounder IRF9 in the host's antiviral responses. PMID:24837327

  9. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and two weeks later) of 17 b-estradiol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial ...

  10. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P < 0.05). Daily growth rates of flounder larvae were higher (0.391 mm) from the high CO2 concentration (1297 μatm) than those (0.361 mm and 0.360 mm) from the lower ones (988 and 574 μatm).The measurement on some chemical elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr) in fish tissue also revealed the increasing tendency of element concentration with increasing CO2 in seawater, although statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  11. Comparison of proteome typing and serotyping of Streptococcus parauberis isolates from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Won; Jang, Ho Bin; Lee, Jung Seok; Im, Se Pyeong; Lazarte, Jassy Mary S; Seo, Jong Pyo; Lee, Woo Jai; Kim, Jae Sung; Jung, Tae Sung

    2015-11-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a cultivated marine species that is economically important in Korea and Japan. Several bacterial pathogens have caused severe mortalities in farmed olive flounder, especially Streptococcus parauberis. We collected 145 S. parauberis isolates from diseased olive flounders from 2003 to 2008 in Jeju Island, South Korea and characterized them by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and by serology. The serological analysis divided the isolates into serotype I (62.1%) and serotype II (36.6%) and the proteome analysis divided the isolates into cluster 1 (43.4%) and cluster 2 (56.6%). All cluster 1 isolates had serotype I, but cluster 2 consisted of serotype I (32.9%), serotype II (64.6%), and others (2.5%). Further detailed analysis of the mass spectra led to identification of several specific m/z peaks that enabled discrimination between cluster 1 and 2 and between serotype I and II within cluster 2. Our results suggest that MALDI TOF MS analysis has potential as an alternative method for the rapid and reliable identification of the fish pathogen S. parauberis.

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist with environmental impact assessments. From 1935 to 1980, the annual commercial landings of winter flounder in New England ranged from 6000 to 15000 t; the sport catch exceeded the commercial catch in some years. Winter flounder are found in waters with temperatures of 0 to 25 /degree/C and they usually spawn at 0 to 3 /degree/C. Reported fecundities are 0.5 to 1.5 million eggs per female. Metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete in 49-80 days, depending on temperature. Juveniles remain in or near shallow natal waters for much of their first 2 years. Adults of some populations move more than 3 miles offshore to cooler waters in summer. These adults live in shallow inshore waters in winter and early spring. Adult winter flounder feed largely on annelids, cnidariids, and mollusks. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  14. Expression Analysis of Cathepsin F during Embryogenesis and Early Developmental Stage in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Young Mee; Yang, Hyun; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are members of the multigene family of lysosomal cysteine proteinases and have regulated function in several life processes. The potential role of cathepsin F cysteine gene was expected as protease in the yolk processing mechanism during early developmental stage, but expression analysis was unknown after fertilization. The alignment analysis showed that amino acid sequence of cathepsin F from olive flounder liver expressed sequence tag (EST) homologous to cathepsin F of other known cathepsin F sequences with 87-98% identity. In this study, we examined the gene expression analysis of cathepsin F in various tissues at variety age flounder. Tissue distribution of the cathepsin F mRNA has been shown to be ubiquitous and constitutive pattern regardless of age in each group, although derived from cDNA library using liver sample. The mRNA level of cathepsin F more increased as developmental proceed during embryogenesis and early developmental stage, especially increased in the blastula, hatching stage and 3 days post hatching (dph). As a result, it may suggest that the proteolysis of yolk proteins (YPs) has been implicated as a mechanism for nutrient supply during early larval stages in olive flounder. PMID:25949137

  15. Pharmacokinetics of morphine in fish: winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Newby, Nathalie C; Mendonça, Paula C; Gamperl, Kurt; Stevens, E Don

    2006-07-01

    We made a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of morphine sulfate (40 mg/kg) into winter flounder and seawater acclimated rainbow trout at 10 degrees C and then followed its disposition by measuring the change in plasma morphine concentration for 100 h using a morphine specific ELISA. Disposition also was followed for 6h after a single IV injection of 7.5mg morphine sulfate in winter flounder. Plasma morphine reached a maximum within an hour post-injection IP and then decreased in a bi-exponential fashion with a rapid distribution phase followed by a slower elimination phase. The disposition was slower in flounder than in trout even though the fish were held at the same temperature. For example, plasma clearance was 76 mL h(-)(1) kg(-)(1) in the flounder but was almost twice as much in the trout (153 mL h(-)(1) kg(-)(1)) and mean residence time was 27.9h in the flounder but was 7.0 h in the trout. The present study is the first comprehensive pharmacokinetic analysis for any analgesic in an ectotherm, and our results show that: 1) significant intra-specific variation exists between fishes: and 2) the disposition of morphine in fish is approximately one order of magnitude slower than it is in mammals. These differences may be due in part to mass specific differences in cardiac output.

  16. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  17. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry. PMID:25449382

  18. Assessment of the European flounder responses to chemical stress in the English Channel, considering biomarkers and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Pichereau, Vianney; Sanchez, Wilfried; Riso, Ricardo; Labonne, Maylis; Amara, Rachid; Charrier, Grégory; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    A multi-biomarker approach was developed to evaluate responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in three contrasted estuaries over the English Channel: the Canche (pristine site), Tamar (heavy metals and PAHs contamination) and Seine (heavily pollution with a complex cocktail of contaminants). The condition factor and several biomarkers of the immune system, antioxidant enzymes, energetic metabolism and detoxification processes were investigated in young-of-the-year (0+) and one-year-old (1+) flounder. Results underlined the difference between the pristine site and the Seine estuary which showed a lower condition factor, a modulation of the immune system, a higher Cytochrome C oxidase activity, and an up-regulation of BHMT expression. The moderate biomarker responses in the Tamar fish could be linked to the specific contamination context of this estuary. Flounder life history traits were analyzed by otolith microchemistry, in order to depict how the fish use their habitat and thus respond to chemical stress in estuaries.

  19. Comparison of common persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Vistula (Poland) and Douro (Portugal) River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Komar-Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2014-04-15

    Groups of flounder (Platichthys flesus) females were collected in 2011 from the Vistula River and the Duoro River estuaries and corresponding reference sites in the southern Baltic Sea and Portuguese coast of the Atlantic Ocean to measure and compare the levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The estuaries' sediments were also investigated. Several differences were found in the POPs between the estuaries and between the two marine regions, which were highlighted by PCA. The Vistula River estuary POPs, significantly higher than in the Douro River estuary, were dominated by DDTs followed by PCBs. PBDEs levels, indifferent between the estuaries, were relatively low. The POP levels in flounder and sediment evaluated against environmental assessment criteria (EACs) indicated that none of the measured contaminants for which EAC had been established exceeded the criterion, except for CB-118 in flounder from the Vistula River estuary.

  20. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  1. A low molecular weight peptide from snow mold with epitopic homology to the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Newsted, W J; Polvi, S; Papish, B; Kendall, E; Saleem, M; Koch, M; Hussain, A; Cutler, A J; Georges, F

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for a small size protein (ca. 3500 kDa) exhibiting epitopic homology to the Atlantic winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) is found in the snow molds Coprinus psychromorbidus, Myriosclerotinia borealis, and Typhula incarnata. The protein shows strong cross-reactivity with antisera specific for the flounder AFP. Preliminary studies suggest that the protein is synthesized in response to lowering the culture temperature, and that it is membrane associated and, therefore, may function in an analogous capacity to the fish AFP. Also, the protein is shown to have antifreeze properties as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging experiments.

  2. Two species of commercial flatfish, winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, and American plaice, Hippoglossoides platessoides, as sentinels of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2010-08-01

    Two species of marketable-size flatfish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) from a fjord, were examined as sentinels for the effects of effluent discharged by a pulp and paper mill in Newfoundland, Canada. Reference samples for comparison were obtained from a pristine fjord. Condition factor, lymphocyte levels and the abundance of two intestinal parasites were significantly greater in flounder and plaice sampled at the reference site while macroscopic and microscopic lesions, and hepatic somatic indices were greater in flatfish taken from the contaminated site. These results suggest that both species of commercial flatfish are useful as sentinels for studying environmental pollution.

  3. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  4. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  5. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  6. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  7. Effectiveness and immunomodulation of chemotherapeutants against scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi in olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2010-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The average monthly prevalence of scuticociliatosis due to P. dicentrarchi infections was increased from May to July (40+/-3.1% to 79.4+/-1.7%) and it decreased from August to November (63+/-2.3% to 30+/-2.6%) in olive flounder farms at Jeju Island, South Korea during 2000-2006. The prevalence of mixed infection along with Vibrio spp. bacterial infection was 49+/-7.2% than that of other mixed infection. At present no effective control measure for P. dicentrarchi infection has been described and large production losses continue. In the present study, formalin, hydrogen peroxide and Jenoclean chemotheraputants were used for bath treatment. Among Jenoclean at a low concentration of 50ppm proved effective. The results were confirmed with in vitro motility assessments and morphological changes scoring system in P. dicentrarchi. On the other hand, similar trend was noted following hydrogen peroxide treatment at this concentration, but formalin was only moderately effective. Either hydrogen peroxide or Jenoclean are the promising compounds effective at low concentrations with short application time for P. dicentrarchi. Therefore, these substances were evaluated on day 10, 20 and 30 for their ability to enhance innate immune response and disease resistance against P. dicentrarchi in olive flounder after chemotheraputants bath treatment with 100ppm for 30min per day. All the tested immune parameters were enhanced by treatment with Jenoclean, but not formalin and hydrogen peroxide. These findings suggest that Jenoclean bath treatment can be used for ensuring the heath of cultured marine fish against internal parasites such as P. dicentrarchi.

  8. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  9. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  10. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  11. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  12. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4-5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  13. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder party/charter and recreational fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder party/charter and recreational fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN...

  14. 77 FR 48916 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the (BSAI) exclusive economic zone according to the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC129 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  15. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4–5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  16. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications published on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81498). An... for each coastal state from North Carolina to Maine. Following publication, an error was identified in... error. DATES: Effective August 30, 2011 through December 31, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  18. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  19. Flounder growth and production as indicators of the nursery value of marsh habitats in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Anita; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2010-11-01

    Estuarine marshes are known as suitable nursery areas for many marine migrant fishes, such as flounder. The potential nursery value of such habitats was investigated in the Venice lagoon, by using growth and production of 0-group flounder as indicators. Size-frequency distribution analysis was performed on fish samples collected fortnightly, from March 2004 to June 2005, in two marsh sites, Dese and Tessera, differing in their origin and environmental conditions. Samples were mostly composed of juvenile individuals, belonging to 0- and 1-group cohorts (the latter being present in Tessera only). A higher total production, either annual or monthly, and faster growth of 0-group flounder was observed in Dese, associated to a higher ecological performance of 0-group individuals in this site, as indicated by the higher P:B ratio values. Dese is a site located in a marsh complex characterized by the relevant influence of a nearby river, and the observed higher potential nursery value of this marsh area with respect to the other is discussed in the light of the higher trophic status and other environmental conditions in this site. The production results were also compared to those from other estuarine environments commonly acknowledged as important nurseries for European flounder.

  20. EFFECTS OF LARVAL STOCKING DENSITY ON LABORATORY-SCALE AND COMMERICAL-SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three experiments investigating larval stocking densities of summer flounder from hatch to metamorphosis, Paralichthys dentatus, were conducted at laboratory-scale (75-L aquaria) and at commercial scale (1,000-L tanks). Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities...

  1. Distribution, condition, and growth of newly settled southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) in the Galveston Bay Estuary, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lindsay A.; Rooker, Jay R.; Kraus, Richard T.; Holt, G. Joan

    2008-08-01

    Several flatfish species, including southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruit to estuaries during early life. Therefore, evaluation of estuarine sites and habitats that serve as nurseries is critical to conservation and management. The present study used density data in conjunction with biochemical condition and growth measurements to evaluate settlement sites used by southern flounder in the Galveston Bay Estuary (GBE). In 2005, beam-trawl collections were made in three major sections of the GBE (East Bay, Galveston Bay, West Bay). Three sites were sampled in each bay. Within each sampling site, replicate collections were taken from three habitats: 1) marsh edge (< 1 m depth), 2) intermediate zone (10-20 m from marsh interface; ˜ 1 m depth), and 3) bay zone (typically > 100 m from marsh interface; depth > 1 m). Average size of southern flounder collected was 12-19 mm standard length, and peak densities occurred in January and February. Catch data indicated that densities of southern flounder were significantly greater in East Bay (2.75 per 100 m 2) than in Galveston Bay (0.91 per 100 m 2) or in West Bay (0.45 per 100 m 2). Densities were statistically similar among habitats. Otolith-based estimates of age indicated that the majority of southern flounder collected were 35-45 days old and derived from early December to early January hatch-dates. Growth rates were similar among bays and among habitats, with the average growth rate being 0.40 mm day - 1 (range: 0.21-0.76 mm day - 1 ). RNA:DNA was above the established baseline value for nutritional stress, indicating that newly settled southern flounder in the GBE were in relatively high condition. Habitat-specific differences in RNA:DNA ratios were not observed; however, ratios were significantly lower in West Bay (average 8.0) than in East Bay (average 9.5) or in Galveston Bay (average 9.8), suggesting the condition of new recruits may vary spatially within the GBE. Findings from the current study

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K

    2015-12-30

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. These included three coastal lagoons, an estuarine river and Narragansett Bay. The δ(13)C trends observed along transects in several systems showed isotopically depleted terrestrial signals in the upper reaches of the estuaries. Significant differences (P<0.05) in δ(15)N were observed among all estuarine systems and these differences correlated (P<0.01) with human population densities in the watersheds. Although Narragansett Bay has a strong north-south gradient in nutrient concentrations this trend was not reflected in flounder δ(15)N. The northernmost station with the highest nutrient concentrations unexpectedly had significantly lower δ(15)N values. Depleted δ(15)N values at this nutrient-rich station may indicate that concentration-dependent fractionation needs to be considered when using nitrogen isotope ratios in biota to monitor anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in systems with high nitrogen loadings. PMID:26541984

  3. Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Arimoto, Takafumi

    2000-12-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10 11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated upforward. The resolving power of the retina in 40 530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  4. Expression of let-7 microRNAs that are involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Wang, Guyue; Zhang, Junling; Li, Wenjuan; Jia, Liang

    2013-06-01

    The let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, are phylogenetically conserved and temporally expressed and control the proper timing of events during development as heterochronic genes in many animals. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) undergoes a metamorphosis from the larval to juvenile form. Here, we identified 21 let-7 miRNA precursors from different genome loci in Japanese flounder. P. olivaceus let-7 miRNAs are widely expressed in adult tissues, highly expressed during metamorphosis, but weakly during embryonic development. Exogenous thyroid hormone (0.1 mg/L), which induces premature metamorphosis, significantly promotes the expression of let-7 miRNAs, while thiourea (30 mg/L), which affects metamorphic arrest, inhibits the expression of let-7 miRNAs in metamorphosis in P. olivaceus. These results show that let-7 miRNAs widely participate in tissue development and metabolism during development and are also involved in regulation of temporal transitions associated with cell proliferation and differentiation during metamorphosis, in P. olivaceus.

  5. The renin-angiotensin system and drinking in the euryhaline flounder, Platichthys flesus.

    PubMed

    Carrick, S; Balment, R J

    1983-09-01

    Drinking behaviour and its possible regulation by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been examined in the euryhaline flounder. Fluid intake was greater in seawater (SW)-adapted than freshwater (FW)-adapted fish, the latter having significantly lower plasma sodium, chloride, and osmotic concentrations. Oesophageal cannulation in SW-adapted fish resulted in further elevation of drinking rates, which increased proportionally with progressive body water loss as measured by the fall in body weight and rise in plasma tonicity. The influence of the RAS on drinking in SW-adapted fish was examined in animals with an intact gastrointestinal tract. Fluid intake fell markedly following administration of the converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Infusions of angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) induced dose-related increments in the rate of drinking. The increased drinking in response to AI was inhibited, however, by the simultaneous administration of Captopril. The results are consistent with the presence in the flounder of the major elements of the RAS, including AI, AII, and a converting enzyme-like substance. The RAS appears to play an important regulatory role in the adaptative drinking behaviour associated with migration of euryhaline teleosts between FW and SW.

  6. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder. PMID:23948077

  7. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  8. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  9. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  10. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  11. Kinetics and thermodynamics of lactate dehydrogenases from beef heart, beef muscle, and flounder muscle.

    PubMed

    Borgmann, U; Laidler, K J; Moon, T W

    1975-11-01

    The eight rate constants for a four-step ordered ternary-complex mechanism have been compared for lactate dehydrogenases (EC1.1.1.27) from three sources, beef heart, beef muscle, and flounder muscle. The rate constants were determined at temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to 50 degrees C, and the corresponding activation parameters deltaG not equal to, deltaH not equal to, and deltaS not equal to were calculated. Significant differences are noted for the values for the three types of enzyme. The relative heights of the activation barriers are much the same in all three cases, differences in kinetic behavior resulting mainly from differences in the stable binary and ternary enzyme-substrate complexes. These complexes are, in general, at lower free-energy and enthalpy levels of the beef-heart and beef-muscle enzymes than for the flounder-muscle enzyme. A high degree of compensation is found between the enthalpies and entropies of activation, resulting in relatively small differences between the free energies (and rates) for homologous steps with different enzymes. Analysis of the results, on the assumption that the compensation effect is due to weak-bonding effects, suggests that there are fewer weak bonds in the stable complexes of the muscle enzymes.

  12. Ion and water transport by the flounder urinary bladder: salinity dependence.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R

    1984-04-01

    Urinary bladders from seawater-acclimated (SW) flounder had a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of congruent to 2,000 omega X cm2 and absorbed Na and Cl at equal rates of about 3 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 in an electrically silent manner; the short-circuit current (Isc) was 0.03 +/- 0.01 mueq X cm-2 X h-1. The transport of Na and Cl was only partially coupled. Removal of Na (or Cl) from the bathing solutions reduced net Cl (or Na) absorption by only 60%, yet there was neither a change in transepithelial potential nor the appearance of a short-circuit current that could be associated with the net Cl (or Na) transport that remained. Bladders from freshwater-acclimated (FW) flounder had a fivefold lower Rt and exhibited the same partially coupled and equal Na and Cl transport, but the ion transport rates were twice as large as those of SW bladders and the bladders exhibited a significant Isc of 0.51 +/- 0.08 mueq X cm-2 X h-1. The rate of fluid transport was much lower in FW than in SW bladders, reflecting a sixfold decrease in hydraulic conductivity (Lp). In both SW and FW bladders a large portion of the serosal-to-mucosal ion movement appears to be through nonconductive pathways.

  13. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  14. Cytochrome P4501A indices as biomarkers of contaminant exposure: A field study with plaice and flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Eggens, M.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of two flatfish species, flounder (Platichthys flesus) and plaice (Pleurnectus platessa), were collected during August/September 1991 and May/June 1992 in the southern North Sea. The induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A) in both species was examined, when exposed to environmental PCBs and PAHs. CYP1A was measured by a semi-quantitative ELISA technique and by the activity of its catalyst, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). In plaice, both hepatic CYP1 protein level and EROD activity were significantly higher at offshore sampling locations than at coastal locations, by a factor of 1.5 to 2. In flounder, which were only collected at coastal locations, the range of values of EROD activity was much greater than in plaice, but the range in CYP1A protein content was comparable in both species. multiple regression analysis of data from plaice and flounder did not show any significant correlation between CYP1A indices, water temperature and contaminant concentrations in fish tissues. CYP1A indices also appeared to be unrelated to food type, as determined by visual screening of fish intestines. It is concluded that the induction of CYP1A in plaice and flounder from the southern North Sea is not related in a simple manner to exposure to PCBs and PAHs. From the point of view-of use as a biomarker, the measurement of CYP1A protein level and EROD activity in plaice and flounder from the open North Sea cannot be applied straightforwardly for monitoring exposure to PCBs and/or PAHs.

  15. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  16. Immune responses of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus vaccinated by immersion of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda following hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Li; Tang, Xiao-Qian; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wen-Bin

    2015-10-16

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hyperosmotic immersion (HI) vaccination and determine the optimum hyperosmotic salinity for flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by investigating its immune responses following vaccination. Flounder were immersed in 1 of 3 hyperosmotic solutions at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinity, then transferred into 30‰ salinity normal seawater containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for vaccination (3 HI groups), or were immersed in normal seawater as direct immersion (DI group). The results showed that the percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen leukocytes induced by HI were significantly higher than that with DI (p < 0.05), and the 50‰ salinity group showed the strongest response among the HI groups, which reached peaks at Week 4. ELISA assay showed that the specific serum antibodies gradually increased after vaccination and reached peak at Day 32, and the fish treated with HI showed stronger antibody responses; among the HI groups, a significantly higher specific antibody level was detected in the 50‰ salinity group at Day 32 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the fish treated with HI showed higher specific mucosal antibody levels compared to the DI group, and the mucosal antibody showed a faster response, with peak time arriving 1 wk earlier than for the serum antibody. The relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder treated with HI at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinities were 79, 71 and 57% respectively, while this was 43% in the DI group. These results demonstrated that HI, especially the 50‰ salinity, could efficiently enhance the immune response of flounder and show higher RPS. This has significant value for immunological prevention of edwardsiellosis in flounder. PMID:26480914

  17. Influence of long (16L:8D) and short (8L:16D) photoperiods on blood metabolites and hepatic metabolism in Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huafeng; Bai, Xianshou; Feng, Yuhong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Youji; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the influence of long photoperiod (LP, 16L:8D) and short photoperiod (SP, 8L:16D) on hepatic energy metabolism in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated. Flounders were maintained under LP or SP conditions for 2 weeks then plasmatic and hepatic parameters were assessed. At the plasmatic level, the concentration of cortisol was enhanced in flounder maintained under LP compared to SP. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities in plasma also increased in LP flounder. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels between the two experimental groups. Plasma osmotic pressure, Na and Cl levels were significantly higher in LP compared to the SP group. In liver, a significant decrease of triglycerides together with an increase in glycogen was observed in the LP group. Hepatic hsl and pepck and muscle hsl mRNA expression in LP was significantly higher in the SP group. Overall the results indicate that the LP treatment caused a mild stress response and increased hepatic energy metabolism in the flounder, which in turn could affect osmoregulation. In conclusion, it would appear that LP treatment can adversely influence hepatic energy metabolism in adult olive flounder under fasting condition. PMID:27386368

  18. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder)

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Chun-Lei; WANG, Zhi-Peng; WANG, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; CHEN, Xiao-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus. PMID:27686790

  19. Feeding and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in relation to temperature and food supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, Mark; Tanaka, Masaru; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The growth of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (Temming et Schlegel) exposed to various feeding and temperature regimes was studied in the laboratory. The temperature limits for growth were estimated from about 9 to 32°C, and highest growth rate was observed at a temperature of 25°C. For fish of an initial total length of about 3 cm, exposed to temperatures between 10 and 30°C with unlimited food, the daily growth rate in length (dL; mm·d -1) was described as a function of temperature (T,°C) by the equation: dL=0.005 T 2 - 0.0000046 T 4 - 0.35. Fish fed with mussel meat or mysids displayed similar protein conversion efficiencies. The relationship between condition factor of the fish and the proximate body composition of the fish is reported.

  20. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. PMID:27086686

  1. Identification of candidate piRNAs in the gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Jia-Qi; Li, Ming-You; Chen, Xiao-Wu

    2016-09-18

    Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays an important role in the gonadal development and maintenance of Teleostei. In this study, piRNA libraries derived from the adult gonads of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were generated using next-generation sequencing technology. Using zebrafish piRNAs as a reference, 5 865 unique candidate piRNAs were identified; 289 candidate piRNA clusters (PRCs) were generated from the above piRNAs. Among the isolated candidate PRCs, a total of 38 ovary-specific, 45 ovary-bias, 24 testis-specific, and 131 testis-bias PRCs were found. The relative expression levels of seven PRCs were validated through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study will help facilitate exploration of the development and maintenance of the phenotypic sex mechanism in P. olivaceus. PMID:27686790

  2. Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-12-01

    The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

  3. Effects of resveratrol on growth and skeletal muscle physiology of juvenile southern flounder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Whitney N; Baumgarner, Bradley L; Watanabe, Wade O; Alam, Md Shah; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has been widely studied in mammals due to its potential to extend lifespan. However, antioxidants may also limit protein damage and therefore reduce rates of protein degradation, providing a potential avenue for enhancing growth in an aquaculture setting. The present study tested the hypotheses that in Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, resveratrol would decrease protein carbonylation and 4-HNE (indicators of protein and lipid oxidative damage, respectively), levels of ubiquitinylation and LC3 (indicators of non-lysosomal and lysosomal protein degradation, respectively), while having no effect on S6K activation (indicator of protein synthesis). These effects were predicted to increase growth rate. Mitochondrial volume density was also examined since resveratrol may lead to the proliferation of mitochondria, which are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage. Juvenile fish (n=142) were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 600 μg resveratrol per g of food for 16 weeks. Fish treated with resveratrol had a 9% greater length and 33% greater body mass than control fish after 16 weeks. Additionally, there was lower protein carbonylation and lipid 4-HNE within the muscle tissues of treated fish, indicating decreased oxidative damage, and reduced protein ubiquitinylation in the resveratrol fed flounder, indicating less protein degradation. However, there was not a significant difference in LC3, S6K activation, or mitochondrial volume density. These results suggest that resveratrol has positive effects on growth due to its antioxidant properties that reduce non-lysosomal protein degradation. PMID:25522711

  4. Effects of resveratrol on growth and skeletal muscle physiology of juvenile southern flounder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Whitney N; Baumgarner, Bradley L; Watanabe, Wade O; Alam, Md Shah; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has been widely studied in mammals due to its potential to extend lifespan. However, antioxidants may also limit protein damage and therefore reduce rates of protein degradation, providing a potential avenue for enhancing growth in an aquaculture setting. The present study tested the hypotheses that in Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, resveratrol would decrease protein carbonylation and 4-HNE (indicators of protein and lipid oxidative damage, respectively), levels of ubiquitinylation and LC3 (indicators of non-lysosomal and lysosomal protein degradation, respectively), while having no effect on S6K activation (indicator of protein synthesis). These effects were predicted to increase growth rate. Mitochondrial volume density was also examined since resveratrol may lead to the proliferation of mitochondria, which are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage. Juvenile fish (n=142) were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 600 μg resveratrol per g of food for 16 weeks. Fish treated with resveratrol had a 9% greater length and 33% greater body mass than control fish after 16 weeks. Additionally, there was lower protein carbonylation and lipid 4-HNE within the muscle tissues of treated fish, indicating decreased oxidative damage, and reduced protein ubiquitinylation in the resveratrol fed flounder, indicating less protein degradation. However, there was not a significant difference in LC3, S6K activation, or mitochondrial volume density. These results suggest that resveratrol has positive effects on growth due to its antioxidant properties that reduce non-lysosomal protein degradation.

  5. On the ecology of two sympatric flounders of the genus Paralichthys in the Bay of Coquimbo, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, Enzo; Cid, Luis

    The ecology of two flounders belonging to the genus Paralichthys was studied in the Bay of Coquimbo (29°57'S), Chile. P. adspersus grows larger than P. microps. In both species, the females were significantly larger than the males. The species differed in their reproductive cycles as revealed by their gonadosomatic indices. This difference was also reflected in larval abundance and spatial distribution of the species. No significant changes were found in the abundances of juveniles and adults in the Bay of Coquimbo either throughout the year or interannually. However, when the analysis included the proportion of specimens between the two species and sex by season, the differences were apparent in most cases. The results show that the environmental characteristics of the marine system which the Bay of Coquimbo is a part of provide good feeding, spawning and nursery grounds for these two species of flounder.

  6. De Novo Assembly of the Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Spleen Transcriptome to Identify Putative Genes Involved in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Li, Guiyang; Mo, Zhaolan; Xiao, Peng; Li, Jie; Huang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14%) were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45%) unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38%) were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78%) were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways. Conclusions/Significance The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder. PMID:25723398

  7. Molecular Response of Estuarine Fish to Hypoxia: A Comparative Study with Ruffe and Flounder from Field and Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Thiel, Ralf; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the flounder (Platichthys flesus). We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that – with the exception of the heart of flounder – that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature. PMID:24595439

  8. Characterization of Paralichthys olivaceus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α gene as a master regulator of flounder lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Kook; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hye Young; Cheong, JaeHun

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that play key roles in lipid and energy homeostasis. Paralichthys olivaceus PPARα (PoPPARα) cDNA was isolated by initial reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using conserved region among fish species and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length of PoPPARα cDNA is 2040-bp long encoding a polypeptide with 505 amino acids and containing a DNA binding domain (C4-type zinc finger) and a ligand-binding domain. PoPPARα was detected from 1 day post-hatch and was highly expressed in the stomach, liver, and intestine of continuously fed flounder, approximately 16 cm in size. PoPPARα mRNA expression was down-regulated in the kidney, stomach, and liver of the 4.5-month-old flounder after a 30 day food-deprivation period. PoPPARα activates the PPAR response element (PPRE)-driven reporter, and treatment with Wy14643, a PPARα agonist, augmented PoPPARα-stimulated peroxisome proliferator response element activity in HINAE and HepG2 cells. PoPPARα activated the expression of fatty acid β-oxidation related genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and inhibited the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein and fatty acid synthase by competitively inhibiting LXR/RXR heterodimer formation. These results suggest that PoPPARα plays an important role in lipid metabolism of olive flounder and that it is functionally and evolutionarily conserved in olive flounder and mammals. PMID:22051321

  9. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) estuarine habitat use and the association between spring temperature and subsequent year class strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Davis, David; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine J.; Gallo, Jenine

    2013-11-01

    Winter flounder habitat use in New York/New Jersey Harbor was examined through a long-term (2002-2010) bottom trawl sampling program (Aquatic Biological Survey) in which 5234 winter flounder were captured in 2069 samples collected at approximately 26 stations throughout the harbor. Interannual variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) primarily was attributable to fluctuations in Year-1 juvenile CPUE, which was positively correlated with total annual egg abundances from the previous year. Adult male CPUE during the spawning season was positively correlated with total egg abundances of the same year, whereas adult female CPUE was unrelated to annual egg abundances in the harbor. Annual variation in adult male densities in the harbor during the spawning season reflects the intensity of estuarine spawning activity, whereas adult female densities may include non-reproductive, foraging individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in condition indices reflected energy use during the spawning season, with relatively high condition in January, reduced levels in March and April, and elevated condition again in May. Adult CPUE peaked in April, coincident with the critical feeding period that follows spawning. Mean April water temperatures were positively correlated with egg abundances the following year and Year-1 juvenile CPUE two years later. A similar correlation between April temperatures and Year-1 juvenile abundances two years later was demonstrated using published data for winter flounder collected in Niantic Bay, CT. Higher April water temperatures may enhance benthic secondary production during the critical feeding period, and thus increase prey availability for foraging adults that need to restore energy reserves in order to reproduce the following year. A direct examination of benthic secondary production and variation in winter flounder estuarine foraging and subsequent spawning activity is needed to more fully understand this relationship.

  10. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  11. Radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder inhabiting the Fukushima accident-affected Pacific coastal waters of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aono, Tatsuo; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP) has contaminated coastal waters and been subsequently transferred to the marine biota along the Pacific coastal region of eastern Japan. To clarify the mechanism of radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder, a commercially valuable and piscivorous predator, the biokinetics of (137)Cs was simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model and then validated with the measured concentrations in available monitoring data. The (137)Cs concentrations in seawater of the Pacific coastal sites of eastern Japan, from Kesen-numa (170 km north from the 1FNPP) to Choshi (190 km south from the 1FNPP), were reconstructed by fitting the simulated levels to the observed concentrations. Simulated values were verified by measured radiocesium levels in sedentary organism such as macro-algae and mussels inhabiting each study site which had accumulated radiocesium in their ambient environment from the beginning of the accident. Using reconstructed (137)Cs concentrations in seawater, the (137)Cs levels in olive flounder and its main planktivorous prey fish, e.g. anchovy, sand lance, whitebait, etc., were simulated and compared with observed concentrations to clarify the biokinetics of radiocesium in these organisms. This assessment showed that the determining factor for the maximum radiocesium concentrations in fish in the plankton food chain is likely to be the initial radiocesium concentration which they were exposed to during the contamination stage. Furthermore, the simulated (137)Cs concentrations in gut contents of olive flounder were verified by measured (137)Cs concentrations in the stomach contents of this fish collected within 30 km from the 1FNPP. These results indicated that the decrease of (137)Cs levels in their prey organisms was the primary determining factor of radiocesium depuration, and the resultant ecological half-lives were 140-160 d in the olive flounder

  12. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-hao; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. According to myosatellite cell lines (MSCs) established in vitro from diploid and triploid flounder, we compared the characters of growth and differentiation of their MSCs. The results would be useful for learning the muscle development mechanism in teleosts. Materials and Methods. The skeletal muscle cells from the diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were isolated and cultured in vitro, respectively, and the cells were characterized at the morphology and molecular level; meanwhile, the performance of these cells’ proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Results. Two new skeletal muscle cell lines (POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n)) from diploid and triploid flounder have been respectively subcultured for 67 times and 66 times. The cultured cells were mostly spindle-like mononuclear cells. They have normal flounder diploid karyotype (2n=48t) and triploid karyotype (3n=72t), respectively. Muscle satellite cell gene marker (pax7b) and myogenic cell protein marker (Desmin) were all expressed in cells of two cell lines. Both of the cells could differentiate into the large polynucleated muscle fibre cells, and immunofluorescence reactions of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were positive. There were more cells of POMSCS(3n) to differentiate into the muscle fibre cells than that of POMSCS(2n). However, POMSCS(2n) cells proliferated more rapidly than those of POMSCS(3n) (P < 0.05). The significant fluorescent signals were observed in both POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n) cells after transfected with pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid. Conclusions. The two cell lines have been established and characterized as MSCs. We suppose that it might be the differentiation capacity, rather than the proliferation activity of MSCs to play a key role in the better growth of triploid ones than diploid. Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. PMID

  13. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  14. Early development of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiamatic nuclei and pineal gland of teleost, flounder (Paralichthys olivaeus), embryos.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Makoto; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to coordinate multiple physiological processes and behaviors with the earth's rotation. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the sole master circadian pacemaker, has entrainment mechanisms that set the circadian rhythm to a 24-h cycle with photic signals from retina. In contrast, the zebrafish SCN is not a circadian pacemaker, instead the pineal gland (PG) houses the major circadian oscillator. The SCN of flounder larvae, unlike that of zebrafish, however, expresses per2 with a rhythmicity of daytime/ON and nighttime/OFF. Here, we examined whether the rhythm of per2 expression in the flounder SCN represents the molecular clock. We also examined early development of the circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. Our three major findings were as follows. First, rhythmic per2 expression in the SCN was maintained under 24 h dark (DD) conditions, indicating that a molecular clock exists in the flounder SCN. Second, onset of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN preceded that in the PG. Third, both 24 h light (LL) and DD conditions deeply affected the development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. This is the first report dealing with the early development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN in fish.

  15. Bacterial enteritis and the development of the larval digestive tract in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel).

    PubMed

    Kim, D-H; Han, H-J; Kim, S-M; Lee, D-C; Park, S-I

    2004-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates obtained from diseased olive flounder larvae, Paralichthys olivaceus, were identified as Vibrio ichthyoenteri based on the results of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Bacterial enteritis was reproduced in 16 and 22 days post-hatch (dph) larvae by administering brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia salina, dosed with the environmental isolates and reference strains of V. ichthyoenteri. To investigate the effect of the disease on development of the stomach, a pepsin activity assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the expression of the pepsinogen gene were performed. Expression of olive flounder pepsinogen was detected from 30-dph larvae and the increased level of pepsin activity coincided with reduced susceptibility to the disease. Growth rates of V. ichthyoenteri, V. anguillarum and Edwardsiella tarda were tested in artificial stomach conditions using HCl and porcine pepsin. All the strains of V. ichthyoenteri were inhibited by low pH conditions which corresponded with an increase in pepsin levels. This suggests that differentiation of the stomach in olive flounder larvae and juveniles, an essential physiological development, also provides the host with a non-immunological defence mechanism. PMID:15357708

  16. Metabolism, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) in relation to fish size and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, M.; Cronie, R.; Vethaak, A. D.; Van Der Puyl, P.

    Daily rates of oxygen consumption, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) have been measured in the laboratory at various constant temperatures. Oxygen consumption was related to body weight of the fish as a power function, with a weight exponent of between 0.71 and 0.85. No significant effects of temperature or feeding on this exponent were found. Flounder showed a significantly higher metabolic rate and a higher temperature coefficient for metabolism than plaice. Maximum daily rates of food consumption and the weight increment of fish fed with excess rations of fresh mussel meat could also be related to fish weights by means of power functions. For plaice these exponents decreased from about 0.9 at low temperatures (2-6 C°) to about 0.7 at high temperatures (18-22°C). Such a temperature effect on the weight exponent indicates that small juvenile fish eat more and grow faster at higher temperatures than do large older fish, and that large fish do better at low temperatures. After scaling of daily food consumption and growth in proportion to metabolic weights of the fish (W 0.78), feeding and growth at different fish sizes and temperatures can be compared and temperature-growth rate models can be used for investigations of feeding in natural populations. Compared to plaice, young flounder ate more and grew faster at higher temperatures (> 14°C). This may partly explain the preference of flounder for the shallower parts of coastal areas and estuaries, where summer temperatures and food densities are higher. Energy budgets of young plaice and flounder fed with excess rations of mussel meat indicate that at least 29% of the food energy is used for metabolism while about 37% of the food energy is converted into growth. The net conversion efficiency was estimated at 0.45 for food and growth in units of ash-free dry weight, and at 0.53 for food and growth in energy units. Analysis of the energy budget showed

  17. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1) multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and (3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2) when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2), and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves) to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching) from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  18. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with the majority of the individuals being found during the spring (30.1%) and in S3 and S4 (72.6%). Males and females presented an even distribution, with a higher proportion of males observed during summer. Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus

  19. Application of a food chain model to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the lobster and winter flounder food chains in New Bedford Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.P. Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site a model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lobster and winter flounder food chains was developed. This model successfully reproduces tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyl concentrations observed at all levels of the food chain and across the 2 order of magnitude concentration gradient in the system. The model indicated that PCB concentrations in the flounder and, to a lesser extent, in the lobster are derived from the sediment. Dietary uptake exceeds uptake across the gill for all four homologues and becomes the dominant route at the higher chlorinated homologues. The assimilation efficiency of ingested PCB apparently declines from relatively high values for tri-chlorobiphenyl to relatively low values for hexachlorobiphenyl. Differences in observed lobster and flounder PCB concentrations appear to be due to differences in the importance of the benthic component of the food chains of these animals and differences in whole body lipid content.

  20. Cloning and characterization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Peng, Weijiao; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) is a critical adaptor molecule in multiple inflammasome protein complexes that mediate inflammation and host defense. However, few studies have been performed in lower vertebrates such as in teleost. Here we identified and characterized a novel ASC gene (namely PoASC) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The complete cDNA sequence of PoASC contains a 22 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 612 bp open reading frame, and a 438 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced PoASC protein is comprised of 203 amino acids with a conserved N-terminal PYD domain and a C-terminal CARD domain and shows 35-62% sequence identity with other vertebrate ASC proteins. PoASC mRNA transcripts was detected in various Japanese flounder tissues and is dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Oligomeric speck-like structures were observed when PoASC was exogenously expressed in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells. Immune challenge experiments revealed that PoASC gene expression was significantly induced in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes by the canonical TLR ligands LPS, Poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations. In addition, the induction of PoASC was also observed in Edwardsiella tarda challenged head kidney and gill tissues. Furthermore, we for the first time showed that extracellular ATP, an important signaling molecule in triggering innate immune response and activation of NLR inflammasome, significantly up-regulates PoASC expression in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these findings addressed the involvement of PoASC in TLR and extracellular ATP-mediated innate immune signaling in the Japanese flounders.

  1. Development and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers from an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Database in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-12-01

    To successful molecular breeding, identification and functional characterization of breeding related genes and development of molecular breeding techniques using DNA markers are essential. Although the development of a useful marker is difficult in the aspect of time, cost and effort, many markers are being developed to be used in molecular breeding and developed markers have been used in many fields. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers were widely used for genomic research and breeding, but has hardly been validated for screening functional genes in olive flounder. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from expressed sequence tag (EST) database in olive flounder; out of a total 4,327 ESTs, 693 contigs and 514 SNPs were detected in total EST, and these substitutions include 297 transitions and 217 transversions. As a result, 144 SNP markers were developed on the basis of 514 SNP to selection of useful gene region, and then applied to each of eight wild and culture olive flounder (total 16 samples). In our experimental result, only 32 markers had detected polymorphism in sample, also identified 21 transitions and 11 transversions, whereas indel was not detected in polymorphic SNPs. Heterozygosity of wild and cultured olive flounder using the 32 SNP markers is 0.34 and 0.29, respectively. In conclusion, we identified SNP and polymorphism in olive flounder using newly designed marker, it supports that developed markers are suitable for SNP detection and diversity analysis in olive flounder. The outcome of this study can be basic data for researches for immunity gene and characteristic with SNP.

  2. Cloning and characterization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Peng, Weijiao; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) is a critical adaptor molecule in multiple inflammasome protein complexes that mediate inflammation and host defense. However, few studies have been performed in lower vertebrates such as in teleost. Here we identified and characterized a novel ASC gene (namely PoASC) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The complete cDNA sequence of PoASC contains a 22 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 612 bp open reading frame, and a 438 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced PoASC protein is comprised of 203 amino acids with a conserved N-terminal PYD domain and a C-terminal CARD domain and shows 35-62% sequence identity with other vertebrate ASC proteins. PoASC mRNA transcripts was detected in various Japanese flounder tissues and is dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Oligomeric speck-like structures were observed when PoASC was exogenously expressed in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells. Immune challenge experiments revealed that PoASC gene expression was significantly induced in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes by the canonical TLR ligands LPS, Poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations. In addition, the induction of PoASC was also observed in Edwardsiella tarda challenged head kidney and gill tissues. Furthermore, we for the first time showed that extracellular ATP, an important signaling molecule in triggering innate immune response and activation of NLR inflammasome, significantly up-regulates PoASC expression in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these findings addressed the involvement of PoASC in TLR and extracellular ATP-mediated innate immune signaling in the Japanese flounders. PMID:27103005

  3. Evolution history of duplicated smad3 genes in teleost: insights from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xinxin; Liu, Yuezhong; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) during deuterosome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the ray-fined fish lineage and is considered to be responsible for the teleost-specific lineage diversification and regulation mechanisms. As a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD), the function of SMAD3 was widely studied in mammals. However, limited information of its role or putative paralogs is available in ray-finned fishes. In this study, two SMAD3 paralogs were first identified in the transcriptome and genome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We also explored SMAD3 duplication in other selected species. Following identification, genomic structure, phylogenetic reconstruction, and synteny analyses performed by MrBayes and online bioinformatic tools confirmed that smad3a/3b most likely originated from the teleost-specific WGD. Additionally, selection pressure analysis and expression pattern of the two genes performed by PAML and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the two SMAD3 paralogs in teleost. Our results indicate that two SMAD3 genes originate from teleost-specific WGD, remain transcriptionally active, and may have likely undergone subfunctionalization. This study provides novel insights to the evolution fates of smad3a/3b and draws attentions to future function analysis of SMAD3 gene family. PMID:27703851

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of three novel CC chemokine genes from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zou, Gang-gang; Nozaki, Reiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2014-10-01

    Chemokines are small cytokines secreted by various cell types. They not only function in cell activation, differentiation and trafficking, but they also have influences on many biological processes. In this study, three novel CC chemokine genes Paol-SCYA105, 106 and 107 in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were cloned and characterized. Paol-SCYA105 was mainly detected in gill, kidney and spleen, Paol-SCYA106 was detected in all tissues examined and Paol-SCYA107 was mainly detected in the spleen and kidney. Paol-SCYA105 and Paol-SCYA106 gene expressions peaked in kidney at day 3 after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection and decreased at day 6, but Paol-SCYA106 still remained at a high level at day 6. Paol-SCYA107 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in kidney at day 6 after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection. In response to infection by Gram-negative Edwardsiella tarda and Gram-positive Streptococcus iniae in kidney, only Paol-SCYA106 gene expression significantly increased. Together, these results indicate that these three novel CC chemokines are involved in the immune response against pathogen infections.

  5. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  6. Distribution of mucous cells on the body surface of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kawai, K; Oshima, S

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of mucous cells was examined in the skin on the ocular and blind sides of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Observations were performed on both body sides at the following regions: cheek, lower jaw (blind side), gill cover (ocular side), dorsal side, lateral line, belly and caudal peduncle. The mucous cells observed were elliptic and positively stained for periodic acid Schiff reaction and Mayer's mucicarmine and showed a higher density and larger size on the ocular side compared to the blind side. Low densities of mucous cells were observed on the lower jaw compared with other regions of the body. The depth of the crack located between scales was deeper on the ocular side than the blind side, which might reflect total epidermis area and total number of mucous cells. Bacterial infection elucidated some information on the effect on the density and size of mucous cells, where the density and size decreased slightly after infection. Only the lower jaw, however, showed an increased number of mucous cells. The results show that the potential of skin to secrete mucus is higher on the ocular than on the blind side and bacterial infection decreases mucous secretion. PMID:21366577

  7. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  8. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-09-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  9. Polluted harbor sediment and the annual reproductive cycle of the female flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, P.A.H.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Goos, H.J.T.; Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),and pesticides are metabolized by enzyme systems, which are also involved in steroid metabolism. Disturbances of reproduction may therefore occur through the interference of these compounds with the endocrine system. Several aspects of reproduction were studied in the flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.), an euryhaline flatfish which inhabits coastal waters and is therefore a suitable biomonitor for the effects of chemical pollutants. Fish were kept during three years in mesocosm systems of which the first provided a control, while the second one contained polluted sediment, derived from the Rotterdam harbor. In November, all ovaries from both mesocosms contained vitellogenic oocytes. In May, all the control fish were previtellogenic, while the ovaries of fish from the polluted mesocosm contained, besides previtellogenic oocytes, a large number of vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that an estrogenic induction had occurred. The in vitro tissue incubations with androstenedione as precursor revealed that the ovarian capacity to synthesize testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 2}) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) didn`t differ between both mesocosms. In May, however, the levels of T and E{sub 2} as well as the level of the yolk-precursor vitellogenin were significantly higher in the polluted mesocosm. The conclusion from this study was that polluted harbor sediment contains compounds that effect normal reproductive development, i.e. the induction of premature vitellogenesis.

  10. Novel microsatellite marker development from the unassembled genome sequence data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yuki; Ikeda, Minoru; Kijima, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    Various genome-scale data have been increasingly published in diverged species, but they can be reused for other purposes by re-analyzing in other ways. As a case study to utilize the published genome data, we developed microsatellite markers from the genome sequence data (assembled contigs and unassembled reads) of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae. No microsatellites were identified in the contig sequences, whereas the computer software found 781,773 sequences containing microsatellites with di- to hexa-nucleotide motif in the unassembled reads. For 86,732 unique sequences among them, a total of 331,368 primer pairs were designed. Screening based on PCR amplification, polymorphisms and accurate genotyping resulted in sixteen primer sets, which were later characterized using 45 samples collected in Onagawa Bay, Miyagi, Japan. The presence of null alleles was suggested at four loci in the studied population but no evidence of allelic dropout was found. The observed number of alleles and heterozygosity was 2-20 and 0-0.88889, respectively, indicating polymorphisms and usefulness for population genetic analyses of this species. In addition, a large number of the microsatellite primers developed in this study are potentially applicable also for kinship estimation, individual fingerprint and linkage map construction.

  11. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the flounder Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Gui, Lang; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2008-03-01

    Two MAbs (3C7 and 3C9) against flounder Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus (PORV) were generated with hybridoma cell fusion technology and characterized by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isotype test, Western blot and immunodot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Isotyping tests demonstrated that both of the two MAbs belonged to IgM subclass. Western blot analysis showed the MAbs reacted with 42, 30, and 22 kDa viral proteins, which were localized within the cytoplasm of PORV-infected grass carp ovary (GCO) cells analyzed by indirect immunofluorescences tests. The MAb 3C7 was also selected at random for detecting virus antigens in the inoculated grass carp tissues by immunohistochemistry assay. Flow cytometry tests showed that at the 36 h postinfection (0.25 PFU/cell), the 23% PORV-infected GCO cells could be distinguished from the uninfected cells with the MAb 3C7. Such MAbs could be useful for diagnosis and potential treatment of viral infection.

  12. Esophageal desalination of seawater in flounder: role of active sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Parmelee, J T; Renfro, J L

    1983-12-01

    The esophagus of the flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, was studied to determine how salinity of ingested seawater (SW) is decreased before fluid absorption in the intestine. Drinking rate was 2.5 ml X h-1 X kg-1. Stomach fluid osmolality was 45% that of seawater, and intestinal fluid was isosmotic to plasma. Esophagus and stomach were nearly impermeable to 28Mg; thus Mg concentrations were accurate indicators of fluid addition and NaCl removal between pharynx and stomach. Measurements of water and ion fluxes across isolated esophageal epithelium mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed by Ringer solution showed that the tritiated water flux was lower in esophagus than in intestine and that 22Na flux ratio was 1.4 (Jm leads to s/Js leads to m) regardless of acclimation medium (100 or 10% SW). Potential difference was zero, and electrical resistance averaged 90 omega X cm2. Mucosal-to-serosal Na transport was inhibited by 0.1 mM amiloride, 0.1 mM ouabain, and Cl-free medium, whereas 1.0 mM furosemide had no effect. Net esophageal Na absorption (mucosal-to-serosal) averaged 10.0 mumol X h-1 X cm-2 with mucosa exposed to SW and was inhibited 46% by 0.1 mM ouabain. Taken together the above observations suggest a role for both passive and active esophageal Na transport in SW desalination.

  13. Distribution of marine birnavirus in cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seok-Ryel; Joung, Il-Yong; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Ceong, Hee-Taek; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2008-06-01

    Surveys of marine birnavirus (MABV) were undertaken in cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus from the south and west coastal areas and Jeju in Korea during the period January 1999 to April 2007. MABV was detected in all seasons from the fry, juveniles and adult fish from the areas examined. Evident cytopathic effects of the virus including rounding and cell lysis were observed in chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells, but not in fathead minnow (FHM) and epithelial papilloma of carp (EPC) cells. Nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of the Korean isolates showed 97.8% ~ 100% similarity, and they belonged to the same genogroup. Cross neutralization tests with serotype-specific rabbit antisera against MABV strains exhibited a close antigenic relationships between strains, and were distinct from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strains. Coinfection of MABV with bacteria (Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio spp.) and viruses (nervous necrosis virus, lymphocystis disease virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) was observed. PMID:18604495

  14. Induction of apoptosis in a flounder gill cell line by lymphocystis disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, G-B; Cong, R-S; Fan, T-J; Mei, X-G

    2004-11-01

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), a large icosahedral DNA virus classified to the iridovirus family, is the causative agent of lymphocystis, a disease which occurs in marine and freshwater fish species and is characterized by formation of papilloma-like lesions on the surface of the skin. In vitro, LCDV infection causes flounder gill cells, an adherent cell line, to exhibit an obvious cytopathic effect (CPE). In order to test whether apoptosis is responsible for the observed CPE, cells infected with LCDV at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) of 5 PFU per cell were examined at various time intervals for the appearance of apoptotic signs. Nuclear fragmentation, DNA laddering and caspase activation were observed in the infected cells at the time (i.e. 10 days post-infection) when an intensive CPE was observed. These findings demonstrate that LCDV is capable of inducing apoptosis in vitro, which is different from the result of LCDV infection in vivo, and consequently suggest an intricate LCDV-host interaction. PMID:15509260

  15. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Posten, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Moya, J.; Garrahan, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The consumption of contaminated fish has been shown to be a significant, pathway for human exposure. Risk assessors often assume that humans are exposed to the levels of contaminants in edible tissue of fish measured prior to preparation and cooking. This assumption may lead to overestimation or underestimation of risk since a particular cooking method may remove or transform toxic constituents in the flesh by thermal denaturation, vaporization, dissolution in aqueous tissue fluids or lipids that drip off the flesh, or extraction into cooling oil during deep fat frying. This paper presents and discusses the results of a study conducted to quantify the effect of preparation and cooking on PCB concentrations in the edible portion of winter flounder. The effects of broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish. The change in total PCB concentrations and 18 specific PCB congeners was estimated using a mass-balance approach using the precooked PCB concentration on a wet-weight basis and the cooked concentration taking into account any change in fillet weight resulting from cooking. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue, while pan frying and broiling did not result in a statistically significant difference in total PCB levels.

  16. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  17. Philometrids of the southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma: a multidimensional approach to determine their diversity.

    PubMed

    de Buron, Isaure; France, Scott G; Connors, Vincent A; Roumillat, William A; Tsoi, Lam C

    2011-06-01

    Two species of philometrid nematode, Philometra overstreeti and Philometroides paralichthydis, infect the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. Individuals of P. overstreeti are located between the teeth and inside the bony part of the branchial arches of the fish. Individuals of P. paralichthydis are associated with the bones of the buccal cavity and among muscles that control the dorsal and anal fins. Sequencing of part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed 4 distinct genetic clades, each corresponding exactly to the 4 respective locations of the parasites in the host, suggesting the need for taxonomic revision. We hypothesized that each clade represented a separate species and, because the worms are morphologically indistinguishable, compared population level parameters of the clades comprising each currently recognized species. For each currently recognized species, the presence of worms from 1 clade was negatively correlated with the presence of worms from the other. Results also indicated significant differences between the clades in prevalences relative to both biotic and abiotic factors. Results clearly indicated major differences in the ecology of the philometrids constituting each clade. Taken as a whole, molecular and ecological data support the contention that the 4 genetic clades are likely 4 distinct species. PMID:21506857

  18. Passive and active ion transport by the urinary bladder of a euryhaline flounder.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R; Machen, T E

    1984-04-01

    The effects of voltage clamping on the flux ratios and unidirectional and net fluxes of Na and Cl were used to gain insight into the mechanisms of active and passive ion transport across urinary bladders isolated from seawater-(SW) and freshwater-acclimated (FW) flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Although the transepithelial conductance (Gt = 2.77 mS X cm-2) of FW bladders was much greater than that of SW bladders (Gt = 0.40 mS X cm-2), the current-voltage relationships of both SW and FW bladders were markedly nonlinear. Under short-circuit conditions there was a large difference in the serosal-to-mucosal Na flux (JNasm) between SW (0.10 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) and FW (1.71 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) bladders, but their mannitol permeabilities were identical. The results indicate that 1) the paracellular pathway of both SW and FW bladders is Cl selective and Cl movements through the shunt account for a maximum of 90% of Gt in SW bladders and 19% in FW bladders; 2) the larger Gt of FW bladders is due to greater conductance of the apical cell membrane; 3) the majority of the passive ion movement across these epithelia proceeds through nonconductive, presumably transcellular, pathways; and 4) active transport of Na and Cl occurs by neutral coupling to each other and to other unidentified ions.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of inosine monophosphate on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Woo; Lim, Se-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2012-10-01

    This study was investigated to examine the effects of dietary inosine monophosphate (IMP) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immunity, hematological parameters and disease resistance of juvenile olive flounder. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain IMP at levels of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0%. All diets were maintained isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) and isocaloric (20.7 MJ/kg diet). Triplicate groups of olive flounder (initial body weight, 7.5 ± 0.02 g) were fed one of the experimental diets to apparent satiation (twice a day) for 14 weeks. Final body weight of fish fed 0.1-0.2% IMP were significantly higher than that of fish fed the 1.0% IMP. Groups of fish fed 0.2 or 0.4% IMP diet had significantly higher myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities than fish fed the control diet. However, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and superoxide dismutase activities were not significantly different among all treatments. In the challenge test against Streptococcus iniae, cumulative mortality of fish fed IMP supplemented diets was significantly lower (15%, 4%, 4% and 9% for 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 1.0% IMP, respectively) than that of fish fed the control group (87%). The results suggest that IMP supplementation of 0.46-1.84 g into a kg of fish meal based diet (0.1-0.4% IMP product) can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance of olive flounder.

  20. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  1. Fishing mortality in North Carolina's southern flounder fishery: direct estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality from a tag return experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of harvest rates is often a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management. These assessments are often based on catch-at-age data sets generated over many years, but estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality (F) can also be obtained from a shorter-term tag return study. We conducted a 2-year tag return experiment to generate direct estimates of F for southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in a North Carolina estuary. The southern flounder supports lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries within the state and has experienced heavy fishing pressure for more than a decade. During 2005 and 2006, fish were captured and tagged with the assistance of commercial harvesters in the New River estuary. Tag returns were used to generate monthly estimates of F, which demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern that was consistent between years. Several important assumptions of the tag return model were accounted for through the use of double-tagged individuals, the distribution of both high- and standard-reward tags, and the completion of an independent controlled experiment to evaluate mortality related to tagging. Annual estimates of F exceeded the short-term management target in both years. Residual patterns suggest that the estimates may actually have been biased low, possibly due to delayed mixing of tagged fish. Thus, despite recently amended fishery regulations, F in the North Carolina southern flounder gill-net fishery still has the potential to greatly exceed targeted levels, which may delay stock recovery. Tag return studies can provide reliable (and nearly real-time) information about F and natural mortality as long as the experimental design addresses specific assumptions related to tagging-induced mortality, tag shedding, and nonreporting of tags.

  2. Immunoglobulin Tau Heavy Chain (IgT) in Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin tau (IgT) is a new teleost immunoglobulin isotype, and its potential function in adaptive immunity is not very clear. In the present study, the membrane-bound and secreted IgT (mIgT and sIgT) heavy chain genes were cloned for the first time and characterized in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and found the nucleic acid sequence were exactly same in the Cτ1–Cτ4 constant domains of mIgT and sIgT, but different in variable regions and the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of mIgT shared higher similarity with Bovichtus diacanthus (51.2%) and Dicentrarchus labrax (45.0%). Amino acid of flounder IgT, IgM, and IgD heavy chain was compared and the highest similarity was found between IgT Cτ1 and IgM Cμ1 (38%). In healthy flounder, the transcript levels of IgT mRNA were the highest in gill, spleen, and liver, and higher in peripheral blood leucocytes, skin, and hindgut. After infection and vaccination with Edwardsiella tarda via intraperitoneal injection and immersion, the qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the IgT mRNA level was significantly upregulated in all tested tissues, with similar dynamic tendency that increased firstly and then decreased, and higher in gill, skin, hindgut, liver, and stomach in immersion than in the injection group, but no significant difference existed in spleen and head kidney between immersion and injection groups. These results revealed that IgT responses could be simultaneously induced in both mucosal and systemic tissues after infection/vaccination via injection and immersion route, but IgT might play a more important role in mucosal immunity than in systemic immunity. PMID:27649168

  3. Immunoglobulin Tau Heavy Chain (IgT) in Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analyses.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin tau (IgT) is a new teleost immunoglobulin isotype, and its potential function in adaptive immunity is not very clear. In the present study, the membrane-bound and secreted IgT (mIgT and sIgT) heavy chain genes were cloned for the first time and characterized in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and found the nucleic acid sequence were exactly same in the Cτ1-Cτ4 constant domains of mIgT and sIgT, but different in variable regions and the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of mIgT shared higher similarity with Bovichtus diacanthus (51.2%) and Dicentrarchus labrax (45.0%). Amino acid of flounder IgT, IgM, and IgD heavy chain was compared and the highest similarity was found between IgT Cτ1 and IgM Cμ1 (38%). In healthy flounder, the transcript levels of IgT mRNA were the highest in gill, spleen, and liver, and higher in peripheral blood leucocytes, skin, and hindgut. After infection and vaccination with Edwardsiella tarda via intraperitoneal injection and immersion, the qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the IgT mRNA level was significantly upregulated in all tested tissues, with similar dynamic tendency that increased firstly and then decreased, and higher in gill, skin, hindgut, liver, and stomach in immersion than in the injection group, but no significant difference existed in spleen and head kidney between immersion and injection groups. These results revealed that IgT responses could be simultaneously induced in both mucosal and systemic tissues after infection/vaccination via injection and immersion route, but IgT might play a more important role in mucosal immunity than in systemic immunity. PMID:27649168

  4. Anesthetic Effect and Physiological Response in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Clove Oil in a Simulated Transport Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Hyun Woo; Ko, Min Gyun; Lee, Tae Ho; Park, In-Seok; Kim, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The optimum concentrations of clove oil as an anesthetic for olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and the stress response of the fish to clove oil anesthesia were determined over a range of water temperatures, and investigated in a simulated transport experiment using analysis of various water and physiological parameters. While the time for induction of anesthesia decreased significantly as both the concentration of clove oil and water temperature increased, the recovery time increased significantly (P<0.05). The plasma cortisol concentration in fish at each temperature increased significantly up to 12 h following exposure (P<0.05), then decreased to 48 h (P<0.05). The DO dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH values, and the fish respiratory frequencies decreased over 6 h following exposure to clove oil in all experimental groups (P<0.05), whereas the NH4 + and CO2concentrations in all experimental groups increased up to 6 h (P<0.05). The pH values and DO concentrations increased with increasing clove oil concentration (P<0.05) in the 6 h following exposure, and the CO2 and NH4 + concentrations and the respiratory frequencies decreased with increasing clove oil concentration (P<0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that clove oil reduced the metabolic activity of olive flounder, thus reducing NH4 + excretion and O2 consumption. In conclusion, clove oil appears to be a cost-effective and efficient anesthetic that is safe for use and non-toxic to the fish and users. Its use provides the potential for improved transportation of olive flounder. PMID:27796007

  5. Molecular identification and expression analysis of natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) cDNA from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Xu, Mei-Yu; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2006-03-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) controls partially innate resistance to intracellular parasites. Its function is to enhance the ability of macrophages to kill pathogens. However, little is known about the structure and function of Nramp in lower vertebrates such as teleosts. We have recently isolated a cDNA encoding Nramp from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The full-length cDNA of the Nramp is 3066 bp in length, including 224 bp 5' terminal UTR, 1662 bp encoding region and 1180 bp 3' terminal UTR. The 1662-nt open reading frame was found to code for a protein with 554 amino acid residues. Comparison of amino acid sequence indicated that Japanese flounder Nramp consists of 12 transmembrane (TM) domains. A consensus transport motif (CTM) containing 20 residues was observed between transmembrane domains 8 and 9. The deduced amino acid sequence of Japanese flounder had 77.30%, 82.71%, 82.67%, 79.64%, 80.72%, 90.97%, 91.16%, 60.14%, 71.48%, 61.69%, 72.37% identity with that of rainbow trout Nramp alpha and beta, channel catfish Nramp, fathead minnow Nramp, common carp Nramp, striped sea bass Nramp, red sea bream Nramp, mouse Nramp 1 and 2, human Nramp 1 and 2, respectively. RT-PCR indicated that Nramp transcripts were highly abundant in spleen, head kidney, abundant in intestine, liver and gill, and less abundant in heart. The level of Nramp mRNA in embryos gradually increases during embryogenesis from 4 h (8 cell stage) to 80 h (hatched stage) after fertilization.

  6. Diseases of flounder ( Platichthys Flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, and their relation to stress factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick Vethaak, A.

    In 1988 a survey was conducted on the occurrence of gross pathologies in flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to stress factors, especially near fresh-water drainage sluices. A total of 9608 flounder were collected from 16 sites in June and September. Diseases recorded were: skin ulcers (affecting 7.7% of fish); fin rot (2.8%; only included in the study in September); lymphocystis (3.7%); skeletal deformities (0.3%); liver nematode infections (5.0%); intestinal cysts of the parasite Glugea sp. (0.4%); and liver nodules (pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions) (< 0.1%). Prevalences of skin ulcers and fin rot in Wadden Sea flounder are considerably higher than in those captured off the Dutch North Sea coast or in the Elbe estuary in Germany. These high disease levels in the Wadden Sea, however, are largely due to extremely high prevalences of skin ulcers observed near the drainage sluices of Lake IJssel, indicating a localized effect. Fin rot occurs at relatively high prevalences over the whole study area, but the data should be interpreted with some caution, due to diagnostic problems. Associations with possible disease determinants were investigated and causal hypotheses formulated. In general fish seem to develop skin diseases at sites with strong salinity fluctuations. Nutritional deficiencies possibly related to strong salinity fluctuations, high bacterial loads in the environment and obstacles to fish migration through sluices are amongst the most likely factors determining the locally high levels of skin ulcers. Although not established, it is possible that pollution-related factors and contaminant bioavailability are important. The stress imposed by a combination of these factors may adversely affect the immune system, making the fish vulnerable to opportunistic bacterial infection.

  7. Long-term assessment of settlement and growth of juvenile winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus) in New Jersey estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogard, Susan M.; Able, Kenneth W.; Hagan, Stacy M.

    2001-06-01

    We examined patterns of metamorphosis, settlement, and growth for young-of-the-year winter flounder over a ten year period (1990-1999) in four estuaries spanning the coast of New Jersey, USA, with the objective to determine the spatial and temporal coherence in these processes. We hypothesised that these processes could be influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as temperature and small-scale, local factors such as predator and prey abundances and differences associated with the localised population structure of winter flounder. Newly settled juveniles were collected in late May/early June each year. Increment counts on sagittal otoliths were used to determine the date of metamorphosis, and increment widths were used to estimate growth rates at two times, just after settlement and just prior to capture. A high level of consistency in spatial patterns among four individual estuaries was evident, and was largely driven by the northernmost site, Sandy Hook, which had higher fish densities and later metamorphosis than the three other sites, and faster growth rates than the two mid-coast sites (Barnegat Bay and Great Bay). In contrast to spatial patterns, consistent temporal patterns were evident only in the timing of metamorphosis, which was delayed in colder years at all sites. Weekly plankton sampling over the same ten year period at one site (Great Bay) yielded winter flounder larvae during a relatively narrow period in spring, with a later peak of abundance in colder years, in agreement with back-calculated dates of metamorphosis for settled juveniles. These patterns suggest that the timing of settlement is driven by large-scale climatic factors that influence the timing of spawning and/or larval development. Interannual variability in densities and growth rates, however, appeared to be independent at each site, indicating control by local environmental factors or genetic differences among local populations. The spatial consistency of growth rates suggests

  8. Transcriptome analysis of vertebral bone in the flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes), using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki, Harumi; Wu, Xiaoming; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Sakai, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    The processes underlying vertebral development in teleosts and tetrapods differ markedly in a variety of ways. At present, the molecular basis of teleost vertebral development and growth is poorly understood. Understanding vertebral development at the molecular level is important for aquaculture to prevent vertebral anomalies that can arise from a variety of factors, including excess vitamin A (all-trans retinol, VA) in the diet. To facilitate studies on teloest vertebral development, we performed transcriptome analysis of four month old flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, vertebrae using next-generation sequencing. Expression profile obtained demonstrates that some members of the hh, bmp, fgf, wnt gene families, and their receptors, hox, pax, sox, dlx and tbx gene families and ntl, which are known to function in notochord and somite development in embryos, are expressed in the vertebrae. It was also showed that in addition to the retinoic acid receptor (Rar), the vertebrae express alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and retinal dehydrogenase 2 which convert VA to all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The assembled contigs also included cytochrome p450 family members, which inactivate RA, as well as phosphatidylcholine-retinol O-acetyltransferase, which converts VA to all-trans-retinyl ester, a stock form of VA. These data suggest that in teleost vertebrae, expression of various signals and transcription factors which function in the notochord and somite development is maintained until adult stage, and RA metabolism and signaling are active to regulate transcription of RA-responsible genes, such as hedgehog and hox genes. This is the first transcriptome analysis of teleost fish vertebrae. PMID:26452303

  9. ASSESSING HABITAT QUALITY OF MOUNT HOPE BAY AND NARRAGANSETT BAY USING GROWTH, RNA:DNA, AND FEDDING HABITS OF CAGED JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatic growth rates, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder) were used to asses small-scale spatio-temporal variations in the habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragan-sett Bay, RI. Three successive caging experiments (14–16 d...

  10. Comparative reproductive success of winter flounder in Long Island Sound: A three-year study (biology, biochemistry, and chemistry). [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.A.; Miller, J.E.; Rusanowsky, D.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G.R.; Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.; Gould, E.; Thurberg, F.P.; Calabrese, A. )

    1991-09-01

    In a 3-yr study, late prespawning winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were collected from various stations in Long Island Sound (three of them heavily urbanized) and spawned in the laboratory. For comparative purposes, flounder from two sites in the Boston Harbor area were similarly treated in 1987 and 1988. Of the stations in Long Island Sound, New Haven Harbor alone consistently produced low percent viable hatch and small larvae. Boston Harbor produced the smallest larvae of all sites. There were no significant station-to-station differences in lipid utilization during larval development; yolk reserves at stations showing a low percent viable hatch, small larvae, and low embryonic development rate were probably used in part for stress metabolism. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls for collections from Long Island Sound were found either in livers of spawned fish, in sediments, or in eggs of winter flounder. The very low metal concentrations in winter flounder eggs showed no relation to the degree of metal contamination found at stations in Long Island Sound and Boston Harbor.

  11. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  12. Effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the growth of the larval olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Su; Shim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Suam

    2015-06-01

    It widely thought that ocean acidification processes that caused by atmospheric CO2 increase and accordingly lower seawater pH conditions might cause serious harm to marine food webs in certain ecosystems in the near future. Little is known about how marine fishes respond to reduced pH conditions. We investigated the effects of CO2 conditions on the growth of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared at three different levels of pCO2 (574, 988 and 1297 µatm) in temperature-controlled (21 ± 0.5°C) water tanks for four weeks until metamorphosis. The experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011, and body lengths and weights were measured at the completion of each experiment. The results indicated that the body length and weight of flounder larvae significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentrations (P < 0.05). A higher daily growth rate during the early larval stage (hatching to 14 days) was found among the larvae reared in low pCO2 conditions, while a significantly lower growth rate was found among larvae in higher pCO2 water conditions. On the other hand, in the late larval stage (18 days after hatching to metamorphosis), the daily growth rate of larvae was much higher in high CO2 water. Bone density of larvae, however, decreased with increasing CO2 concentration in the water

  13. cDNA clone and expression analysis of α-Tropomyosin during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong-Mei; SU, Yan-Fang; SHI, Zhi-Yi; FU, Yuan-Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Tropomyosin (TM) plays a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function. To assess the functional significance of α-TM in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development and metamorphosis, cDNA from Japanese flounder was cloned and α-TM mRNA measured during development and metamorphosis. The full-length cDNA is 1 191 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 114 bp, a 3'-UTR of 222 bp, and an open reading frame of 855 bp encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that α-TM mRNA is initially expressed in unfertilized ovum, indicating the α-TM gene is maternal. Relatively low mRNA levels were observed in different embryonic stages. A higher level of α-TM mRNA was detected 3 days post hatching (dph), while the highest level was measured at 29 dph (metamorphic climax) after which it declined towards the end of metamorphosis. The expression of α-TM mRNA was up-regulated in thyroid hormone-treated larvae at 36 dph, but there was no marked difference at other stages when compared to control animals. After thiourea treatment, the expression of α-TM mRNA declined slightly. These data provide basic information that can be utilized in further studies into the role of α-TM in P. olivaceus development and metamorphosis. PMID:25017750

  14. cDNA clone and expression analysis of α-Tropomyosin during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Su, Yan-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Yi; Fu, Yuan-Shuai

    2014-07-01

    Tropomyosin (TM) plays a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function. To assess the functional significance of α-TM in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development and metamorphosis, cDNA from Japanese flounder was cloned and α-TM mRNA measured during development and metamorphosis. The full-length cDNA is 1 191 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 114 bp, a 3'-UTR of 222 bp, and an open reading frame of 855 bp encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that α-TM mRNA is initially expressed in unfertilized ovum, indicating the α-TM gene is maternal. Relatively low mRNA levels were observed in different embryonic stages. A higher level of α-TM mRNA was detected 3 days post hatching (dph), while the highest level was measured at 29 dph (metamorphic climax) after which it declined towards the end of metamorphosis. The expression of α-TM mRNA was up-regulated in thyroid hormone-treated larvae at 36 dph, but there was no marked difference at other stages when compared to control animals. After thiourea treatment, the expression of α-TM mRNA declined slightly. These data provide basic information that can be utilized in further studies into the role of α-TM in P. olivaceus development and metamorphosis.

  15. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  16. Cloning and stage-specific expression of CK-M1 gene during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2010-05-01

    The symmetrical body of flatfish larvae changes dramatically into an asymmetrical form after metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this change are poorly understood. As an initial step to clarify these mechanisms, we used representational difference analysis of cDNA for the identification of genes active during metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olicaceus. One of the up-regulated genes was identified as creatine kinase muscle type 1 (CK-M1). Sequence analysis of CK-M1 revealed that it spanned 1 708 bp and encoded a protein of 382 amino acids. The overall amino acid sequence of the CK-M1 was highly conserved with those of other organisms. CK-M1 was expressed in adult fish tissues, including skeletal muscle, intestine and gill. Whole mount in-situ hybridization showed that the enhanced expression of CK-M1 expanded from the head to the whole body of larvae as metamorphosis progressed. Quantitative analysis revealed stage-specific high expression of CK-M1 during metamorphosis. The expression level of CK-M1 increased initially and peaked at metamorphosis, decreased afterward, and finally returned to the pre-metamorphosis level. This stage-specific expression pattern suggested strongly that CK-M1 was related to metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder. Its specific role in metamorphosis requires further study.

  17. Winter winds and river discharge determine juvenile southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruitment and distribution in North Carolina estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. Christopher; Miller, John M.; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.; Dickey, David A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2010-07-01

    Retrospective analyses of a 23 year data set on abundance of Age 0 southern flounder in 105 estuarine nursery areas in the coastal region of North Carolina showed that discernible temporal and spatial patterns exist among clusters of stations. Furthermore, these patterns could be quantitatively related to certain meteorological and hydrological variables, namely winds from the east-southeast (E-SE) and from the north-northeast (N-NE) sectors and river runoff, which explained up to 83% of the interannual variability in numbers. We developed a regression model using recent catch data (1987-2002) and used the model to hindcast an earlier segment of the time series (1979-1986). The model was found to be quite robust, and could predict year class strength within 1 to 80% in the test set of data. We interpret these results to mean that hydrodynamic factors are principally responsible for the observed interannual recruitment variability in southern flounder in NC, since the interannual pattern in abundance of Age 0 fish persists for 2 more years of adult life. Finally, we discuss the implications of the variable spatial distribution patterns for estimates of year class strength from juvenile abundance data. It is possible that estimates of year class strength with a useful level of confidence could be obtained from meteorological data during the larval migration period.

  18. Ocular-side lateralization of adult-type chromatophore precursors: development of pigment asymmetry in metamorphosing flounder larvae.

    PubMed

    Washio, Youhei; Aritaki, Masato; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2013-05-01

    The adult-type chromatophores of flounder differentiate at metamorphosis in the skin of ocular side to establish asymmetric pigmentation. In young larva and before metamorphosis, adult-type melanophores that migrate to the ocular side during metamorphosis reside at the base of the dorsal fin as latent precursors. However, the migration route taken by these precursor cells and the mechanisms by which lateralization and asymmetric pigmentation develop on the ocular side are unknown. To further investigate this migration and lateralization, we used in situ hybridization with gch2 probe, a marker for melanoblasts and xanthoblasts (precursors of adult type chromatophores), to examine the distribution of chromatophore precursors in metamorphosing larvae. The gch2-positive precursors were present in the myoseptum as well as in the skin. This finding indicated that these precursors migrated from the dorsal part of the fin to the skin via the myoseptum. Additionally, there were much fewer gch2-positive cells in the myoseptum of the blind side than in the skin and myoseptum of the ocular side, and this finding indicated either that migration of the precursor cells into the myoseptum of blind side was inhibited or that the precursors were eliminated from the myoseptum of the blind side. Therefore, we propose that the signals responsible for development of asymmetric pigmentation in flounder reside not only in the skin but on a larger scale and in multiple tissues throughout the lateral half of the trunk.

  19. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  20. A combined measurement of metal bioaccumulation and condition indices in juvenile European flounder, Platichthys flesus, from European estuaries.

    PubMed

    Kerambrun, E; Henry, F; Cornille, V; Courcot, L; Amara, R

    2013-04-01

    Condition indices and metal bioaccumulation of early life stages of juvenile flounder (5-10 cm) were determined in three anthropogenic estuaries (the Scheldt, Seine and Loire) and compared to a reference site (the Canche). Significant correlations were found between metal concentrations in sediment and (i) fish liver for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn and (ii) fish gills for Cd and Mn. Metal accumulation in juvenile flounder from the three anthropogenic estuaries coincided with significantly lower Fulton's K indices (from 0.99 ± 0.03 to 1.06 ± 0.01 mg mm(-3)) compared to those from the Canche estuary (from 1.02 ± 0.01 to 1.13 ± 0.01 mg mm(-3)). This discrepancy in fish condition index increased with fish size and therefore, strongly depends on the time juvenile spend in estuary. Muscle lipid contents and Triacylglycerol to Sterol ratios were significantly lower in fish collected in the Scheldt (lipid content: 21.3 ± 3.6%), Seine (17.9 ± 19.8%) and Loire (19.5 ± 2.4%) estuaries compared to those originating from the Canche (38.3 ± 4.6%). This study highlights that combined measures of both fish metal contents and condition indices gives a relevant assessment of juvenile fish health growing in anthropogenic estuaries.

  1. Early contamination of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) by PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in European waters.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Margarida; Martinho, Filipe; Vernisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; van der Veer, Henk W; Cabral, Henrique N; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

    2014-08-15

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast across its geographical distribution range. The toxic equivalent concentrations (WHO-TEQfish) were also determined in order to evaluate which P. flesus population was more exposed to dioxin-like toxicity. Juveniles caught in the Sørfjord (Norway) showed the lowest WHO-TEQfish concentration (0.052 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)wet weight) whereas the highest value was observed in fish from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands; 0.291 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)ww), mainly due to the greater contribution of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most toxic congener. Nonetheless, when comparing the results with existent tissue residue-based toxicity benchmarks, no adverse effects resulting from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs are expected to occur in flounder from the studied systems.

  2. An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshik, T; Nishizawa, T; Kobayashi, T; Nagano, T; Miyazaki, T

    2001-11-01

    A rhabdoviral disease occurred in farmed populations of market sized Japanese flounder (hirame) Paralichthys olivaceus in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1996. The causative agent was identified as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on morphological, immunological, and genetic analyses. Diseased fish that were artificially injected with a representative virus isolate showed the same pathological signs and high mortality as observed in the natural outbreak. This is the first report of an outbreak of VHSV infection in cultured fish in Japan. Clinical signs of diseased fish included dark body coloration, an expanded abdomen due to ascites, congested liver, splenomegaly, and a swollen kidney. Myocardial necrosis was most prominent and accompanied by inflammatory reactions. Necrotic lesions also occurred in the liver, spleen and hematopoietic tissue, and were accompanied by circulatory disturbances due to cardiac failure. Hemorrhagic lesions did not always appear in the lateral musculature. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many rhabdovirus particles and associated inclusion bodies containing nucleocapsids in the necrotized myocardium. The histopathological findings indicated that the necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathognomonic sign of VHSV infection in Japanese flounder. PMID:11775799

  3. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  4. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  5. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  6. Toxicity and QSAR of chlorobenzenes in two species of Benthic flatfish, flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and sole (Solea solea L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Furay, V.J.; Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes were among the first large-scale produced aromatic compounds. They have found broad spectrum of uses in numerous domestic and industrial preparations, ranging from engine - block cleaners, solvents, pharmaceutical intermediates, synthesis of chlorophenols and in disinfectants. Recent investigations have shown that they are present in the major environmental compartments and organisms, including fish tissues, coastal waters, and estuaries. Comparatively little is known about the ecotoxicity of chlorinated benzenes particularly to economically important fish. A number of earlier investigations examined the toxicity of chlorobenzenes and they demonstrated differences in the toxicity values for the same species and isomers of the chemicals investigated. The present investigation has assessed the toxicity and QSARs of selected chlorobenzenes to two ecologically and commercially important flatfish, the flounder (platichthys flesus) and sole (Solea solea). Both have a widespread geographic distribution in coastal and estuarine regions throughout Western Europe and are therefore highly representative test species. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of peptides derived from olive flounder lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI).

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-10-17

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase. PMID:25329706

  9. Distribution and expression in vitro and in vivo of DNA vaccine against lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Liu, Hongzhan; Wu, Xingan; Zhong, Nan; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocystis disease, caused by the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), is a significant worldwide problem in fish industry causing substantial economic losses. In this study, we aimed to develop the DNA vaccine against LCDV, using DNA vaccination technology. We evaluated plasmid pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3 kb as a DNA vaccine candidate. The plasmid DNA was transiently expressed after liposome transfection into the eukaryotic COS 7 cell line. The distribution and expression of the DNA vaccine (pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3kb) were also analyzed in tissues of the vaccinated Japanese flounder by PCR, RT-PCR and fluorescent microscopy. Results from PCR analysis indicated that the vaccine-containing plasmids were distributed in injected muscle, the muscle opposite the injection site, the hind intestine, gill, spleen, head, kidney and liver, 6 and 25 days after vaccination. The vaccine plasmids disappeared 100 d post-vaccination. Fluorescent microscopy revealed green fluorescence in the injected muscle, the muscle opposite the injection site, the hind intestine, gill, spleen, head, kidney and liver of fish 48 h post-vaccination, green fluorescence did not appear in the control treated tissue. Green fluorescence became weak at 60 days post-vaccination. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mcp gene was expressed in all tested tissues of vaccinated fish 6-50 days post-vaccination. These results demonstrate that the antigen encoded by the DNA vaccine is distributed and expressed in all of the tissues analyzed in the vaccinated fish. The antigen would therefore potentially initiate a specific immune response. the plasmid DNA was injected into Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) intramuscularly and antibodies against LCDV were evaluated. The results indicate that the plasmid encoded DNA vaccine could induce an immune response to LCDV and would therefore offer immune protection against LCD. Further studies are required for the development and application of this promising DNA vaccine.

  10. Quantitative trait loci detection of Edwardsiella tarda resistance in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using bulked segregant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P <0.001). Therefore, 106 individuals were genotyped using all the SSR markers in LG1 by single marker analysis. Two different analytical models were then employed to detect SSR markers with different levels of significance in LG1, where 17 and 18 SSR markers were identified, respectively. Each model found three resistance-related QTLs by composite interval mapping (CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.

  11. Transfer of benzo(a)pyrene from two invertebrate prey species to the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitz, A.R.; Taghon, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic activities in and around the estuarine environment may introduce compounds with the ability to move through trophic levels, resulting in adverse effects to ecosystems and human health. In order to observe the potential for transfer of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its derivatives from prey organisms to a predator, a simplified benthic food chain was constructed. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, were fed via gavage either softshell clams, Mya arenaria, or sandworms, Neanthes virens, that had previously been exposed to {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene-contaminated sediments and contained 5.05 ng/g and 5.8 ng/g activity, respectively (wet weight). The fish received doses every 48 hours for a total of 192 hours after which time, all tissues except the gall bladder were examined for the presence of BaP using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC). The bile was extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LSC. The flounders that were fed worms demonstrated increased metabolism of the PAH relative to those fed clams, as shown by higher concentrations of polar metabolites in the bile. This corresponds with the higher concentration of metabolites recovered in the worm tissue; more than 95% of the recovered activity was in the form of polar derivatives whereas the activity in the clam tissue was almost completely parent benzo(a)pyrene. As was expected, the BaP metabolites formed by the fish were mediated by the differing abilities of the prey species to derivatize the PAH. Thus, macrofaunal interactions with sedimentary-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be important determinants in the fate and transport of these compounds in the benthos.

  12. Quantitative trait loci detection of Edwardsiella tarda resistance in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using bulked segregant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P <0.001). Therefore, 106 individuals were genotyped using all the SSR markers in LG1 by single marker analysis. Two different analytical models were then employed to detect SSR markers with different levels of significance in LG1, where 17 and 18 SSR markers were identified, respectively. Each model found three resistance-related QTLs by composite interval mapping (CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.

  13. CpG-ODN increases resistance of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides flanked by specific bases in bacterial DNA induce a favorable immune response by acting as danger signals to the host. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODNs) also act like the unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides in bacterial DNA. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic CpG-ODN on the protection of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against infection by Philasterides dicentrarchi, a pathogen of scuticociliatosis, through two consecutive experiments (trial I and II). Fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CpG-ODN 1668 or GpC-ODN 1720 at different doses (3 microg in trial I and 10 microg in trial II), and after one week the fish were i.p. challenged with P. dicentrarchi. In both trial I and II, fish injected with CpG-ODN 1668 showed significantly higher serum scuticocidal activity than fish injected with PBS alone, while the scuticocidal activity disappeared by heat-inactivation. This result suggests that CpG-ODN might activate an alternative pathway of complement of olive flounder, and complement-mediated killing might be an important innate immune factor in the resistance against P. dicentrarchi infection. Although the cumulative mortality was largely different between trials I and II, the relative survival rate of fish injected with a high dose of CpG-ODN 1668 was considerably higher than that of fish injected with a low dose of this ODN, while the relative survival rate was not different between fish injected with the high dose and low dose of GpC-ODN 1720. The results of the present study suggest that CpG-ODNs may be used as potential immunostimulants to lessen cultured fish loss caused by scuticociliates. PMID:18992348

  14. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and enzymatic characterization of cathepsin F from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Na Young; Seo, Jung Soo; Je, Ju Eun; Sung, Ji Hea; Lee, Sang Hwan; Kim, Moo-Sang; Kim, Joong Kyun; Chung, Joon Ki; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2009-10-01

    Cathepsin F is a recently described papain-like cysteine protease of unknown function, and unique among cathepsins due to an elongated N-terminal pro-region, which contains a cystatin domain. In the present study, the cDNA of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cathepsin F (PoCtF) was cloned by the combination of homology molecular cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The PoCtF gene was determined to consist of the 1844 bp nucleotide sequence which encodes for a 475-amino acid polypeptide. The results of RT-PCR analysis revealed ubiquitous expression throughout the entirety of healthy flounder tissues; however the PoCtF expressions increased significantly in gill at 3h post-injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Also, immunostaining using anti-PoCtF antibody was strongest on the epidermal mucus in the fin. The cDNA encoding mature enzyme of PoCtF was expressed in Escherichia coli using the pGEX-4T-1 expression vector system. Its activity was quantified by cleaving the synthetic peptide Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, a substrate commonly used for functional characterization of cysteine proteinases, and the optimal pH for the protease activity was 7.5. The findings of the present study suggest that PoCtF has a higher optimum pH than mammalian cathepsin F, and PoCtF is an interesting target for future investigations of the role of cathepsin F in the epidermal mucus and fish innate immune system. PMID:19545641

  15. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and 3D structural prediction of the cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; Ma, Liman; Li, Zan; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Zhongkai; Yu, Haiyang; Qi, Jie; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-02-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a kind of RNA binding proteins that plays important roles in many physiological processes. The CIRP has been widely studied in mammals and amphibians since it was first cloned from mammals. On the contrary, there are little reports in teleosts. In this study, the Po CIRP gene of the Japanese flounder was cloned and sequenced. The genomic sequence consists of seven exons and six introns. The putative PoCIRP protein of flounder was 198 amino acid residues long containing the RNA recognition motif (RRM). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the flounder PoCIRP is highly conserved with other teleost CIRPs. The 5' flanking sequence was cloned by genome walking and many transcription factor binding sites were identified. There is a CpGs region located in promoter and exon I region and the methylation state is low. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis uncovered that Po CIRP gene was widely expressed in adult tissues with the highest expression level in the ovary. The mRNA of the Po CIRP was maternally deposited and the expression level of the gene was regulated up during the gastrula and neurula stages. In order to gain the information how the protein interacts with mRNA, we performed the modeling of the 3D structure of the flounder PoCIRP. The results showed a cleft existing the surface of the molecular. Taken together, the results indicate that the CIRP is a multifunctional molecular in teleosts and the findings about the structure provide valuable information for understanding the basis of this protein's function.

  16. Construction of a subtractive library from hexavalent chromium treated winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) reveals alterations in non-selenium glutathione peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Laura M; Roling, Jonathan A; Bingham, Lacey K; Herald, Matt R; Baldwin, William S

    2004-04-14

    Chromium is released during several industrial processes and has accumulated in some estuarine areas. Its effects on mammals have been widely studied, but relatively little information is available on its effects on fish. Gene expression changes are useful biomarkers that can provide information about toxicant exposure and effects, as well as the health of an organism and its ability to adapt to its surroundings. Therefore, we investigated the effects of Cr(VI) on gene expression in the sediment dwelling fish, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder ranging from 300 to 360 g were injected i.p. with Cr(VI) as chromium oxide at 25 microg/kg chromium in 0.15N KCl. Twenty-four hours following injections, winter flounder were euthanized with MS-222 and the livers were excised. Half of the livers were used to make cytosol and the other half were used to isolate mRNA for subtractive hybridization. Subtractive clones obtained were spotted onto nylon filters, which revealed several genes with potentially altered expression due to Cr(VI), including an alpha class GST, 1-Cys peroxiredoxin (a non-selenium glutathione peroxidase), a P-450 2X subfamily member, two elongation factors (EF-1 gamma and EF-2), and complement component C3. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed and confirmed that Cr(VI) down-regulated complement component C3, an EST, and two potential glutathione peroxidases, GSTA3 and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin. In addition, cytosolic GSH peroxidase activity was reduced, and silver stained SDS-PAGE gels from glutathione-affinity purified cytosol demonstrated that a 27.1 kDa GSH-binding protein was down-regulated greater than 50%. Taken together, Cr(VI) significantly altered the expression of several genes including two potential glutathione peroxidases in winter flounder. PMID:15003702

  17. The importance of rivers as nursery grounds for 0- and 1-group flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in comparison to the Wadden sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstan, M.

    From May 1988 to June 1989 selected areas of the German Wadden Sea, the Ems, Weser, Elbe and Eider estuaries as well as in Elbe tributaries were sampled for 0- and 1-group flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.). Estuarine and Wadden Sea sampling was conducted on board commercial shrimp vessels equipped with beam trawls. The Elbe river system was sampled on board a research boat equipped with a similar 3-m beam trawl. Density indices were calculated for the various areas. To estimate the importance of rivers as nursery areas for flounder, river surface area was compared to the area of tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. In all surveys, there was no relationship between fish densities and tow directions with respect to tide. In the Elbe river system flounder densities were not correlated to substrate types but increased significantly with decreasing salinity. Abundances were always lowestt in polyhaline habitats and increased up to 10-fold in mesohaline estuarine areas. In the limnetic tidal sections of the Elbe river and its tributaries densities increased again by factors of 3 to 10. The succession of 1-group modal lengths from limnetic to polyhaline habitats demonstrated that smaller fish preferred less saline waters. 0-group specimens lagging behind in growth did not leave the limnetic river section in winter. The onset of the spawning migration in November was determined by monitoring the length-frequency distributions throughout the year. The possible sources of bias are discussed and gear efficiency is estimated from literature sources. The contribution of rivers to the 0- and 1-group flounder population on the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea is estimated at about 35.1%.

  18. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J; Krasnec, Michelle; Takeshita, Ryan; Ryan, Caitlin N; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Lay, Claire; Mayer, Gregory D; Bayha, Keith M; Hawkins, William E; Lipton, Ian; Morris, Jeffrey; Griffitt, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04-395mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation, telangiectasia of secondary lamellae, and lamellar epithelial proliferation in gill tissues. Dose-dependent upregulation of Cyp1a expression in liver tissues was observed. Taxonomic analysis of gill and intestinal commensal bacterial assemblages showed that exposure to oiled sediments led to distinct shifts in commensal bacterial population structures. These data show that chronic exposure to environmentally-relevant concentrations of oiled sediments produces adverse effects in flounder at multiple biological levels. PMID:26092636

  19. Ink from longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, as a chemical and visual defense against two predatory fishes, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and sea catfish, Ariopsis felis.

    PubMed

    Derby, Charles D; Tottempudi, Mihika; Love-Chezem, Tiffany; Wolfe, Lanna S

    2013-12-01

    Chemical and visual defenses are used by many organisms to avoid being approached or eaten by predators. An example is inking molluscs-including gastropods such as sea hares and cephalopods such as squid, cuttlefish, and octopus-which release a colored ink upon approach or attack. Previous work showed that ink can protect molluscs through a combination of chemical, visual, and other effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ink from longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, on the behavior of two species of predatory fishes, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and sea catfish, Ariopsis felis. Using a cloud assay, we found that ink from longfin inshore squid affected the approach phase of predation by summer flounder, primarily through its visual effects. Using a food assay, we found that the ink affected the consummatory and ingestive phase of predation of both sea catfish and summer flounder, through the ink's chemical properties. Fractionation of ink showed that most of its deterrent chemical activity is associated with melanin granules, suggesting that either compounds adhering to these granules or melanin itself are the most biologically active. This work provides the basis for a comparative approach to identify deterrent molecules from inking cephalopods and to examine neural mechanisms whereby these chemicals affect behavior of fish, using the sea catfish as a chemosensory model.

  20. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-01

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I. PMID:2889597

  1. Antigen uptake and expression of antigen presentation-related immune genes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after vaccination with an inactivated Edwardsiella tarda immersion vaccine, following hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingli; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Antigen uptake is a critical process for activation of the immune system, and therefore the ability to enhance antigen uptake is a primary consideration in the development of an immersion vaccination of fish. In the present work, flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immersed in three hyperosmotic solutions with 40, 50 and 60‰ salinities, then transferred into seawater of normal salinity (i.e. 30‰) containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for 30 min. The antigen uptake in vaccinated flounder was determined using an absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed significantly higher antigen uptake in the tissues of flounders immersed in solutions with 50‰ and 60‰ salinity compared to the control group directly immersed in vaccine (DI) (P < 0.05), and the highest amount of antigen was detected in flounders immersed in the 50‰ salinity solution, whereas there was no significant difference in antigen uptake between the 40‰ salinity group and the DI group (P > 0.05). A rapid and significant increase in antigen uptake was detected in the mucosal-associated tissues including the gill, skin and intestine (P < 0.05) compared with the spleen, kidney and liver. Antigen uptake in the gill and skin both peaked at 30 min post immersion, which was significantly higher than the levels of uptake measured in the other tissues (P < 0.05), and then quickly declined. In contrast, antigen uptake in the spleen, kidney and liver gradually increased 3 h post immersion (hpi). The expression profiles of four antigen presentation-related immune genes (MHC Iα, MHC IIα, CD4-1 and CD8α) were investigated after immersion. These four genes showed a significantly stronger response in the immersed flounders exposed to 50‰ salinity compared with the DI group (P < 0.05). In the mucosal-associated tissues, the expression of MHC Iα and CD8α genes peaked at 24 hpi, while the expression of MHC IIα and CD4-1 genes showed up-regulation in the gill and skin

  2. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1-8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species.

  3. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1-8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species. PMID:25762582

  4. Effects of phosphoglucomutase gene (PGM) in Streptococcus parauberis on innate immune response and pathogenicity of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Il

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, Streptococcus parauberis infection has been an emerging problem in aquaculture in South Korea because of its more frequent isolation than other streptococcal bacteria including Streptococcus iniae. To develop effective treatment and prophylaxis methods against this emerging disease by S. parauberis, it is necessary to understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. To uncover the pathogenicity, the mutant strain of S. parauberis with a deleted phosphoglucomutase (PGM) gene which has been known to be an important virulence factor in bacterial pathogens was generated to investigate the relationship between virulence and gene function using an allelic exchange mutagenesis method. Allelic exchange mutagenesis of the phosphoglucomutase gene resulted in phenotype changes including decreased extracellular capsules, reduced buoyancy, increased hydrophobicity and reduced growth. Moreover, the S. parauberis mutant was more sensitive to innate immune clearance mechanisms including serum, mucus and phagocyte killing and could not induce mortality in olive flounder. These phenotype changes and the attenuated virulence of the pathogen to fish could be due to the reduction in capsule production by mutation of the PGM gene. The results provide evidences that phosphoglucomutase expression contributes to S. parauberis virulence in fish by affecting bacterial survival against the host's humoral and cellular defense mechanisms.

  5. Cadmium inhibition of L-alanine transport into renal brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, C.; Kinne-Saffran, E.; Foulkes, E.C.; Kinne, R.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Using isolated brush border membrane vesicles from the kidney of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), we have studied the effect of cadmium on L-alanine transport. Pretreatment of vesicles with 0.1 mM Cd{sup 2+} resulted in inhibition of L-alanine uptake in the presence of a NaCl (but not KCl) gradient. Inhibition was due to a specific interaction with the sodium-alanine cotransport system and not a change in the driving forces for alanine transport, since Cd{sup 2+} did not affect sodium-dependent D-glucose uptake. The effect of Cd{sup 2+} on Na{sup +}-alanine cotransport showed mixed-type inhibition which is only partially reversible by EDTA. Cd{sup 2+} uptake itself was shown to be time and temperature dependent, resulting in binding to both sides of the membrane. No direct correlation was possible between inhibition of L-alanine transport and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} taken up by the membranes. Nevertheless, the striking time dependence of the effect of Cd{sup 2+} on sodium-dependent L-alanine uptake and the inability of EDTA to reverse the inhibitory action of Cd{sup 2+} suggest that Cd{sup 2+} inhibits Na+-alanine cotransport at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.

  6. Potential of mean force calculation of the free energy of adsorption of Type I winter flounder antifreeze protein on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Keith; Alan Salter, E.; Wesley Edmunds, R.; Wierzbicki, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that inhibit ice growth without changing the melting point of ice. In this work, we study the detailed molecular mechanism of interactions between the hydrophobic side of the winter flounder (WF) AFP and two mutants, AAAA and SSSS, in which threonine residues are substituted by serines and alanines, respectively. Umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations of the separation of the proteins from the (2 0 1) surface in an explicit water box is carried out to calculate the potential of mean force free energies of adsorption using AMBER10i. We estimate wild-type WF's free energy of adsorption to ice to be about -12.0 kcal/mol. Gas-phase pseudopotential plane-wave calculations of methane adsorption onto select surfaces of ice are also carried out under periodic boundary conditions to address the possible enthalpic role of WF's methyl groups in binding. The contributions of hydrophobic residues to the free energy of adsorption are discussed.

  7. Molecular Cloning, Promoter Analysis and Expression Profiles of the sox3 Gene in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinning; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Sox3, which belongs to the SoxB1 subgroup, plays major roles in neural and gonadal development. In the present study, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus sox3 gene (Posox3) and its promoter sequence were isolated and characterized. The deduced PoSox3 protein contained 298 amino acids with a characteristic HMG-box domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that PoSox3 shares highly identical sequence with Sox3 homologues from different species. The promoter region of Posox3 has many potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites. The expression profiles of Posox3 in different developmental stages and diverse adult tissues were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Posox3 mRNA was maternally inherited, and maintained at a considerably high expression level between the blastula stage and the hatching stage during embryonic development. Posox3 was abundantly expressed in the adult brain and showed sexually dimorphic expression pattern. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out to investigate the cellular distribution of Posox3 in the ovary, and results showed the uniform distribution of Posox3 throughout the cytoplasm of oogonia and stage I–III oocytes. These results indicate that Posox3 has potentially vital roles in embryonic and neural development and may be involved in the oogenesis process. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of the structure and potential functions of Sox3 in Paralichthys olivaceus. PMID:26610486

  8. Fine-scale movements and habitat use of juvenile southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in an estuarine seascape.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Dance, M A; Rooker, J R

    2013-05-01

    Habitat use of juvenile southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma was examined within a shallow estuarine seascape during June and July 2011 using acoustic telemetry. Fine-scale movement and habitat use of P. lethostigma was investigated with an acoustic positioning system placed in a seascape that varied in habitat type, physicochemical conditions and bathymetry. The use of different habitat types was examined with Euclidean distance-based analyses, and generalized additive models were used to determine the relative importance of habitat type relative to physicochemical conditions and bathymetry. Tracks of P. lethostigma ranged in distance between 1477 and 8582 m and speed was 4·2 ± 1·1 m min⁻¹ (mean ± s.e.) for all P. lethostigma combined. Depth, slope and habitat type had the most influence on P. lethostigma occurrence and deep sandy areas with shallow slopes were used most frequently. In addition, depth use by P. lethostigma was influenced by tidal cycles, indicating habitat use varies temporally and is dynamic. Finally, temperatures <30·5° C were used more than warmer waters within the study area. The results successfully identify movements by juvenile P. lethostigma, and indicate that definitions of essential habitats need to account for dynamics in habitat use.

  9. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  10. The duplicated paired box protein 7 (pax7) genes differentially transcribed during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuang; Tan, Xungang; Li, Meijie; Sui, Yulei; Du, Shao Jun; You, Feng

    2015-11-01

    PAX are important regulators of developmental processes. PAX7 plays crucial roles in patterning of the dorsal central nervous system (CNS), neural crest (NC), and skeletal muscle. Here, we identified six spliced isoforms of pax7a and one pax7b and characterized their expression patterns. All of flounder Pax7a-1, Pax7a-2, Pax7a-3, and Pax7b contain a conserved paired domain (PD), an octapeptide motif (OP), and a paired type homeodomain (HD). However, the PD of Pax7a-4 and the HD of Pax7a-5 are not intact, and there is no HD in Pax7a-4 and Pax7a-6. pax7a and pax7b show distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns during embryogenesis. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrates that the expression patterns of pax7a and pax7b are overlapping but distinguishable in the dorsal central nervous system. pax7a is expressed in most part of the brain and the neural tube, while pax7b is expressed exclusively in the diencephalon and the midbrain. In addition, pax7a is also expressed in the cranial NC and the trunk NC. RT-PCR results show that there were different expression patterns between the different isoforms. These results indicate subfunction partitioning of the duplicated pax7 genes. The duplicated pax7 may provide additional flexibility in fine-tuning neurogenesis and somitogenesis.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Promoter Analysis and Expression Profiles of the sox3 Gene in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinning; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Sox3, which belongs to the SoxB1 subgroup, plays major roles in neural and gonadal development. In the present study, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus sox3 gene (Posox3) and its promoter sequence were isolated and characterized. The deduced PoSox3 protein contained 298 amino acids with a characteristic HMG-box domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that PoSox3 shares highly identical sequence with Sox3 homologues from different species. The promoter region of Posox3 has many potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites. The expression profiles of Posox3 in different developmental stages and diverse adult tissues were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Posox3 mRNA was maternally inherited, and maintained at a considerably high expression level between the blastula stage and the hatching stage during embryonic development. Posox3 was abundantly expressed in the adult brain and showed sexually dimorphic expression pattern. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out to investigate the cellular distribution of Posox3 in the ovary, and results showed the uniform distribution of Posox3 throughout the cytoplasm of oogonia and stage I-III oocytes. These results indicate that Posox3 has potentially vital roles in embryonic and neural development and may be involved in the oogenesis process. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of the structure and potential functions of Sox3 in Paralichthys olivaceus. PMID:26610486

  12. Development of the GENIPOL European flounder (Platichthys flesus) microarray and determination of temporal transcriptional responses to cadmium at low dose.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; George, Stephen G; Godfrey, Rita E; Sabine, Victoria; Conesa, Ana; Minchin, Steven D; Watts, Phil C; Chipman, James K

    2006-10-15

    We have constructed a high density, 13 270-clone cDNA array for the sentinel fish species European flounder (Platichthys flesus), combining clones from suppressive subtractive hybridization and a liver cDNA library; DNA sequences of 5211 clones were determined. Fish were treated by single intraperitoneal injection with 50 micrograms cadmium chloride per kilogram body weight, a dose relevant to environmental exposures, and hepatic gene expression changes were determined at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days postinjection in comparison to saline-treated controls. Gene expression responses were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blast2GO gene ontology analysis highlighted a general induction of the unfolded protein response, response to oxidative stress, protein synthesis, transport, and degradation pathways, while apoptosis, cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and cytokine genes were also affected. Transcript levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were repressed and vitellogenin altered, real-time PCR showed induction of metallothionein. We thus describe the establishment of a useful resource for ecotoxicogenomics and the determination of the temporal molecular responses to cadmium, a prototypical heavy metal pollutant.

  13. The effects of temperature on ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression and sex differentiation in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Caruso, Catherine C; Breton, Timothy S; Berlinsky, David L

    2016-04-01

    Female summer flounder grow considerably faster and larger than males, and a tremendous increase in performance can therefore be realized through production of monosex female populations. Rearing temperature has been shown to affect sex differentiation in other teleost species by influencing expression of genes encoding transcription factors or enzymes involved in endocrine function. Cyp19a1a is a well-studied gene that had been shown to play a role in ovarian development, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression in other species. In the present study, summer flounder (37 days post-hatch; DPH) were raised at 13, 16 or 19 °C. Fish from all three treatments were sampled throughout development and analyzed in qPCR to determine cyp19a1a gene expression levels. Sex ratios of additional fish grown to ≥150 mm at each temperature treatment were determined. Low female production was achieved overall (26.9, 17.6 and 0% at 13, 16 and 19 °C, respectively). Cyp19a1a expression was significantly lower at 52 DPH (~15 mm total length) at the male-producing temperature (19 °C) and increased to similar levels as other treatments at 66 DPH. Expression levels later in juvenile development (66-191 DPH) largely decreased with fish size. The period of sex differentiation in summer flounder remains unknown, but cyp19a1a expression patterns suggest that it may occur earlier in development than that of congenerics. Further research is necessary to understand the sex-determining mechanisms in this species before sexually dimorphic growth can be used to achieve economic advantages in commercial production.

  14. Distinct immune tones are established by Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 in the gut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Song, Joon Hyun; Park, Byung Sun; Kim, Daniel; Kwak, Jin-Hwan; Do, Hyung Ki; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kim, Woo-Jin; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The immune tone is defined as an immunological state during which the readiness for immune response is potentiated. The establishment of immune tone in the gut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated by feeding Lactococcus lactis BFE920 (LL) or Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 (LP). LL-fed flounder showed significantly increased levels of regulatory genes (FOXP3, IL-10, and TGF-β1), CD18, and CD83 in the gut. In contrast, LP feeding drastically increased proinflammatory genes (T-bet, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) and CD18. This indicates that LL and LP establish different types of local immune tones in the gut through differential activation of innate immune cells: LL activates both macrophages and dendritic cells while LP activates macrophages only. Both of the immune tones required at least a total of 6 probiotic feeds during 72 h for a stable establishment. Once established, the type of immune tone remained steady even up to 30 days (a total of 60 feeds) probiotics feeding. The LL-induced regulatory immune tone enhanced the level of occludin, a tight junction molecule, significantly more than that observed with the proinflammatory immune tone established by LP feeding. Consequently, LL-fed fish showed considerably lower gut permeability than that of the LP-fed group. Furthermore, when orally challenged by Edwardsiella tarda, LL-fed flounder survived at a significantly higher rate than LP-fed fish. The data clearly demonstrate that individual probiotics establish distinct types of immune tone in the fish gut, which in turn influences the immunological status as well as the physiology of the gut. Selection of proper probiotics may be essential for optimal effects in aquaculture farming. PMID:27320869

  15. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptors at mRNA and protein levels during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Shi, Zhiyi; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiaowu

    2011-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of fish growth and development, and its biological actions are initiated by binding to IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). Our previous study has revealed that IGF-I could play an important role during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The analysis of IGF-IR expression thus helps further elucidate the IGF-I regulation of metamorphic processes. In this study, the spatial-temporal expression of two distinct IGF-IR mRNAs was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. The spatial distribution of two IGF-IR mRNAs in adult tissues is largely overlapped, but they exhibit distinct temporal expression patterns during larval development. A remarkable decrease in IGF-IR-2 mRNA was detected during metamorphosis. In contrast, a significant increase in IGF-IR-1 mRNA was determined from pre-metamorphosis to metamorphic completion. These indicate that they may play different function roles during the flounder metamorphosis. The levels and localization of IGF-IR proteins during larval development were further studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive IGF-IRs were detected throughout larval development, and the IGF-IR proteins displayed a relatively abundant expression during metamorphosis. Moreover, the IGF-IR proteins appeared in key tissues, such as thickened skin beneath the migrating eye, developing intestine, gills and kidney during metamorphosis. These results further suggest that the IGF-I system may be involved in metamorphic development of Japanese flounder.

  16. Disease prevalence in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Dutch Wadden Sea as indicator of environmental quality: A summary of 1988-2005 surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vethaak, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 1988, epizootics of ulcer disease in the flatfish flounder in the Dutch Wadden Sea were reported near freshwater drainage sluices of IJsselmeer Lake, locally affecting up to 38.9% of fish. Other diseases such as fin rot and lymphocystis were less frequent, but followed a similar pattern. Results of follow-up surveys in the Wadden Sea in 1994-2005 confirm previous findings and also show significantly elevated ulcer prevalences at other smaller drainage works. The most likely stress factors that contributed to the development of the epizootics at these sites include osmotic stress, adverse water quality conditions including chemical contaminants, nutritional deficiencies, and obstruction to fish migration. It was shown that discharges of IJsselmeer Lake freshwater in 1988-96 had a wide effect on the prevalence and distribution of ulcers and lymphocystis in the western Wadden Sea. A general reduction in disease prevalence in flounder in the entire Dutch Wadden Sea was observed during 1988-2005, which was most likely due to a general improvement in water quality and locally improved habitat conditions for flounder near drainage sluices. Ulcer prevalences outside the two IJsselmeer Lake sluices (Den Oever and Kornwerderzand) declined in this period from approximately 30% to 10% for medium-sized fish. Other skin diseases have also displayed a downward trend at both sites in recent years, with prevalences falling sharply to below 1%. Elsewhere in the Wadden Sea and the Ems-Dollard estuary, disease prevalences have declined towards natural background levels (< 1%). It is concluded that skin diseases, especially ulcers, are useful indicators of environmental quality in the Wadden Sea.

  17. Cloning of the cDNA encoding adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase 1 and its mRNA expression in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Keyong; Sun, Shujuan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    AMP deaminase catalyzes the conversion of AMP into IMP and ammonia. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AMPD1 from skeletal muscle of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was cloned and characterized. The 2 526 bp cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 78 bp, a 3'-UTR of 237 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 211 bp, which encodes a protein of 736 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a highly conserved AMP deaminase motif (SLSTDDP) and an ATP-binding site sequence (EPLMEEYAIAAQVFK). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMPD1 and AMPD3 genes originate from the same branch, but are evolutionarily distant from the AMPD2 gene. RT-PCR showed that the flounder AMPD1 gene was expressed only in skeletal muscle. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a statistically significant 2.54 fold higher level of AMPD1 mRNA in adult muscle (750±40 g) compared with juvenile muscle (7.5±2 g) ( P<0.05). HPLC analysis showed that the IMP content in adult muscle (3.35±0.21 mg/g) was also statistically significantly higher than in juvenile muscle (1.08±0.04 mg/g) ( P<0.05). There is a direct relationship between the AMPD1 gene expression level and IMP content in the skeletal muscle of juvenile and adult flounders. These results may provide useful information for quality improvement and molecular breeding of aquatic animals.

  18. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  19. Survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom estuarine and coastal waters and its effects on gonadal development of the flounder Platichthys flesus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Y.; Scott, A.P.; Matthiessen, P.; Haworth, S.; Thain, J.E.; Feist, S.

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic discharges are known or suspected to be present in many United Kingdom estuaries and are also occurring from offshore oil and gas installations. The aim of this study was to establish whether estrogens and their mimics are present in marine waters at concentrations that can produce biological responses in fish and, if so, to discover whether the effects are likely to be harmful to populations and communities through changes in reproductive and other physiological processes. Laboratory studies and extensive field surveys were carried out with the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus), using the amount of yolk protein vitellogenin in the blood of free-living male fish as an indicator of exposure to estrogens. Exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol for 3 weeks confirmed that the vitellogenin response was made and showed that this species is about one order of magnitude less sensitive than the freshwater species rainbow trout. The fish did not respond to the estrogen mimic nonylphenol at concentrations of 30 {micro}g/L. Wild male flounder were sampled from four contaminated United Kingdom estuaries: the Tyne, Crouch, Thames, and Mersey. Fish from one or more sites in each estuary had significantly elevated concentrations of vitellogenin in their blood when compared to concentrations in fish from the clean control estuary (Alde River). Vitellogenin concentrations in the Tyne and Mersey fish were four and six orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than control concentrations. Elevated vitellogenin concentrations were also seen in some male flounder caught in coastal areas. Approximately 20% of male fish from the Mersey estuary contained oocytes in their testes, but this intersex condition was not seen elsewhere. The implications of these findings for fish populations are discussed.

  20. Surveys of plasma vitellogenin and intersex in male flounder (Platichthys flesus) as measures of endocrine disruption by estrogenic contamination in United Kingdom estuaries: temporal trends, 1996 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Allen, Yvonne T; Dyer, Robert A; Feist, Steve W; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Matthiessen, Peter; Scott, Alex P; Smith, Andrew; Stentiford, Grant D; Thain, John E; Thomas, Kevin V; Tolhurst, Laura; Waldock, Michael J

    2004-03-01

    Plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations and the presence of the ovo-testis (intersex) condition have been recorded in male flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured from several United Kingdom (UK) estuaries since 1996 as part of the endocrine disruption in the Marine Environment (EDMAR) project and earlier programs. It has been confirmed that plasma VTG concentrations in male flounder have remained elevated in several UK estuaries (e.g., Tees, Mersey, and Tyne) throughout the period covered by this study. However, the time-series data indicate that plasma VTG, a measure of environmental estrogen contamination, has decreased in fish captured from several estuaries, especially those of the Tyne and Mersey. Shorter time-series data sets from the Forth and Clyde estuaries also suggest a decrease in estrogen contamination at these sites. Trends associated with specific point sources of estrogenic contamination show site-specific patterns. For instance, plasma VTG levels in male flounder captured near the Howdon sewage treatment outfall (Tyne) have shown a steady decline to near baseline levels in 2001, while the plasma of male fish captured at a site adjacent to the Dabholm Gut discharge in the Tees estuary have shown little evidence of a sustained decline. The occurrence of the intersex condition was detected at a low but consistent prevalence through the study period, with the majority of cases recorded in fish captured from the Tyne and Mersey estuaries. The data set does not allow conclusions to be drawn about any temporal trends associated with this condition. The significance of the findings and possible mitigating influences are discussed in terms of the impacts on wild fish and the role of effluent treatment in reducing these.

  1. Toxicity of analytically cleaned pentabromodiphenylether after prolonged exposure in estuarine European flounder (Platichthys flesus), and partial life-cycle exposure in fresh water zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Raoul V; Vethaak, A D; Cantón, Roćio F; Anselmo, Henrique; Dubbeldam, Marco; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Leonards, Pim E G; Wester, Piet W; van den Berg, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Residues of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), extensively applied as flame retardants, are widely spread in the aquatic environment and biota. The present study investigates effects of the environmentally relevant lower brominated diphenylethers in two fish species in vivo under controlled laboratory conditions. Euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus) and freshwater zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to a range of concentrations of a commercial pentabromodiphenylether mixture, DE-71. Chemical analysis of exposed fish showed a pattern of PBDE congeners that was very similar to that in wild fish. The resulting range included environmentally relevant, as well as higher levels. Animals were investigated histopathologically with emphasis on endocrine and reproductive organs. In zebrafish, hatching of embryos and larval development were assessed. Biochemical parameters were investigated in flounder as markers for suggested dioxin-like activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase=EROD), and activation of endogenous estrogen synthesis (gonad aromatase activity). Thyroid hormones were analyzed in plasma in both species. Benchmark analysis using internal PBDE concentrations showed a mild dose-dependent decrease of hepatic EROD and ovarian aromatase activities, and plasma thyroxin levels in flounder, and an increase of plasma thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish. These trends did not result in statistically significant differences from control fish, and major histopathological changes were not observed. Reproduction in zebrafish appeared to be the most sensitive parameter with statistically significantly reduced larval survival and non-significant indications for decreased egg production at internal levels that were more than 55 times the highest environmental recordings. The present results indicate limited risk for endocrine or reproductive effects of current environmental PBDE contamination in fish.

  2. Distinct immune tones are established by Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 in the gut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Song, Joon Hyun; Park, Byung Sun; Kim, Daniel; Kwak, Jin-Hwan; Do, Hyung Ki; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kim, Woo-Jin; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The immune tone is defined as an immunological state during which the readiness for immune response is potentiated. The establishment of immune tone in the gut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated by feeding Lactococcus lactis BFE920 (LL) or Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 (LP). LL-fed flounder showed significantly increased levels of regulatory genes (FOXP3, IL-10, and TGF-β1), CD18, and CD83 in the gut. In contrast, LP feeding drastically increased proinflammatory genes (T-bet, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) and CD18. This indicates that LL and LP establish different types of local immune tones in the gut through differential activation of innate immune cells: LL activates both macrophages and dendritic cells while LP activates macrophages only. Both of the immune tones required at least a total of 6 probiotic feeds during 72 h for a stable establishment. Once established, the type of immune tone remained steady even up to 30 days (a total of 60 feeds) probiotics feeding. The LL-induced regulatory immune tone enhanced the level of occludin, a tight junction molecule, significantly more than that observed with the proinflammatory immune tone established by LP feeding. Consequently, LL-fed fish showed considerably lower gut permeability than that of the LP-fed group. Furthermore, when orally challenged by Edwardsiella tarda, LL-fed flounder survived at a significantly higher rate than LP-fed fish. The data clearly demonstrate that individual probiotics establish distinct types of immune tone in the fish gut, which in turn influences the immunological status as well as the physiology of the gut. Selection of proper probiotics may be essential for optimal effects in aquaculture farming.

  3. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  4. Identification of a Tc1-like transposon integration site in the genome of the flounder (Platichthys flesus): a novel use of an inverse PCR method.

    PubMed

    Poćwierz-Kotus, Anita; Burzyński, Artur; Wenne, Roman

    2010-03-01

    The inverse PCR method has been developed and applied employed for the identification of the integration sites of the Tc1-like transposons in the genome of the flounder, Platichthys flesus. One Tc1-like insertion instance was recognized and characterized, demonstrating an efficiency of the method for determining of transposon integration sites. The similarity of the sequence flanking transposon (SFT) to reverse transcriptase sequences (RVT) was demonstrated. It is likely that the insertion took place within currently degenerated LINE (long interspersed nuclear elements) retrotransposon.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of ATP-Gated P2X7 Receptor Involved in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuo; Li, Xuejing; Coddou, Claudio; Geng, Xuyun; Wei, Junli; Sun, Jinsheng

    2014-01-01

    ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2RX7) channel is a key component for purinergic signaling and plays important roles in the innate immune response in mammals. However, the expression, molecular properties and immune significances of P2RX7 in lower vertebrates are still very limited. Here we identified and characterized a novel bony fish P2RX7 homologue cDNA, termed poP2RX7, in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). PoP2RX7 protein shares about 60–88% sequence similarity and 45–78% sequence identity with known vertebrate P2RX7 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis placed poP2RX7 and other P2RX7 proteins within their own cluster apart from other P2RX members. While the functional poP2RX7 channel shares structural features in common with known P2RX7 homologs, electrophysiological studies revealed that BzATP, the more potent agonist for known mammalian and fish P2RX7s, shows similar potency to ATP in poP2RX7 activation. poP2RX7 mRNA constitutively expressed in all examined tissues from unstimulated healthy Japanese flounder with dominant expression in hepatopancreas and the lowest expression in head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen and gill. poP2RX7 mRNA expression, however, was significantly induced in Japanese flounder head kidney primary cells by Poly(I:C) and bacterial endotoxin LPS stimulations. In vivo experiments further revealed that poP2RX7 gene expression was substantially up-regulated by immune challenge with infectious bacteria Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum. Moreover, activation of poP2RX7 results in an increased gene expression of multifunctional cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in the head kidney primary cells. Collectively, we identified and characterized a novel fish P2RX7 homolog which is engaged in Japanese flounder innate immune response probably through modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24796752

  6. Skin and liver diseases induced in flounder (Platichthys flesus) after long-term exposure to contaminated sediments in large-scale mesocosms.

    PubMed Central

    Vethaak, A D; Jol, J G; Meijboom, A; Eggens, M L; Rheinallt, T; Wester, P W; van de Zande, T; Bergman, A; Dankers, N; Ariese, F; Baan, R A; Everts, J M; Opperhuizen, A; Marquenie, J M

    1996-01-01

    Disease development in flounder (Platichthys flesus) was studied over a period of 3 years in three large mesocosms (40 m x 40 m x 3 m). Two of the mesocosms contained clean sand and the third, sharing a common water circulation with one of the clean-sand mesocosms, was stocked with contaminated dredged spoil. In this way, one of the clean-sand mesocosms was indirectly polluted via the water phase, and analysis of contaminant concentrations in sediments and flounder tissues showed that it had a status intermediate between the other two. Random samples of the flounder populations from the indirectly polluted and reference mesocosms were examined every 2 months for epidermal diseases (lymphocystis, skin ulcers, fin rot) and then released. In addition, every 6 months, random samples of fish from all three mesocosms were sacrificed for histological and chemical investigation. With regard to the development of epidermal disease, the results showed little difference between the reference mesocosm and the indirectly polluted mesocosm, with the exception that lymphocystis was significantly elevated in the indirectly polluted mesocosm. Although pollution may be a risk factor in the etiology of this disease, such a relationship would probably be obscured under field conditions due to variation arising from other factors. Histopathological analysis of the livers revealed in total four cases of hepatocellular adenoma (1.5% of sampled population) in fish from the polluted mesocosms, the first occurring after 2.5 years of exposure in fish from the indirectly polluted mesocosm. Furthermore, several other liver lesions, including foci of cellular alteration and hydropic vacuolated lesions, developed during the course of the experiment before tumor formation was apparent. Prevalences of these conditions were very much lower in the reference mesocosm than in the two polluted mesocosms. Densities of melanomacrophage centers in the liver showed a similar trend. The findings clearly

  7. Identification of arsenobetaine in sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Riekwel-Booy, G.; Greef, M.C.; de Brauw, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Organo-arsenic has been isolated from sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by extraction or ion-exchange in combination with thin-layer chromatography. An alkaline digestion of the samples, followed by a reduction with sodiumborohydride leads to the formation of trimethylarsine. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) can be used to identify arsenobetaine in the isolates. Sufficient purification by thin-layer chromatography is found to be a prerequisite for the detection of a protonated molecular ion of arsenobetaine. If this situation is not met acid enchanced FDMS or Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry in high resolution can be used successfully.

  8. Analysis of immune gene expression modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in head kidney of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hur, Deokhwe; Jeon, Joong-Kyun; Hong, Suhee

    2013-05-01

    Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to cause functional disorder of fish immune responses. Alteration of inflammatory cytokines and other immune gene expressions by PAHs in immune organs may play a pivotal role in immunotoxicity. Thus this study aimed to elucidate the immunotoxic mechanism of PAH using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by analyzing the gene expression of cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, Mx), apoptosis (FasL, SOD) and other immune related substances (Lysozyme, IgM) in head kidney and macrophage in olive flounder. In Q-PCR analysis, proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) gene expressions were significantly upregulated by BaP while Mx and IgM gene expressions were significantly downregulated in head kidney by a longer exposure to BaP in vivo and in vitro. Lysozyme gene expression was initially upregulated but later downregulated in head kidney in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition test revealed that TNFα gene expression was upregulated by BaP via the AHR pathway as blocked by ANF while IL-6 and IFNγ gene expressions were upregulated by a calcium dependent pathway (i.e. NFAT) as blocked by EGTA. In primary macrophage cells, only IL-8 gene expression was significantly upregulated among proinflammatory cytokines while IFNγ, lysozyme and IgM gene expressions were downregulated by BaP. FasL and SOD expressions were not altered in head kidney cells but significantly upregulated in macrophage cells, indicating apoptosis and oxidative stress. These results indicate that exposure to BaP causes the downregulation of immune response by triggering the death of macrophage cells, the reduction of effectors like IgM and lysozyme, and the decrease of macrophage cell activity.

  9. Recombinant production and evaluation of an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase derived from flounder Platichthys stellatus.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kosuke; Hashiguchi, Kenro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kasai, Ayano; Takeda, Sadanori; Nakano, Manabu; Ishikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshiya; Miura, Tomisato

    2015-08-01

    Fish produce mucus substances as a defensive outer barrier against several bacterial infections. We have recently identified an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase (psLAAO1) in the mucus layer of the flounder Platichthys stellate. In this study, the antibacterial protein psLAAO1 was expressed as a secretory bioactive recombinant protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant psLAAO1 inhibited the growth of bacteria to the same levels as native psLAAO1 present in mucus. In particular, Staphylococci and Yersinia were strongly suppressed, showing the highest growth retardation of the 21 species and strains tested. Moreover, Staphylococcus epidermidis was most sensitive to psLAAO1 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.078 μg/mL, whereas Escherichia coli was essentially resistant to psLAAO1 with a MIC of >10 μg/mL. Interestingly, psLAAO1-treated E. coli were found to upregulate the expression of the btuE gene, which encodes glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce free hydrogen peroxide and is induced under response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, E. coli confers resistance to the reduced free hydrogen peroxide produced by psLAAO1 by increasing GPx levels. Furthermore, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was completely inhibited in the presence of recombinant psLAAO1. The morphology of psLAAO1-treated S. aureus showed cell surface damage, the formation of large aggregates and the cells showed severe deformations. Western blot analysis showed that psLAAO1 binds to the surface of S. aureus. Therefore, psLAAO1 binds to the surface of LAAO-sensitive S. aureus and directs peroxidative activity at the surface of the bacterial membrane.

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and embryotoxicity of insecticide propoxur using flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish Raj; Guo, Huarong

    2014-04-01

    Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and embryotoxicity of carbamate insecticide propoxur were evaluated using flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos. The cytotoxicity of propoxur in FG cells was analyzed by MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide double staining, and acute cytotoxic effects were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 24h-IC50 values of 89.96 ± 1.04, 103.4 ± 1.14 and 86.59 ± 1.13 μg/ml propoxur were obtained by MTT, NRU and LDH assays, respectively. The lethal effects were induced in FG cells mainly through necrosis but not apoptosis as evidenced by double fluorescence staining. Comet assay showed weak genotoxic effects and statistically significant DNA damages were recorded in the cells exposed to highest tested concentration of 75 μg/ml propoxur (p<0.05). Propoxur exerted obvious acute toxic effects on the survival, spontaneous movement, hatching and heart rate, and development (yolk and pericardial sac edema) of zebrafish embryos in both time- and concentration-dependent manner only at ⩾ 100 μg/ml. The corresponding 24h-, 48 h- and 96 h-LC50 values of propoxur in zebrafish embryos were 166.4 ± 1.06, 146.3 ± 1.07 and 134.8 ± 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. The above data obtained suggest a low acute toxicity of propoxur to the in vitro cultured FG cells and zebrafish embryos.

  11. Spatial and annual variation in fecundity and oocyte atresia of yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea, in U.S. waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) was estimated over three years (2010-2012) for yellowtail flounder with individuals from the three stocks off the northeast U.S. coast. Down-regulation of PAF, the resorption of oocytes during development, was evident as the vitellogenic cohort advanced, so we directly measured atresia of vitellogenic oocytes using stereological techniques. PAF models including relative fish condition, stock area, year, and oocyte diameter of the leading cohort explained more variation than models with just size alone based on Akaike information criteria. In a given year, Gulf of Maine females had lower PAF at size than southern New England females. Interannual differences were evident: PAF of both stocks was higher in 2010 and lower in 2012, with 2011 showing less synchronization between these stocks. Differences in size at age and relative condition suggested that energy available for somatic and reproductive growth was lower in some years in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank, especially in 2011. Georges Bank PAF and condition were intermediate to the other stocks or more similar to the Gulf of Maine, varying annually. A latitudinal gradient in PAF is evident based on our results and relative to earlier studies that included Canadian stocks. The magnitude of down-regulation was variable across stocks and typically 3-25% of PAF. This can be accounted for in fecundity estimates, by the seasonal schedule of sampling and use of an oocyte diameter term in the fecundity model. Theoretical models of atresia patterns suggested variable rates over the later portion of clutch development. The timing of down-regulation varied among years, and its intensity was influenced by female relative condition. Fecundity was related to fish size, but was also affected by fish condition and oocyte diameter (a proxy for time until spawning), and spatial and temporal effects. A longer time series of PAF may identify environmental drivers that modulate annual stock

  12. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manish Raj; Guo, Huarong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of carbamate insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill (FG) cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos. The cytotoxicity of carbaryl to FG cells was determined with methods including MTT and neutral red uptaking (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing and Hoechst 33342 and propidium idodide (PI) double staining. Moderate cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner was observed. The 24 h-IC50 value of 53.48 ± 1.21, 59.13 ± 1.19 and 46.21 ± 1.24 mg L-1 carbaryl was obtained through MTT, NRU and LDH assays, respectively. Double fluorescence staining demonstrated that carbaryl induced the death of FG cells mainly through necrosis. There was no significant genotoxicity found in the FG cells exposed to the highest testing concentration of carbaryl (20 mg L-1, P > 0.05) as was demonstrated by Comet assay. Zebrafish embryos exposed to carbaryl at concentrations ≥10 mg L-1 displayed moderate toxic effects on the survival, spontaneous movement, hatching, heart rates of the embryos and their development, which were evidenced by yolk and pericardial sac edemas, body length reduction and tail flexure in time- and concentration-dependent manners at specific stages. The 24 h-, 48 h- and 96 h-LC50 values of carbaryl to zebrafish embryos were 41.80 ± 1.10, 17.80 ± 1.04 and 14.46 ± 1.05 mg L-1, respectively. These results suggested that carbaryl is moderately toxic to FG cells cultured in vitro and zebrafish embryos, and the FG cells were similar to zebrafish embryos in their sensitivity to carbaryl as 24 h-IC50 and LC50 indicated.

  13. Recombinant production and evaluation of an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase derived from flounder Platichthys stellatus.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kosuke; Hashiguchi, Kenro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kasai, Ayano; Takeda, Sadanori; Nakano, Manabu; Ishikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshiya; Miura, Tomisato

    2015-08-01

    Fish produce mucus substances as a defensive outer barrier against several bacterial infections. We have recently identified an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase (psLAAO1) in the mucus layer of the flounder Platichthys stellate. In this study, the antibacterial protein psLAAO1 was expressed as a secretory bioactive recombinant protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant psLAAO1 inhibited the growth of bacteria to the same levels as native psLAAO1 present in mucus. In particular, Staphylococci and Yersinia were strongly suppressed, showing the highest growth retardation of the 21 species and strains tested. Moreover, Staphylococcus epidermidis was most sensitive to psLAAO1 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.078 μg/mL, whereas Escherichia coli was essentially resistant to psLAAO1 with a MIC of >10 μg/mL. Interestingly, psLAAO1-treated E. coli were found to upregulate the expression of the btuE gene, which encodes glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce free hydrogen peroxide and is induced under response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, E. coli confers resistance to the reduced free hydrogen peroxide produced by psLAAO1 by increasing GPx levels. Furthermore, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was completely inhibited in the presence of recombinant psLAAO1. The morphology of psLAAO1-treated S. aureus showed cell surface damage, the formation of large aggregates and the cells showed severe deformations. Western blot analysis showed that psLAAO1 binds to the surface of S. aureus. Therefore, psLAAO1 binds to the surface of LAAO-sensitive S. aureus and directs peroxidative activity at the surface of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25661816

  14. EFFECT OF 17B-ESTRADIOL, O,P'-DDT, OCTYLPHENOL AND P,P'-DDE ON GONADAL DEVELOPMENT AND LIVER AND KIDNEY PATHOLOGY IN JUVENILE MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this study was to compare histopathologically the effect of 17 -estradiol (E2), o,p' DDT, octylphenol and p,p' DDE on gonadal development and liver and kidney condition in sexually immature (juvenile) summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus). The dorsal sinus of 2-...

  15. EFFECT OF ESTROGENIC (O,P'-DDT; OCTOPHENOL AND ANTI-ANDROGENIC (P'P'-DDE) CHEMICALS ON INDICATORS OF ENDOCRINE STATUS IN JUVENILE MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with male summer flounder to assess the value of selected measures of endocrine status in fish as indicators of exposure to endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Efficts of 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethane
    (o,p'-D...

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of PoIR2, a novel gene involved in immune response in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhai, Teng; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-03-01

    A novel immune-related gene was expressed in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) injected with Vibrio anguillarum. The complete cDNA contained a 169 bp 5’UTR, a 336 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 111 amino acids and a 556bp 3’UTR. Six exons and five introns were identified in the PoIR2 gene. Blastp similarity comparison showed its encoding protein had 50% similarity to Danio rerio neuromedin S (NMS), but further alignment indicated they did not have NMS C-terminal conservational signature domain. So it was not defined as an NMS homologue. Protein structure analysis indicated it had a 26aa signal peptide and was a secretory pathway protein. RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of PoIR2 was quickly induced and drastically increased in liver, kidney, spleen, gills, intestine, heart, and skeletal muscle after infected with V. anguillarum. These results indicated that the PoIR2 might play some important role in Japanese flounder immune response system. This gene was named PoIR2 ( P.olivaceus immune-related gene 2, GenBank accession number: EU224372). The mature PoIR2 peptide was expressed in BL21(DE3) pLysS using pET-32a(+) vector and a great part of the recombinant mature peptide existed as soluble type.

  17. Histological and enzymatic responses of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × P. dentatus ♂) to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xuelei; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Xiao, Yongshuang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term heat exposure on Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus ♂). From 24 ± 0.5°C, temperature was increased by 1 ± 0.5°C in a day and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before next rise. Cumulative survival rate (CSR), cumulative survival rate under different temperature (CSR-T), histological alteration, and related enzyme activities were investigated. In P. olivaceus, mass mortality occurred at 29 and 32 °C (the CSR-T dropped to 42.39%), and serious gill damages appeared at 30 and 32°C. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysozyme (LZM), and pyruvate kinase (PK) declined around 29 and 32°C (except for CAT). In comparison with P. olivaceus, the CSR of the hybrids was higher, the gill kept a better structural integrity, and the activities of SOD, CAT, LZM, and PK showed tiny fluctuations. The results suggested that during the process of chronic heat stress, P. olivaceus seemed to be more sensitive to 29 and 32°C, and the manifestations in survival, histology, and enzyme activity were generally consistent. For the hybrids, the comparatively insensitivity to high temperature might imply its better heat tolerance.

  18. Histological and enzymatic responses of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × P. dentatus ♂) to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xuelei; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Xiao, Yongshuang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term heat exposure on Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus ♂). From 24 ± 0.5°C, temperature was increased by 1 ± 0.5°C in a day and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before next rise. Cumulative survival rate (CSR), cumulative survival rate under different temperature (CSR-T), histological alteration, and related enzyme activities were investigated. In P. olivaceus, mass mortality occurred at 29 and 32 °C (the CSR-T dropped to 42.39%), and serious gill damages appeared at 30 and 32°C. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysozyme (LZM), and pyruvate kinase (PK) declined around 29 and 32°C (except for CAT). In comparison with P. olivaceus, the CSR of the hybrids was higher, the gill kept a better structural integrity, and the activities of SOD, CAT, LZM, and PK showed tiny fluctuations. The results suggested that during the process of chronic heat stress, P. olivaceus seemed to be more sensitive to 29 and 32°C, and the manifestations in survival, histology, and enzyme activity were generally consistent. For the hybrids, the comparatively insensitivity to high temperature might imply its better heat tolerance. PMID:24390013

  19. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul K.; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William; Winton, James

    2004-02-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  1. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  2. Thermoprotection of a functional epithelium: heat stress effects on transepithelial transport by flounder renal tubule in primary monolayer culture.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M A; Upender, R P; Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1992-01-01

    Primary monolayer cultures of winter flounder renal proximal-tubule cells were used to determine whether transepithelial transport could be protected from the damaging effects of extreme temperature by previous mild heat shock. Renal tubule epithelial cells were enzymatically dispersed and reorganized as confluent monolayer sheets on native rat tail collagen. Transepithelial electrical properties (potential difference, resistance, short-circuit current, and Na(+)-dependent glucose current) and unidirectional [35S]sulfate fluxes were measured in Ussing chambers at 22 degrees C. Examination of transepithelial electrical properties following acute 1-hr elevation of temperature over a range of 22-37 degrees C provided the basis for the "mild" versus "severe" thermal stress protocols. Severe elevation from 22 degrees C to 32 degrees C for 1.5 hr followed by 1.5 hr at 22 degrees C significantly decreased glucose current (7 +/- 0.7 to 3 +/- 0.8 microA/cm2) as well as net sulfate secretion [131 +/- 11 to 33 +/- 11 nmol/(cm2.hr)]. Mild heat shock of 27 degrees C for 6 hr prior to this severe heat shock completely protected both glucose transport (6 +/- 0.7 microA/cm2) and sulfate flux (149 +/- 13 nmol/(cm2.hr)]. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the number of microvilli on the apical (luminal) surface of the epithelium was decreased after a 32 degrees C heat shock. Monolayers exposed to 27 degrees C for 6 hr prior to incubation at 32 degrees C showed no loss of microvilli. SDS/PAGE analysis of protein patterns from the cultures showed that three classes of heat shock proteins were maximally induced at 27 degrees C. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide prevented the thermoprotective effect of mild heat shock. This suggests that certain renal transport functions can be protected from sublethal but debilitating thermal stress by prior mild heat shock and that heat shock proteins may play a role in this protection. Images PMID:1565616

  3. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus): molecular cloning and differential expression during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjiang; Zang, Kun; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao; Li, Cunyu; Shi, Xueying

    2015-02-01

    In order to elucidate the possible roles of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the embryonic development of Platichthys stellatus, their cDNAs were isolated and their spatial expression pattern in adult organs and temporal expression pattern throughout embryonic development were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The IGF-I cDNA sequence was 1,268 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp, which encoded 185 amino acid residues. With respect to IGF-II, the full-length cDNA was 899 bp in length and contained a 648-bp ORF, which encoded 215 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of IGF-I and IGF-II exhibited high identities with their fish counterparts. The highest IGF-I mRNA level was found in the liver for both sexes, whereas the IGF-II gene was most abundantly expressed in female liver and male liver, gill, and brain. The sex-specific and spatial expression patterns of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs are thought to be related to the sexually dimorphic growth and development of starry flounder. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs were detected in unfertilized eggs, which indicated that IGF-I and IGF-II were parentally transmitted. Nineteen embryonic development stages were tested. IGF-I mRNA level remained high from unfertilized eggs to low blastula followed by a significant decrease at early gastrula and then maintained a lower level. In contrast, IGF-II mRNA level was low from unfertilized eggs to high blastula and peaked at low blastula followed by a gradual decrease. Moreover, higher levels of IGF-I mRNA than that of IGF-II were found from unfertilized eggs to high blastula, vice versa from low blastula to newly hatched larva, and the different expression pattern verified the differential roles of IGF-I and IGF-II in starry flounder embryonic development. These results could help in understanding the endocrine mechanism involved in the early development and growth of starry flounder.

  4. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus): molecular cloning and differential expression during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjiang; Zang, Kun; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao; Li, Cunyu; Shi, Xueying

    2015-02-01

    In order to elucidate the possible roles of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the embryonic development of Platichthys stellatus, their cDNAs were isolated and their spatial expression pattern in adult organs and temporal expression pattern throughout embryonic development were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The IGF-I cDNA sequence was 1,268 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp, which encoded 185 amino acid residues. With respect to IGF-II, the full-length cDNA was 899 bp in length and contained a 648-bp ORF, which encoded 215 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of IGF-I and IGF-II exhibited high identities with their fish counterparts. The highest IGF-I mRNA level was found in the liver for both sexes, whereas the IGF-II gene was most abundantly expressed in female liver and male liver, gill, and brain. The sex-specific and spatial expression patterns of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs are thought to be related to the sexually dimorphic growth and development of starry flounder. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs were detected in unfertilized eggs, which indicated that IGF-I and IGF-II were parentally transmitted. Nineteen embryonic development stages were tested. IGF-I mRNA level remained high from unfertilized eggs to low blastula followed by a significant decrease at early gastrula and then maintained a lower level. In contrast, IGF-II mRNA level was low from unfertilized eggs to high blastula and peaked at low blastula followed by a gradual decrease. Moreover, higher levels of IGF-I mRNA than that of IGF-II were found from unfertilized eggs to high blastula, vice versa from low blastula to newly hatched larva, and the different expression pattern verified the differential roles of IGF-I and IGF-II in starry flounder embryonic development. These results could help in understanding the endocrine mechanism involved in the early development and growth of starry flounder. PMID:25424555

  5. Metabolic responses to hypoxia of Lycenchelys verrillii (wolf eelpout) and Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (witch flounder): Sedentary bottom fishes of the Hatteras/Virginia middle slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, M.L.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    We collected wolf eelpouts Lycenchelys verrillii and witch flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus from Hatteras (North Carolina, USA) and Virginia (USA) Middle Slope sites using a submersible, and made shipboard measurements of their respiration rates and survival in hypoxic (<10% O2 saturation) and anoxic conditions. Both species from the Hatteras site reduced their respiration rates as ambient oxygen decreased, but eelpouts from the Virginia site maintained a constant respiration rate until oxygen saturation dropped below 20%. Moreover, eelpouts from the Hatteras site were significantly more tolerant of hypoxic conditions than fish from the Virginia site and survived anoxia for short periods. These results and our submersible observations of fish behavior support the hypothesis that the Hatteras Middle Slope fauna is exposed to short-term hypoxia events.

  6. Nuclei fluorescence microscopic observation on early embryonic development of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2015-05-01

    Sperm genetic material of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. The nuclear phase changes during early embryonic development of diploid, haploid, and mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment were observed under fluorescent microscope with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The parameters of hydrostatic pressure treatment were 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase stage. The data showed that developmental timing sequence of diploid and haploid fertilized eggs was similar. The cell cycle was about 48 minutes, including interphase (about 21 minutes), prophase (about 3 minutes), prometaphase (about 6 minutes), metaphase (about 6 minutes), anaphase (around 9 minutes), and telophase (about 3 minutes). After entering the fertilized egg, ultraviolet-inactivated sperm formed a male pronucleus and became a dense chromatin body in the cytoplasm. Dense chromatin body did not participate in nuclear division and unchanged all the time. For hydrostatic pressure-treated embryos, the first nuclear division and cytokinesis after treatment proceeded normally after about 15 minutes recovery. During the second mitosis, having undergone interphase, prophase, and prometaphase stage, chromosomes began to slowly spread around and scattered in the cell but not entered into metaphase and anaphase. The second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The occurrence frequency of developmentally delayed embryos also showed that the second cleavage of about 80% treated eggs was inhibited. The inhibition of the second cleavage resulted to chromosome set doubling. So chromosome set doubling for mitogynogenetic flounder diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, performed at prometaphase stage, was mainly due to inhibition of the second mitosis rather than the first one.

  7. The influence of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of Japanese flounder reared for stock enhancement: Burying, feeding, and threat response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Michelle L.; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    Flatfish reared for stock enhancement often exhibit irregular behavioral patterns compared with wild conspecifics. These “deficits”, mostly attributed to the unnatural characteristics of the hatchery environment, are assumed to translate to increased predation risk. Initially releasing fish in predator-free conditioning cages may help flatfish adjust to the wild environment, establish burial skills, begin pigment change, recover from transport stress, and experience natural (live) food sources before full release into the wild. However, the impact of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of flatfish has yet to be fully assessed. We conducted video trials with 10-cm, hatchery-reared Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in sand-bottomed aquaria to assess four treatments of flounder: (1) reared fish cage conditioned for 7 d in the shallow coast, (2) reared fish directly from hatchery tanks, (3) wild fish, and (4) reared fish released directly from hatchery tanks into the wild and then recaptured after 6 d at large. Burying ability, predation, and threat response to a model predator were examined. Wild fish buried most, followed by cage conditioned, and released-then-recaptured and non-conditioned (directly from tank) fish. Wild and conditioned fish revealed much lower variation in total movement duration, which corresponded with lower levels and variation in prey vertical movement. Fish of all condition types exhibited a lower number of attacks and off-bottom swimming events, and a lower movement duration when the model predator was in motion versus when it was still. This study is the first to evaluate the behavioral mechanisms of hatchery-reared flatfish that have been cage-conditioned or released-then-recaptured. In addition, we provide evidence that cage conditioning can enhance the performance of released flatfish.

  8. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.R.; Yevich, P.P.; Malcolm, A.R. ); Harshbarger, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 or 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 3, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters, deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, cocarcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain.

  9. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with Suaeda maritima on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder against Miamiensis avidus.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Song, Chang-Young; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The effect of Suaeda maritima enriched diet on blood physiology, innate immune response, and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Miamiensis avidus on weeks 1, 2, and 4 was investigated. Feeding with any enriched diet and then challenging with M. avidus significantly increased white blood cells (WBC) on weeks 2 and 4; the red blood cells (RBC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% enriched diets on week 4. The hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) levels significantly increased when fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not significantly vary with any diet and time; however the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4. The leukocytes such as lymphocytes (Lym), monocytes (Mon), neutrophils (Neu) and biochemical parameters such as total protein (TP), glucose (GLU), and calcium (CAL) levels significantly increased in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced in 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diet fed groups from weeks 1 to 4 when compared to the control (0% herbal extract enriched diet). The scuticocidal activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly enhanced when fish were fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplementation diets from weeks 2 and 4. The protective effect in terms of cumulative mortality (50% and 40%) was low in groups on being fed with 0.1% and 1.0% supplemented diet. Therefore the present study suggested that 0.1% and 1.0% S. maritime-supplemented diets protect the hematological and biochemical parameters, improving the innate immunity, affording protection disease from M. avidus infection in olive flounder. PMID:22490817

  11. Interferon regulatory factor 4b (IRF4b) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Sequencing, ubiquitous tissue distribution and inducible expression by poly(I:C) and DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahai; Chen, Jinjing; Zhang, Haiyan; Hu, Mengzhu; Lou, Huimin; Liu, Qiuming; Zhang, Shicui; Hu, Guobin

    2016-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in mammals is known to be critical in regulation of development and functions of lymphomyeloid cell lineages. Recent studies have demonstrated its involvement in immune responses to bacterial and viral challenges in teleosts. In this study, an IRF4 gene was cloned from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its expression in response to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) stimulations was studied in vivo. The cloned gene spans over 5.9 kb, comprises eight exons and seven introns and encodes a putative protein of 456 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence possesses a conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF-association domain (IAD) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF4b clade and, thus, it was named Paralichthys olivaceus (Po)IRF4b. The constitutive expression of PoIRF4b transcripts was detectable in all examined organs, with highest levels found in lymphomyeloid-rich tissues. They were induced by both poly(I:C) and LCDV with a similar inducibility in immune or non-immune organs. Two waves of induced expression of PoIRF4b were observed with the two stimuli during a 7-day time course in the immune organs, with the early-phase induction being stronger. The maximum increases of PoIRF4b transcript levels ranged from 1.3 to 4.0-fold and appeared at day 1-5 post-injection depending on different organs and stimuli. In both stimulation cases, the strongest induction was detected in spleen and the weakest in muscle. These results indicate that PoIRF4b may participate in regulation of immune responses of flounders to both RNA and DNA virus infections. PMID:27084058

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 in the early life stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and potential consequences of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2014-03-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on marine fishes of high CO2 and associated acidification of oceans suggests that effects will differ across species, be subtle, and may interact with other stressors. This report is on the responses of an array of early life history features of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of the inshore and nearshore waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (USA), to experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Relative survival of summer flounder embryos in local ambient conditions (775 μatm pCO2, 7.8 pH) was reduced to 48% when maintained at intermediate experimental conditions (1808 μatm pCO2, 7.5 pH), and to 16% when maintained at the most elevated CO2 treatment (4714 ppm pCO2, 7.1 pH). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at high-CO2 levels at constant temperature was consistent among offspring of three females used as experimental subjects. No reduction in survival with CO2 was observed for larvae during the first four weeks of larval life (experiment ended at 28 d post-hatching (dph) when larvae were initiating metamorphosis). Estimates of sizes, shapes, and developmental status of larvae based on images of live larvae showed larvae were initially longer and faster growing when reared at intermediate- and high-CO2 levels. This pattern of longer larvae - but with less energy reserves at hatching - was expressed through the first half of the larval period (14 dph). Larvae from the highest-CO2 conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from intermediate- and ambient-CO2 conditions. Tissue damage was evident in larvae as early as 7 dph from both elevated-CO2 levels. Damage included dilation of liver sinusoids and veins, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, and separation of the trunk muscle bundles. Cranio-facial features changed with CO2 levels in an age-dependent manner. Skeletal elements of larvae from ambient-CO2 environments were

  13. DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

    2013-09-15

    Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17α-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology.

  14. Expression and role of gap junction protein connexin43 in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Peng, Weijiao; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the best characterized gap junction protein that allows the direct exchange of signaling molecules during cell-to-cell communications. The immunological functions and ATP permeable properties of Cx43 have been insensitively examined in mammals. The similar biological significance of Cx43 in lower vertebrates, however, is not yet understood. In the present study we identified and characterized a Cx43 ortholog (termed PoCx43) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and investigated its role in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release. PoCx43 mRNA transcripts are widely distributed in all tested normal tissues and cells with predominant expression in the brain, and are significantly up-regulated by LPS, poly(I:C) and zymosan challenges and Edwardsiella tarda infections as well, suggesting that PoCx43 expression was modulated by the inflammatory stresses. In addition, cyclic AMP (cAMP), an essential second messenger, also plays an important role in regulating PoCx43 gene expression, by which the PoCx43-mediated gap junctional communication may be regulated. Furthermore, overexpression of PoCx43 in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells significantly potentiates the LPS- and poly(I:C)-induced extracellular ATP release and this enhanced ATP release was attenuated by pre-incubation with Cx43 inhibitor carbenoxolone. In a complementary experiment, down-regulation of PoCx43 endogenous expression in FG-9307 cells with small interfering RNA also significantly reduced the PAMP-induced extracellular ATP release, suggesting that PoCx43 is an important ATP release conduit under the immune challenge conditions. Finally, we showed that extracellular ATP stimulation led to an increased PoCx43 expression which probably provides a feedback mechanism in regulating PoCx43 expression at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that PoCx43 is an inducible immune response gene and an important conduit for immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP

  15. Expression and role of gap junction protein connexin43 in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Peng, Weijiao; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the best characterized gap junction protein that allows the direct exchange of signaling molecules during cell-to-cell communications. The immunological functions and ATP permeable properties of Cx43 have been insensitively examined in mammals. The similar biological significance of Cx43 in lower vertebrates, however, is not yet understood. In the present study we identified and characterized a Cx43 ortholog (termed PoCx43) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and investigated its role in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release. PoCx43 mRNA transcripts are widely distributed in all tested normal tissues and cells with predominant expression in the brain, and are significantly up-regulated by LPS, poly(I:C) and zymosan challenges and Edwardsiella tarda infections as well, suggesting that PoCx43 expression was modulated by the inflammatory stresses. In addition, cyclic AMP (cAMP), an essential second messenger, also plays an important role in regulating PoCx43 gene expression, by which the PoCx43-mediated gap junctional communication may be regulated. Furthermore, overexpression of PoCx43 in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells significantly potentiates the LPS- and poly(I:C)-induced extracellular ATP release and this enhanced ATP release was attenuated by pre-incubation with Cx43 inhibitor carbenoxolone. In a complementary experiment, down-regulation of PoCx43 endogenous expression in FG-9307 cells with small interfering RNA also significantly reduced the PAMP-induced extracellular ATP release, suggesting that PoCx43 is an important ATP release conduit under the immune challenge conditions. Finally, we showed that extracellular ATP stimulation led to an increased PoCx43 expression which probably provides a feedback mechanism in regulating PoCx43 expression at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that PoCx43 is an inducible immune response gene and an important conduit for immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP

  16. Purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and some properties of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) hepato-pancreas.

    PubMed

    Osatomi, K; Masuda, Y; Hara, K; Ishihara, T

    2001-04-01

    Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus hepato-pancreas. The purification of the enzyme was carried out by an ethanol/chloroform treatment and acetone precipitation, and then followed by column chromatographies on Q-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and Ultrogel AcA 54. On SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme gave a single protein band with molecular mass of 17.8 kDa under reducing conditions, and showed approximately equal proportions of 17.8 and 36 kDa molecular mass under non-reducing conditions. Three bands were obtained when the purified enzyme was subjected to native-PAGE, both on protein and activity staining, but the electrophoretic mobility of the purified enzyme differed from that of bovine erythrocyte Cu, Zn-SOD. Isoelectric point values of 5.9, 6.0 and 6.2, respectively, were obtained for the three components. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was determined for 25 amino acid residues, and the sequence was compared with other Cu, Zn-SODs. The N-terminal alanine residue was unacetylated, as in the case of swordfish SOD. Above 60 degrees C, the thermostability of the enzyme was much lower than that of bovine Cu, Zn-SOD. PMID:11290457

  17. Time course of oocyte development in winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus and spawning seasonality for the Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank and southern New England stocks.

    PubMed

    Press, Y K; McBride, R S; Wuenschel, M J

    2014-08-01

    Winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were collected at monthly intervals from December 2009 to May 2011, to describe the pattern and seasonality of oocyte development, including: (1) the group-synchronous transition from primary to secondary oocytes that initiates immediately after spawning, (2) the slow (months) development of vitellogenic oocytes followed by the rapid (weeks) maturation of oocytes, (3) the synchronous nature of mature oocytes ovulating, but the discrete releases of benthic eggs in batches, (4) the protracted (months) degradation of postovulatory follicles and (5) the occurrence of follicular atresia. Although fish were collected across only c. 2° latitudinal range, the spawning season was c. 1 month later in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) than on Georges Bank and in southern New England. This is probably due to lower temperatures in the GOM. These stock-specific data regarding the time course of oogenesis are of practical value. This information is discussed in relation to measuring and interpreting elements of reproductive potential such as maturation, skipped spawning and fecundity, the response of reproductive traits by this widely distributed species to changing climate and the response by this common, marine-estuarine species to urbanization, particularly environmental pollutants and dredging.

  18. Variation patterns in individual fish responses to chemical stress among estuaries, seasons and genders: the case of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Jean; Gauthier, Olivier; Quiniou, Louis; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Evrard, Estérine; Cachot, Jérôme; Chérel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Riso, Ricardo; Pichereau, Vianney; Devier, Marie Hélène; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to describe and model variation patterns in individual fish responses to contaminants among estuaries, season and gender. Two hundred twenty-seven adult European flounders were collected in two seasons (winter and summer) in four estuaries along the Bay of Biscay (South West France), focusing on a pristine system (the Ster), vs. three estuaries displaying contrasted levels of contaminants (the Vilaine, Loire and Gironde). Twenty-three variables were measured by fish, considering the load of contaminants (liver metals, liver and muscle persistent organic pollutants, muscle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons); the gene expression (Cyt C oxydase, ATPase, BHMT, Cyt P450 1A1, ferritin); the blood genotoxicity (Comet test); and liver histology (foci of cellular alteration-tumour, steatosis, inflammation, abnormal glycogen storage). Canonical redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to model these variables using gender, season and estuary of origin as explanatory variables. The results underlined the homogeneity of fish responses within the pristine site (Ster) and more important seasonal variability within the three contaminated systems. The complete model RDA was significant and explained 35 % of total variance. Estuary and season respectively explained 30 and 5 % of the total independent variation components, whilst gender was not a significant factor. The first axis of the RDA explains nearly 27 % of the total variance and mostly represents a gradient of contamination. The links between the load of contaminants, the expression of several genes and the biomarkers were analysed considering different levels of chemical stress and a possible multi-stress, particularly in the Vilaine estuary.

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Cha, Ji-Hoon; Rahimnejad, Samad; Jeong, Joon-Bum; Yoo, Byung-Woo; Lee, Bo-Kyeun; Ahn, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Soo-Il; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Park, Yong-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05) survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05) apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity. PMID:25049965

  20. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-07

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  1. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272

  2. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  3. Transcriptional dynamics of immune, growth and stress related genes in skeletal muscle of the fine flounder (Paralichthys adpersus) during different nutritional statuses.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Cristián A; Escobar, Daniela; Perez, Lorena; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Estrada, Juan Manuel; Mercado, Luis; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The effects of stress on immune activity and growth in early vertebrates have not been studied in detail. The present study used fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) skeletal muscle as a model to evaluate molecules involved in the stress response, including the glucocorticoid receptors, foxo1/3, and the target genes of these. Additionally, immune markers (il-1β and tnfα) and effector molecules of atrophy (bnip3, caspase-3, and lc3) were assessed. These molecules were analyzed during periods of long-term fasting and refeeding. During fasting, gene expression related to the stress response and atrophy increased; whereas immune markers were down-regulated. During refeeding, atrophy- and stress-related gene expression significantly decreased. In contrast, immune markers were up-regulated. These results provide novel insight on the control of growth in the skeletal muscle of a non-mammalian species under a stressful condition, suggesting that growth, stress, and immune activity in muscle are closely related and coordinated by orchestrated transcriptional dynamics.

  4. Stability and efficacy of the 3'-UTR A4G-G5A variant of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) as a live attenuated immersion VHSV vaccine in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Meesun; Choi, Go-Eun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Kang, Jung-Ha; Evensen, Øystein; Lee, Woo-Jai

    2016-02-17

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the causative agent of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, a disease that affects a number of teleost fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of two recombinant attenuated VHSV strains, termed A4G-G5A and ΔNV, with the purpose to select the most suitable vaccine strain. The virus strains were passaged in two commercially available cell lines, EPC and RTG-2, and the strains were also tested for residual virulence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The A4G-G5A strain showed an attenuated growth profile in both the EPC and RTG-2 cell lines compared to wild-type (WT) VHSV (JF-09, genotype IVa), whereas the growth profile of ΔNV was comparable to the WT strains in RTG-2 cells in contrast to EPC cells. Moreover, ΔNV had higher residual virulence compared to A4G-G5A and was highly pathogenic to zebrafish. The A4G-G5A strain was chosen as vaccine candidate and tested for efficacy in in vivo fish studies in the target species, olive flounder, using an immersion vaccine scheme. Groups of fish were immunized with 10(2.5), 10(3.5), 10(4.5), and 10(5.5) TCID50/ml of A4G-G5A giving 5-13.3 cumulative percent mortality (CPM) post immunization. Immunization was followed by a challenge experiment using VHSV-WT. The relative percent survival (RPS) in immunized groups ranged from 81.6% to 100%, correlating with vaccination dose. This study demonstrates that while strain A4G-G5A has retained some residual virulence it confers high level of protection in immunized olive flounder. PMID:26772633

  5. Molecular identification and transmission studies of X-cell parasites from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae) and the northern black flounder Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the existing protozoan phyla and they are currently thought to be members of the Alveolata. Ultrastructural features of X-cells in fish pseudotumours are somewhat limited and no typical environmental stages, such as spores or flagellated cells, have been observed. The life cycles for these parasites have not been demonstrated and it remains unknown how transmission to a new host occurs. In the present study, pseudobranchial pseudotumours from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in Iceland and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder, Pseudopleuronectes obscurus, in Japan were used in experimental transmission studies to establish whether direct transmission of the parasite is achievable. In addition, X-cells from Atlantic cod were sequenced to confirm whether they are phylogenetically related to other X-cells and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder were analysed to establish whether the same parasite is responsible for infecting different flatfish species in Japan. Results Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence data from Atlantic cod X-cells show that they are a related parasite that occupies a basal position to the clade containing other X-cell parasites. The X-cell parasite causing epidermal pseudotumours in P. obscurus is the same parasite that causes pseudotumours in H. dubius. Direct, fish to fish, transmission of the X-cell parasites used in this study, via oral feeding or injection, was not achieved. Non-amoeboid X-cells are contained within discrete sac-like structures that are loosely attached to epidermal pseudotumours in flatfish; these X-cells are

  6. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Duck; Seo, Joo-Young; Lee, Sang-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO), 5% linseed oil (LO), 5% soybean oil (SO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX), no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP), 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO), and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC), respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g) were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than that of other

  7. Histological change and heat shock protein 70 expression in different tissues of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in response to elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Yufu; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Teng, Zhaojun; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    High temperature influences the homeostasis of fish. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature on tissues of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) by analyzing the histology and heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70) expression of fish reared in warm conditions. In this study, temperature was increased at 1±0.5°C/day starting at 24±0.5°C, and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before the next rise. After raising temperature at the rate up to 32±0.5°C, tissue samples from midgut, spleen, stomach, liver, muscle, gill, heart, trunk kidney and brain were collected for histological analysis and mRNA assay. Almost all the tissues showed changes in morphological structure and hsp70 level at 32±0.5°C. Histological assessment of the tissues indicated that the gill had the most serious damage, including highly severe epithelial lifting and edema, curved tips and hyperemia at the ending of the lamellars, desquamation and necrosis. The next most severe damage was found in liver and kidney. The hsp70 levels in all the tissues first increased and then decreased. The gut, stomach, muscle, heart, and brain had the highest expressions in 6 h, whereas the spleen, liver, gill and kidney had the highest expressions in 2 h. Therefore, tissues with the most significant lesions (especially gill and liver) responded much earlier (2 h) in hsp70 expression than other tissues, and these tissues demonstrated the most marked histological disruption and elevated mRNA levels, making them ideal candidates for further studies on the thermal physiology of this species.

  8. Some aspects of the biology and life history of Bothitrema bothi (Monogenea: Bothitrematidae) from the flounder Scophthalmus aquosus (Bothidae) from New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Sherman S

    2004-06-01

    Bothitrema bothi (MacCallum, 1913), a monopisthocotylean monogenean (Bothitrematidae) found on gills and occasionally on the olfactory rosette within the nares of the bothid flounder, Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill, 1815), is distributed along the Atlantic coast of the USA from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to Delaware Bay. This study details aspects of the morphology, microecology and biology of the oncomiracidium, juvenile and adult. Adult worms occur almost exclusively between rakers on the first and second gill arches while juveniles occupy secondary gill filaments. Analysis of variance revealed significant arch, side and position effects. Worm attachment and position is maintained largely by suction generated by a circular seal using its 54 radially arranged accessory haptoral sclerotised elements and a marginal valve. A small anterior appendix with two marginal hooks lies dorsal to a deep anteromedian cleft in the haptor, which, together with wall muscles, creates and releases the negative pressure required for attachment. Four pairs of gland openings in the ventrolateral margins of the anterior adhesive area produce secretions for attachment. Operculate eggs with four rounded protuberances and a filament are laid individually at four-minute intervals at 22 degrees C. Hatching occurs in five days at 20 degrees C. Oncomiracidia have two pairs of eyes, with the posterior pair fused, show both positive and negative phototaxis and swim at a mean rate of 5.2 mm/s at 22 degrees C. Larvae have a circle of 16 hooks and a pair of hamulus primordia. Other accessory haptoral sclerotised structures arise de novo in juveniles after attachment to the host. These data will help to resolve more clearly the relationships of the Bothitrematidae within the Monopisthocotylea.

  9. Generation of two auxotrophic genes knock-out Edwardsiella tarda and assessment of its potential as a combined vaccine in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Ki Hong

    2011-07-01

    Two auxotrophic genes that play essential roles in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis--alanine racemase (alr) gene and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene--knock-out Edwardsiella tarda (Δalr Δasd E. tarda) was generated by the allelic exchange method to develop a combined vaccine system. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a model foreign protein, and was expressed by transformation of the mutant E. tarda with antibiotic resistant gene-free plasmids harboring cassettes for GFP and asd expression (pG02-ASD-EtPR-GFP). In vitro growth of the mutant E. tarda was similar to wild-type E. tarda when D-alanine and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) were supplemented to growth medium. However, without d-alanine and/or DAP supplementation, the mutant showed very limited growth. The Δalr Δasd E. tarda transformed with pG02-ASD-EtPR-GFP showed a similar growth pattern of wild-type E. tarda when D-alanine was supplemented in the medium, and the expression of GFP could be observed even with naked eyes. The virulence of the auxotrophic mutant E. tarda was decreased, which was demonstrated by approximately 10⁶ fold increase of LD₅₀ dose compared to wild-type E. tarda. To assess vaccine potential of the present combined vaccine system, olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immunized with the GFP expressing mutant E. tarda, and analyzed protection efficacy against E. tarda challenge and antibody titers against E. tarda and GFP. Groups of fish immunized with 10⁷ CFU of the Δalr Δasd E. tarda harboring pG02-ASD-EtPR-GFP showed no mortality, which was irrespective to boost immunization. The cumulative mortality rates of fish immunized with 10⁶ or 10⁵ CFU of the mutant bacteria were lowered by a boost immunization. Fish immunized with the mutant E. tarda at doses of 10⁶-10⁷ CFU/fish showed significantly higher serum agglutination activities against formalin-killed E. tarda than PBS-injected control fish. Furthermore, fish immunized with 10⁶-10

  10. Parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in biological effects monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Broeg, K.; von Westernhagen, H.; Dizer, H.; Hansen, P. D.; Skouras, A.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    In the frame of an integrated biological effect monitoring programme, the parasite community of flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated at different locations in the German Bight from 1995 to 2000. In order to assess the impact of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activities on the parasite community, selected parasitological parameters that displayed significant differences between the sampling sites were subjected to correlation analyses with site-specific contamination and individual pollution loads of their fish hosts. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted with the responses of selected genetic, biochemical, histopathological, physiological and immunological parameters of fish, used as potential biomarkers. In total, 802 flounder were analysed for these parameters. Information on the chemical background at the sampling sites was derived from sediment samples and from 120 samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue, collected at each of the sampling sites. Based on chemical data available from the sediment and blue mussel samples, a pollution gradient could be established between the sampling sites for individual contaminants. The relative abundance of Acanthochondria cornuta, Cucullanus heterochrous and Zoogonoides viviparus, and the community measures species richness and number of heteroxenous species decreased with increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals or hydrocarbons in sediment and blue mussel samples. Most of the parasitological parameters significantly reflected the established site-specific contamination gradient, when data were pooled over all sampling campaigns. Significant correlations were also found with the contamination level of individual flounder. The parasitological parameters included the parasite species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, which were not correlated to site-specific contamination. Several biomarkers were significantly correlated to the abundance of

  11. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. PMID:27302864

  12. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3 gene in response to extracellular ATP stimulation and its role in regulating LPS-induced innate immune response in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) head kidney macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein is an important cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that negatively regulates innate immune response in mammals. Hitherto, the immunological significance of NLRC3 protein in fish remains largely uncharacterized. Here we identified and characterized a novel NLRC3 gene (named poNLRC3) implicated in regulation of fish innate immunity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The poNLRC3 protein is a cytoplasmic protein with an undefined N-terminal domain, a NACHT domain, a fish-specific NACHT associated domain, six LRR motifs, and a C-terminal fish-specific PYR/SPYR (B30.2) domain but only shares less than 40% sequence identities with the known Japanese flounder NLRC proteins. poNLRC3 gene is ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and is dominantly expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). We for the first time showed that poNLRC3 expression was significantly modulated by the stimulation of extracellular ATP, an important danger/damage-associated molecular pattern in activating innate immunity in P. olivaceus. Importantly, we revealed that poNLRC3 plays an important role in positively regulating ATP-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression, suggesting the involvement of poNLRC3 in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling. In addition, we showed that poNLRC3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in response to LPS and Edwardsiella tarda immune challenges. Finally, we showed that down-regulating the endogenous poNLRC3 expression with small interfering RNA significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the Japanese flounder HKM cells. Altogether, we have identified a novel inducible fish NLR member, poNLRC3, which is involved in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling and may positively regulate the LPS-induced innate immune response in the Japanese

  14. Effect of G gene-deleted recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔG) on the replication of wild type VHSV in a fish cell line and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-07-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a replicon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) particle that was lacking the G gene in the genome (rVHSV-ΔG), and proved the potential of it as a protective vaccine through the immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings. Safety is the most important preconsideration for the development of recombinant live vaccines, and a major concern of propagation-incompetent viral particles would be the possible harmful effect to hosts through the interaction with wild-type viruses. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the replication of rVHSV-ΔG in the presence of wild-type VHSV and the effect of rVHSV-ΔG on the replication of wild-type VHSV in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder fingerlings. The replication of wild-type VHSV in EPC cells was severely suppressed when the MOI of rVHSV-ΔG was 0.1 or 0.01, on the other hand, the titers of rVHSV-ΔG were not increased and stayed in a relatively constant according to time lapse. Furthermore, the replication of other novirhabdoviruses, IHNV and HIRRV, was also inhibited by co-infection with high titers of rVHSV-ΔG. There were no big differences in mortalities between groups infected with wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG and groups infected with wild-type VHSV alone, when the challenged wild-type VHSV was more than 10(2) PFU/fish. However, a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG showed significantly lower and slowly progressing cumulative mortality than a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV alone. This result suggests that rVHSV-ΔG has an ability to attenuate the disease progression caused by wild-type VHSV when co-infected with relatively low titers of wild-type VHSV. These results indicate that the propagation-incompetent rVHSV-ΔG would not worsen but attenuate the progression of a disease caused by wild-type VHSV infection. Therefore, rVHSV-ΔG-based vaccines can provide a

  15. Immune effects of R848: evidences that suggest an essential role of TLR7/8-induced, Myd88- and NF-κB-dependent signaling in the antiviral immunity of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Xia; Sun, Li

    2015-03-01

    The imidazoquinoline compound R848 is a specific agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/TLR8 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans against viral diseases. Although R848-induced immune response has been reported in teleost fish, the relevant mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the antiviral potential and the signaling pathway of R848 in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We found that R848 was able to inhibit the replication of megalocytivirus, stimulated the proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), enhanced the expression of immune genes, and reduced apoptosis of PBL. When endosomal acidification was blocked by chloroquine (CQ), R848-mediated antiviral activity and immune response were significantly reduced. Likewise, inhibition of Myd88 activation markedly impaired the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis effect of R848. Cellular study showed that cultured founder cells treated with R848 exhibited augmented NF-κB activity, which, however, was dramatically reduced in the presence of CQ and Myd88 inhibitor. Furthermore, when NF-κB was inactivated, the effect of R848 on cell proliferation and apoptosis was significantly decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that R848 is an immunostimulant with antiviral property in a teleost species, and that the immune response of R848 is mediated by, most likely, TLR7/TLR8 signaling pathway, in which Myd88 and NK-κB play an essential role. PMID:25475963

  16. Contribution of hepatic cytochrome CYP1A and metallothionein mRNA abundance to biomonitoring-A case study with European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk.

    PubMed

    Kopecka-Pilarczyk, Justyna; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to explore the contribution of hepatic cytochrome CYP1A and metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression to biological effect monitoring. The study was conducted in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk. mRNA abundance was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in liver RNA of fish sampled from three coastal stations and from one offshore station in the inner Gulf. The contribution of the mRNA-based biomarkers to the assessment of the environment was determined in conjunction with a selection of commonly applied biochemical markers: 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), metallothioneins (MT), fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), all measured in the same individual fish. The mRNA biomarkers contributed to the separation between the sampling sites, but no correlations between CYP1A mRNA and EROD nor between MT mRNA and MT proteins were found, which should be attributed to the different levels these biomarkers correspond to and to the differences in factors that may affect them. One case of strong correlation between CYP1A mRNA and FACs was encountered. The overall results of this study suggest that biomarkers measured at the mRNA abundance level constitute a valuable addition to biomonitoring studies by providing additional information and contributing to the differentiation of results. PMID:27276230

  17. Relationships between toxicopathic hepatic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) from selected marine sites on the Pacific Coast, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M S; Stehr, C M; Olson, O P; Johnson, L L; McCain, B B; Chan, S L; Varanasi, U

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between hepatic lesions and chemical contaminant concentrations in sediments, stomach contents, liver tissue, and bile were statistically evaluated in three species of bottomfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), captured from 27 urban and nonurban sites on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to southern California. Lesions detected were neoplasms, preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, nonneoplastic proliferative lesions, unique or specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, nonspecific degenerative/necrotic lesions, and hydropic vacuolation of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. In general, lesion prevalences were significantly higher in all three species captured at chemically contaminated urban sites, and certain lesions had significantly higher relative risks of occurrence at urban sites in Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, the vicinity of Los Angeles, and San Diego Bay. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its derivatives, and chlordanes and dieldrin in sediment, stomach contents, liver, and fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile were significant risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic, preneoplastic, nonneoplastic proliferative, and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, as well as hydropic vacuolation. Fish age also had a significant influence on occurrence of several hepatic lesions, but gender was rarely a significant risk factor. These relationships provide strong evidence for the involvement of environmental contaminants in the etiology of hepatic lesions in several marine bottomfish species and clearly indicate the utility of these lesions as biomarkers of contaminant-induced effects in wild fish. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:8033852

  18. Ca2+-driven intestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion and CaCO3 precipitation in the European flounder in vivo: influences on acid-base regulation and blood gas transport.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher A; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Wilson, Rod W

    2010-04-01

    Marine teleost fish continuously ingest seawater to prevent dehydration and their intestines absorb fluid by mechanisms linked to three separate driving forces: 1) cotransport of NaCl from the gut fluid; 2) bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) secretion and Cl(-) absorption via Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange fueled by metabolic CO(2); and 3) alkaline precipitation of Ca(2+) as insoluble CaCO(3), which aids H(2)O absorption). The latter two processes involve high rates of epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion stimulated by intestinal Ca(2+) and can drive a major portion of water absorption. At higher salinities and ambient Ca(2+) concentrations the osmoregulatory role of intestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion is amplified, but this has repercussions for other physiological processes, in particular, respiratory gas transport (as it is fueled by metabolic CO(2)) and acid-base regulation (as intestinal cells must export H(+) into the blood to balance apical HCO(3)(-) secretion). The flounder intestine was perfused in vivo with salines containing 10, 40, or 90 mM Ca(2+). Increasing the luminal Ca(2+) concentration caused a large elevation in intestinal HCO(3)(-) production and excretion. Additionally, blood pH decreased (-0.13 pH units) and plasma partial pressure of CO(2) (Pco(2)) levels were elevated (+1.16 mmHg) at the highest Ca perfusate level after 3 days of perfusion. Increasing the perfusate [Ca(2+)] also produced proportional increases in net acid excretion via the gills. When the net intestinal flux of all ions across the intestine was calculated, there was a greater absorption of anions than cations. This missing cation flux was assumed to be protons, which vary with an almost 1:1 relationship with net acid excretion via the gill. This study illustrates the intimate link between intestinal HCO(3)(-) production and osmoregulation with acid-base balance and respiratory gas exchange and the specific controlling role of ingested Ca(2+) independent of any other ion or overall osmolality in marine

  19. Comparison of low-salinity adaptability and morphological development during the early life history of five pleuronectid flatfishes, and implications for migration and recruitment to their nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Aritaki, Masato; Yamashita, Yoh; Tanaka, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    The nursery habitats of flatfishes range from offshore areas to rivers, with salinity conditions varying significantly between the habitats selected by larvae and juveniles. Morphological characteristics of larvae also contribute to the successful recruitment to specific nursery areas. In the present study, ontogenetic developments of low-salinity tolerance and morphology of five pleuronectid flatfishes were examined, and compared with their previously described ontogenetic migrations. Species examined were starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus, spotted halibut Verasper variegatus, marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and slime flounder Microstomus achne. The first three were categorised as 'cross-shelf species', marbled flounder as 'demersal-egg species' and slime flounder as 'offshore species'. Their typical nurseries were rivers, estuaries, tidal flats, coastal areas and offshore areas, respectively. Low-salinity tolerance from hatching to juvenile stage was examined by survival 48 h after transfer (A to I stage) and seven days after transfer (I stage) from seawater to various salinities (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppt). High survival in 4 ppt was found in all yolk-sac larvae, but decreased in mid-larval development. During metamorphosis, starry flounder, stone flounder and spotted halibut developed strong low-salinity tolerance and juveniles were able to survive in 0, 1 and 2 ppt, respectively. In contrast, marbled flounder and slime flounder did not show these clear developments and juveniles could only survive in 4 and 8 ppt, respectively. In the morphological development, differences in standard length (SL) and relative body depth (BD) to SL (%BD/SL, an indicator of locomotive adaptation of flatfish larvae showing tilt swimming behaviour during the eye translocation) increased with larval development, and the greatest SL and %BD/SL were observed at the metamorphic climax H stage in the order of slime flounder

  20. Inherent growth hormone resistance in the skeletal muscle of the fine flounder is modulated by nutritional status and is characterized by high contents of truncated GHR, impairment in the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway, and low IGF-I expression.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Alvarez, Marco; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-01-01

    A detailed understanding of how the GH and IGF-I regulate muscle growth, especially in early vertebrates, is still lacking. The fine flounder is a flatfish species exhibiting remarkably slow growth, representing an intriguing model for elucidating growth regulatory mechanisms. Key components of the GH system were examined in groups of fish during periods of feeding, fasting, and refeeding. Under feeding conditions, there is an inherent systemic and local (muscle) GH resistance, characterized by higher levels of plasma GH than of IGF-I, skeletal muscle with a greater content of the truncated GH receptor (GHRt) than of full-length GHR (GHRfl), an impaired activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling pathway, and low IGF-I expression. Fasting leads to further elevation of plasma GH levels concomitant with suppressed IGF-I levels. The ratio of GHRfl to GHRt in muscle decreases during fasting, causing an inactivation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway and suppressed IGF-I expression, further impairing growth. When fish are returned to nutritionally favorable conditions, plasma GH levels decrease, and the ratio of GHRfl to GHRt in muscle increases, triggering JAK2/STAT5 reactivation and local IGF-I expression, concomitant with increased growth. The study suggests that systemic IGF-I is supporting basal slow growth in this species, without ruling out that local IGF-I is participating in muscle growth. These results reveal for the first time a unique model of inherent GH resistance in the skeletal muscle of a nonmammalian species and contribute to novel insights of the endocrine and molecular basis of growth regulation in earlier vertebrates.

  1. Cloning of the fish cell line SSN-1 for piscine nodaviruses.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, T; Nakai, T; Mori, K; Arimoto, M; Furusawa, I

    2000-11-14

    Six cell clones were derived from the SSN-1 cell line, which is composed of a mixed cell population and persistently infected with a C-type retrovirus (SnRV). These clones were susceptible to 4 piscine nodavirus strains belonging to different genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and *BFNNV [striped jack, redspotted grouper, tiger puffer and barfin flounder nervous necrosis viruses]). Three clones, designated A-6, E-9, and E-11, were highly permissive to nodavirus infection and production. The virus-induced cytopathic effects appeared as cytoplasmic vacuoles and intensive disintegration at 3 to 5 d post-incubation. These observations were highly reproducible and formed the basis for a successful virus titration system. Quantitative analysis using the cloned E-11 cell line clearly revealed differences in the optimal growth temperatures among the 4 genotypic variants: 25 to 30 degrees C for strain SGWak97 (RGNNV), 20 to 25 degrees C for strain SJNag93 (SJNNV), 20 degrees C for strain TPKag93 (TPNNV), and 15 to 20 degrees C for strain JFIwa98 (BFNNV). Electron microscopy demonstrated SnRV retrovirus particles only in A-6 and E-9 cells, but PCR amplification for the pol gene and LTR region of the proviral DNA indicated the presence of the retrovirus in the other clones, including E-11. The cell clones obtained in the present study will be more useful for qualitative and quantitative analyses of piscine nodaviruses than the SSN-1 cell line.

  2. Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus

    PubMed Central

    Panzarin, Valentina; Toffan, Anna; Abbadi, Miriam; Buratin, Alessandra; Mancin, Marzia; Braaen, Stine; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Bargelloni, Luca; Rimstad, Espen; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. The results indicate that the SJNNV and RGNNV are antigenically distinct, constituting serotypes A and C, respectively. The TPNNV and BFNNV, the latter representing cold-water betanodaviruses, are antigenically related and cluster within serotype B. The reassortant viruses RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV group within serotypes A and C, respectively, indicating that the coat protein encoded by RNA2 acts as major immunoreactivity determinant. Immunostaining of in vitro expressed wild type and chimeric capsid proteins between the RGNNV and the SJNNV species indicated that the C-terminal part of the capsid protein retains the immunoreactive portion. The amino acid (aa) residues determining RGNNV and SJNNV antigenic diversity were mapped to aa residues 217–256 and aa 257–341, respectively. Neutralization of reverse genetics derived chimeric viruses indicated that these areas determine the neutralizing epitopes. The data obtained are crucial for the development of targeted serological tests for the diagnosis of VNN, and informative for development of cross-protective vaccines against various betanodavirus genotypes. PMID:27438093

  3. Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Panzarin, Valentina; Toffan, Anna; Abbadi, Miriam; Buratin, Alessandra; Mancin, Marzia; Braaen, Stine; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Bargelloni, Luca; Rimstad, Espen; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. The results indicate that the SJNNV and RGNNV are antigenically distinct, constituting serotypes A and C, respectively. The TPNNV and BFNNV, the latter representing cold-water betanodaviruses, are antigenically related and cluster within serotype B. The reassortant viruses RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV group within serotypes A and C, respectively, indicating that the coat protein encoded by RNA2 acts as major immunoreactivity determinant. Immunostaining of in vitro expressed wild type and chimeric capsid proteins between the RGNNV and the SJNNV species indicated that the C-terminal part of the capsid protein retains the immunoreactive portion. The amino acid (aa) residues determining RGNNV and SJNNV antigenic diversity were mapped to aa residues 217-256 and aa 257-341, respectively. Neutralization of reverse genetics derived chimeric viruses indicated that these areas determine the neutralizing epitopes. The data obtained are crucial for the development of targeted serological tests for the diagnosis of VNN, and informative for development of cross-protective vaccines against various betanodavirus genotypes. PMID:27438093

  4. Horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus between turbot Scophthalmus maximus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using cohabitation challenge.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Karlsbakk, Egil; Nylund, Are; Nerland, Audun Helge

    2012-05-15

    Experimental horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) originating from halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was studied through cohabitation of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected fish with uninfected fish for 125 d. The experimental groups consisted of i.p. injected turbot Scophthalmus maximus or i.p. injected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with turbot, salmon or Atlantic cod Gadus morhua cohabitants. The initial weights were cod 10 g, salmon 40 g and turbot 3 g. NNV was detected in brain, eye and spleen by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in cod cohabitated with i.p. injected turbot after 90 and 125 d, suggesting NNV infection was transmitted horizontally from the turbot to cod. NNV was not detected in salmon that were cohabitated with i.p. challenged turbot or salmon. This study shows that NNV strains belonging to the Barfin Flounder Nervous Necrosis Virus (BFNNV) clade may be transmitted from halibut to cod via water. Hence there is a potential risk of horizontal transmission of the virus from farmed halibut to farmed and wild cod. The lack of detection of NNV in cohabitant salmon suggests that this fish species is less susceptible than cod, or not susceptible, to horizontal NNV transmission. This result might be influenced by the size of salmon, viral load in i.p. injected cohabitants or insufficient duration of the experiment.

  5. A hermaphroditic Arctic flounder, Liopsetta glacialis (Pleuronectidae), from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; West, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    We discovered a hermaphrodite Liopsetta glacialis while examining tissues from a sample of 30 representatives of this species for a histopathological survey of fishes from the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. L. glacialis occurs in the Arctic Ocean from Queen Maude Gulf in arctic Canada, along the North American and Siberian coasts to the White Sea and Barents Sea (Morrow, 1980). The specimen was collected from Beaufort Lagoon on July 29, 1984, weighed 15, measured 100 mm (total length) and was between 3 and 4 years old.

  6. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to model toxicants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer; Ortega, Fernando; Sabine, Victoria S; Godfrey, Rita E; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J Kevin; George, Stephen G

    2008-11-11

    The temporal transcriptomic responses in liver of Platichthys flesus to model environmental pollutants were studied over a 16-day time span after intraperitoneal injection with cadmium chloride (50 microg/kg in saline), 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg in olive oil), Aroclor 1254 (50 mg/kg in olive oil), tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (5 mg/kg in saline), Lindane (25mg/kg in olive oil), perfluoro-octanoic acid (100 mg/kg in olive oil) and their vehicles, olive oil (1 ml/kg) or saline (0.9%). Statistical, gene ontology and supervised analysis clearly demonstrated the progression from acute effects, biological responses to and recovery from the treatments. Key biological processes disturbed by the individual treatments were characterised by gene ontology analyses and individual toxicant-responsive genes and pathways were identified by supervised analyses. Responses to the polyaromatic and chlorinated aromatic compounds showed a degree of commonality but were distinguishable and they were clearly segregated from the responses to the pro-oxidants cadmium and the organic hydroperoxide, as well as from the peroxisomal proliferator, perfluoro-octanoic acid. This study demonstrated the utility of the microarray technique in the identification of toxicant-responsive genes and in discrimination between modes of toxicant action. PMID:18804290

  7. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACL is exceeded, then the following procedure will be followed: (1) If biomass is below the threshold... of biomass is below the BMSY threshold (i.e., B/BMSY is less than 0.5), the stock is under a... single-year adjustment. (2) If biomass is above the threshold, but below the target, and the stock is...

  8. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management... possession, e.g., fillets, except that party and charter vessels possessing valid state permits...

  9. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exemption for the remainder of the exemption season. (i) Requirements. (A) A vessel fishing in the Summer... Regional Administrator. (B) The vessel must be in enrolled in the exemption program for a minimum of 7 days... extending the length of the net from the belly to the terminus of the codend along the top, bottom, and...

  10. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exemption for the remainder of the exemption season. (i) Requirements. (A) A vessel fishing in the Summer... Regional Administrator. (B) The vessel must be in enrolled in the exemption program for a minimum of 7 days... extending the length of the net from the belly to the terminus of the codend along the top, bottom, and...

  11. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exemption for the remainder of the exemption season. (i) Requirements. (A) A vessel fishing in the Summer... Regional Administrator. (B) The vessel must be in enrolled in the exemption program for a minimum of 7 days... extending the length of the net from the belly to the terminus of the codend along the top, bottom, and...

  12. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trawls. (5) Adjustments to the exempted area boundary and season specified in § 648.108(b)(1) by 30... research quota. (7) Recreational minimum fish size. (8) Recreational season. (9) Recreational state.../or seasons set after reductions for research quota. (10) (11) Modification of existing AM...

  13. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to model toxicants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer; Ortega, Fernando; Sabine, Victoria S; Godfrey, Rita E; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J Kevin; George, Stephen G

    2008-11-11

    The temporal transcriptomic responses in liver of Platichthys flesus to model environmental pollutants were studied over a 16-day time span after intraperitoneal injection with cadmium chloride (50 microg/kg in saline), 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg in olive oil), Aroclor 1254 (50 mg/kg in olive oil), tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (5 mg/kg in saline), Lindane (25mg/kg in olive oil), perfluoro-octanoic acid (100 mg/kg in olive oil) and their vehicles, olive oil (1 ml/kg) or saline (0.9%). Statistical, gene ontology and supervised analysis clearly demonstrated the progression from acute effects, biological responses to and recovery from the treatments. Key biological processes disturbed by the individual treatments were characterised by gene ontology analyses and individual toxicant-responsive genes and pathways were identified by supervised analyses. Responses to the polyaromatic and chlorinated aromatic compounds showed a degree of commonality but were distinguishable and they were clearly segregated from the responses to the pro-oxidants cadmium and the organic hydroperoxide, as well as from the peroxisomal proliferator, perfluoro-octanoic acid. This study demonstrated the utility of the microarray technique in the identification of toxicant-responsive genes and in discrimination between modes of toxicant action.

  14. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    PubMed

    Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C

    2014-04-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the European sea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68 days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN. PMID:23662921

  15. Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

  16. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    PubMed

    Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C

    2014-04-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the European sea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68 days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN.

  17. Evidence for and characterization of nervous necrosis virus infection in Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Wen, Shi-Hui; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Li, Hua; Jiang, Jie-Lan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xing; Sun, Hang; Lü, Hui-Qian

    2015-09-01

    A mortality rate higher than 90% was observed in a larva-rearing facility for Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, in China. Larvae showing clinical signs of infection were collected. Initial suspicion of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection was confirmed by sequencing, absolute quantification real-time PCR (A-qPCR), and electron microscopy. The nucleotide sequence of RNA2 was 1,375 bases long (GenBank no. KM576685), coding for a single ORF corresponding to the capsid protein from residues 21 to 1034. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein sequence showed that PCNNV belongs to the barfin flounder NNV (BFNVV) genotype. An amino acid sequence alignment revealed 39 differences between the cold- and warm-resistant viral groups, suggesting that PCNNV evolved under temperature selection. The 3-D structure of the predicted capsid protein was modeled to identify potential epitopes, and the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, yielding a protein with a molecular mass of 55 kDa. During PCNNV outbreaks, the viral copy number was found to reach 10(7) per ng of total RNA, which could be considered the lethal copy number of NNV in cod. The gonads, eggs, fertilized eggs and asymptomatic cod fry were all positive for PCNNV, indicating viral vertical transmission as the main source of the viral load. The amount of virus in the apparent healthy fry or survivors seemed to decrease gradually with development. These results might lead to efficient diagnostic methods to help farmers select NNV-free broodfish for cod breeding. PMID:26115691

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT ARRANGEMENT AND JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITY IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used aerial photography in conjunction with a 1-m beam trawl attached to a videocamera with GPS overwrite and a YSI water quality logger to quantify fish densities and characterize habitats in Narragansett Bay and in Rhode Island's coastal lagoons. We compared fish counts fro...

  19. 78 FR 75267 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XD012 Fisheries of the... AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated...

  20. 78 FR 59626 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC878 Fisheries of the... AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels...

  1. mRNA/microRNA Profile at the Metamorphic Stage of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Xie, Caixia; Xu, Shanliang; Yang, Linlin; Ke, Zhonghe; Xing, Jubin; Gai, Junwei; Gong, Xiaoling; Xu, Liuxiong; Bao, Baolong

    2011-01-01

    Flatfish is famous for the asymmetric transformation during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanism behind the asymmetric development has been speculated over a century and is still not well understood. To date, none of the metamorphosis-related genes has been identified in flatfish. As the first step to screen metamorphosis-related gene, we constructed a whole-body cDNA library and a whole-body miRNA library in this study and identified 1051 unique ESTs, 23 unique miRNAs, and 4 snoRNAs in premetamorphosing and prometamorphosing Paralichthys olivaceus. 1005 of the ESTs were novel, suggesting that there was a special gene expression profile at metamorphic stage. Four miRNAs (pol-miR-20c, pol-miR-23c, pol-miR-130d, and pol-miR-181e) were novel to P. olivaceus; they were characterized as highly preserved homologies of published miRNAs but with at least one nucleotide differed. Representative 24 mRNAs and 23 miRNAs were quantified during metamorphosis of P. olivaceus by using quantitative RT PCR or stem-loop qRT PCR. Our results showed that 20 of mRNAs might be associated with early metamorphic events, 10 of mRNAs might be related with later metamorphic events, and 16 of miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis. The data provided in this study would be helpful for further identifying metamorphosis-related gene in P. olivaceus.

  2. 50 CFR 648.101 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the summer... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  3. 50 CFR 648.101 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the summer... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  4. 50 CFR 648.101 - Summer flounder Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the summer... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  5. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  6. Identification and Characterization of a PRDM14 Homolog in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Jiang, Jiajun; Gao, Jinning; Song, Huayu; Liu, Jinxiang; Yang, Likun; Li, Zan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2015-01-01

    PRDM14 is a PR (PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 homologous) domain protein with six zinc fingers and essential roles in genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming. This protein is required for the establishment of germ cells and the maintenance of the embryonic stem cell ground state. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of the Paralichthys olivaceus prdm14 (Po-prdm14) gene and isolated the 5' regulatory region of Po-prdm14 by whole-genome sequencing. Peptide sequence alignment, gene structure analysis, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Po-PRDM14 was homologous to mammalian PRDM14. Results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) in embryos demonstrated that Po-prdm14 was highly expressed between the morula and late gastrula stages, with its expression peaking in the early gastrula stage. Relatively low expression of Po-prdm14 was observed in the other developmental stages. ISH of gonadal tissues revealed that the transcripts were located in the nucleus of the oocytes in the ovaries but only in the spermatogonia and not the spermatocytes in the testes. We also presume that the Po-prdm14 transcription factor binding sites and their conserved binding region among vertebrates. The combined results suggest that Po-PRDM14 has a conserved function in teleosts and mammals. PMID:25915026

  7. Solution structure of a hydrophobic analogue of the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edvards; Otting, Gottfried; Harding, Margaret M; Ward, Leanne G; Mackay, Joel P; Haymet, A D J

    2002-02-01

    The solution structure of a synthetic mutant type I antifreeze protein (AFP I) was determined in aqueous solution at pH 7.0 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The mutations comprised the replacement of the four Thr residues by Val and the introduction of two additional Lys-Glu salt bridges. The antifreeze activity of this mutant peptide, VVVV2KE, has been previously shown to be similar to that of the wild type protein, HPLC6 (defined here as TTTT). The solution structure reveals an alphahelix bent in the same direction as the more bent conformer of the published crystal structure of TTTT, while the side chain chi1 rotamers of VVVV2KE are similar to those of the straighter conformer in the crystal of TTTT. The Val side chains of VVVV2KE assume the same orientations as the Thr side chains of TTTT, confirming the conservative nature of this mutation. The combined data suggest that AFP I undergoes an equilibrium between straight and bent helices in solution, combined with independent equilibria between different side chain rotamers for some of the amino acid residues. The present study presents the first complete sequence-specific resonance assignments and the first complete solution structure determination by NMR of any AFP I protein.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotopic ratios of fish otoliths have been used in numerous studies as natural tags or markers to aid the study of connectivity among fish populations. We investigated the use of spatial and temporal changes in the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of otoliths to different...

  9. 77 FR 48106 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle Conservation... amendment. SUMMARY: On May 21, 2012, we published a final rule to revise the turtle excluder devices (TEDs...-5794. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29905), we published a final...

  10. 75 FR 53925 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle Conservation... section 9 of the ESA if the conservation measures specified in the sea turtle conservation regulations (50... protocol to evaluate a candidate TED's ability to exclude adult leatherback sea turtles (66 FR 24287,...

  11. ELEMENTAL FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER OTOLITHS FROM NARRAGNSETT BAY, RI AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study we investigated whether elemental signatures in juve...

  12. 77 FR 29905 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... solicited public comments on allowable TED modifications and additional certified TED designs (75 FR 53925...'' (55 FR 41092, October 9, 1990). The test results for the bottom-opening Boone Big Boy TED at 54... turtle test'' (55 FR 41092, October 9, 1990). The Boone Wedge Cut escape opening captured 2 turtles...

  13. Exploring or Floundering? The Meaning of Employment and Educational Fluctuations in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahn, Harvey J.; Howard, Andrea L.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Youth today spend years moving in and out of different education and employment statuses until they settle into stable employment. This 14-year Canadian longitudinal study reveals how month-to-month fluctuations in employment and educational statuses from age 19 to 25 predict employment success at age 32. Early employment instability was linked to…

  14. US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

  15. [Expression of Pleurocidin from winter flounder in Escherichia coli and optimization of culture conditions].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuejiao; Zha, Xiangdong; Che, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lijuan; Wu, Siqun; Yang, Peilong; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To express Pleurocidin in Escherichia coli and to enhance the secretory efficiency of the fusion protein, the gene encoding Pleurocidin was ligated with Cherry DNA sequence via blunt-end ligation. Then this fusion gene was cloned into pET22b (+) vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Lactose was used to induce expression of fusion protein. The recombinant plasmid pET22b (+) -CP was successfully constructed and high-level expression of fusion protein was induced with lactose. Statistics showed that addition of glycine after 16 h of induction significantly enhanced the secretory efficiency of the fusion protein. After hydrolysis of the fusion protein by diluted hydrochloric acid and some further purification steps, r-Pleurocidin was obtained with antibacterial activity against E. coli DH5α and Bacillus subtilis BS168. In conclusion, the fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and biologically active r-Pleurocidin was obtained after hydrochloric acid cleavage and purification. PMID:27349119

  16. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), are available from Dr. Christopher Moore, Executive Director, Mid... specifications for these fisheries was provided in the proposed specifications (77 FR 68723; November 16, 2012... rule (77 FR 68723). Comment 1: One commenter suggested that the quotas should be reduced by 50...

  17. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2014-09-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  18. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen E dwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  19. Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janina Z; Thompson, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i.e. Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV), Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), while an additional genotype turbot betanodavirus strain (TNV) has also been proposed. However, these genotypes tend to be associated with a particular water temperature range rather than being species-specific. Larvae and juvenile fish are especially susceptible to VER, with up to 100% mortality resulting in these age groups during disease episodes, with vertical transmission of the virus increasing the disease problem in smaller fish. A number of vaccine preparations have been tested in the laboratory and in the field e.g. inactivated virus, recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and DNA based vaccines, and their efficacy, based on relative percentage survival, has ranged from medium to high levels of protection to little or no protection. Ultimately a combination of effective prophylactic measures, including vaccination, is needed to control VER, and should also target larvae and broodstock stages of production to help the industry deal with the problem of vertical transmission. As yet there are no commercial vaccines for VER and the

  20. Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janina Z; Thompson, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i.e. Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV), Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), while an additional genotype turbot betanodavirus strain (TNV) has also been proposed. However, these genotypes tend to be associated with a particular water temperature range rather than being species-specific. Larvae and juvenile fish are especially susceptible to VER, with up to 100% mortality resulting in these age groups during disease episodes, with vertical transmission of the virus increasing the disease problem in smaller fish. A number of vaccine preparations have been tested in the laboratory and in the field e.g. inactivated virus, recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and DNA based vaccines, and their efficacy, based on relative percentage survival, has ranged from medium to high levels of protection to little or no protection. Ultimately a combination of effective prophylactic measures, including vaccination, is needed to control VER, and should also target larvae and broodstock stages of production to help the industry deal with the problem of vertical transmission. As yet there are no commercial vaccines for VER and the

  1. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore rockfish, minor shelf rockfish, minor slope rockfish, shortspine and longspine thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder,...

  2. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore..., arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other flatfish, lingcod, sablefish,...

  3. 78 FR 52458 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In... for Fisheries, NOAA (AA), finds good cause to waive the requirement to provide prior notice and... data only became available as of August 19, 2013. The AA also finds good cause to waive the...

  4. Transcriptomic response to water accommodated fraction of crude oil exposure in the gill of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Qu, Keming; Xia, Bin; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Bijuan

    2016-05-15

    Illumina-based RNA-seq was used to determine the short-term transcriptomic responses of Paralichthys olivaceus gill to an environmentally relevant level of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil. 213,979 transcripts and 128,482 unigenes were obtained. Differential expression analysis revealed that 1641 and 2142 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated. Enrichment analysis identified a set of GO terms and putative pathways involved in the response of P. olivaceus to WAF exposure. Analysis of the transcripts revealed the effective protective mechanisms of P. olivaceus to reduce the toxic effects of WAF. Moreover, WAF exposure induced the metabolism of energy substrates, and downstream pathway genes were modified to provide protection against toxic damage. Transcripts analysis demonstrated that the genes involved in circadian rhythm signaling were regulated in gills of P. olivaceus exposed to WAF. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of WAF-induced toxicity in fishes and into the WAF-sensitive biomarkers in P. olivaceus. PMID:27001715

  5. The Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Growth and Food Consumption of Juvenile Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes Americanus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing changes in seawater chemistry in the world’s oceans. In estuarine waters, atmospheric CO2 exacerbates already declining pH due to high productivity and respiration caused by cultural eutrophication. These two sources o...

  6. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... and black sea bass pot vent size requirements to ensure that scup length frequency data are... from lobster pot vent size requirements, as well. Exemption from scup and black sea bass closures and... an EFP exempting them from minimum scup and black sea bass pot vent size requirements to ensure...

  7. 77 FR 44501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... to continue operating. It is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the fishery...

  8. 75 FR 81498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... of the 2011 specifications for these fisheries was provided in the proposed specifications (75 FR... lb (237 mt); a commercial quota of 17,375,135 lb (7,881 mt); and a recreational harvest limit of 11....310. Consistent with the revised quota setting procedures for the FMP (67 FR 6877, February 14,...

  9. ELEMENTAL AND ISOTPOIC FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER (PLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI (USA) AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study, we investigated whether elemental and isotopic sign...

  10. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... from Dr. Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201...,474 Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: November 13, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director,...

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Elemental Signautres in Juvenile Winter Flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus): Implications for Natal Connectivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental signatures in otoliths (fish ear-stones) have become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, reconstructing environmental histories, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. Assessing connectivity between a...

  12. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). NMFS closed directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39649, July 5, 2012) and prohibited retention of Pacific ocean perch on July 10, 2012 (publication in FR pending). As of July 9, 2012, approximately 2,428 mt of Pacific ocean perch has...

  13. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dover Sole 5 English Sole 5 Petrale Sole—coastwide 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 10 Starry Flounder 5 Other Flatfish 20 CANARY ROCKFISH Allocation a BOCACCIO NA COWCOD NA YELLOWEYE 0 Black Rockfish NA Blue...

  14. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2012 and beyond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Minor Slope RF S NA Dover Sole 5 English Sole 5 Petrale Sole—coastwide 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 10 Starry Flounder 5 Other Flatfish 20 CANARY ROCKFISH Allocation a BOCACCIO NA COWCOD NA YELLOWEYE 0 Black...

  15. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2012 and beyond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Minor Slope RF S NA Dover Sole 5 English Sole 5 Petrale Sole—coastwide 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 10 Starry Flounder 5 Other Flatfish 20 CANARY ROCKFISH Allocation a BOCACCIO NA COWCOD NA YELLOWEYE 0 Black...

  16. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dover Sole 5 English Sole 5 Petrale Sole—coastwide 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 10 Starry Flounder 5 Other Flatfish 20 CANARY ROCKFISH Allocation a BOCACCIO NA COWCOD NA YELLOWEYE 0 Black Rockfish NA Blue...

  17. 78 FR 50395 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Council's (MAFMC) Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel (AP) will hold a public meeting... Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass. These Fishery Performance Reports will be provided to the... Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  18. 77 FR 56798 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retained Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... FR 6222, February 10, 1994). At the time the emergency rule was published, several vessel operators... from wasting arrowtooth flounder as a basis species (60 FR 40304, August 8, 1995). Arrowtooth flounder... flounder fishery (62 FR 11109, March 11, 1997). That action reduced both the regulatory discards in the...

  19. 75 FR 53871 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Modification of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... August 6, 2010 (75 FR 48613; August 11, 2010), NMFS implemented a trip limit for witch flounder, removed... (FW) 44 (75 FR 18356, April 9, 2010) to the FMP, and modified by a subsequent rule (75 FR 29459, May... haddock, GB winter flounder, and GB yellowtail flounder on May 27, 2010 (75 FR 29678; May 27, 2010)....

  20. 75 FR 38464 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) and the Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea.... These meetings will conclude by 5 p.m. each day. The Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass and Bluefish... biological (ABC) for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass and bluefish for 2011; (2) review and comment...

  1. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. PMID:26004356

  2. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations.

  3. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  4. Enhanced killing of breast cancer cells by a d-amino acid analog of the winter flounder-derived pleurocidin NRC-03.

    PubMed

    Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Pinto, Devanand M; Hancock, Robert E W; Hoskin, David W

    2015-12-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) defend against pathogens and, in some cases, exhibit potent anticancer activities. We previously reported that the pleurocidin NRC-03 causes lysis of breast cancer and multiple myeloma cells. NRC-03 also reduces the EC50 of other cytotoxic compounds and prevents tumor growth in vivo. However, the therapeutic utility of NRC-03 may be limited by its susceptibility to degradation by proteases. The goal of this study was to characterize the anticancer activities of a d-amino acid analog of NRC-03 ([D]-NRC-03) that was predicted to be resistant to proteolytic degradation. Unlike NRC-03, [D]-NRC-03 was not degraded by human serum or trypsin and, in comparison to NRC-03, showed increased killing of breast cancer cells, including multidrug-resistant cells; however, [D]-NRC-03 was somewhat more cytotoxic than NRC-03 for several types of normal cells. Importantly, [D]-NRC-03 was more effective than NRC-03 in vivo since 4-fold less peptide was required for an equivalent inhibitory effect on the growth of breast cancer cell xenografts in immune-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that a d-amino acid analog of NRC-03 overcomes a major limitation to the therapeutic use of NRC-03, namely peptide stability. Further modification of [D]-NRC-03 is required to improve its selectivity for cancer cells.

  5. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subparts A (General provisions), B (Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E... mackerel, squid, butterfish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, spiny dogfish, bluefish, and...

  6. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subparts A (General provisions), B (Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E... mackerel, squid, butterfish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, spiny dogfish, bluefish, and...

  7. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subparts A (General provisions), B (Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E... mackerel, squid, butterfish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, spiny dogfish, bluefish, and...

  8. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subparts A (General provisions), B (Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E... mackerel, squid, butterfish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, spiny dogfish, bluefish, and...

  9. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore rockfish, minor shelf..., petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other flatfish, lingcod, sablefish, Pacific cod,...

  10. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore rockfish, minor shelf..., petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other flatfish, lingcod, sablefish, Pacific cod,...

  11. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore rockfish, minor shelf..., petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other flatfish, lingcod, sablefish, Pacific cod,...

  12. 76 FR 18661 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...,814.5 kg) per trip. An inseason action published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2010 (75 FR 29678... winter flounder, and GB yellowtail flounder. A subsequent action (75 FR 44924, July 30, 2010) reduced the... September 2, 2010, inseason action (75 FR 53872) imposed 2:1 differential DAS counting in the Inshore...

  13. 78 FR 53731 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... include: review multi-year ABC specifications for spiny dogfish, bluefish, summer flounder, scup and black sea bass; make ABC recommendations for up to three years (2014-16) for summer flounder, scup and black... recommendations; discuss research priorities for 2014; discuss potential topics for the fifth National...

  14. 76 FR 45232 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ..., summer flounder, and bluefish management measures for 2012 in conjunction with the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's (ASMFC) Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass, and Bluefish Boards. From 4 until 5 p.m., Research Set Aside priorities will be discussed for 2013. On Thursday August 18, the...

  15. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for summer flounder is 14... carrying more than five crew members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to...

  16. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60626... flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures...

  17. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the GOA—(1) Originally Qualifying Amendment 80 Vessels. An... arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in... flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA...

  18. 50 CFR 660.330 - Open access fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see paragraph (e... rockfish, canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish... longspine thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole,...

  19. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permitted for that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see..., canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue... thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other...

  20. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permitted for that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see..., canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue... thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other...

  1. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... permitted for that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see... rockfish, canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish... longspine thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole,...

  2. 77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ...: Arrowtooth flounder, English sole, starry flounder, black rockfish south, black rockfish north, California... biennial specifications and management measures (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010 and 76 FR 27508, May 11... harvest specifications and management measures (75 FR 67810, November 3, 2010). However, unlike...

  3. 50 CFR 660.330 - Open access fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see paragraph..., canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue... thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other...

  4. 50 CFR 660.330 - Open access fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see paragraph (e... rockfish, canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish... longspine thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole,...

  5. 50 CFR 660.330 - Open access fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see paragraph (e... rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish... thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other...

  6. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... Dover Sole 95 5 English Sole 95 5 Petrale Sole 95 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 95 5 Starry Flounder 50 50 Other... measures process. (l) Black rockfish harvest guideline. The commercial tribal harvest guideline for...

  7. 50 CFR 660.330 - Open access fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see paragraph (e... rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish... thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole, other...

  8. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... whiting is described in paragraph (i) of this section and in the PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is... Dover Sole 95 5 English Sole 95 5 Petrale Sole 95 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 95 5 Starry Flounder 50 50 Other... through the biennial harvest specifications and management measures process. (l) Black rockfish...

  9. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permitted for that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear also applies, see... rockfish, canary rockfish, darkblotched rockfish, yelloweye rockfish, shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish... longspine thornyhead, Dover sole, arrowtooth flounder, petrale sole, starry flounder, English sole,...

  10. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648.102... Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to § 648.107, vessels... possession limit may fish for summer flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may...

  11. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... windowpane and Northwestern Atlantic Coast witch flounder are subject to overfishing and are in an overfished... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific...

  12. 77 FR 7000 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Gulf of Maine Winter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... for all stocks, including GOM winter flounder, were based upon the most recent scientific information... best scientific information available. In their letter, the Council suggested NMFS consider... increases in GOM winter flounder catch limits based on the most recent and best available...

  13. 77 FR 66586 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will hold a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will discuss potential... provisions of Amendment 9 to the Summer Flounder, Scup and Black Sea Bass FMP. Based on input from...

  14. Predator prey size relationship between Pseudopleuronectes americanus and Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, E. A.; Howell, W. H.

    2000-10-01

    Young-of-year flatfish grow through a series of critical periods in which they are vulnerable to different predators, including decapod crustaceans. The purpose of this study was to determine if winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were vulnerable to one such decapod, the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and to determine if vulnerability differed between wild and cultured fish. To examine the predator-prey size relationship, an experiment was conducted in which six cultured and three wild winter flounder size class treatments were tested against six crab size class treatments. Flounder of all size classes were preyed on by all size classes of green crabs; however, mortality was highest when the largest crabs were matched with the smallest flounder. The number of flounder killed per day was significantly higher (31%) in winter flounder <20 mm compared to all other larger fish size classes (4-8%). Additionally, these fish were attacked at a faster rate than any other fish size class. For the 31-60 mm fish size classes tested, more wild fish (11%) were killed per day by crabs than cultured fish (6.3%). These results suggest that in a winter flounder stock enhancement program, only fish >20 mm should be released to promote post-release survival.

  15. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E (Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog), F (NE... MAFMC regarding such exemptions for the Atlantic mackerel, squid, butterfish, summer flounder,...

  16. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean..., or walnuts); (ii) In the case of Crustacean shellfish, it means the name of the species of...

  17. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean..., or walnuts); (ii) In the case of Crustacean shellfish, it means the name of the species of...

  18. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean..., or walnuts); (ii) In the case of Crustacean shellfish, it means the name of the species of...

  19. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean..., or walnuts); (ii) In the case of Crustacean shellfish, it means the name of the species of...

  20. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean..., or walnuts); (ii) In the case of Crustacean shellfish, it means the name of the species of...

  1. FISHERIES IN MOUNT HOPE BAY: NOTES ON A SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM FROM A SESSION MODERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This contribution represents a summary of talks presented during the afternoon session the Mount Hope Bay Syposium, focused directly on the issues surrounding observed winter flounder populations, as prepared by the session moderator.

  2. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conversion factors for pollock, arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, skate, yellowfin sole and rock sole... each other and the Database, in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Reduction...

  3. 77 FR 24154 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through 1200...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  4. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2010, through 1200..., deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  5. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  6. 75 FR 38939 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...(d), the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. After the effective date of this closure...

  7. 77 FR 69796 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (77 FR 23326). Implementation of the restructured Observer... arrowtooth flounder, Pacific cod, shallow- water flatfish, deep-water flatfish, and rex sole. The...

  8. 78 FR 18187 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...: Submit written comments to John K. Bullard, Regional Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 55..., and SNE/MA winter flounder in response to a Court Order and remand in Oceana v. Locke et al. that...

  9. 50 CFR 648.106 - Sea Turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 60629, Sept. 29, 2011. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and 223. Effective Date Note... fillet number by two. If summer flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet...

  10. 76 FR 69706 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee, Scup Monitoring Committee, Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee, and the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Council's and the Atlantic...

  11. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  12. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  14. Oil residues in Baltic sediment, mussel and fish. II. Study of the Finnish Archipelago 1979-81

    SciTech Connect

    Paasivirta, J.; Kaariainen, H.; Lahtipera, M.; Pellinen, J.; Sinkkonen, S.

    1982-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons and non-polar aromatic compounds have been analyzed after a spill of crude oil at Baltic Sea 1979 from drifting weathered oil glumps, sediment and sediment trap samples and bivalves at five areas of the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mytilus and flounder muscles and flounder livers were analyzed 1980 and 1981 from three of the previous five areas. The glumps were shown to be weathered crude oil. Sediment trap samples on the visibly contaminated area contained higher amounts of oil residues and in different ratios than the bottom sediments at the same areas. Extra local aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution was detected from the sediment traps at the reference area. Bivalves contained high amounts of oil residues at visibly polluted but in some visibly non-polluted areas also 1979. Any significant decontamination was not detected at summer 1979 but next year the Mytilus samples contained only traces if any and 1981 no detectable levels of aromatic oil residues. Aliphatic hydrocarbon residues in flounders showed no regional differences and no significant change of levels between 1980 and 1981. In contrary, the aromatic oil residues decreased to the non-detectable level in flounder muscles and to a significantly lower level in flounder livers 1981 related to 1980. Linear correlations of the analysis results are discussed.

  15. A "Mimic Octopus" in the Atlantic: Flatfish mimicry and camouflage by Macrotritopus defilippi.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Watson, Anya C; Barbosa, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    The sand-dwelling octopus Macrotritopus defilippi was filmed or photographed in five Caribbean locations mimicking the swimming behavior (posture, style, speed, duration) and coloration of the common, sand-dwelling flounder Bothus lunatus. Each species was exceptionally well camouflaged when stationary, and details of camouflaging techniques are described for M. defilippi. Octopuses implemented flounder mimicry only during swimming, when their movement would give away camouflage in this open sandy habitat. Thus, both camouflage and fish mimicry were used by the octopuses as a primary defense against visual predators. This is the first documentation of flounder mimicry by an Atlantic octopus, and only the fourth convincing case of mimicry for cephalopods, a taxon renowned for its polyphenism that is implemented mainly by neurally controlled skin patterning, but also-as shown here-by their soft flexible bodies.

  16. A "Mimic Octopus" in the Atlantic: Flatfish mimicry and camouflage by Macrotritopus defilippi.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Watson, Anya C; Barbosa, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    The sand-dwelling octopus Macrotritopus defilippi was filmed or photographed in five Caribbean locations mimicking the swimming behavior (posture, style, speed, duration) and coloration of the common, sand-dwelling flounder Bothus lunatus. Each species was exceptionally well camouflaged when stationary, and details of camouflaging techniques are described for M. defilippi. Octopuses implemented flounder mimicry only during swimming, when their movement would give away camouflage in this open sandy habitat. Thus, both camouflage and fish mimicry were used by the octopuses as a primary defense against visual predators. This is the first documentation of flounder mimicry by an Atlantic octopus, and only the fourth convincing case of mimicry for cephalopods, a taxon renowned for its polyphenism that is implemented mainly by neurally controlled skin patterning, but also-as shown here-by their soft flexible bodies. PMID:20203250

  17. Risk based management of contaminated sediments: consideration of spatial and temporal patterns in exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Igor; Burmistrov, Dmitriy; Cura, Jerome; Bridges, Todd S

    2002-01-15

    This paper addresses interactions among foraging behavior, habitat preferences, site characteristics, and spatial distribution of contaminants in developing PCB exposure estimates for winter flounder at a hypothetical open water dredged material disposal site in the coastal waters of New York and New Jersey (NY-NJ). The implications of these interactions for human health risk estimates for local recreational anglers who fish for and eat flounder are described. The models implemented in this study include a spatial submodel to account for spatial and temporal characteristics of fish exposures and a probabilistic adaptation of the Gobas bioaccumulation model that accounts for temporal variation in concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment and water. We estimated the geographic distribution of a winter flounder subpopulation offshore of NY-NJ based on species biology and its vulnerability to local recreational fishing, the foraging area of individual fish, and their migration patterns. We incorporated these parameters and an estimate of differential attraction to a management site into a spatially explicit model to assess the range of exposures within the population. The output of this modeling effort, flounder PCB tissue concentrations, provided exposure point concentrations for an estimate of human health risk through ingestion of locally caught flounder. The risks obtained for the spatially nonexplicit case are as much as 1 order of magnitude higher than those obtained with explicit consideration of spatial and temporal characteristics of winter flounder foraging and seasonal migration. This practice of "defaulting" to extremely conservative estimates for exposure parameters in the face of uncertainty ill serves the decision-making process for management of contaminated sediments in general and specifically for disposal of dredged materials. Consideration of realistic spatial and temporal scales in food chain models can help support sediment management

  18. Interactions between size-structured predator and prey populations: Experimental test and model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.A.; Crowder, L.B. ); Rose, K.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Because predation mortality is often size-dependent, the survival and size structure of prey populations may vary substantially depending on the size structure of the predator assemblage. We tested this hypothesis in a replicated pond experiment in which a bimodal size distribution of young-of-year spot Leiostomus xanthurus was exposed to two sizes of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma, each predator size-group present alone or together, at densities providing equal predation pressure. After 3 weeks, we examined cohort survival and size distributions of remaining spot. In the non-predator controls, spot size-frequency distributions were essentially unchanged, and survival of the large- and small-spot cohorts was similar. However, the size distribution of survivors, and the relative survival of large- and small-spot cohorts, differed markedly with the size structure of the predator assemblage. In the presence of small southern flounders, the large-spot cohort survived 4 times better than the small-spot cohort. In the large-flounder-only treatment, small spot survived 2.4 times better than large spot. When both large and small southern flounders were present, large spot had a net advantage, exceeding small spot survival by 2.4 times. We developed an individual-based model of the flounder-spot size-dependent predation interaction based on data from independent laboratory observations on size-based prey profit-ability, and used it to simulate the results of our experimental treatments. Model predictions of spot survival and size distributions agreed well with the pond experimental results when encounter rates were assumed to scale with spot size and density and with southern flounder density. 37 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Diet overlap between juvenile flatfish and the invasive round goby in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Florin, A. B.; Kruze, E.; Zilniece, D.; Elferts, D.; Knospina, E.; Uzars, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of changes in the abundance and diet composition of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus) and turbot (Psetta maxima), along with other dominant coastal fish species, before and after the establishment of the alien round goby off an exposed stretch of coast in the eastern Baltic Sea. In the study area, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was recorded for the first time in 2009. After a few years of low abundance, a sharp increase in the population occurred. After the round goby invasion, flatfish juveniles exhibited an increased diet overlap with other species and had a lower feeding success, reflecting an increase in resource competition. For juvenile turbot, the increase was mainly caused by the round goby, while for flounder it was due to both the round goby and the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus). Juvenile turbot, whose dominant food item before the round goby establishment had been mysids, shifted their diet towards Crangon crangon, reflecting a decrease in mysid abundance by three orders of magnitude and a concurrent doubling in C. crangon abundance in the habitat. At the same time a significant decrease in turbot recruitment was observed. Juvenile flounder had the widest food spectrum of the studied species. When the availability of the primary food item, Bathyporeia pilosa, decreased, flounder juveniles adapted by increasing the share of zooplankton in their diets. No changes in flounder feeding success and recruitment were observed. However, the recruitment estimates of flounder and turbot show an increasing co-variation after the round goby invasion, suggesting that recruitment of the species may currently be regulated by processes in the common nursery habitat.

  20. 78 FR 29248 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retainable Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... the BSAI, more commonly known as the Amendment 80 sector (72 FR 52668, September 14, 2007). While this... protect the stock of Kamchatka flounder (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The impacts of the harvest... category in 1998 (63 FR 13009, March 17, 1998). This revision eliminates a potential source of...

  1. 76 FR 56322 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... estimated that common pool catch of witch flounder would exceed the common pool sub-annual catch limit (sub-ACL) by 32 percent. Based on this information, the final rule for FW 45 (76 FR 23042, April 25, 2011... Sector Rosters A final rule was published on June 15, 2011 (76 FR 34903), announcing the FY 2011...

  2. 50 CFR 648.18 - Standardized bycatch reporting methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standardized bycatch reporting methodology. 648.18 Section 648.18 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass; Surfclam and Ocean Quahog; and Tilefish....

  3. Nonfiction Reading Comprehension in Middle School: Exploring in Interactive Software Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Evelyn S.; Isecke, Harriet; Rhoads, Christopher; Madura, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The struggles of students in the United States to comprehend non-fiction science text are well documented. Middle school students, in particular, have minimal instruction in comprehending nonfiction and flounder on assessments. This article describes the development process of the Readorium software, an interactive web-based program being…

  4. 76 FR 58782 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Fishery Management Council (Council), its Research Set-Aside (RSA) Committee, its Squid, Mackerel... Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan (FMP) will be discussed from 1 p.m... the 3-year SBRM review. The Council will review draft alternatives of Amendment 17 to the...

  5. 75 FR 39170 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Recreational Management Measures for the Summer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... implemented by NMFS effective January 1, 2010 (74 FR 67978; December 22, 2009), for summer flounder and scup, and effective February 2, 2010, for black sea bass (75 FR 6586). The proposed rule to implement...

  6. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60628... members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found...

  7. A Typology of Partnerships for Promoting Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Hall, Gene E.; Berg, Judith H.; Camarena, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    As educational partnerships and collaboratives have become more popular in the last several decades, researchers and practitioners have sought to understand why these arrangements flourish or flounder. Taking into consideration the contextual factors affecting partnerships, we have conceptualized a framework of the types of partnerships that can…

  8. Developmental defects in pelagic fish embryos from the western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Westernhagen, H.; Dethlefsen, V.; Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Fürstenberg, G.

    1988-03-01

    In February/March 1983 and 1984 a survey of pelagic fish eggs was conducted in the western Baltic (Kiel Bight), employing a horizontally towed plankton net (1 m Ø and 300 μm mesh). Maximum egg numbers in the upper meter of the S=21×10-3 salinity layer were 200·100 m-3. The most abundant eggs were cod (up to 142 eggs·100 m-3), followed by plaice (up to 74 eggs·100 m-3) and flounder (20 eggs·100 m-3). A considerable percentage of embryos of all species displayed aberrant development. In 1983 18% of cod, 22% of flounder and 24% of plaice eggs caught contained defective embryos; in 1984 this number was larger, ranging from 28% in plaice over 32% in cod to 44% in flounder. Early developmental stages showed the highest malformation rates (up to 51% in the case of early flounder embryos). With progressive development, malformations decreased in numbers, being lowest prior to hatching. Highest rates of malformations were recorded in the Mecklenburg Bight in 1983. A second area with high incidence of malformation rates was located south and east of the island of Langeland. Several reasons, including environmental and anthropogenic factors, for the occurrence of malformed embryos in pelagic fish eggs are discussed. The potential of malformation rates in embryos of pelagic fish eggs as a tool for monitoring is considered.

  9. Estimating Competition between Wildlife and Humans–A Case of Cormorants and Coastal Fisheries in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Östman, Örjan; Boström, Maria K.; Bergström, Ulf; Andersson, Jan; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Cormorants and other wildlife populations have come in real or perceived conflicts with humans over exploited fish stocks. From gut contents of cormorants, and using an extension of the Catch equation, we estimated the degree of short term competition between great cormorants and coastal fisheries in two areas along the Swedish Baltic Sea. Cormorants consumed 10 and 44%, in respective area, of the fish biomass of six fish species harvested by humans; eel, flounder, herring, perch, pike, and whitefish. On average, cormorants consumed smaller individuals than harvested in fisheries. But for perch, cod and flounder, cormorants consumed harvestable sized fish corresponding >20% of human catches. Our competition model estimated the direct decrease in fisheries catches due to cormorant predation to be <10% for all species except flounder (>30%) and perch (2–20%). When also including the indirect effects of cormorant predation on smaller fish that never reached harvestable size, the estimated decrease in fisheries catches at least doubled for perch (13–34%) and pike (8–19%). Despite large uncertainties, our model indicates that cormorants may locally have a direct impact on human catches of at least flounder, and when incorporating indirect effects also on perch and pike. The study indicates that the degree of competition between cormorants and humans varies substantially between areas. We also included economical values in the model and concluded that for the commercially most important species, eel and cod, the estimated economic impact of cormorants on fisheries was low. PMID:24386272

  10. Daily variation in ingress of fall-spawned larval fishes into Delaware Bay in relation to alongshore and along-estuary wind components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieler, Brittany M.; Hale, Edward A.; Targett, Timothy E.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying factors that affect ingress of larval fishes from offshore spawning areas into estuarine nurseries is important to improve understanding of variability in recruitment of many coastal marine species. This study investigated the ingress of larval Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) at Roosevelt Inlet, near the mouth of Delaware Bay, USA in relation to short-term wind events. Nightly abundances, from November 15 to December 15, 2010, were analyzed with alongshore and along-estuary wind components (direction and speed) using cross-correlation analysis to determine if winds affect larval ingress. Ingress of Atlantic croaker and summer flounder correlated with along-estuary winds, whereas Atlantic menhaden showed no significant correlations with either alongshore or along-estuary winds. Although along-estuary winds during this period were predominantly down-estuary, Atlantic croaker ingress was correlated with positive along-estuary winds (blowing up-estuary), with a three-day lag; and a particularly large ingress peak occurred following the largest up-estuary wind peak. Ingress of summer flounder was correlated with negative along-estuary winds (blowing down-estuary), with a two-day lag. These results suggest that species-specific vertical position in the water column influenced ingress into Delaware Bay. The lag results also suggest that ingressing Atlantic croaker and summer flounder may have a pooling stage outside the mouth of Delaware Bay.

  11. ClassMaps: Reliability and Validity of a School Wide Mental Health Consultation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth; Zucker, Steve; Brehm, Katherine

    A lack of supportive infrastructures in regular education classrooms can cause students with disabilities to flounder. Moving students with disabilities into inclusive classrooms has meant that special educators have less control over managing the factors that foster student success. "ClassMaps" is a strategy for reinstating supportive elements…

  12. A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

  13. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  14. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... 39 to this part may be used to fish in the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by...

  15. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by the State of Alaska for which it adopts...

  16. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by the State of Alaska for which it adopts...

  17. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the GOA. Only an Amendment 80 vessel listed in column A of Table 39 to this part may be used to fish in the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by...

  18. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL USE Arctic char (anadromous) 521 Bering flounder (Hippoglossoides robustus) 116 Dolly varden...) 142 Rockfish, blue (GOA) 167 Rockfish, dark 173 Sardine, Pacific (pilchard) 170 Sea cucumber, red 895... 680 Wrymouths 211 SHELLFISH Abalone, northern (pinto) 860 CLAMS: Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820...

  19. Launching or Revitalizing a Teaching Center: Principles and Portraits of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tara; Shadle, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Some teaching centers flounder while others flourish. This paper provides concrete suggestions for launching or revitalizing a teaching center, drawn from the experiences of these authors and from principles in the literature. Two center directors worked to apply the principles in the literature to their newly launched or revitalized centers. One…

  20. 78 FR 26117 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... comments. Mail: Submit written comments to John K. Bullard, Regional Administrator, National Marine..., and SNE/MA winter flounder in response to a Court Order and remand in Oceana v. Locke et al. 831 F... for these two actions (78 FR 18188; March 25, 2013 and 78 FR 19368; March 29, 2013, respectively)...

  1. 50 CFR 648.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-sea red crab fishery (Deep-Sea Red Crab FMP); the tilefish fishery (Tilefish FMP); and the NE skate... Salmon FMP); the Atlantic sea scallop fishery (Scallop FMP); the Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog... Multispecies FMP) and (Monkfish FMP)); the summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries (Summer...

  2. 50 CFR 648.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-sea red crab fishery (Deep-Sea Red Crab FMP); the tilefish fishery (Tilefish FMP); and the NE skate... Salmon FMP); the Atlantic sea scallop fishery (Scallop FMP); the Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog... Multispecies FMP) and (Monkfish FMP)); the summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries (Summer...

  3. 50 CFR 648.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-sea red crab fishery (Deep-Sea Red Crab FMP); the tilefish fishery (Tilefish FMP); and the NE skate... Salmon FMP); the Atlantic sea scallop fishery (Scallop FMP); the Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog... Multispecies FMP) and (Monkfish FMP)); the summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries (Summer...

  4. 75 FR 43149 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... developing management options to remove the yellowtail flounder catch cap that applies to the Georges Bank access areas, allowing research programs in the closed areas to determine the best times for scallop... Accommodations This meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign...

  5. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sablefish landing permitted for that week. The trip limit for black rockfish caught with hook-and-line gear..., shortbelly rockfish, black rockfish, blue rockfish, minor nearshore rockfish, minor shelf rockfish, minor..., starry flounder, English sole, other flatfish, lingcod, sablefish, Pacific cod, spiny dogfish, other...

  6. 50 CFR 648.108 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.108 Section 648.108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.108 Framework adjustments to management...

  7. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  8. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../observer, also must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, summer.../observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish... observer service provider must ensure that biological samples, including whole marine mammals, sea...

  9. 50 CFR 648.106 - Sea Turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Sea Turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea Turtle conservation. 648.106 Section 648.106 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  10. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../observer, also must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, summer.../observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish..., including whole marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds, are stored/handled properly and transported...

  11. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  12. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  13. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  14. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

  15. 21 CFR 102.57 - Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). 102.57 Section 102.57 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements... Pleuronectidae right-eye flounders. The term “halibut” may be associated only with Atlantic halibut...

  16. Education Myths: What Special Interest Groups Want You to Believe about Our Schools--And Why It Isn't So

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    How can we fix America's floundering public schools? The conventional wisdom says that schools need a lot more money, that poor and immigrant children cannot do as well as most American kids, that high-stakes tests just produce teaching to the test, and that vouchers do little to help students while undermining our democracy. But what if the…

  17. 76 FR 39074 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    .... Moore, Ph.D., Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 North State Street, Suite... and acceptable biological catch (ABC) for bluefish, summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass for 2012; (2) review and comment on proposed 2012 quota specifications and management measures for...

  18. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic deep-sea red crab; or a moratorium permit for summer flounder; to carry a NMFS-certified fisheries...'s bridge, working decks, holding bins, weight scales, holds, and any other space used to hold... Atlantic deep-sea red crab permit, a skate permit, or a tilefish permit, if requested by the sea...

  19. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic deep-sea red crab; or a moratorium permit for summer flounder; to carry a NMFS-certified fisheries...'s bridge, working decks, holding bins, weight scales, holds, and any other space used to hold... Atlantic deep-sea red crab permit, a skate permit, or a tilefish permit, if requested by the sea...

  20. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic deep-sea red crab; or a moratorium permit for summer flounder; to carry a NMFS-certified fisheries...'s bridge, working decks, holding bins, weight scales, holds, and any other space used to hold... Atlantic deep-sea red crab permit, a skate permit, or a tilefish permit, if requested by the sea...